Art Academy of Cincinnati Era of Superior Cathedral Architecture Discussion


I have this homework for my art history class, the answere should be more then 200 word linght. I will send the note of chapter 16 here.Questions:Define what the term “Romanesque” means and identify 3 key architectural features associated with this cathedral style. Then, describe how the churches were decorated on the exterior. Where was exterior sculpture located and what were the prominent subjects depicted and messages conveyed through this imagery? Make reference to at least one church discussed in Chapter 16 in your answer, and use terms whenever possible.

00:01 Chapter 16 covers Romanesque art and it covers a time period from roughly
the 11th to the 12th century period known as the Romanesque period. And
it’s actually a period that’s named for a style of architecture that developed
during this time. That was Roman like Romanesque literally kind of translates
to Roman like so as your Christian ice.
And we talked a little bit about that pilgrimage became a very common form
of devotion where people would travel to sacred sites that often housed relics
of important Holy persons. And this was a form of public devotion. And the
church is actually kind of that for the pilgrims. So one of the main things that
they did was they rebuilt their structures, their places of worship.
And they built New, grander structures to provide a kind of fitting setting for
worship. And also to draw programs to their churches. So the Romanesque
period was named for the ball team system that developed now as we’ve seen,
the early Christian churches tended to have flat timbered roofs. But the churches
filtering the Romanesque period had vaulted roofs, which are based on the
Roman arch, hence the term Romanesque or Roman light.
So that’s the main characteristic that we see during the Roman Romanesque
period. We also see heavy, heavy rain masonry walls, heavy stone walls, you
have to have a lot of stone in the walls to support the weight of the vault. So
we’ll look at that as well. And we’ll also during this unit, talk about regional
We’ll see The development of the Romanesque style in France and Germany and
England, Tuscany and we see kind of regional differences get differences in each
of these places to kind of suit local preferences. So here we’re looking at a map
of Europe around 1100. And many of the sites, many of the most important
sites were in France.
And so that’s where we really see the development of the Roman Esque style
initially. And this actually shows you some of the most popular Pilgrimage roads
and destinations the 3 most popular sites of course Rome or we have the Vatican
and where it’s believed that Saint Peter was buried.
Jerusalem, and then sent here, go to Compostella, which is in the North Western
part of Spain. So we have these mean routes going through France that all lead
to the border of France and Spain. And then we have the one major program at
route to Santiago de Compostela. So these programs will travel for months at
a time, Stopping at these important pilgrimage sites on the way, and they’re
actually Pope rich travel books that were developed that would highlight the
major sites as a kind of guidebook for programs for travelers.
Here we’re looking at a very early example of a stone vaulted church that was
built during the early part of the Romanesque period. And this style that we’re
looking at here is referred to as the 1st Roman ask. This was a term that was
coined by early 20th century architects.
So what you notice here is instead of the flat roof and the nave, We have a
vaulted roof Which is basically a vault barrel vault is the extension of a Roman
arch. To create a passageway, so we have a simple Barrow vaulted nave with
narrow side aisles. A clear story can see the Windows Of the arches and then a
series of arches that divide the name from the eye.
We also have a bit of Masonry that you can see in between the arches leading to
the aisle that starts at the floor of the nave and goes all the way up the side of
the wall. This is called a strip buttress. And basically it’s just an additional
bit of stone added to the wall to help support the arch and it actually goes all
the way up and then you can see that it, it follows around The barrel vault and
then comes back down the other side.
And this is what we call a transverse our church. On the right here, we see just
a little bit clearer map of the pilgrimage roads to Santiago de Compostela. And
a lot of the main pilgrimage churches and Romanesque style churches that we’ll
talk about in this chapter, and also later Gothic churches that we’ll talk about
in the next chapter.
Were built along these roads to Santiago de Compostela in northwest Spain.
And this was a very sacred site because this is where the rocks of St. James, the
Apostle were. And actually they had not just a single relic as a small part of his
body here, which is what’s most common, but actually his entire body.
So people travel far and wide to visit On the site. And on the left here we have
an example of a relic Querrey statue. And this is A type of art object statue
that would be created to House a relic. Because in most cases we have kind of
small bits of a Holy person.
