A Background To The Research Proposal: Research Methodology, Data Analysis, Ethics, Validity And Reliability

Classification of Various Research Methods

Any particular research can be classified in various ways that are based on the basis of the methodology of the research. It depends on the knowledge that it executes. It depends on the group of the users and the research problem that it investigates. There are six basic methods of conducting the research. These are the the applied research, basic research, the problem oriented research, the problem solving method, the quantitative research method and the qualitative research method. According to Taylor, Bogdan and DeVault (2015),the basic research method is usually conducted for the enhancement of the knowledge. The applied research is designed to resolve the problems that are practical in the modern world. The problem-oriented research is done by the apex body of the industry in order to sort the problems that are faced by the organizations. The problem solving type of research is done by a particular company in order to analyse the problems that are faced by them. The other form of research is the quantitative form of research. This is one of the most popular forms of research. This type of research is based on numeric numbers and figures. This type of research is intended to measure the quantity or amount. The data is compared with the past record. The qualitative type of research is the collection and analysis of the data on the basis of observing the activities of the people. It refers to the interviews of the individual and the focus groups. In this the quantitative method of research has been used (Smith 2015).

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Saunders et al.(2015), argues that the generally used philosophies are the interpretive postpositivism and the realism. The issue that is faced by Petronas is the lack of effective training. However it is a known fact that trainings in organizations motivate the employees to increase their production. In order to conduct an extensive research on this the researchers might get help from the ISM philosophy. It would enable the researcher to get involved with a ceaseless research work. It is contradictory to the positivism philosophy as it might involve the scientific observations and this might include the analysis of the statistical data. In this context it can be commented that the positivism philosophy depends upon on the scientific process that is responsible of effectively authenticating the utilization. In this case the postposiitvism philosophy has been chosen as it would assist the researches to pursue the objectivity. This philosophy highlights on the qualitative methods that has been taken into consideration in this particular research (Hughes and Sharrock 2016).

Interpretive Postpositivism and Realism Philosophies

According to Kratochwill (2015), the widely accepted research designs are exploratory, explanatory and descriptive. In this type of research the descriptive type of design has been taken into account. This type of research is the union of the profits of the exploratory and the explanatory research design. It can be made use of on the source of casual relationship where one variable would be affecting the other.

The most commonly used research approaches is the deductive and the inductive methods. The researcher would get help in order to receive a strong evidence for the truth that forms a major part of the conclusion. In this particular assignment a survey has been conducted on the managers and with the application of the induction approach the researcher will be able to extract the individual instances away from the general statements (Sekaran and Bougie 2016).

This includes the information that is gathered from the websites of the organization and the organizational chart. Apart from this the questionnaires have been used as an effective strategy of this particular research work (Matzler et al. 2014).

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This type of research method includes an emphasis on the objective measurements and the statistical, mathematics or the numerical analysis of the data. This might include the data that is collected through the polls; it can also be done with the help of the surveys and questionnaires. In this type of research method the already existing statistical data are re-analyzed. It completely relies on the gathering of the numerical data. It is dependent on the tables, charts, figures and any kind of non-textual forms. The quantitative research methods are generally of two types, descriptive and experimental. The former one establishes a link between the variables and the experimental study usually creates a relation between causality. In this case, a survey has been conducted of the managers of the organization on the need of effective training program of the employees (Brannen 2017).

The qualitative research method is primarily used to conduct an exploratory research. This particular type of research is utilized to uncover the development in the thoughts and the opinions in order to analyze the issue that is being researched. This is done with the help of interviews of the individuals and also of the focus groups. The sample size for this type of research is usually small and the respondents are selected to fulfill a given quota. It is not possible to take an interview of the managers in this research as it will consume more time and the process will become a lengthy process. Therefore, the quantitative research method has been taken into account in this particular research (Palinkas et al. 2015).

Types of Research Designs

The research has been based on a survey that has been conducted on 30 managers with the help of questionnaires. The managers are the front line managers. This will help in collecting the responses from them that will successfully help in analysing the data and it will help in providing the conclusion. The sampling method is done by using the primary form. The managers are distributed the questionnaires where they are supposed to answer on the likart scale that serves as the most important factor in calculating the respondents (Csikszentmihalyi and Larson 2014). 

Data collections are primary of two types; primary and secondary. It is a matter of fact that to collect secondary data to make the literature review, the researcher has collected information relevant to the topic of the research from numerous books, journals, government websites, articles and numerous privately owned websites. On the other hand, the researcher had convinced 30 managers of Petronas to become respondents for the research work and provided them with a set of questionnaire and surveyed to gather information relevant to the topic of the research work. The questionnaire consists of 8 questions and after collecting the data, the researcher has analyzed the data to achieve the outcome of the entire procedure.

