Advanced Wireless Technologies: Antenna, Protocols And Security

Antenna Types and their Strengths and Weaknesses

Antenna is a device that is used for transmitting information from transmitter to receiver. It is a device that converts the radio frequency signal into current. Antenna is popular in many fields; it is used in satellite to satellite communication, military communication, mobile phone, Tvs and many other forms of communication. They are used for communicating with a person located at remote location, thus it can be said that antennas are used for long distance communication (Kosako, Kadoya & Hofmann, 2010). This is possible due to radio waves. These waves carry information at very high speed that is at the speed of light (Gu, Zhai, Yang, Zhang & Chen, 2015). The information received using antenna as low transmission loss, thus it is used as a secure form of communication.

Save Time On Research and Writing
Hire a Pro to Write You a 100% Plagiarism-Free Paper.
Get My Paper

Yagi- Uda Antenna

It is one of the most popular antennas as its implementation and design is quiet simple. The gain through this antenna is high that is approx. 10bB. It operates in the frequency band between 3MHz to 3GHz. The three main components of  yagi-uda antenna is reflector, director and driven. Reflectors are basically used to increase the overall gain as they guide the path of the signal from transmitter need to receivers end. The director is used to guide the path to the signal by modifying its path (Jin, Gu, He & Wang, 2018). The third component is driven that is basically used to connect the transmission line to black stud.


Save Time On Research and Writing
Hire a Pro to Write You a 100% Plagiarism-Free Paper.
Get My Paper



  • High gain
  • The directivity is quiet high
  • The power consumption is low
  • It is quiet easy to handle
  • Bandwidth and frequency is somewhere limited
  • They are based on resonant elements that cause SWR to increase
  • It also produces noise
  • It is problematic to handle in weather changing situations

The shape of this antenna has named it as horn antenna. It consists of flaring wave guide which is generally used to enhance he overall efficiency by focusing on eth electron beam. The frequency rand in which horn antenna operates is higher than yagi uda antenna. The range lies between 400MHz to 40GHz (Wang, Fang, Zhang & Che, 2010). It offers 1Kw power at the receiver end (Gu, Zhai, Yang, Zhang & Chen, 2015). The horn type of antenna is also classified into three types that are rectangular horn, colonial horn and sectional horn. They are basically used in applications that require high frequency.




  • It requires small lobes
  • The standing waves are also reduced
  • It has narrow beam width
  • The impedance matching is good in case of horn antenna
  • It is very complex in designing
  • It also have large flare angle.

It is used to boost up the cell phone connectivity so that signal can be easily transmitted from one location to another (Liang & Yu, 2015). This is an advanced antenna that is used to improve the signal strength. This is generally used for communication between mobile phone, TV and satellite.



  • The signal capacity is hug
  • It also consumers low transmission power
  • The robustness is high
  • The chances of signal interference is also low
  • It requires high infrastructure
  • It also deals with handovers of signal
  • This is quiet complex as compared to other antennas

Research on Three Wireless Network Protocols

Among all the three, cellular antenna is preferred as it is one of the modern antennas that are used for having a long distance communication. It uses frequency range for transmitting eh signal thus it is used to transfer data. It is recommended as it is used for communication in smartphones. Thus, it is recommended to use cellular networks as there speed is fast and the main reason is security (Liang & Yu, 2015). The interference is also less in such antennas but works at higher frequency that can be utilized in directing the path.

A wireless network is a computer network through which data is transferred from one device to other without the need of wires and cables. It is a best way which has eliminated the installation cost and they use radio communication waves (Bernardos, Oliva, Serrano, Banchs,  Contreras, Jin & Zúñiga, 2014). The wireless network takes place at physical level. The wireless network can be LAN, WAN or MAN. Wireless networks have made communication through Wi-Fi possible. The main advantage of using wireless network is that it is used for long distance communication.