In this case we have the skull of a child martyr that is in, in cased in this beautiful
shine statue that’s covered in gold and, And given a Crown. And so this is the
relic where a statue has that far, and it Resided in the church of St. Father, St.
Faith in, cops, friends, and it dates to the late one night early, 10th century. Now
the worship of relics was sometimes question, as idolatry Felt that it bordered
on idolatry because you often would be worshipping a statue such as what you
see here. But mostly it was meant as a form of reverence for the leaders of the
church for a martyrs of Christianity who would then become Saints and would
become considered intercessors.
People that one could pray to And then the Saint would kind of intercede on
their behalf to Christ. Relics often were believed to have healing powers, and
they were considered to be very precious objects. Here’s a closeup view of the
relic area of scent fire, and the head actually was really used from a Roman
And that’s why it has kind of an unusual look to it. In terms of portraying a
young girl doesn’t quite look like a young girl, but the head was actually reuse.
And then it was covered in gold leaf which you can see quite well on the face in
And then inlaid with these beautiful gems to make it a very precious object to
contain the skull of this young child martyr. Who refused to worship pagan gods.
And it’s, it’s fairly large. It’s about 3 feet tall. So it’s, it would be considered
life size of the figure who is seated stood up, should be about life size.
So Romanesque church is these pogrom, and church is developed a distinctive
plan to accommodate the pogroms and we refer to this as the pilgrimage plan.
And basically what they did was they expanded certain parts of the church to
accommodate visitors to accommodate the programs that were coming so that
they could actually walk around the church, the interior of the church without
disrupting the mass, or without disrupting what was going on in the Center in
the choir.
So what we notice here, so here we have the Cathedral of St. James at Santiago
to come to Stella in Spain. It was built from 107821122. We have an x., Tiriel,
exteriors byline in the top left. We have a plan of the church in the lower left
and then we’re looking At the interior of the church at the right.
And it seems that we’re looking in the name, but actually we’re looking at the
transept here. We’re looking at the interior of the transept here, the pilgrimage
plan and the way that it’s a valid, made the transept identical to the nave.
Because what they’ve done, and if you look at the plan in the lower left is they’ve
decided to extend the I o., which previously just lined the nave.
They extended the aisle to go up the nave, around the transept and then all the
way around the app so that you can essentially walk around the entirety of the
church on the exteriors. There’s an aisle that goes all the way around the church
so that the programs can come without interfering.
So looking in the Naif here or looking toward the crossing tire, you can see the
light coming in and that’s where the nave meets the trance that we see A wide
Center naver transept. Then we see arches that divide that area from the aisles.
The outer aisles. We see these large compound Piers with engage problems that
go all the way up to the base of the vault.
We can see a rounded barrel vault, of course there is no clear story. But they
get a lot of light from the outside Windows and outside of the aisles and light
through the Lantern as well. And this church also has an upper Gallery which
is Level above the aisles on the outer walls.
Let’s look at the details a little bit more closely. Ok, so here I have kind of a
map for you, of the different elements that you should be able to identify. So
again, we’re looking in the transept, we have the outer IOW, the right hand.
And we have the compound Piers, which are these massive stone Piers, with
additional and gauge columns attached to help support the vault.
We have the barrel vault up above and the transverse arch, which helps to create
the individual base, which are the areas in between the transverse arches and
it gives kind of a rhythmic flow to the vault. And then we have to gather ear
Tribune, which is the 2nd story about the aisles.
And this is we’ll see later, a 3rd level kind of inserted into these churches and
that’s where the clear start would come in. But and Romanesque church is with
the development of the barrel vault and the rounded evolved. It’s very hard
actually to have Windows along the nave. Because every time you put a hole in
a wall to put a window in, you’re weakening the wall a little bit.
And they need him as much wall as possible at this point to support the vaults
in the Center. Now, the outer I o. in the Cathedral of St. James actually has a
growing involved, which is the different Sorry, this is a different kind of vaulting
system That is essentially the intersection of 2 barrel votes.
So if you look at the diagram in the top left, you see the barrel vault, which is
just basically the extension of an arch. And then below that to the right of that,
you see the grain Bowl, which is the intersection of 2 barrel vaults. And the
benefit of a grind out is that instead of distributing the weight of the vault at 2
points, what should be doing with that they’re of all, you’re actually distributing
the weight at 4 points.
