UTSC Journal of Plant Stress
BIO A02 WINTER – 2022; 1(1): 1-6
Insert Principal Author’s Name/Student Number
Paper title (The title should be descriptive, specific, and
concise-Do not use “Formal Lab Report” in the title. All
words except the first word should be in lower case-except
for proper nouns)
Author’s Name (Your name)1
of Biological Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, Toronto, Canada
UTSC BIOA02 Lab PRAXX
Abstract: An abstract is a one-paragraph summary of your report. It should include (in this order) the background of the
study (1-3 sentences), mentioning of the study system/species/object (1 sentence), the question investigated (1 sentence), the
general methods used (1 sentence), the principle results (1 sentence) and the conclusions/significance (1 sentence). The reader
should be able to determine the major points of your report without having to read further. The language should be concise, no
citations or references and no statistical parameters should be included in the abstract. The abstract is located at the beginning of
your report, however it is usually written once you have finished writing your paper.
Keywords: Include at least 3 keywords or phrases (specific to your paper) in alphabetical order, which must be separated by
commas to differentiate them
Introduction [Page limit-1 page]
This template is set up to provide you with an example of the format expected for your Formal Lab Report (FLR). The
template provides you with most of the specifications needed for preparing your FLR. You can save this file as a separate
document and type your report directly into the template. This paper should be written in the present tense, with the exception
of the Materials and Methods section which should be written in the past tense.
The introduction provides a context for the research. This section should include the following: 1) Description of the current
state of knowledge or understanding at the beginning of your investigation (i.e., background information synthesized from the
existing literature – think about what information readers would need to know to be able to understand your lab report; 2)
Background information about study species used and why it was used for this study; 3) The purpose of the experiment and/or
the question being asked; 4) Hypothesis/hypotheses written as statements; 5) Brief description of the approach being used to test
your hypothesis/hypotheses statement; 6) Predictions written as explanatory statements (“If…then”) that focus only on
experimental treatment groups (not controls) and are backed up with relevant references.
To avoid and academic integrity violation, it is imperative that you include properly formatted in-text citations to support all
non-original ideas within your introduction. Failure to include in-text citations will result in an academic offence.
Materials and Methods [Page limit – 1/2 – 1 page]
The purpose of this section is to describe the experimental procedures, including any controls. This section should be written
in the past tense (and first-person if applicable); the remainder of the paper should be written in the present tense. The
description should be complete enough to allow someone to repeat your work. The Methods section should describe the
chronological process that was used to complete the research, how all of the data was collected, and a short description of the
statistical analyses you completed. It should be written in complete sentences, not bulleted lists.
Be certain to include any software used to produce graphs and analyze data (e.g., Excel, GraphPad).
Results [Page limit – 1 ½ – 2 pages (written ½ page, table and figures 1 -1 ½ pages)]
The results section describes, but DOES NOT interpret your experiment. You should present your tables and figures in this
section and refer to them. The ‘Results’ section should always begin with text and not a table or figure. You should describe
your findings (be sure to mention key trends) to the reader in words and full sentences. You will also include any qualitative
observations you made from the image shown by your TA here. In addition, you should refer the reader to your table(s) and
figure(s) appropriately in your results description (e.g., see Table 1) so that you can concisely present your results in several
paragraphs. If you do not refer to the appropriate table and figure in your results section, marks will be deducted.
For this report, your table and figure should be embedded within your results section. Be certain that there is not a page
break in the middle of your table or figure and do not wrap text around the outside of the table or figure. The table caption
should appear above the table, whereas the figure caption should appear below the figure. Insert your table and figure after they
are referred to in the text. You may choose to show all results in a single table and a single figure, or instead divide the
information in two tables and two figures.
Your table must include the following information summarizing each of your statistical tests: sample size (n), critical t-value,
calculated t-value, degrees of freedom (df), actual p-value (p>0.05, p0.05 or p=0.05 or p
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