Best Practices In Preserving Confidentiality Of Patients During Bedside Handover

HLSU233 Nursing

Maintaining Confidentiality in Nursing Practice

The issue of bedside Handover has become a center of focus in health care in an attempt to increase efficiency in services and care provided to patients by nurses as well as improves communication between the nurses and the patients. Given the sensitivity of patient’s medical information as well as the increased rate at which information can be shared, maintaining confidentiality is essential in nursing practice (Angel & Frederiksen, 2015, p. 1530). In particular, nurses are tasked with two primary responsibilities including maintaining privacy or protecting the patients from undue intrusion as well as observing confidentiality or in other words the discrete management of patient’s information as shared with the nurses. However, maintaining confidentiality is a challenge for the nurses who are charged with the responsibility to safeguard and protect the information shared with them.

Save Time On Research and Writing
Hire a Pro to Write You a 100% Plagiarism-Free Paper.
Get My Paper

There are a number of factors contributing to increased difficulty in treating patient’s information with confidentiality including handovers as a result of shift handovers (Anhang & Elliott, 2018, p. 28). Ineffective handovers can result to a breach of confidentiality agreements between patients and nurses or their caregivers and research have provided that bringing the handovers to the bedside would provide an opportunity to the nurses to engage the patients in their care plan. This study is therefore focused on the development of a research paper that will contribute to improved understanding of the best practices in preserving confidentiality during Bedside Handovers. The findings of the research will be used to implement effective policies and guidelines towards patients care and effective communication between nurses and patients.

The overall aim of this research is to investigate the best practices in preserving the confidentiality of patients during Bedside handovers. However, to contribute to effective understanding and building knowledge on the best practices in preserving patient’s confidentiality during bedside handovers, the research will also focus on the following specific objectives.

  • To investigate the role played by nurses in preserving confidentiality during Bedside handovers
  • To examine the relevance of improved confidentiality and patients trust in enhancing quality patient’s care
  • To investigate the critical risk factors contributing to the breach of confidentiality and increasingly difficult to treat patients information confidentially
  • To explore the existing policies or strategies aimed at improving handoffs communication between patients and nurses
  • To investigate the relationship between effective handover communication and patients care and safety
  • To examine the hand over the process to the patient’s bedside and establish its relationship with patients confidentiality
  • To establish the patient and nurses preferences this may act as challenges to successful implementation of bedside handover to preserve confidentiality
  • To examine the nurses and patients perceptions of bedside handover and its impact of patients confidentiality

Patient’s confidentiality is very critical in the development of effective communication and building appropriate nurse to patient relationship. It is a sacred trust that patients give their healthcare providers to enhance the effectiveness of their treatment (Price, Elliott, Cleary, Zaslavsky & Hays, 2015, p. 55). Nurses play a very critical role in ensuring that organizations create an enabling environment that safeguards and protects the rights of their patients. With increasing dynamics in health care and especially through shift changes it is very possible and essays to breach the confidentiality of patients at the bedside (Stein, Day, Karia, Hutzler & Bosco, 2015, p. 385). Research has provided that nurses are increasingly facing the danger and challenge of protecting or respecting the confidentiality of their patients due to increased information sharing scenarios at work as well as in an environment where illness can be very sensitive.

Challenges in Maintaining Confidentiality during Handover

Research has provided that clinical handover has become a crucial aspect of safe patient care. Clinical handover is defined as the transfer of professional accountability and responsibility with regard to some or even all aspects of care for the patient to another person or even to another group. This transfer may be on a temporary basis or even on a permanent basis (Bruton, Norton, Smyth, Ward & Day, 2016, p. 390). Due to the process of nurse engagement with the patient or a group over a given time, they are able to establish relationships built on confidence and trust. The patient is able to feel free to share any information with the nurse after developing trust and confidence or through an agreement that this information will be protected and kept confidential in the period of treatment and thereafter. Starr, 2014, p. 21 argues that breaching the confidentiality confidence contributes to decreased trust and damages the relationship between the patients and the nurses and hence affecting the quality of healthcare administered to the patients. This process has become a challenge because in most case the nurses operate under shifts and patients care not be provided under shift terms in that no single nurse can be assigned to meet or attend to specific health demands of a particular patient.