So it’s helping to not only support the vault in system and I o., which we’re
looking up into the growing vault in the aisle here in the image on the right. But
it’s also helping to distribute or support some of the barrel vault in the knaves
by pushing some of the weight to the outer walls.
So essentially, the arch is between the Navan. I’ll don’t have to do all the
supporting. We can actually transfer some of that weight to the outer walls,
which sometimes the outer walls of these Romanesque cathedrals were you know,
5 feet thick, 5 feet thick stone to provide the support that they needed to support
these faults.
So this is a wonderful, beautiful example of a Romanesque church that has not
only the bare of all to interest him, but also growing vaulting system in the
aisles. Here looking at some drawings of one of the most powerful monastery
sites in all of Europe and the 11th and 12th century.
And that is the site of Cluny Monastery which grew to be the most impressive
monastic church. But we had 3 kind of, we had the development of Cluny
over time. So clearly one, the 1st Clooney was built in the early 11th century,
Basically built for 12 months. It was kind of a barn like structure.
Then clearly 2 was built, was a larger Basilica next to Clooney one. And then
by the late 11th century, clearly 3 was built to House more than $200.00 monks.
And really the site became a city unto itself. And here we have a look at the
Monastery of Cluny, which is quite large.
On the left, you see the cloister at the, at the left hand side of the drawing. The
reconstruction drawing, the closer of course, was a sacred space in a monastery,
was open space within a monastery with an arcade walkway. As Center fountain,
it was meant to be the kind of Center enclosed World.
So you see that on the left, on the right, you see the image of Clearly 3, this
enormous church. And then we have a plan of Cluny 3 in the lower right. And
in the upper right, we see the interior nave of Cluny 3, Cluny 3. No longer exists
Unfortunately, but it was originally more than 600 feet long from the entrance
to the to the app’s 100 feet high.
Some of the walls at their base were 8 feet thick. And you can see from the
plan that it didn’t have a single aisle a round the name, but actually it had
a double aisle and it had radiating Chappell’s coming. Not only Oh, It had a
double transept as well.
And it had radiating Chappell’s, coming off the apps as well as the transept
was really just an enormous structure. And it was referred to as a place where
Angels would do well. And it existed until the 19th century, when the, during
the French Revolution, it was basically turned into a quarry or after the French
When France was rebuilding, it was basically turned into a Kori for building
materials. So we only know of it from drawings and from writings, but we know
that it was the largest and most powerful monastery in Europe in the 11th and
12th century. And you can see that it had an 3 level interior elevation.
If you look at the top right drawing, we have a very tall nave above the knee.
We have a Gallery and the 3rd story was of course, the clear story. Now by the
end of the 11th century, people had become a little bit disillusioned with the
extravagance of Clooney.
And they felt that the extravagance was very superficial, very materialistic. And
that perhaps, you know, these monks were worried too much about having these
really beautiful and not just Clooney, but these other pogroms shirts as were
too concerned with having these gorgeous large you know, extravagant dwellings.
And that that could perhaps distract them from their relationship with God.
So we see at the end of the 11th century, a reform movement developed within the
Benedict in order that basically was established in reaction to the extravagance
of Clooney and the Benedict. In Mount monks who are these are Reform, monks
who are called the Cistercians. They rejected worldly extravagance.
They rejected the building of costly churches. They put an emphasis on manual
labor and prayer and poverty. And they built very austere churches with plain
stone Breck’s. So here we’re looking at the interior of the Abbey Church of
Notre Dame in Fontenay. France was built in the 12th century and on the left
you see the entirety of the monastery, which basically just had that very simple
cell at the plant church at the far left, the closer at the Center and then basically
refectory where they ate and dormitories.
So it was a very simple Look inside the Cathedral. Here we see the neighbors
also very simple. There’s no ornamentation. There’s no ambulatory, no chapels,
it’s a single storey nave, no Gallery, no clear story. Even the Capitals are very
plain. You know above the columns, the engaged columns on the left there.
So we see a very different styles about develop as a result of this reform movement that developed and reaction to Cleaning. Although it’s still done in the
Romanesque style. So we see a lot of regional variations during the Romanesque
period, and Here we have the very famous Cathedral at peace.
