Collaboration Among Project Stakeholders Using BIM

Enhancing collaboration among project stakeholders using BIM

The collaboration between the stakeholders implies that it is a process which is performed in the organizations and in businesses to benefit the organization or the business. When the collaboration process among the stakeholders is performed well, then the organization gets the benefit. Otherwise, it may have some negative effects also. Here the project stakeholder means is another group or it can be an organization which can affect or can be affected by activity, decision and the outcome of the project. In many cases the BIM is not used because it has some major flaws in it. There is a huge doubt about the outcome of the BIM planning. The BIM is not a good choice for a small project, high cost of BIM implementation and lack of demand and lack of BIM expertise is the main reason behind the people are not considering the BIM. There are also various problems related to the stakeholder collaboration. The main problems are that the stakeholder collaboration process is very much time to consume and also it is very much expensive (Jung et al. 2015). The stakeholder collaboration can cause a culture clash also.

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The building information modelling has a vast impact on the building project for which the BIM is adopted. Means the stakeholders of the building project will also be impacted by the BIM (Abanda and Byers 2016). In this part of the essay how the BIM can enhance the collaboration among the stakeholders of the project will be discussed. In this case, two types of things can happen. The first is, collaboration can be done previously in the process of the design, and a new relationship can be stronger by the implementation of the BIM. Secondly, the database which is extracted from the building information modelling can be used to integrate the non-expert and expert knowledge (Binder 2016). For the first case, the BIM helps to enhance the collaboration between the stakeholders by encouraging the construction process and by encouraging the integrated design. In this case, an early collaboration among the design team members has been done, and these design team members are the active stakeholders in a building project. The above mentioned progress can also be termed as Integrated Project Delivery (El Asmar, Hanna and Loh 2013). Using the tools of the BIM and the integrated project delivery it actually helps to integrate the building system, participants and the practices of the business in a specific type of process which can benefit the building project by gathering knowledge from everyone involved in the project (Bryde, Broquetas and Volm 2013).

Roles and Responsibilities of BIM Managers

Comparison of Different Sources:

  • In the “BIM Impacts on Stakeholder Collaboration & Workflows” it is mentioned that how the sector of the AEC the key stakeholders involved in a project can directly benefit from the implementation of the building information modelling. The BIM can improve the collaboration among the stakeholders by adding more value to the project. According to the author it can enhance contractual aspects, promote training, enhance technology and can develop standards and protocols which can add value to the project.
  • In “A study of BIM collaboration requirements and available features in existing model collaboration systems” (Shafiq, Matthews and Lockley 2013) the author stated that collaboration could also help to increase the capacity of the organization which actually enhance the project management performance during the construction and the design process. All the AEC stakeholders have some individual demands and workflow which makes different BIM value for different stakeholders. The value of the BIM can be changed according to the building phase of the project or the in the basis of stakeholder specialization.
  • In “Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Design in Civil and Environmental Engineering (pp. 32-40)” the authors Ratajczak et al. stated the limits of BIM such as less client demands, high costs and the shortage of expertise.
  • In the article “International Journal of Construction Education and Research, 11(2), pp.97-120” the authors Zhao et al. found that gathering the knowledge about the BIM is not the final goal, also collaboration is needed for solving the practical construction with BIM.
  • In the article of “Collaboration in building information modelling: an application of gaming theory” the author Olatunji, Sher and Gu discussed the three models of the Game Theory which can be used in the BIM environment for copying certain implications.
  • In the “Automation in Construction” article the authors (Karan and Irizarry 2015) critically describes the BIM issues which are the interoperability issue between the software which can hamper the normal output value of the BIM, and different stakeholders of the project agree on this issue. In the “The Lancet Neurology” the authors have analysed that the Western Europe stakeholders are having a different type of business perception value of the BIM (Wu et al. 2016). In this case, the BIM gives benefits to the contractors. Actually, the BIM is benefitting the stakeholders in a different way.
  • In “Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 24(6), pp.1350-1371” article the author Teo Ai Lin et al. has founded that how the BIM model can increase safety and productivity score in the construction project.
  • The author Azhar in his article “Leadership and management in engineering, 11(3), pp.241-252” has described that the BIM is capable to simulate the total construction project in a virtual environment which will give help to accurately design the building.
  • In “International Council for Research and Innovation in Building and Construction (CIB) W078 Conference” article the authors Mondrup, Karlshøj and Vestergaard has done a qualitative survey of employees belongs to the industry and mapped available BIM standards.
  • In the “Facilities” journal paper the author has critically analysed that the BIM can benefit the stakeholders by saving the total cost of the project and by efficiently delivering the high quality finished products. Also, it can simplify the communication of the project progress and the project plans, it can reduce the total timespan of the project, can improve the communication with other important parties involved in the business, can predict better cost control technique and can detect potentials clashes to avoid the critical errors before a construction can starts.