Save Time On Research and Writing
Hire a Pro to Write You a 100% Plagiarism-Free Paper.
Get My Paper

Research has provided that nursing bedside handover in most hospitals has been identified as the best opportunity through which the nurses can involve the patients in their care plan and promote patient-centered care (Slade, Pun, Murray & Eggins, 2018, p. 330). However, there are arguments on the preference of nurses as well as the patients on bedside handover and therefore it is critical that one should consider the preferences of both nurses as well as the patients before or when implementing bedside handover practices as a way of maximizing the successful uptake of the policy. The reasons for considering their preferences is because the handovers at patient’s bedside may result in interruptions or interference with the healthcare report in case the patient request for clarification on the report (Manias, Geddes, Watson,  Jones & Della, 2016, p. 85). It is also critical to note that some patients may not be willing or may not wish to participate in the process due to confidentiality issues. Therefore, as a result of these concerns, research has provided that there is a need to provide an opportunity to patients to participate in the handover process as well as respect the preferences of those who do not wish to be part of the process.

Bedside Handover as an Opportunity to Enforce Confidentiality

Research provides that nurse shift changes are the most vulnerable times of patient care where ineffective handover can contribute to increased confidential gaps in patient care and contribute to a breach of inpatient safety. The shift may contribute to inaccurate medication prescriptions, inaccurate as well as incomplete medical evaluations and increased patients stay at the hospital. According to the National Patient Safety Goal (NPSG) on handoffs, health organizations are required to implement a standard approach that will enhance handoff communication (Khuan & Juni, 2017, p. 220). This will provide the patients with an opportunity to ask and respond to questions. It is therefore essential to understand that bringing the handover to the patient’s bedside provides the nurses with an opportunity to engage the patients in the care plan as well as discuss on the best care to improve patient safety and outcomes.

According to a study by Lianne et al., 2013 in their journal of Nursing Care Quality established that bedside handover contributes to relieved anxiety as well as improved patient satisfaction. Such findings enhance the understanding of how critical bedside handover has become and its contribution to the improvement of patient care quality. Developing best practices for effective handover support the transition of critical information and enhance continuity of quality health care (Wassenaar, Schouten & Schoonhoven, 2014, p. 270). This practice enhances the development of confidence and trust in the process and therefore improving confidentiality. It is important for the patient to understand what is going on during the treatment or when under the care of various nurses by clarifying the medical information from both nurses. It is also an opportunity for the nurses to assess the patient together which can improve the quality of care provided to the patient as well as reduce the patient safety errors (Whitty, Spinks, Bucknall, Tobiano, Chaboyer, 2017, p. 785). The increased adoption of the shift strategy has led to increased number of nurses or individuals caring for the patient and therefore this has increased the need for the development of a comprehensive protection and safety of clinical information in order to enhance patient confidentiality. The research, therefore, provides insights on how bedside handovers have become a pivot point in enhancing the quality of health care provided to patients.

To enhance the development of patient confidentiality with the bedside handovers which have become essential in most hospitals there is a need to develop the best practices which will help in preserving the confidentiality of patients during bedside handover. The growing need to protect and safeguard patients information calls for collective efforts by the hospital management as well as nurses to develop or adopt the best practices which will contribute to successful implementation of the bedside handover policy without necessarily interfering with patients confidentiality and trust on the medial, treatment and care process (Hada, Coyer, Jack, 2018, p. 21). This research will, therefore, provide an understanding of the best practices which can be integrated into the bedside handover policy in hospitals to improve patient confidentiality. The practices will be based on the nurse engagements with the patients by understanding the nurse’s preferences for the bedside handovers as well as the patient’s preferences. The practices will be focused on improving confidentiality as well as improving the quality of health care provided to the patients (Bradley & Mott, 2014, p. 1930). The findings of the research or the recommendations of the best practices will then be implemented by integrating it into the nursing practices and hence help in improving the quality of health care provided to the patients.