And right, this is the Cathedral complex at which includes the main Cathedral
the baptistery, which actually has some Gothic elements that were added later
in the 15th or 16th century. And then of course, the Leaning Tower, the Bell
tower, or the company a which you see in the behind the Cathedral.
So in Italy, we tend to see a Roman, a style that is a little bit less experimental
than we saw in France. And it tends to add here more closely to the early
Christian style because of the close proximity to Rome. So one thing you’ll
notice right away, if you look at the image on the top right, we don’t have a
vaulted nave, right?
We have that flat timbered roof, which is what we traditionally saw in Italy in
the early Christian period. We also have, we don’t necessarily have the Heights
of the nave. We don’t have the compound here is a go all the way up to the top.
Bring in our eye.
It has more of a sort of Compact unified feel to it. But we do have the rounded
arches that go down the aisles on either side, exteriors, really distinctive, has a
distinctive architectural quality. If we look at the picture in the lower Center,
we’re looking at the Western facade here of the Cathedral.
And you can see that has 5 stories, a blind arcade, that goes about the portal
area. And the Bell tower has the same feature. And actually the Bell tower has
been described as Designed by rolling up the facade of the church, because it
has that kind of blind arcade, that goes all the way around.
Now the Leaning Tower of Pisa, as it’s now called, was actually already 9 inches
off axis when it was completed and It began head of sink in until to almost
immediately. And now it’s approximately 13 feet off access, but it’s been secured
so that it can no longer Tilt any further, but they’ve left it kind of where it was,
which is about 13 feet off axis.
So this style we see in Tuscany, in this part of Central Italy, tends to be very
sad, more simple, Kind of simple geometric structures adorned with what we
see here, this kind of delicate arcade motif on the facade of the church on the
baptistry and, and also on the bow tower.
Now, these pointed these pointed elements on the baptistery. These were actually
added during the Gothic period, so those don’t date to the Romanesque period.
But this Cathedral complex remains one of the most impressive sites and in
medieval Europe. Here are looking at Durham Cathedral the interior of Durham
consider on a plan of the Cathedral on the right.
And this is in German, England, dating to $27.00 to $1133.00 in. So after the
Norman conquest of England, which we’ll talk a little bit more about at the end
of this chapter, which took place in $1066.00, we see that importation of the
French Romanesque to England. And we also see some interesting experimental
Here that we have these Large transverse arches that spanned the nave, With
decorated ribbed growing belts. Now typically the growing out and the rib
develop in particular doesn’t become a common feature until the Gothic period.
So that’s really interesting here. And we also have this wonderful decorative
effect in these massive columns that lined the nave.
We have An alternating support system and that we have a column, A large
column. And then we have a compound here and then a column. And then a
compound here, kind of alternating dominate as they support the stories, the 2
levels above them, above the aisles. But we see these, you know, compeers and
columns are huge, and very decorative.
On the left we have just kind of angular Chevron patterning, and then if you skip
the next come here to the next column, we have this kind of Diamond patterning.
So actually what we see in England is more of an interest and decorative effect
over clarity, which would be more common in France and Italy.
And Originally these columns are painted. So I imagine how Decorative that
would have seemed especially coming if you were coming from More of a French
Romanesque background. Now as we get down toward the apps, you can see
that we have more these pointed ball teams system. We have a rose window
staying US round stained glass window.
These were added during the later Gothic period too. So we also have kind
of a combination of styles in Durham Cathedral another way that programs
would be drawn to churches is through sculpture decoration and one of the most
important places in a church to put sculpture to reach the pogroms would be in
the portal.
And the Court, of course, is the entrance of the Cathedral. And during the
Romanesque period, we see the revival of stone sculpture and stone carving
as another way to pay tribute to Saints important sayings, the ancestors of
Christ Christ Himself the Virgin, Mary. And also to make these churches very
interesting to make them beautiful.
And they were also uses educational tools. The portal became essentially an
Encyclopedia of Christian imagery that was meant to be didactic, especially for
the illiterate who might not be able to read the Bible, but they could read the
pictures that they would see filling the portals of the entrances of the church.