According to me, all the above mentioned technique can help to increase the profit margin of a project which is indirectly increasing the value of the stakeholders. From the analysis, I think the increased value of the stakeholder automatically creates better collaboration among them. The BIM is able to improve the opportunities in the cases of sustainability, affordability and in the cases of stakeholder relationship. For me, the main aim of the BIM is to ensure the success in the above mentioned articles. From my point of view to ensure the success the stakeholders must consider the BIM as an integral part of the networking, communication and the design of the project. For the building centric viewpoint, I think it may see a minimum process of documentation, but it can be considered as the conventional construction practices.  I think it is not necessary that the BIM will only restrict in the documentation or the design process. The BIM can help to collaborate the stakeholders among them by elaborating on the performance of the energy and the compliance of the code. Also for me, beside this, the BIM is also able to deliver the information which is useful for managing the database of the various projects and also useful for the whole life-cycle of a project within a specified urban system or environment. For example, it can be stated that a house itself may not be a complex one but the network of the house which is connected to an urban environment can be an entirely different infrastructure. According to me, all the stakeholders who are involved with the building life cycle need to evaluate the information about the building from her or from his point of view. It means all of the stakeholders provides their own interface requirement which may be different from the requirements of the other stakeholders. It is considered as the most challenging problem when the information about the building is shared because the number of existing interfaces is few. Also, I think implementing the BIM will solve this problem which will help to make better collaboration with the stakeholders.

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In the aspect of the project manager a BIM manager is an engineer from civil engineering background. The main responsibility of a BIM manager is to implement the BIM technology properly. The roles and responsibility of a BIM manager varies on the client, design and contractor. The BIM manager is able to manage the 3d MEP coordination technique which can be used for different type of projects. The BIM manger also need to expertise in AutoCAD architecture, Civil 3D and in AutoCAD MEP. Beside this skills the BIM manager also needs to expertise in communicational skills and strong knowledge of computer. The BIM manager is also considered as an information manager who has the responsibility of management of the CDE. The BIM manager contributes in the information management sector by establishing models and standards.

Key risks and challenges for adopting BIM on projects

In the case of the building information modelling, the BIM manager has a huge role in the case of a project. The job role of the building information modelling manager explains that the manager is a big contributor to the management information system (Laudon and Laudon 2016). The manager contributes to the management information system by preparing the standards for the building model and by executing the plans perfectly. In many cases, the manager of the building information modelling involves with the driving forth changes to work in digital methods. The BIM manager does not perform only a set of predetermined task related to a project. The role of the BIM manager can vary according to a different type of projects, to fulfil the evolving demands of a digital project (Porwal and Hewage 2013).