Objectives of the Research

The research will be built upon the use of qualitative techniques to provide an understanding of the best practices which can be used to preserve patient confidentiality during bedside handovers. The research will use literature material to understand the common challenges experienced during bedside handovers through a critical appraisal and through a focused group’s discussion provide a recommendation on the best practice which can implement to enhance the quality of health care provided to the patients while on the other hand protecting their privacy and enhancing confidentiality.

Research articles

Major Arguments

Relevance to the topic

Papoutsi, C., Reed, J.E., Marston, C., Lewis, R., Majeed, A. and Bell, D., 2015. Patient and public views about the security and privacy of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) in the UK: results from a mixed methods study. BMC medical informatics and decision making, 15(1), p.86.

The authors conducted this research to determine patients and public views on the security and privacy of Electronic Health Records that have been integrated for use in healthcare provision as well as in research and policy development in the UK.

The research was guided by the increase concerns on patient’s health information sharing from the patients as well as from the public.

The research involved a sample population of 5331 participants who were recruited from both primary and secondary care settings in UK.

 The authors included in their sample; patients, health professionals as well as researchers

In their findings the authors established that there were increased safety and privacy concerns over the use of the Electronic Health Records with 79% of the participants expressing lack of trust on the security and privacy issues of the EHRs.

The findings of this study or research are essential in helping us understand the common ground through which mistrust issues in healthcare systems occur.

To build or establish the best practices that will preserve patient confidentiality with the bedside handovers it is critical to address the risk of sharing information through the electronic health records.

 Bringing bedside handovers to the patients by integrating them in making decisions on how the information should be handled will contribute to effective policies on health information sharing

Anderson, J., Malone, L., Shanahan, K. and Manning, J., 2015. Nursing bedside clinical handover–an integrated review of issues and tools. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 24(5-6), pp.662-671.

 The Authors of this clinical nursing journal conducted a study to establish an understanding of bedside handover as well as the issues related to the successful implementation of the policy

Their research was built upon qualitative analysis of 45 literature review articles through which they were able to establish that clinical handover practices have been recognized as essential aspects of patient’s healthcare as it enhances the effective transfer of clinical care between healthcare nurses. The research also established that during the bedside handover, it is significant to maintain continuity of care and if it is poorly done it may have significant impact on the patient care.

However the authors were able to establish that confidentiality, inclusion of the patients in the nurse care plan as well as involvement of multidisciplinary team in the process were crucial issues which need to be addressed in implementing good clinical handover practices.

This article is relevant in development of best practices to preserve patient confidentiality during bedside handover. Identification of the primary issues help in making early preparations to avoid any risk associated with poor implementation.

The article focuses on developing more emphasis on confidentiality issues and hence supports  the relevance our research topic

Kerr, D., Lu, S. and McKinlay, L., 2014. Towards patient?centred care: perspectives of nurses and midwives regarding shift?to?shift bedside handover. International journal of nursing practice, 20(3), pp.250-257.

 The research was aimed at exploring the different perspectives held by nurses as well as midwives towards the policy of introducing shift to shift bedside handover.

 The authors were able to establish that this policy contributed to improved patient care and documentation as well as improved patient to nurse partnership.

However they were unable to address the issues of confidentiality and privacy and how they can be addressed to enhance the effectiveness of the shift to shift bedside handover

The study helps us in identifying a gap in research that seeks for more understanding on the issues of privacy and confidentiality.

It is important in helping us understand that for effectiveness in implementation of the nurse shift policies, it is critical to develop appropriate and best practices to preserve patient confidentiality.

