Benefits And Efficiency Of Electromagnetic System In Regenerative Braking

ICT80011 Research Methods

Types of Electric Drive Braking Systems

Currently, there are numerous kinds of electric drive braking systems which are in existence. Some of these braking systems are mechanical braking systems also called friction brakes. One of the main disadvantages of the friction brakes revolves around the frequent replacement of the brakes that is needed, dissipation of energy in the form of heat which turns out to be non-environmental friendly (Tandel et al., 2018). There are at the moment three main sub-methods of electrical braking systems: plugging, electric regenerative as well as dynamic or rheostat brake. The electric regenerative braking system has turned out to be possessing better qualities and thus more popular as compared to the other two.

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This is attributed to the energy regeneration through changing the monitoring action into a generator; a process that cannot be achieved by the other methods. Other advantages are that it is not polluting, it is economical and as well does not need frequent maintenance as is the case with the others (Gofran, Neugebauer & Schramm, 2017). This study aims at studying the benefits including the efficiency of the use of electromagnetic system in regenerative braking of a PHEV. While it has been established that the conventional braking systems including mechanical or friction braking system are not energy efficient as they produce energy in the form of heat which not only increases the rate of tear and wear but also pollute the environment, it is believed that the electromagnetic braking system is more efficiency in terms of energy (Luo et al., 2017).

  • Determining the efficiency of the electromagnetic braking systems in terms of the rate of energy production and conversion
  • Electromagnetic braking system is a better system that the conventional dynamic braking system and mechanical braking system
  • Electromagnetic braking system enhances the energy efficiency by reducing or eliminating the production of energy in the form of heat in a PHEV

Electromagnetic braking refers the application of brakes through the use of magnetic power and electronic power. Electromagnetic braking systems have been in application as equipment for supplementary retardation besides the regular friction brakes as observed in heavy vehicles (Yadav, Shah, Yadav & Patel, 2018).

The principle of electromagnetism is used in this system to end up with a frictionless braking. With a frictionless braking the lifespan as well as the reliability of the brakes are enhanced as it would reduce the rate of tear and wear of such brakes (Sharma, Dhingra & Pathak, 2015). It as well calls for minimal oiling and maintenance their property of being frictionless tends to be the main reason for the proposal of electromagnetic braking system in vehicles. The working principles of any braking system on vehicles on the road are changing into thermal energy which is heat to kinetic energy. A powerful stopping force is applied by the driver upon stepping on the brakes. The force applied by the foot of the driver has been established to be numerous time powerful in magnitude as the very force that is used in initiating motion in a car thereby releasing the related kinetic energy in the form of heat (Ren, Ma & Cong, 2015).

Advantages of Electromagnetic Brake Systems

In order to attain the objectives and aims of the study, the research will use a model friction of an electromagnetic braking system. The fabrication model will be composed of an electromagnetic iron plate, disc brake plate as well as liners. Electromagnetic braking system uses the principle of electromagnetic property from which a braking action will occur (Tiwari et al., 2018). The modelling of the fabrication will be done in such a way that the brake liners would be connected to the electromagnet and to the iron plate simultaneously on a single basis. The disc plate is then inserted to the two plates. The model will also incorporate a silicon control rectifier in which the silicon control rectifier gate pulse would be shot and the resultant directed into an electromagnet for use in breaking the wheels. Silicon control rectifier offers a relatively large current to the electromagnetic braking system. The overall impact of this is a rebellion of the rotation or movement of the wheels (Kelly, Lesh & Baek, 2014).

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                                                              Figure 1: Diagram for Construction of the Model


                                                                        Figure 2: Diagram for the Fire Circuit

For better understanding of the working of the electromagnetic braking that has been modelled and in order to establish its efficiency, a number of statistical calculations will be made on the fabricated model. These statistics calculation will assist with the derivation of different quantative measurements that will be compared against the theoretical values to establish the error margin (Coolican, 2017). The findings of the quantative measurements would also be used in comparing the performance of the electromagnetic braking system with the conventional friction braking as well as dynamic or rheostat braking system. The calculations will include calculation of the;

Working Principle of Electromagnetic Braking System

Brake power


Braking force; a derivative from the Second Law of Motion of Newton


 Braking force determined using the equation


Clump force calculated as


In this aspect of the research, the efficiency of electromagnetic braking system and the rationale behind the phenomena is given a wide coverage. The data collection methods, limitation of the research as well as the research portfolio will adequately be addressed.

Going by the nature of this study, quantative data collection approach will be the strategy that will be adopted with the main tools being used including experiments and interviews. The quantative aspect of the study will involve the collection of a broad range of numerical data from reliable sources and using them for the purposes of analysis (Vaishnavi & Kuechler, 2015). The quantitative data collected would be of utmost importance when a comparison is being made on the different scenario of studies which are deemed important to this research for example the amount of energy produced by electromagnetic braking system.

By making such quantative comparisons, a ground for testing if the hypothesis is true or false is established which would then be used in making the concluding remarks. The interviews will be adopted in which the research will be subjecting various stakeholders to a series of oral questions aimed at digging deep into the topic at stake (Lewis, 2015).

Interviews: The interviews will be carried out among a few automobile companies and users of automobile products. The results will be helpful when it comes to establishing the accurate study outcomes. The interviews will provide grounds for laying firm claims as they would encompass collection of the information from the affected people directly in the study. Going by the convenience, the interview will be done in two varied categories: group interviews as well as individual interviews.