  • It is a cost effective way of communication
  • It has better mobility
  • Has higher scalability
  • There are several security issues
  • There is a reliability issue
  • The speed of wireless network is less as compared to wired network

Types of wireless network protocols

In this report different type of wireless network protocol that are discussed:

  • Wi-Fi
  • Bluetooth
  • WiGig

It stands for wireless fidelity that is used for wireless connectivity among users. It is away through which users can communicate from one location to other irrespective of their location (Ferdoush & Li, 2014). It is one of the popularly used public hotspot network that allow Pcs and other devices to transfer data at affordable price. It is secure as various security protocols are used (Barman, Samanta & Chattopadhyay, 2015). It prevents unauthorised user to access the information and keep the personal and sensitive data secure.



  • It is a convenient way to communication
  • It has higher productivity
  • It has larger mobility
  • The cost of transmission is quiet less
  • Speed is low as compared to wired network
  • The security is less
  • The bandwidth is less

It is one of the oldest and widely used wireless networks. It was discovered in 1990s that was used to synchronize the data between phones. In comparison to WI-Fi, Bluetooth has low amount of power consumption and it is relatively low transmission range. It is generally used for connectivity for small device (Meijer, et. al, 2014). It is used for hardware connection. It works at IEEE 802.15.1 family.



  • It is used for data communication
  • If the devices are located nearby it can be used as a mode of transmission
  • Can pass by walls
  • It has limited transmission range
  • Less bandwidth
  • There are chances of security breach as interference may occur

It is one of the most popular networking way through which stream of videos is transmitted. It operates at the frequency of 60GHz (Rangisetti & Tamma,2017). It supports high bandwidth connection as it supports between 10 and 28 Gbps. It operates in all the highest usage urban areas. It is used to adopt the customer’s needs and transmitting over the network at wireless 60Ghz by making it more attractive.



  • It works at lower cost
  • It travel over large distance
  • Offloading a very data transfer
  • Easy to monitor
  • Low power consumption
  • Simple in construction

Security Challenges with Wireless Networks

There are many challenges and issues that are faced due to wireless network. One of the major issues is security that is due to increasing cybercrimes. Thus, it is necessary to maintaining the security by making sure that energy efficiency is maintained. The issue faced by wireless protocol is leakage of information. This can be handled by making the security protection rules (Scherzer & Scherzer, 2015). Assuring that data will remain authenticated and only valid user will be allowed to access the information. The quality of service can also be improved by enhancing the quality of service and improving the core network service (Burger,  Meimon, Petit & Nguyen, 2015). There are many advanced wireless networking services that are available, the major problem that is faced due to security can be prevented by maintaining the access control list. This assures that information can also be read by valid user (Thayananthan and Albeshri, 2015).

The title of the first research paper that is Software defined wireless network a survey of the issue and its solution. In this article, the author Anil Kumar stated that with the growing use of internet and wireless networks the challenges have also increased. The reason of this issue is increasing cyber-attacks that have caused security breaches. In this article the main concern was on security that is faced while transferring information from one location to another (Oracle, 2017). To avoid such issues various ways have been used. The wireless security can be improved by using security measure. Some of the security measures that are suggested are encrypting the data so that even if the data is leaked it is not accessible. A encrypting the data converts it in a non-readable form. There are many other techniques and technologies through which can be used to improve the quality of our data. One such is installing firewalls and anti-viruses software on the system so that no bugs penetrate in the system (Harfoushi, Alfawwaz, Ghatasheh, Obiedat, Mua’ad and Faris, 2014). Apart from that, it is also suggested that all the software’s and applications should be updated so that no bugs get a chance to enter the system. Some of the techniques that are used for maintaining the security measure are encryption technique that make sure that data is transferred over the network in an confidential manner.