 Bucknall, T., Tobiano., Sladdin, I., Whitty, J.A. and Chaboyer, W., 2017. Patient participation in nursing bedside handover: A systematic mixed-methods review. International journal of nursing studies.

This study has focused on development of an understanding on patient participation in nursing bedside handover and how it can be enacted.

 The authors provide both nurses perception of the bedside handover as well patient’s perceptions. They emphasis that nurses view the patients as a resource for information, an opportunity to enable patient participation as well as deal with confidentiality and sensitive information.

The study is critical in helping us understand some of the best practices which can be integrated to help improve the effectiveness of bedside handover such as training of nurses, making the handovers predictable for the patients as well as involving both the nurses as well as the patients in the change process as a way of preserving confidentiality.

Tobiano, G., Whitty, J.A., Bucknall, T. and Chaboyer, W., 2017. Nurses’ perceived barriers to bedside handover and their implication for clinical practice. Worldviews on Evidence?Based Nursing, 14(5), pp.343-349.

 The authors have provided an understanding of the nurse’s perceptions on the barriers to effective bedside handover and their implications for clinical practice.

The findings of their research had that these barriers contributed to decreased patient confidentiality and interfering with the care process

Lack of legal guidelines, effective education and training tools as well as lack of effective renewing of local context to ensure that organizational processes supported beside handover were found to be the most common barriers according to nurses perceptions of bedside handover

 The findings of this study are critical in helping us understand the common barriers to bedside handover and their impact on clinical practice as well as on patient confidentiality.

The barriers a solid ground to implement the best practices of preserving patient confidentiality during bedside handover.

Developing legal requirements to heighten nurses confidence nurses confidence when dealing with patient sensitive information as well as using active educational and training tools for nurses are some of the bests practices which can be developed out of this research

Spinks, J., Chaboyer, W., Bucknall, T., Tobiano, G. and Whitty, J.A., 2015. Patient and nurse preferences for nurse handover—using preferences to inform policy: a discrete choice experiment protocol. BMJ open, 5(11), p.e008941.

 The research provides an understanding of the patient and nurses preferences for handover.

They argue that nursing bedside handover has become an essential opportunity in hospitals to involve patients and promote patient centered care

However, effective and successful policy on bedside handover will involve the efforts to take into consideration the preferences of on bedside handover

 The findings of this research are critical in helping us understand how we can come up with the best practices to improve patient confidentiality during bedside handover.

To develop the best practices and policies

Beltran-Aroca, C.M., Girela-Lopez, E., Collazo-Chao, E., Montero-Pérez-Barquero, M. and Muñoz-Villanueva, M.C., 2016. Confidentiality breaches in clinical practice: what happens in hospitals?. BMC medical ethics, 17(1), p.52.

The authors of this research works established the common confidentiality breaches in clinical practice. Their findings had that healthcare professionals are involved in confidentiality breaches.

The research provides that respect for patient’s confidentiality is very critical in safeguarding the safety and privacy of patients as well as enhance patient and nurse relationships.

The study will therefore be critical in helping us understand the common practices through which health practitioners engage in confidentiality breaches

 This will help us in developing the best practices to preserve patient confidentiality during bedside handover

Miller, K., Hamza, A., Metersky, K. and Gaffney, D.M., 2018. Nursing transfer of accountability at the bedside: partnering with patients to pilot a new initiative in Ontario community hospitals. Patient Experience Journal, 5(1), pp.90-96.

 The authors of this research have provided an understanding of nursing practice of transfer of accountability at the bedside.

The findings had that the transfer of accountability between nurses has increased patient safety as well as increased nurse’s accountability on patients care practices.

However the transfer of accountability practice by nurses was faced with increased challenges of lack of privacy as well as the potential breaches of confidentiality

The study will be critical in helping us develop effective strategies which will enhance the transfer of accountability from one nurse to another and contribute to increased patient confidentiality during bedside handover.

The challenges identified in effective and successful implementation of transfer of accountability policy or practice will be used to build upon the best practices for preserving patient confidentiality.