And the sculptures were also meant to reinforce the authority of the church.
Sculpture is very practical as a way to decorate the next year of a church because
it can withstand the elements better than painting perhaps, or even mosaic,
which was more common during the earlier medieval period. So here we have
the main elements of the Romanesque portal.
We have the post and went toe, which is what makes up the doorway. The post
is referred to as the Truman Show, and the trim a would often be covered with
sculpture. The lintel is the horizontal element. Above that, above the lintel is
the tympanum, which is the most important area for imagery.
This is often more Christ as depicted or the Virgin. The most important figure
On the sides and both sides of the door. As we have the day, the jams you’re
familiar with the term door Jam, this is these are jams and we would often have
statues that are placed in the jams.
And then we have the Ark of OPS, which are the arches that go above the temple.
And the arc of altar made up of individual wires. Ok, so Let’s look at some
examples of Roman ask portal decoration. Here we have a view of the South
part of Sam Pierre must sack must sack in France was an important pogrom
edge destination.
And it dates to about 1115. And it’s a great example of this New Revolutionary
style of portal decoration. That’s showing US A depiction of Christ’s The 2nd
Coming of Christ, Crace in Majesty, so rounded by evangelist symbols and the
24 elders of the Apocalypse. So we’ll look at a closer view of this that we can
see that the main imagery is located in the temple.
And that’s a receive Christ seen being depicted with hierarchical scale to show
his importance. The lintel is actually made up of decorative kind of rose at the
jams are also quite decorative with these scallops. Edges perhaps implements by
Islamic art and architecture. And the true mode too has some sculpture in the
What we notice is that sculpture is subordinate to architecture still, because of
when we look closely at the figures, we can see that they’re somewhat cramped.
Let’s go to the next image and get a better look at that. Maybe we’ll go one
more walk. Maybe we can come back to this one to talk about the true moment.
Let’s go one more image and look at a close up detail. Ok, so here we’re looking
at a closer view of the temple. We can see the lintel, the very top of the trim.
Oh, And the jams. But if you notice with Christ at the Center, he’s quite large.
He’s kind of seated in throne, surrounded by the symbols of the Evangelists,
Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John are symbols where the Lion, the Eagle, the ox,
and the Angel, or the man. And then we have in 3 Register surrounding Christ
and below Christ. The $24.00, elders of the Apocalypse, are kind of irregularly
displayed all looking up at Christ that you can see that they’re kind of Korea in
And sometimes it seems as if they’re not quite fitting. If you look at the figure
in the lowest Register, the 2nd to the left 2nd from the left, you can see his head
is very cramped and there. So it’s really interesting. One thing a development
that we see During this period as that sculpture begins as a very subordinate to
But then, as it develops throughout the Gothic period and leading to the
Renaissance, we see sculpture and figure sculpture, particular becoming more
and more independent of architecture until during the Renaissance. We see this
revival of a sculpture in the round, but it’s a point. We’re not quite there yet,
so we’ve got Christ in Majesty representing the 2nd coming of Christ, where the
Last Judgment would occur, the final judgment.
And then we have the $24.00 elders which are figures from the Book of Revelation
who are meant to represent the church. And we see The use of hierarchy of scale
and not entirely naturalistic renderings of the figures. Here on the left, you see
a close up view of the Truman Show where we have the depiction of 6 Lions.
And an Old Testament prophet Jeremiah, who is this elongated figure on the right
hand side of the tremelo, can identify him as a prophet by his long Beard. He
has a scroll But he’s taking the form of the architecture. This is a great example
of how sculpture and figure sculpture even is secondary to the importance of
architecture during this time period.
The Lions are kind of crisscrossing and we have 3 pairs of lines. Criss crossing
lines of course Were very common during the early medieval period. These as
kind of wild Animals that represent power. Perhaps here there are meant to
represent the power of the church. Or perhaps they’re meant to be viewed as
protectors of the church because they’re positioned at the doorway.
But we definitely see that early medieval influence with the use of Lions in the
imagery here. This is one of my favorite Examples of tympanum sculpture. And
this is a last judgment scene in the West Temple of San Lazhar in our town,
France, another important pogrom, edge destination, And it dates to the 12th
Here we have a Last Judgment scene where again Christ is large in the Center.
