Comparison Of Carbon Emission Reduction Strategies In Selected Countries

Identified seminal papers for Stakeholder Theory

Carbon emission reduction has been an initiative by so many countries around the world because its economy began to the country. In 2015 the United States president Obama announced that there will be a new rule that will aim at reducing cord dioxide emission in the country by 30% from the level of 2005.  President Obama says that each and every state will have until 2016 to amend their own rule on how to reduce emission per megawatts (Ang & Su, 2016 pg534).  This was to have a better environmental strategy.  This paper presents a brief discussion and a comparison of why some country will reduce the rate of carbon emission.

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Dependent variable: 

The dependent (DV) variable in this research is the Carbon emission.

This is research provides an overview of carbon emission rate in the certain country. In relations to this, it present reasons why some countries reduce the rate of emissions while some do not.

Independent variable (IV) is the country.

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Study hypothesis

Study hypothesis How the rate of reduction of carbon emissions affects a country’s performance.

The stakeholder theory compares the rate of emissions from individual countries and how this emission affect the rate of performance in particular companies in the selected countries. Below are the selected countries and their specific effect on the environment.

The first comparison starts with South African based company Absa.

According to this company, the highest level of social responsibility for the organization is at 2%. This means that the organization’s emission can be rated to be at a higher level. According to research based on some companies, the climate change implication is basically considered at different levels and several interventions are always made (Le Quéré et al., 2015 pg71).  The South African government reduce carbon emission because it is one way of controlling climate change and encouraging a green economy. The country has also deployed the same corporate sustainability department wen check the environmental impact (Skjærseth & Wettestad, 2016 pg243). The company presented in the analysis is one of the major signatory principles that provides governance and framework to help in managing social climate risks. The risk change may be considered during the due risk process.


In Japan, we look at a company known as Advantest Corporation. This is said to be a world-class equipment supplier and service support. Unlike abna which does not have a direct effect on the environment, Advantest has a direct effect on the environment and must strive to make a change in the environment. Since they produce semiconductors, they handle the testers and mechanical interfaces and software. Japan has a higher direct response for environmental conservation. One key reason for this high responsibility is because Japan has suffered a direct impact of climate change and environmental pollution.

Defined and explained key theoretical constructs of the theory

This is totally different from South Africa which has not had a direct impact on the environment change.  Another reason why Japan has had this is that it has been under critic by other nations for lagging the plan to reduce emission. According to the company selected, climate change has not been integrated into their business because the product they produce is not actually affected by the change of climate. 

The United Kingdom

Carbon emission is tested in the United Kingdom through Aegis group of companies.  The United Kingdom has reduced emission because according to the country, emotions causes climate change which plays a key role in the strategy of most of its companies.  On a short-term basis, the company should have a corporate strategy which recognizes a great consideration of the environmental sustainability. Unlike the other country, the United Kingdom take a greater part in the environmental management and their sustainability around the country.

According to the government, Emission should be checked because it reflects changes in the countries landscape the business process and the creation of opportunity (Ding, 2014 pg295). This also affects the countries future planning. Use this importance, the country has to integrate environmental sustainability and find out the role played by environmental sustainability to their clients. The integration ranges from the compliance approach to progressive, approach to proactive Apaches that greatly influences the consumer behavior around sustainability.

South Africa and Japan provide an incentive for the reduction of emission because it is a matter that not everyone is concerned about. However, the United Kingdom does not focus much on incentive. The country assumes that this is a social responsibility and everyone understand the effect of climate change and hence the need to have a proper conservation of the climate.


 The Danish policies on climate and emission are basically influenced by the compliance with international law on climate obligation. Initially, before the international law, the country did not have a clear strategy on how to control the climate change. Achieving the international target is making the country achieve its target sector and this is a major source of gas emissions from the country Denmark.  The countries regulatory framework is very clear In the Denmark climate laws.  From the analysis, the country has a very law direct responsibility for climate change.  This means that without the law, the people may not have been working towards the reduction of emissions.

Discussed dependent variable (DV) and summarised previous research

From the list of companies, we choose A.P Miller Company. In this company, CO2 emission forms the largest environmental impact and this is very much relevant across all business unit group. This has made the CO2 emissions and climate change the core concentration of the company’s activities.  Just like the United Kingdom companies, the company has fully integrated the climate change strategy and policies in their business strategy.  The companies have a long-term investment deal with other companies to ensure that emission is fully reduced to the lowest level.

From the above analysis, Denmark is reducing emission because of the laws that control the country and secondly because of the fact that this affects the companies that surround the country. This is similar to the United Kingdom because the United Kingdom focus basically on emission simply because it affects the people’s livelihood. 


 The other country we are going to consider is Germany.   Research has shown that the United Kingdom has done far much better in reducing emission than Germany. According to this research, the German carbon emission is not reducing much of the coals that was meant to reduce the level of emission as even increased the rate of emissions.  The climate change and emission pose a serious challenge to some of the companies that operate in Germany. According to the company of choice, they have two major responsibilities. The first responsibility is to prepare allaiz for the effect of climate change and the second responsibility to provide a product and service that will help in mitigating the risk of emission. The countries carbon emission per person rolled in the year 2013 and the year 2015.

This is because of the increase in power than its need and failure to address the issue of oil transportation.  This is different from other countries that we have discussed where the emission is controlled for the people interest. For Germany, it is the government initiative that causes them to reduce the rate of emission (Ioannou & Serafeim, 2015 pg342). In a situation where this is a personal responsibility, the country could be doing better. In summary, Germany controls or reduce emission due to the fact that it is will reduce economic expenditure.