Mannix, T., Parry, Y. and Roderick, A., 2017. Improving clinical handover in a paediatric ward: implications for nursing management. Journal of nursing management, 25(3), pp.215-222.

In their journal of nursing management, the authors focused on describing how nursing staff improved the conduct of clinical handover in a pediatric ward through the use of development practice approach.

 The approach used was based on various practices such as Identity, situation, background, assessment and recommendations or (ISBAR)

 The findings of their research had that there was a strong relationship between the participants in the development practice and their perspectives on bedside handover.

The practice development approach was found to be essential in development of education which will then be used to guide clinical performance as well as patient handover

The findings of this study are critical in helping us develop education tools as some of the best practices which can be used to enhance and preserve patient confidentiality during bedside handovers.

 The increased loss of patient confidentiality has been a result of lack of knowledge on how the process should be done while taking into consideration the privacy and confidentiality of patients sensitive information

Castro, E.M., Van Regenmortel, T., Vanhaecht, K., Sermeus, W. and Van Hecke, A., 2016. Patient empowerment, patient participation and patient-centeredness in hospital care: a concept analysis based on a literature review. Patient education and counseling, 99(12), pp.1923-1939.

 The authors of have provided an understanding of how patient empowerment, patient centeredness and patient participation are essential in improving quality of healthcare provided to the patients.

However,  they emphasis that these concepts are critical in developing a more participatory healthcare but is presented with lack of effective communication channels  between nurses and the patients during the handover

 There is a need therefore to understand that patient empowerment is  a broader concept and will require more efforts other than participation and patient centeredness

This study is critical in helping us develop best practices which will not only engage the patient sin the health care plans but also bring a more understanding between the patients and the nurses and contribute to increased confidence, trust during the bedside handover

These practices will then be able to preserve patient confidentiality during bedside handover as well as improve the quality of care and patient safety.

The critical appraisal of the above literature material presents a critical argument on the importance or how essential bedside handover has become in improving the quality of health care provided to patients as well as improving patient and nurse relationship during the care while on the other hand improving patient engagement and participation in the nurses healthcare plan (Spooner, Aitken, Corley, Fraser & Chaboyer, 2016, p. 168). It has also contributed significantly towards the reduction of the patient’s length of stay at the clinical facilities. Despite the positive contribution of the bedside handover policies in most hospitals, the issues of patient safety and confidentiality have remained to be a challenge to nurses and a barrier to successful implementation of the policies to better healthcare services. Tan, 2015, p. 188 argues that the process of transfer of accountability from one nurse to the other has brought about increased privacy and confidentiality issues among patients.

The sensitivity of patient information calls upon the healthcare practitioners to conduct their healthcare practice in strict adherence to ethical and legal requirements to protect patient’s privacy and confidentiality agreements (Bains et al., 2018, p. 29). Breaches of patients confidentiality have adverse impacts on patients care and may as well affect have negative legal implications to the nurses engaged in the breach. To improve the efficiency of the bedside handover policies and process there is, therefore, a need to develop or implement the best practices which will enhance and preserve patient confidentiality during bedside handovers (Brownjohn et al. 2016, p. 310). To develop these practices it is essential also to understand nurses as well as patients preferences and perceptions on the bedside handover. The bedside handover policies and processes have been considered critical in the development of a patient-centered care and therefore, I believe for efficiency in the policies there is a need to rethink on what is patient-centered care (Vermeir et al., 2016, p. 18). I believe the failure to succeed in the implementation of the process has been a result of having a shallow mindset of what patient-centered care is and therefore most of the nurses think involving the patients or developing a practice where the patients will participate in the care process is enough. Despite these efforts, I believe it is critical for the healthcare practitioners to provide an opportunity to the patients to ask questions on the care process and how the bedside handover will impact their healthcare before implementing the process. Patients are different in a clinical set up where some would have no problem when the policies are implemented without their consent but a good number will have a problem with that (Sand?Jecklin & Sherman, 2014, 2860). Therefore, there is a need to consult the patients and obtain their consent on whether they would love to be engaged or participate in the process.