He’s surrounded by a Mandorla, which is this kind of body that goes around
him. And he’s just held up by Angels on either side at the bottom and then also
up above as well. And we have this very dramatic, very kind of terror inspiring
seeing that even the illiterate would, would understand, would get the message.
You know, in these images were basically Equivalent to text for the illiterate
they were meant to be read. So Colmes would come, they would, as they’re
entering the church, they would look up. This would be the 1st thing they’d
see. And this is meant to essentially kind of, you know, inspire fear in them and
a desire in them to follow Christ to follow the church so that they, when they
come across the Last Judgment they can go to Heaven and they won’t be The
figures which you see on the right the left hand side of Christ, the right hand
side, and we’re facing Christ who are being damned, to eternal Hell.
We notice that there seems to be a little regard for order of composition. The
scale of the figures are very kind of arbitrary. We don’t have a specific use of
hierarchy of scale because some figures are larger, Some are smaller, there isn’t
seem to be kind of a system to it.
Christ for sure, is the largest figure that’s quite clear. Now Let’s just look at
the left hand side of the tip and for now left hand side. So we’re looking at the
Jesus is right. We have in the top Register, an image of the Virgin in throned
just to the right of his head.
And then as we move down to the 2nd Register, we have the 12 Apostles kind of
cramped in This little 6 rectangle here to the Christ, right? We have an image
of the Kingdom of Heaven up above them, and then in the lower limit, which is
this lowest Register beneath Christ’s feet, we have At detection, the blasted and
the down.
And in the lower left, we have the blasts, and many of them are carrying pogrom
staff. So you can tell that there are pilgrims of bishops, and then at the very
bottom of Christ’s feet, we see an Angel. And this is the Angel who is separating
the blasted from the damned to the right of the Angel.
We have those who are damned to Hell and it’s very interesting that look how
their faces are contorted. Some of them are becoming demon like this figure.
There’s one figure toward the right hand side who’s actually being poked by the
head by these kind of skeletal hands. So you know, in the lentil here we have
the resurrected dead who are waiting for judgment, who are essentially going to
Heaven and others who are going to Hell.
Now one of the links I provided for this chapter is a smart history link that goes
in deed to detail about this sculpture and gives US a lot of really good, close up
views and discussion of the figures. And I would really like you to spend some
time looking at that.
It’s about 10 minutes long, but it’s a really great commentary on the here we’re
looking at it to tell the right hand side of the temple the left hand side of Jesus.
And this is where the we have St Michael Wayne, the souls in the Center Register,
and a lot of demon like figures, very expressive demon, like figures that are kind
of trying to tip the scales in order to get more souls to devour these screaming
We have these People who are being pulled into how the figures are skeletal and
may see a dead. So it’s just so expressive. And it’s such a wonderful example of
the use of sculpture and the use of imagery to Convey the words of the Bible
and to convey the power and authority of the church as well.
Well sometimes the similarly lively narrative seems carved into capitals and
columns, or peer plasters and the interior of churches as well. And here we
have 2 capitals from the choir in the Cathedral soundless are in a time France
From the Swat century. And we have 2 scenes from the book of Matthew that
illustrate scenes from Jesus his childhood.
On the left we have an image of the 3 Magic who were visited by an Angel in
their sleep after they saw a baby Jesus. And the Angel warned them not to tell
King Herod of Jesus’s location because he was King. Herod was on a mission to
Massacre are the babies to prevent Jesus from replacing him as King.
And then on the right we have seen the flight into Egypt. We see the Virgin on
a donkey carrying the baby Jesus, and this is them. Fleeing to Egypt to escape
parit. So when we have capitals on a column that are illustrated with figure
refer to this as a historian it capital.
And this is one of your terms for this chapter. So we have a figure, a composition
of narrative scenes telling a story essentially. And that’s where the term historian
a good comes from. If you look closely at the Capitol on the left of the magic
asleep, it’s very, it’s a really interesting depiction because we actually have The
magic themselves and the bed being portrayed as if from above.
We see the blanket that goes over their body, but then we have this kind of
perspective shift where we’re seeing the Angel from the side and we’re seeing
the side of the bad from the side as well. So it’s interesting, the way the artist
has chosen to not be so much concerned with realism, but instead be concerned
with how to convey the scene most clearly.