Comparison of different sources:

  • In the journal “Building information modelling: BIM in current and future practice” the author said that the job profile of the BIM manager is not limited under some specific type of task (Gu, Singh and London 2015). The author stated that different types of roles and responsibilities are the design, planning, delivery and performing the desired operation on the built asset. From the word “manager” it is expected that the role of the BIM manager must be related to the management, but actually, in this scenario, it is not the case. The article also describes that the role of the BIM manager includes bringing changes in the management, using the new technologies as most as possible, changing the policies and the processes to optimize the delivery output and implementing the collaborative construction.
  • According to the author Smith in his “Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences” article described that to perform efficiently the BIM manager must be able to configure and maintain all the BIM implementation and must be able to solve the issues of BIM manager. The article is also elaborated that the BIM manager must have an interest in these types of new technological domains. Without any interest or enthusiasm, BIM manager will fail to respond in the business needs of that particular technology. According to the author the BIM manager also needs to play some extra activities to efficiently in a working environment.
  • In the article “Computers in Industry” the author has described that many of the BIM managers need to analyse the developing history of the processes and policies to implement the changes besides with wider business acumen (Merschbrock and Munkvold 2015). These skill sets of the BIM manager can help to understand how this building information modelling can be implemented to achieve the best output efficiency to fulfil the objectives of the business. On the other side, the BIM managers can also focus on the information management domain which will help the businesses to manage the retrieved data from a previous project efficiently. The author has stated that the BIM manager will always aware about new technologies in the context of Revit Architecture and the AutoCAD system. Also, in this article, the author described an effective BIM manager should be able to identify issues in the system, concern about leadership team of the organization and take necessary steps to ensure the best output from the system. Also, the BIM manager needs to eliminate the pseudo BIM which can greatly reduce the hyperbole and the noise in the organization.
  • The article, “Procedia Engineering” describes the role of a BIM manager is required to be nebulous (Pruvost and Scherer 2017). In this case, the authors Pruvost and Scherer elaborated that the response of the BIM manager needs to be flexible because as more stakeholders will involve with the workflow of the BIM, the BIM manager needs to adjust with all of the stakeholders for which the flexibility is an essential part. The roles of a perfect BIM manager includes guiding the organization from traditional to new technological aspects which are needed for fast and perfect project delivery. In the management of the BIM manager they should be able to adapt the future technologies and which can fulfil the organizational goals.


According to me, the above discussed articles have drawn the conclusion about the manager importance in the case of the BIM. In this articles, the authors have described why the managers are the most important part of the BIM methodologies. Also, from analysing the various parameters of the articles, I think the BIM managers are the essential part of the BIM system. The BIM integrates a tool and to handle the tool the manager needs to perform actively. From my personal experience, I have seen that in present situation every construction projects are going towards the digital implementation and for this reason, I think the manager must gather a vast amount of knowledge about new technologies which needs to be implemented in the new building projects.

The BIM may have seen a high growth in the field of technical advancements but it failed in the part of fully adoption by the major stakeholders of the industry. Due to that the industry is not getting the full-fledged benefit of the BIM. The main reason behind the industry is not applying the BIM technology is the risks and challenges related with it. The main challenges of the BIM in the industry of construction is that how the BIM will be integrated in the business process. A crucial problem related with these type of new technologies is that it becomes very critical to understand the core functions or the activities of the technology in which these type of new technologies is applied.

The building information modelling is a great tool for the construction of a building project (Shoubi et al. 2015). This tool can help the building project by reducing the total cost of the project and by lowering the timespan of the project. The BIM can break the total projects into some sub parts to understand the project more efficiently. Though it is a very good tool which can be implemented in projects for the better efficient project it still has some risks and challenges related to it. This risks can be avoided by proper planning, but any time the organization fails to design proper planning which leads the BIM into various risks and challenges (Tanaka and Matsumoto 2014). The risks related to the BIM will be discussed in the following sections of this essay.