The Significance of Confidentiality in Patient Care

It is essential also to consider the patients and nurses preferences during the bedside handover. Consideration of the patients and nurses preferences will help in establishing health care needs, the privacy and confidentiality need assessment (Smeulers et al. 2016, p. 200). As a result, the nurses will be able to identify how they can meet their medical care objectives while on the other hand respecting the patient confidentiality agreement. On the other side, patient’s preferences will help the nurse to understand the privacy needs of the patient as well as provide an opportunity where the patient’s demands will not interfere with the healthcare plans. The decisions on engagement and participation will, therefore, be made through discussion and consultations to ensure that no patient is forced to participate in the bedside handover process without their consent (Ghosh, Curl, Goodwin, Morrell & Guidroz, 2018, p. 140). If any patients are not comfortable with the process the hospital management can develop other strategies such as taking the patients to private wings where they are assigned a specific nurse to take care of them during their hospital stay.

Patient confidentiality has also been affected since the patients may express fear over the quality of care provided in terms of medical prescriptions provided and interpretation of the medical information on the records. If the records were taken by a different nurse, there is a risk or a possibility that the information will not be effective or appropriately be interpreted by the second nurse. To facilitate effective transfer of accountability and protect the sensitive patient information it is critical that the nurses will discuss the information recorded with the patient and develop a common understanding of what has been happening before the handover as well as agreeing to the confidentiality legal implications. This will build confidence and trust during the bedside handover as the patients are assured of the nurse’s best interest to protect their privacy and protect their sensitive medical information.

Reducing the number of nurses to a minimum of two would be an appropriate strategy to preserve patient confidentiality. The nurse shifts should be aimed at ensuring that only two nurses attend to a specific patient at a given time and will be responsible for their medical information. Having two nurses involved during the bedside handover will be more effective in enhancing confidentiality as compared to having different nurses in every shift. The patients will become more confident with the nurses knowing that only two people will be responsible for their care so that in case of any breach of confidentiality appropriate measures can be taken against the nurses. It will also improve the quality of the healthcare provided since the nurses will be able to discuss the patients care progress and make effective decisions as compared to having one nurse in charge who may not be 100 % accurate on the information recorded about the patient’s care and progress.

The Benefits of Bedside Handover to Patients

The development of a two-nurse care policy during bedside handover will be critical in the improvement of the quality of health care provided to the patients. It is easy to develop trust and confidence with a known number and identity of the nurses in charge of a patient as compared to a situation where different nurses are attending to a patient (Manias, Geddes, Watson, Jones & Della, 2015, p. 205). It is easy to develop patient confidentiality with a known and a minimum number of nurses as compared to a definite number. The implication of this practice is that hospitals will be required to develop a policy in which two nurses will be assigned to a particular patient in case of shifts of bedside handover which have become critical in healthcare facilities. The nurses will be required to engage the patients in their healthcare plan and discuss the progress with the patients while taking records. Interpretation of the patient’s data will be done through discussion by the two nurses but will not be built upon the observation of a particular nurse (Forbat & Barclay, 2018, p. 28). This will contribute to the increased or improved quality of the healthcare, medical results and outcomes as well as improve patient and nurse relationship during the bedside handover. Legal enforcement is also critical at this stage to ensure that the nurses will comply with the ethical requirements in their practice and will seek to honor the confidentiality agreement with the patients.

However, to achieve a successful implementation of this practice, the hospital’s management will have to deal with the limitation of the increased number of patients and the limited number of healthcare practitioners in every health facility (Papouts et al., 2015, p. 86). Most of the healthcare facilities or hospitals have a record of a high number of patients in their wards with limited nursing staff to attend to them and therefore results to the use of shifts where a single nurse will be in charge of several patients at a given time. This has affected the quality of care provided to the patient as well as increased breach of patient confidentiality. To develop the two-nurse bedside handover policy it is critical that the management of the hospitals will also strive to have an adequate number of healthcare practitioners to attend to meet the healthcare demands of the patients.