Modeling of Fabrication for Electromagnetic Braking System

The group interviews will bring on board a collection of the affected persons (users of automobiles or staff in an automobile industry) while the individual interviews will be held between the researcher and the interviewee only.  The group interviews will be aimed at gaining an understanding of the working of the various braking systems and the accrued benefits of the electromagnetic braking system from a collective or group view point. The interviewees will have an open forum to share widely on their experience with both the conventional braking systems and the electromagnetic system (Jackson, 2015). In so doing, the researcher will be able to gather a wide range of data that would not only be all inclusive but also highly refined. The data will be refined in the sense that the information shared by each of the members of the group will be subject to scrutiny and it will be possible to come up with a common benefit or advantage as well as challenge that is applies to all the members of the group.  

Individual interview on the other hand would be ideal when engaging the higher management or administration of an automobile industry. The manager will be interrogated regarding the reason for the adoption of the electromagnetic braking systems and the observed benefits so far with regard to embracing the technology (Punch & Oancea, 2014). Individual interview would be effective and convenient in case where only one of the categories of persons of interest is available for the interview. At the same time it would be effective in cases where there is need to maintain some levels of confidentiality of the information that has been shared as part of the policy of the organization for the purposes of, may be, maintaining its competitive strength and might.

Following the nature of the data that will be collected from the various research methods that will be adopted for this research as have been discussed, statistical data analysis methods will be the main methods used in the analysis of the findings of this study. Among the techniques that will be considered include mean, standard deviation, hypothesis testing and regression (Punch & Oancea, 2014). Hypothesis testing is a data analysis method that is used in finding out if the findings if the research is true or false with regard to the aforementioned hypothesis. This is attained by comparing the findings of the study and the research hypotheses as had been stated before. A statistical significance is assumed in case the results of the research are established to be occurring by a random chance.

Quantitative Analysis of Electromagnetic Braking System

Regression will be used in finding the extent or degrees of the relation between the dependant and independent variables used in the research. This method would be ideal in finding the relationship between the energy produced in the form of heat and the level of friction. When the value of the regression is found to be tending to one for example greater than 0.9, then there is a strong correlation between the two variables under investigation (Punch & Oancea, 2014). Conversely, a correlation coefficient that is less than 0.5 indicates minimal relationship between the variables under study.  Mean is used in the determination of the average of a given set of data. It is helpful in finding the nature or trend of the collected data and would be ideal when finding the level of satisfaction of the interviewees with electromagnetic braking system as well as some of the responses received from them. The formula for standard deviation is given as


The method comes in when there is need to determine the spread over a given mean for data which would in turn help in understanding the nature of such a spread thereby aiding in estimating the efficiency of electromagnetic braking system over the conventional braking systems (Punch & Oancea, 2014).


This is a presentation of a research proposal on the efficiency of electromagnetic braking systems in terms of the reduction on the production of energy in the form of heat. Quantative research method will be adopted in a bid to meet the aims and objectives of the research. Various methods of collection of data among them interviews and experiments will be at play, both of which will be collecting primary data. Data will be presented in various forms including tables, graphs and pie charts among others. Statistical data analysis methods including regression, standard deviation, mean and research hypothesis will be used in the analysis of the obtained results of the study. 


Coolican, H., 2017. Research methods and statistics in psychology. Psychology Press

Gofran, T., Neugebauer, P. and Schramm, D., 2017, October. Condition monitoring of an electro-magnetic brake using an artificial neural network. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (Vol. 257, No. 1, p. 012050). IOP Publishing

Jackson, S.L., 2015. Research methods and statistics: A critical thinking approach. Cengage Learning

Kelly, A.E., Lesh, R.A. and Baek, J.Y. eds., 2014. Handbook of design research methods in education: Innovations in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics learning and teaching. Routledge

Lewis, S., 2015. Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Health promotion practice, 16(4), pp.473-475

Luo, L., Zhai, Q., Li, W., Qian, C. and Liu, H., 2017. Research on an integrated electromagnetic auxiliary disc brake device for motor vehicle. IEEJ Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Engineering, 12(3), pp.434-439

Punch, K.F. and Oancea, A., 2014. Introduction to research methods in education. Sage

Ren, G., Ma, G. and Cong, N., 2015. Review of electrical energy storage system for vehicular applications. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 41, pp.225-236

Sharma, R.C., Dhingra, M. and Pathak, R.K., 2015. Braking systems in railway vehicles. International Journal of Engineering Research & Technology, 4(1), pp.206-211

Tandel, A., Jyani, S., Patel, H., Patel, P. and Bhavsar, M.T.M., 2018. Review Paper on Optimal Robust Control of Contactless Breaking System Using Eddy Current System

Tiwari, A., Sinha, J., Baghel, V., Sood, G. and Agrawal, A., 2018. Magnetic Analysis of an Electromagnetic Band Brake (EMBB). In Proceedings of the International Conference on Modern Research in Aerospace Engineering (pp. 255-265). Springer, Singapore

Vaishnavi, V.K. and Kuechler, W., 2015. Design science research methods and patterns: innovating information and communication technology. Crc Press

Yadav, Y.K., Shah, A.K., Yadav, J.K. and Patel, J.P., 2018. Electromagnetic Braking System