In the second research article, the paper is written by Carlos J. Bernardos, Antonio de la Oliva, Pablo Serrano, Albert Banchs, Luis M. Contreras, Hao Jin, and Juan Carlos Zuniga. The title for this is the architecture for software-defined wireless networking which deals with working scenario of wireless network. To avoid the problems there are various software defined networking problem for communication system. Various advantages and disadvantages of wireless network are discussed along with a detailed security plan is discussed. The approach of SDN is adopted in the wireless mobile network that is beneficial for wireless network and offers various features that are used for mobile deployments. Various standardization efforts are needed so that high level of signal is assured. Apart from this, in the report it was also recommended that a regular track of information should be maintained by keeping a track of all the operations. This can be done by maintaining an access control list that identifies list of valid user who can access the information. Some of the cryptography protection can be used to protect the data chunks from hackers. It makes sure that hackers are not able to access the information. It is recommended that backup of data need to be taken at regular interval so that in case of failure system can be restored easily. This assures that no valid user access the information. Security is one of the main issue faced by an organisation it is important to maintain as organisations completely rely on network for maintaining the security of their sensitive information and asserts.

Critical Reflection on Software-defined Wireless Networks


Barman, S., Samanta, D., & Chattopadhyay, S. (2015). Fingerprint-based crypto-biometric system for network security. EURASIP Journal on Information Security, 2015(1), 3.

Bernardos, C. J., Oliva, A., Serrano, P., Banchs, A., Contreras, L. M., Jin, H., & Zúñiga, J. C. (2014). An architecture for software-defined wireless networking. IEEE wireless communications, 21(3), 52-61.

Burger, B., Meimon, S. C., Petit, C., & Nguyen, M. C. (2015, February). Improvement of Varioptic’s liquid lens based on electrowetting: how to obtain a short response time and its application in the design of a high resolution iris biometric system. In MOEMS and Miniaturized Systems XIV (Vol. 9375, p. 93750S). International Society for Optics and Photonics.

Ferdoush, S., & Li, X. (2014). Wireless sensor network system design using Raspberry Pi and Arduino for environmental monitoring applications. Procedia Computer Science, 34, 103-110.

Gu, K., Zhai, G., Yang, X., Zhang, W., & Chen, C. W. (2015). Automatic contrast enhancement technology with saliency preservation. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, 25(9), 1480-1494.

Harfoushi, O., Alfawwaz, B., Ghatasheh, N.A., Obiedat, R., Mua’ad, M. and Faris, H (2014). Data security issues and challenges in cloud computing: a conceptual analysis and review. communications and Network, 6(01), p.15.

Jin, M., Gu, X., He, Y., & Wang, Y. (2018). Wireless sensor networks. In Conformal Geometry (pp. 253-296). Springer, Cham.

Kosako, T., Kadoya, Y., & Hofmann, H. F. (2010). Directional control of light by a nano-optical Yagi–Uda antenna. Nature Photonics, 4(5), 312.

Liang, C., & Yu, F. R. (2015). Wireless network virtualization: A survey, some research issues, and challenges. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 17(1), 358-380.

Meijer, H.J.M., Gates III, W.H., Ozzie, R.E., Bergstraesser, T.F., Cheng, L., Connolly, M., Gounares, A.G., Mishra, D.P., Snyder Jr, I.L. and Zaner-Godsey, M., Microsoft Corp (2014). Data security in an off-premise environment. U.S. Patent 8(1),705,746.

Oracle, (2017). Data Security Challenges. Available from Accessed on 20 aug 2018.

Rangisetti, A. K., & Tamma, B. R. (2017). Software Defined Wireless Networks: A Survey of Issues and Solutions. Wireless Personal Communications, 97(4), 6019-6053.

Scherzer, S., & Scherzer, T. (2015). U.S. Patent No. 9,148,843. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Thayananthan, V. and Albeshri, A. (2015). Big data security issues based on quantum cryptography and privacy with authentication for mobile data center. Procedia Computer Science, 50, pp.149-156.

Wang, H., Fang, D. G., Zhang, B., & Che, W. Q. (2010). Dielectric Loaded Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) ${H} $-Plane Horn Antennas. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 58(3), 640-647.

Ziegeldorf, J. H., Morchon, O. G., & Wehrle, K. (2014). Privacy in the Internet of Things: threats and challenges. Security and Communication Networks, 7(12), 2728-2742.