List of References

Anderson, J., Malone, L., Shanahan, K. and Manning, J., 2015. Nursing bedside clinical handover–an integrated review of issues and tools. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 24(5-6), pp.662-671.

Nurse Preferences in Bedside Handover

Angel, S. and Frederiksen, K.N., 2015. Challenges in achieving patient participation: a review of how patient participation is addressed in empirical studies. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 52(9), pp.1525-1538.

Anhang Price, R. and Elliott, M.N., 2018. Measuring Patient-Centeredness of Care for Seriously Ill Individuals: Challenges and Opportunities for Accountability Initiatives. Journal of palliative medicine, 21(S2), pp.S-28.

Bains, V.K., Mackay, M., Kaan, A., Lloyd, E., LeSage, M., Third, K., McNamee, K., Nordby, D. and Bello, S., 2018. Bedside shift report: Benefits, barriers, and strategies for adopting a patientcentred approach to nurse handover. Canadian Journal of Critical Care Nursing, 29(2).

Beltran-Aroca, C.M., Girela-Lopez, E., Collazo-Chao, E., Montero-Pérez-Barquero, M. and Muñoz-Villanueva, M.C., 2016. Confidentiality breaches in clinical practice: what happens in hospitals?. BMC medical ethics, 17(1), p.52.

Bradley, S. and Mott, S., 2014. Adopting a patient?centred approach: an investigation into the introduction of bedside handover to three rural hospitals. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 23(13-14), pp.1927-1936.

Brownjohn, K., Gibson, J.A., Nordby, D., Charlton, S.G., Macleod, M., McCarthy, H., Roxas, N., Verzosa, A. and Mackay, M., 2016. Implementation of Bedside Shift Report in a Cardiac Intensive Care Unit: Enhancing Patient and Family Centered Care in Nursing Clinical Handovers. Canadian Journal of Cardiology, 32(10), pp.S310-S311.

Bruton, J., Norton, C., Smyth, N., Ward, H. and Day, S., 2016. Nurse handover: patient and staff experiences. British journal of nursing, 25(7), pp.386-393.

Castro, E.M., Van Regenmortel, T., Vanhaecht, K., Sermeus, W. and Van Hecke, A., 2016. Patient empowerment, patient participation and patient-centeredness in hospital care: a concept analysis based on a literature review. Patient education and counseling, 99(12), pp.1923-1939.

Forbat, L. and Barclay, S., 2018. Reducing healthcare conflict: outcomes from using the conflict management framework. Archives of disease in childhood, pp.archdischild-2018.pp. 26-30.

Ghosh, K., Curl, E., Goodwin, M., Morrell, P. and Guidroz, P., 2018. An Exploratory Study on how to Improve Bedside Change-of-Shift Process: Evidence from One Hospital Using Technology to Support Verbal Reporting.pp. 138-145.

Hada, A., Coyer, F. and Jack, L., 2018. Nursing bedside clinical handover: a pilot study testing a ward-based education intervention to improve patient outcomes. Journal of the Australasian Rehabilitation Nurses’ Association (JARNA), 21(1).

Kerr, D., Lu, S. and McKinlay, L., 2014. Towards patient?centred care: perspectives of nurses and midwives regarding shift?to?shift bedside handover. International journal of nursing practice, 20(3), pp.250-257.

Khuan, L. and Juni, M.H., 2017. Nurses’ Opinions of Patient Involvement in Relation to Patient-centered Care During Bedside Handovers. Asian nursing research, 11(3), pp.216-222.

The Need for Best Practices to Preserve Patient Confidentiality during Bedside Handover

Manias, E., Geddes, F., Watson, B., Jones, D. and Della, P., 2015. Communication failures during clinical handovers lead to a poor patient outcome: Lessons from a case report. SAGE Open Medical Case Reports, 3, p.2050313X15584859.