The United States

In 2007, the United States tabled a report on how the government intends to reduce carbon emission.  This report was actually completed under American senior management team and the board of cooperating directors. This report also included the assessment that is available and the technology available to reduce emissions. In relation to the detailed analysis done by the professional on climate change issues, the report presents cooperation emissions and policies that are potentially on the customers and the economy. It further describes the process the countries deploy to determine the best way to reduce the emissions. Just like the research that has been conducted on other countries, the country focus on the growing the economy in terms of the working relations and particularly the growth companies. The United States emissions are more of economic growth factor.

Developed argument for the relationship between Independent Variable (IV) and DV


A look at the reduction of emission in Italy takes us to the railway transport and how it helps in the reduction of emission.  Based on the researcher and energy sector, Italy is the second best in emission policies. It is recorded that Italy has the best policies for energy control and emissions. There are two key policies that have been put in place to control emission. The first policy is that the government has given an energy certificate and trading scheme to the energy companies.  Ansoldo Is an example of accompanying that is very much into the environmental conservation.  Emission in Italy is seen as team spirit which everybody must take part into without any delay. This is different from the company where the talks are left to the government.


In Australia, we take a look at how emission reduction affects the banking sector.  ANZ is considered as one of the most and effective international banking sectors. The bank has a commitment to build long-lasting partnerships with the government to reduce the effect of emission (Depoers et al., 2016 pg543). Since the banking sector affects the lives of every individual, the Australian bank strives to make it possible for every individual to reduce the rate of emissions.


For Belgium, the company’s mission is to make use of three climate elements. The first element is to reduce the carbon oxide of the country. Second is to provide the product and service that is free from pollution and finally is to create awareness of the climate change. The rate of climate aware is higher in this country compared to Germany and South Africa. In summary, the emission is reduced in Belgium for the betterment of the public and better service delivery.


 In the brain the emissions in orders strategic planning especially for companies like the one being analyzed in the study. This is in relation to monitoring of the containing indicators that may be used t evaluate performances. Since Brazil is more chemical oriented country, it focuses most on the factors that reduce emission to the environment. This is similar to the aim of Italy whose aim is to benefit the public.


In an attempt to reduce emissions, the company has three major sustainability aspirations. First to increase the footprint of net carbon and enhance economic growth. They strive to send the zero waste to the landfills which are an active way of providing product and services needed by the public. The company has a sustainability strategy that is used to manage the benefit and the oversight of social responsibility (Gallego-Álvarez et al., 2015 pg157).  Unlike the companies, the energies the climate issue and product issue have had a great influence on the countries strategic management.  Canada does not only likes at the impact of emission reduction bust also looks at the issue of product conduciveness in the market and rage propagation.

Theoretical Contracts(we  use inference and even quoted definitions)

Proxy measures.

DV,IV, CV, MoV or MeV

Measurement scale.

Stakeholders influence

Government Commitment to Paris Agreement.



Stakeholders power/ the threat of regulation

In this case, the stakeholders will ask whether there is experience and risk in the climate change.



Firms responding to stakeholder’s pressure.

Description of gross global combined scope 1 and scope 2 to determine the metric f CO2 emissions



research design refers to the plan that outlines how the study shall be conducted. Creswell & Creswell (2017) observes that it is important that the design chosen anticipates critical issues in the research process. This enables the researcher to be able to take appropriate decisions that will address such issues, and help improve the validity of the overall results.

The mixed method research design was employed in this project. The mixed method approach combines both aspects of quantitative as well as qualitative research approaches. Quantitative approaches are appropriate when dealing with numerical values, while the qualitative approach is more appropriate for subjective variables (Slawinski, 2017 pg253). This combination is therefore important in ensuring that important gaps in each approach can be overcome by relying on the alternative. On the other hand, the above research method may have some gaps because it based on assumptions. This means that the researcher must have the same little background. 


Slawinski, N., Pinkse, J., Busch, T. and Banerjee, S.B., 2017. The role of short-termism and uncertainty avoidance in organizational inaction on climate change: A multi-level framework. Business & Society, 56(2), pp.253-282.

Ioannou, I., Li, S.X. and Serafeim, G., 2015. The effect of target difficulty on target completion: The case of reducing carbon emissions. The Accounting Review, 91(5), pp.1467-1492.

Depoers, F., Jeanjean, T. and Jérôme, T., 2016. Voluntary disclosure of greenhouse gas emissions: Contrasting the carbon disclosure project and corporate reports. Journal of Business Ethics, 134(3), pp.445-461.

Gallego-Álvarez, I., Segura, L. and Martínez-Ferrero, J., 2015. Carbon emission reduction: the impact on the financial and operational performance of international companies. Journal of Cleaner Production, 103, pp.149-159.

Ang, B.W. and Su, B., 2016. Carbon emission intensity in electricity production: A global analysis. Energy Policy, 94, pp.56-63.

Le Quéré, C., Moriarty, R., Andrew, R.M., Peters, G.P., Ciais, P., Friedlingstein, P., Jones, S.D., Sitch, S., Tans, P., Arneth, A. and Boden, T.A., 2015. Global carbon budget 2014. Earth System Science Data, 7(1), pp.47-85.

Skjærseth, J.B. and Wettestad, J., 2016. EU emissions trading: initiation, decision-making and implementation. Routledge.

Yu, S., Wei, Y.M., Guo, H. and Ding, L., 2014. Carbon emission coefficient measurement of the coal-to-power energy chain in United Kingdom. Applied Energy, 114, pp.290-300.