And that’s they achieve that by shifting the protests were seen the magic
themselves from above. But the Angel and the side of the bed frame from kind
of a profile view. Really interesting choice Depiction On the right. We have such
an emphasis and kind of the human qualities of the Virgin and Christ.
And these are just really interesting Historia to capitals. Great examples that we
have from the Romanesque period we are also see a demand for small devotional
objects during the Romanesque period, tabletop crosses or small scale statuary
that can be placed on an altar, for example. And this is a good example of that.
This is a sculpture sculpture called the Virgin and Child. It’s no different to as
the Morgan Madonna, Based on the name of a previous collector. And it’s from
France state into the late 12th century. And here we have Madonna in Christ,
in throne. Whenever we see a depiction of Madonna, seated with a cry, seated
on her lap, this is an example of what’s called the throne of wisdom.
She is, in a sense, becoming the throne for Christ. And in many ways, it’s kind of
the style that’s being used here to portray the figures as like an icon, a sculpted
I kind of a front We have these really interesting kind of Card means in the
wood of the figures.
So one of the most interesting depictions of Christ as a child because really he
looks like a grown man. But he is, of course, meant to be portrayed as a child.
Although we have a lot of really soft modeling in the features of the figures.
Although the bodies are somewhat abstracted and frontal kind of stiff, there’s
a lot of soft modeling in the, in the features which again is giving it more of a
kind of human and intimate quality.
So the style of this sculpture is meant to not only convey religious meaning, but
also function. And this is also symbolic of the sort of increased focus on images
of the Virgin and toward the end of the Romanesque period and into the Gothic
period. And it’s something that we call the cult of the Virgin, the moving away
from Last Judgment, iconography which really dominates the early Romanesque
And much of the Romanesque period in general, moving more toward One of
the most prominent religious figures of the 12th century. It was a woman named,
held a Guard from being in Germany. So she was referred to often a Saint
Hildegarde of being on. And she was a prominent none of the 12th century or
one of the greatest religious figures of the Middle Ages.
And she Was said to have started to receive visions, Holy visions at the age of 5,
and she became a nun by the age of 15. And her visions were widely accepted
as authentic divide experiences by Kings and Pope’s who sought her counsel
and sought her spiritual insight. She wrote a book, actually 2 volumes of a book
And a very serious where she records and describes 26 visions That she had and
it’s accompanied by illustrations.
This is actually the 1st of 3 books are not 2, but 3 books. And it has the
description of 26 visions with 35 illustrations. And it’s called the vision of the
Guard being On the left. And the page on the right is called the universe. And
your book gives a nice description of this book as well.
This is actually actually a facsimile of the original. So in the vision of Hell to
Guard one being on the last she received help, they held a Guard, seated with
her feet on a stool. And she is writing on a wax tablet, her vision, and then the
monk next to her confessor is copied it into an actual manuscript into a book.
And we see these kind of What have been described as tongues. These kinds
make like Tentacles coming down from the top of the church and she describes
them as 5 tongues of fire coming from Heaven and during her brain. So she’s
describing what it’s like for her to receive a vision.
And Sylvia sits out in the name of the book translates to know the way of the
light. So it’s driving the Holiness of her vision. On the right, we have an image
called the universe. And this is how she begins her description of this vision.
She says, after this, I saw a vast instrument round and shadowed in the shape of
an egg small at the top, large in the middle, and narrowed at the bottom.
Outside it surrounding that circumference, there was a bright fire with as it
were, a shadowy zone under it. And in that fire, there was a Globe of sparkling
flame so great that the whole instrument was illuminated by it. So I also have
included some additional, An additional link that gives you a little bit of more
information about St.
Hildegard as an important Face of the 12th century. Please don’t forget to explore
that as well. In the middle of the 11th century. We have a very impactful,
historical event that occurs when the King of England King Edward DAGs in
January of 1066. And The Anglo-Saxon Heritage, who I believe was actually his
brother in law steals the crowned.