  1.  Do you agree that training of the organization is well planned? 

(a) Strongly Agree (c) Agree

(b) Neither Agree nor Disagree (d) Disagree

(e) Strongly Disagree 

Options

No of respondents

Total respondents

Response %

Strongly agree

5

30

16.66

Agree

20

30

66.66

Neither agree nor disagree

5

30

16.66

Disagree

0

30

0

Strongly disagree

0

30

0

From the responses collected from surveying the 30 managers of Petronas it has been seen that out of 30 respondents 25 people agreed that the training procedure that the management of the business concern follows is well planned. Only 5 people out of the 30 respondents stated that they feel that there are rooms of improvement in the planning and thus they did not agree and nor showed disagreement.

  1.  Do you agree that training is of sufficient duration?

(a) Strongly Agree  (c) Agree

(b) Neither Agree nor Disagree  (d) Disagree

(e) Strongly Disagree

Options

No of respondents

Total respondents

Response %

Strongly agree

20

30

66.66

Agree

5

30

16.66

Neither agree nor disagree

5

30

16.66

Disagree

0

30

0

Strongly disagree

0

30

0

According to the above graph, it is easily perceivable that the majority of the respondents, 25 out of 30 managers who were provided with questionnaire by the researcher stated that they are satisfied with the duration of training programs and therefore it can surely be said that the management of Petronas is in the right path in executing their training programs for the workforce in order to experience a major boost in the organizational performance of the company.

  1. Are training program helpful in long run?

(a) Strongly Agree  (c) Agree

(b) Neither Agree nor Disagree  (d) Disagree

(e) Strongly Disagree

Options

No of respondents

Total respondents

Response %

Strongly agree

20

30

66.66

Agree

0

30

0

Neither agree nor disagree

10

30

33.34

Disagree

0

30

0

Strongly disagree

0

30

0

According to the graph and the table it has been seen that 20 out of 30 respondents said that they believe that in the long run the training and developmental workshops that they are attending according to the demand of the management of Petronas and it can thus be stated that the management is doing their part quite well in order to help the employees of the organization to gain professional skills and also to improve the performance of the business organization.

  1. Was the training program helpful in personal growth?

Deductive and Inductive Research Approaches

(a) Yes (b) No

Options

No of respondents

Total respondents

Response %

Yes

25

30

83.33

No

5

30

16.67

Though it has been seen that the management of Petronas is trying too hard to improve the organizational performance by introducing many training and developmental programs specially designed for the employees of different stages of the organization so that they can enhance their professional skills and also in order to improve the organizational performance; it has been noticed that 25 respondents said that they are happy or satisfied with the developmental programs in terms of their personal growth, but 5 respondents stated that they did not benefit anything from those programs.

  1. What is your opinion about present training system?

(a) Excellent (c) Average

(b) Good (d) Below Average 

Options

No of respondents

Total respondents

Response %

Excellent

20

30

66.66

Average

0

30

0

Good

10

30

33.34

Below Average

0

30

0

Out of 30 respondents, 20 people opined that the current training system of Petronas is excellent and 10 people said that the present training system is quite average in respect to other business organizations that are operating in oil and gas industry. Therefore, it can be said that the management of the business organization is doing great in order to cope up with the changing needs of the market and also to stay in the competition in the market full of rivalries.   

  1. Do you agree that instructor responses to trainees doubts?

(a) Strongly Agree (c) Agree

(b) Neither Agree nor Disagree (d) Disagree

(e) Strongly Disagree

Options

No of respondents

Total respondents

Response %

Strongly agree

15

30

50

Agree

5

30

16.66

Neither agree nor disagree

10

30

33.34

Disagree

0

30

0

Strongly disagree

0

30

0

In this regard, it can surely be said that when the employees of the  business organization were asked about how they enjoyed their training phase and how well the instructors cleared their doubts 15 respondents out of 30 managers who were selected to collect data from stated that the instructors were able to clear the doubts they had back then. On the other hand, 15 respondents stated that they were neither satisfied, nor they were dissatisfied with their instructor’s ability to clear their doubts in the phase of their training and developmental [procedure.

