Writing an APA Style Results Section for an Independent Samples t Test
For the remainder of the semester (except for the final two Application Essays), we will be developing
your ability to explain the results of statistical tests and your skills for writing statistical results in APA
It is not uncommon for students to spend much time and energy completing statistical calculations
correctly only to be left with the ‘now what? ’feeling when they are finished with a problem. For example,
after spending two hours to complete an analysis, the resulting .85 tends to leave exhausted students
wondering, “What does that MEAN?”
Learning to accurately explain the results of statistical tests in words that reference the variables under
examination is a very important skill that needs its own practice. It is not enough to know how to compute
a calculation if you have no idea what that calculation means as it is applied to the research question.
Thus, the next seven Application Essays will require you to write explanations of the computations you
learn in each chapter. All of these essays are to be written in APA style. Professionals in this field use
APA style to make communication with each other easier and more efficient. APA style provides a shared
foundation for communication that other professionals in the field understand and expect in your writing.
Thus, understanding how to write in APA style will make their communications (i.e., research articles)
easier to read and will allow you to communicate with others more accurately and precisely. (Remember,
in addition to your APA style manuals, you should also refer to your Gravetter, Wallnau, Forzano, and
Witnauer and Green & Salkind textbooks for additional examples and explanations of APA style. You
will find valuable information easily accessible in the Index of the Green & Salkind textbook under “APA
I have selected a problem with correct answers provided in the back of the text so that you can check your
work and revise it if needed. This way you can focus on the explanation of the results in this assignment
and not on the computation itself. Below I provide an outline of the information you must include in your
explanation in the order it should appear.
For problem 13 on pages 356-357 in your GWFW text, write a Results section in APA style for
the independent samples t test you calculated (e.g., double spaced, labeled with the word
‘Results’ centered at the top of the page, 1-inch margins, etc.). When writing your Results
sections, you may find the following pages helpful: GWFW pages 334 – 338 and 341 – 344;
Green & Salkind pages 128-129; APA style manual: pages 32-35, 41-67, and 181-191. The APA
style Results section should include
a. a brief statement explaining the research by specifically mentioning the variable
examined and describing the two samples compared,
b. a statement of the statistical test used,
c. the probability of a Type I error,
d. the sample size, mean and standard deviation for each sample,
e. a conclusion about the comparison in words supported by the statistical results of the test
in parentheses (i.e., the numbers formatted in APA style),
an explanation of the effect size.
When completed, be sure to keep a revised copy of this assignment for reference in your research
methods course. You will be writing an entire manuscript in APA style for that course. I cannot stress
enough how useful it will be for you to have examples of APA style results sections then (and in graduate
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Test the one-tailed hypothesis that an unexpected positive outcome increased
the amount of money that participants were willing to gamble. Use a
13. Binge-watching a television show might not be the best way to enjoy a
television series (Horvath, Horton, Lodge, & Hattie, 2017). Participants in an
experiment watched an entire television series in the laboratory during either
daily one-hour sessions or a single binge session. Participants were asked to
rate their enjoyment of the television series on a scale of 0–100. Data like
those observed by the authors are listed below.
a. Test the hypothesis that binge-watching the television series resulted in
less enjoyment of the show. Use a
b. Compute Cohen’s d to measure the size of the effect.
c. Write the results as they would appear in a scientific journal article.
14. What causes us to overeat? One surprising factor might be the material of the
plate on which our food is served. Williamson, Block, and Keller (2016) gave
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