Manias, E., Geddes, F., Watson, B., Jones, D. and Della, P., 2016. Perspectives of clinical handover processes: a multi?site survey across different health professionals. Journal of clinical nursing, 25(1-2), pp.80-91.

Mannix, T., Parry, Y. and Roderick, A., 2017. Improving clinical handover in a paediatric ward: implications for nursing management. Journal of nursing management, 25(3), pp.215-222.

 Miller, K., Hamza, A., Metersky, K. and Gaffney, D.M., 2018. Nursing transfer of accountability at the bedside: partnering with patients to pilot a new initiative in Ontario community hospitals. Patient Experience Journal, 5(1), pp.90-96.

Papoutsi, C., Reed, J.E., Marston, C., Lewis, R., Majeed, A. and Bell, D., 2015. Patient and public views about the security and privacy of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) in the UK: results from a mixed methods study. BMC medical informatics and decision making, 15(1), p.86.

Price, R.A., Elliott, M.N., Cleary, P.D., Zaslavsky, A.M. and Hays, R.D., 2015. Should health care providers be accountable for patients’ care experiences?. Journal of general internal medicine, 30(2), pp.253-256.

Sand?Jecklin, K. and Sherman, J., 2014. A quantitative assessment of patient and nurse outcomes of bedside nursing report implementation. Journal of clinical nursing, 23(19-20), pp.2854-2863.

Slade, D., Pun, J., Murray, K.A. and Eggins, S., 2018. Benefits of health care communication training for nurses conducting bedside handovers: An Australian hospital case study. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 49(7), pp.329-336.

Smeulers, M., Dolman, C.D., Atema, D., van Dieren, S., Maaskant, J.M. and Vermeulen, H., 2016. Safe and effective nursing shift handover with NURSEPASS: An interrupted time series. Applied Nursing Research, 32, pp.199-205.

Spinks, J., Chaboyer, W., Bucknall, T., Tobiano, G. and Whitty, J.A., 2015. Patient and nurse preferences for nurse handover—using preferences to inform policy: a discrete choice experiment protocol. BMJ open, 5(11), p.e008941.

Spooner, A.J., Aitken, L.M., Corley, A., Fraser, J.F. and Chaboyer, W., 2016. Nursing team leader handover in the intensive care unit contains diverse and inconsistent content: an observational study. International journal of nursing studies, 61, pp.165-172.

Starr, L., 2014. Bedside handovers and confidentiality-can they co-exist?. Australian Nursing and Midwifery Journal, 22(1), p.21.

Stein, S.M., Day, M., Karia, R., Hutzler, L. and Bosco III, J.A., 2015. Patients’ perceptions of care are associated with quality of hospital care: a survey of 4605 hospitals. American Journal of Medical Quality, 30(4), pp.382-388.

Tan, A.K., 2015. Emphasizing caring components in nurse-patient-nurse bedside reporting. International Journal, 8(1), p.188.

Tobiano, G., Bucknall, T., Sladdin, I., Whitty, J.A. and Chaboyer, W., 2017. Patient participation in nursing bedside handover: A systematic mixed-methods review. International journal of nursing studies.

Vermeir, P., Jolie, C., Leune, T., Vandijck, D., Schillemans, S., Vogelaers, D., De Smet, G. and Vermassen, F., 2016. The Impact of Nurse-to-Nurse Bedside Communication on Patient Satisfaction and Resources Use.pp.18.

Wassenaar, A., Schouten, J. and Schoonhoven, L., 2014. Factors promoting intensive care patients’ perception of feeling safe: A systematic review. International journal of nursing studies, 51(2), pp.261-273.

Whitty, J.A., Spinks, J., Bucknall, T., Tobiano, G. and Chaboyer, W., 2017. Patient and nurse preferences for implementation of bedside handover: do they agree? Findings from a discrete choice experiment. Health expectations, 20(4), pp.742-750.