  • In the article of “Automation in Construction” the author has described that the BIM can face various types of risks related to the project (Chien, Wu and Huang 2014). The challenges related with the BIM is also described by the author. The author said the main risks related to the BIM are the communication related risks, control related risks, design error related risks and the cost of the construction related risks. According to the author, the major risks related to the BIM integration in a project is the communication related risks. While the architects use the BIM for producing a great building and reducing the costs of the projects, a miscommunication among the organization can lead the project to failure which can be a huge problem for the organization.
  • In this article of “Safety science” the authors Zou, Kiviniemi and Jones have described the risk related to the building information which is modelling is the control (Zou, Kiviniemi and Jones 2017). The article describes when the BIM is developed according to the planning and distributed in the project group then there is a high possibility that these BIM planning can be changed by some unauthorized parties. According to the Zou, Kiviniemi and Jones, this issue is a common issue which actually arises in the construction phase where many project contractors and consultants try to change the BIM planning to benefit their own. Also, this idea of changes is not shared with the main project group which leads the project to produce a totally different outcome. For that, the project becomes valueless to the project team. To avoid this kind of issues, a supervisor must take all the responsibilities of the project, and the supervisor will be the only authorised person who can bring changes to the BIM legally.
  • In this article of “Automation in Construction” the authors of chapter 52, Hattab and Hamzeh have stated another risk related to the BIM model which is the design errors. The design errors in this type of model is a common issue because of several parties involved in the planning part of the building information modelling. As all the parties contribute to the project, it is hard to determine that which party or the individual is liable for the mistake. The author has stated that for many cases this small design flatus or the misinterpretations can create legal issues. This design related risks actually reduces the savings which are generated by the business information modelling.
  • In the article of “Automation in Construction” chapter 29 the authors Motawa and Almarshad has described the construction cost related risks which is also a common type of risks related with the business information modelling (Motawa and Almarshad 2013). The BIM integration on the construction projects also provides an estimated cost of the project. The authors Motawa and Almarshad has stated that the main problem with this estimated cost is that the cost may not be the real or actual one. Though the BIM is capable of estimating the most accurate project cost, it can fail to estimate the accurate cost cause several times because of the market variation and natural disasters. A wrong calculation of the project cost can create several problems in the future of the project.
  • The article “The limitations of BIM in the architectural process” is discussing about the BIM integration in a construction project. In this article the authors Coates et al. stated the BIM as a tool of the construction process. The authors have also stated that the lean principles in which it is elaborated that this type of tools can be only used in the cases where it is applicable. This author has also stated that the core activates also need to understandable for the BIM adoption. Also the limitations and critical issues related with the BIM is stated by the authors.
  • The author Vass and Gustavsson in their article of “Challenges when implementing BIM for industry change” has stated that there are total nine categories of inter and intra organizational challenges and for example the author has stated that implementing BIM in a project requires major changes in the project and it becomes challenging because of the complexity, size and autonomy of the project.
  • In the article of “Challenges with BIM Implementation: A Review of Literature” the authors Langer and Criminale has stated that unawareness of the project stakeholders about the challenges that they can face at the time of BIM implementation. The authors successfully determined thirty-six challenges related with the BIM implementation. From the findings the authors stated that majority of this challenges can be related with adopting unit or the organizational unit.



According to my opinion, the risks and challenges related to the building information modelling have a huge impact on the construction of a building. This risks and challenges can cause the whole system to perform badly. For me, this type of risk needs to analyse as early as possible to take the necessary actions against it. From the analysis of the articles, I found that the risks and challenges which are discussed can cause a massive in the concern of delivering a good building project. I think understating the risks and challenges properly can help to eliminate the risks which can deliver a good building project. In the last article which is discussed here it elaborated that the BIM is a very effective tool for construction purpose in the perspective of lean implementation. According to me evaluating this article the idea of better architectural thought can be gathered. I think analysing those risk and challenges can help the BIM technology for its further development. Also as per my findings I think the article about the “The limitations of BIM in the architectural process” can help to understand BIM implementation and can help to determine the potential clashes due to the beam implementations.


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Azhar, S., 2011. Building information modeling (BIM): Trends, benefits, risks, and challenges for the AEC industry. Leadership and management in engineering, 11(3), pp.241-252.

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