  1. Did you attend the training program before getting induction training in the business concern?

(a) Yes (b) No

Options

No of respondents

Total respondents

Response %

Yes

25

30

83.33

No

5

30

16.67

When the managers of Petronas were asked whether they attended a training program dedicated to the newly joined employees of the business organization 25 respondents said that they attended such programs and those were immensely helpful before getting into the induction process. On the other hand, 5 respondents stated that they did not receive such trainings as they were recruited under a time when the business organization was going through a major structural change.

  1. From the following training program which type of training did you receive?

(a) Internal (b) External

(c) Both

Options

No of respondents

Total respondents

Response %

Internal

25

30

83.33

External

5

30

0

Both

5

30

16.67

From the above graphs it can easily be said that the management of Petronas has the facility to provide both types of training and those are external and internal training. Out of 30 respondents 20 managers stated that they had received internal training and 5 respondents stated that they received external training. Rest of the respondents stated that they received both internal and external training from the management of Petronas.

It is important to know that the research scholar will have to consider the ethical aspects while conducting the research work in order to abide by the rules and regulations set by the regional government. The researcher should ensure that the published data and information through the research work is authentic. The scholar should not use the collected data and information in any type of commercial purpose and the findings of the research work should be restricted to utilize for education purposes only. Not only that, the researcher had to abide by the Data Protection Act 1998,  that states that protection of important information should be prioritized and the result or findings of the research should not be used elsewhere apart from academic purposes. Apart from that the researcher should not manipulate the data that has been collected while he was surveying 30 respondents.

Task Name

Duration

Start

Finish

Research Proposal Timeline

82 days

Fri 6/1/18

Mon 9/24/18

   Selection of the Research Topic

1 day

Fri 6/1/18

Fri 6/1/18

   Approval of the Research Topic

2 days

Mon 6/4/18

Tue 6/5/18

   Researching and the Development of the Aims and Objectives

6 days

Wed 6/6/18

Wed 6/13/18

   Preliminary Investigation

10 days

Thu 6/14/18

Wed 6/27/18

   Assembling all the Preliminary Data

5 days

Thu 6/28/18

Wed 7/4/18

   Researching the Data

6 days

Thu 7/5/18

Thu 7/12/18

   Compiling the Data

10 days

Fri 7/13/18

Thu 7/26/18

   Submission of the Draft

1 day

Fri 7/27/18

Fri 7/27/18

   Continuation of the Research

20 days

Mon 7/30/18

Fri 8/24/18

      Assembling New Information

10 days

Mon 7/30/18

Fri 8/10/18

      Identification of the Sample

1 day

Mon 8/13/18

Mon 8/13/18

      Selecting The Number of Sample Size

4 days

Tue 8/14/18

Fri 8/17/18

      Interviewing The Sample Population

5 days

Mon 8/20/18

Fri 8/24/18

   Researching on the Available Data

21 days

Mon 8/27/18

Mon 9/24/18

      Compiling the Total Data

10 days

Mon 8/27/18

Fri 9/7/18

      Assembling and Preparing the final Report

10 days

Mon 9/10/18

Fri 9/21/18

      Final Submission

1 day

Mon 9/24/18

Mon 9/24/18

Table 1: Schedule of the Time

Source: (As created by the Author)

References

Brannen, J. ed., 2017. Mixing methods: Qualitative and quantitative research. Routledge.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. and Larson, R., 2014. Validity and reliability of the experience-sampling method. In Flow and the foundations of positive psychology (pp. 35-54). Springer Netherlands.

Hughes, J.A. and Sharrock, W.W., 2016. The philosophy of social research. Routledge.

Kratochwill, T.R., 2015. Single-case research design and analysis: An overview. In Single-Case Research Design and Analysis (Psychology Revivals) (pp. 13-26). Routledge.

Matzler, K., Füller, J., Hutter, K., Hautz, J. and Stieger, D., 2014. Open strategy: Towards a research agenda.

Palinkas, L.A., Horwitz, S.M., Green, C.A., Wisdom, J.P., Duan, N. and Hoagwood, K., 2015. Purposeful sampling for qualitative data collection and analysis in mixed method implementation research. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 42(5), pp.533-544.

Saunders, M.N., Lewis, P., Thornhill, A. and Bristow, A., 2015. Understanding research philosophy and approaches to theory development.

Sekaran, U. and Bougie, R., 2016. Research methods for business: A skill building approach. John Wiley & Sons.

Smith, J.A. ed., 2015. Qualitative psychology: A practical guide to research methods. Sage.

Taylor, S.J., Bogdan, R. and DeVault, M., 2015. Introduction to qualitative research methods: A guidebook and resource. John Wiley & Sons.