When William, who was a Duke of Normandy in northern France, was actually
the rightful heir, William the Conqueror, who is now referred to. He thought
he was the rightful heir. And so He actually decides to gather his Army in 10
Sixty-Six across the English Channel. And he ends up defeating Harold in the
Battle of Hastings to become the came in for service are the King of England.
So this is a really important times Where the Dukes of Normandy, because the
Kings of England and are able to unite England with much of France. This was
a huge event. 1066 is a really important turning point for the history of Western
Europe. And we have a wonderful artifact called the by you tapestry, which Is
actually a rare example of secular history in art from this period that gives US
a lot of information about the Battle of Hastings and the conquest of England.
So the Bible tapestry is, it’s actually not atop a story at all. It’s actually
in embroidery. So tapestry is kind of a misnomer. The difference being the
Tapestry is All kind of woven together to make the image of the pattern rise and
embroidery is a War that is woven on top of linen.
So the background of the Embroidery is linen and then the figures in the images
and the animals are embroider and warm for some reason. It was called the by
tapestry for so long. And that name to kind of stuff in the Technically it’s an
embroidery, it’s approximately 230 feet long.
20 feet high. It has a different colors there. 50 different scenes From the
Conquest. This tapestry was actually commissioned by William the Conqueror,
is half brother, and then donated to by you Cathedral to be displayed in the
Navy. And that’s why it’s referred to as the by you tapestry.
But in these 50 different scenes, along with Words that explain to US what’s
happening there is that there is more than 2000 letters. More than 600 human
figures. More than 700 animal figures. We had a complete chronicle of the events
of the conquest from the preparation for War, from the cutting of trees to build
ships, cooking and eating meals, and as well as Battle scenes.
And it’s really important because it actually includes many details that were
not written in documents. So it gives US information about the Norman
Conquest that we otherwise would not have had that were not included in
written documents. So up above we have the sharing of a feast. And below we
have a detail of the Bishop OTOH blessing the feast, which we see him also in
the image up above.
Starting from the very left of this top image, we have attendants bringing in
roasted birds, Carrying them over as we move to the right, placing them on kind
of a makeshift table that’s made from Shields. We have this interesting figure,
kind of in the Center of that kind of in the back, you has a blow Horn and he’s
actually summoning the diner’s with his blow horns.
Then as we move to the right, we have the table which forms sort of an arc. We
have Bishop Odo at the Center there, blessing the feast. The figure in front of
the table is carrying a basin and a towel for hand washing to getting a lot of
detailed information here.
And then as we move for this, right, we have 3 Gentlemen seated under kind of
a roof. This is That meeting after the meal to discuss the next event, which is
War, which is kind of leading US to War. And then the figure just to the right
of that little House or shelter is pointing US onward so that we keep moving
kind of, you know, to the right kind of read this scene.
We have these registers of animals, these kind of b. show creatures on the top
in the bottom of the tapestry, which are very much influenced by medieval our
medieval imagery. Later on we’ll see them replaced with fallen Soldiers. Here
we have 2 other details up about we have the Normans building ships, so we
see them chopping down trees and then building ships to Cross The English
Channel and below setting sail.
We have them crossing the Channel and you see the letters and the words, and
these are the, that’s kind of explaining to US what’s happening in the course of
events that are taking place. And then of course, we have the Battle scenes that
we have them up about. The Normans disembarking their arriving at Hastings
and they’re going into Battle.
Down below, we have this very kind of action packed scene of Defeat. Actually,
both sides are seen soldiers from both sides being defeated. We have some blood,
we have horses being fallen as well. It’s very vivid. It provides US with a very
vivid account, this historical event. And we’re seeing it almost as if it’s an
eyewitness account.
So this is such an interesting example of secular history in art during the medieval
period, which tended to really focus on religious subject matter. And last but
not least, one of the 2 of actually the other additional links that I provided for
you. Talk about the Norman Conquest, the significance of that.
And then also there’s a video that shows you a wonderful and very interesting
animation by you tapestry where someone has actually animated the figures And
starting from the beginning and moving forward and translated the words for
US as well. So that we can actually follow it as a sort of narrative as a historical
So make sure you watch it because it’s really interesting and it gives you a lot of
good information about The causes of this altercation and How the Battle kind
of carried out. And then the results of it with the Norman Conquest and with
William the Conqueror becoming the King of England.

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