Critical Reflection On Multiculturalism In Australia

Multiculturalism and Immigrant Policies in Australia

Multiculturalism has gained an extra level through the incorporation of the immigrant policies. As a result of this incorporation, malice like discrimination, harassments and conflicts have been reduced largely. Credit needs to be given to the Special Broadcasting Service, whose functionalities have enhanced the cultural diversity of Australia. Within this, specific mention can be made of the Equality Act (2010), which has proved beneficial for preserving the rights and freedom of the citizens (Ali 2016). Census of 2011 reveals that 26% of Australians were born overseas. Along with this, the census also projects that 20% of the Australians were such, whose parents hail from different socio-cultural backgrounds. Diversity is also reflected from the lifestyle, cuisine, shared values and traditions, which ties Australia in a common thread.

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All the socio-cultural analyst agree that multiculturalism has exceptionally added to the pride of Australia. Diversity in culture has added an extra level to the viewpoints of the public regarding multiculturalism. According to the present context of multiculturalism, it is beyond the celebration of cultural diversity. The critics also negate the connotation of limited cognition in terms of constituency in culture. However, socialists agree on the point that multiculturalism can be defined as the antagonistic difference between secular and sacred (Blair 2015). Along with this, multiculturalism also defines the difference between the rights of democracy with due consideration of the stereotypical notions on gender, class, religion. This consideration reflects conscious approach towards educating the people about the rightful actions.

Due consideration to the stereotypical cultural aspects reflect sufficiency in addressing the issue of multiculturalism. Incorporation of the concepts of race, gender, religion establishes a comparative study with that of the western culture. Herein lays the appropriateness of the enunciations, which clarifies the standards and protocols within the culture. These enunciations can be considered as an agent of transparency, enabling the Australian inhabitants to enrich their awareness about the cultural values, traditions and symbols (Roose and Possamai 2015).

The concepts have been adequately proposed, as comparison has been done with that of Malaysia, Lebanon and Senegal. This is in terms of cuisine, where there has not been any drastic change. Within this, mention can be made of globalization, which relates to the aspect of widening the scope and arena of cultural diversity. The parameter of economy within the socio-cultural aspect relates to commercialization, which contradicts culture. On the contrary, it can be said that financial parameter is important in terms of planning effective programs, which are flexible in terms of preserving the cultural heritage of Australia. According to the arguments of Dickens (2015), this approach can be considered as effective in terms of ensuring the wellbeing of the common public.

Diversity in Culture and Viewpoints

The literature review fails to incorporate the discussion of cultural groups. These groups are created through the means of contracts, with due consideration of the ethnography. State government takes the initiatives of providing identity to the citizens. This activity represents the conscious approach towards enhancing the parameter of corporate social responsibility. Here, the behaviour of the individual is crucial in terms of assessing the behaviour towards their nationality. If the individual is happy on inclusion in other communities, then, it reflects that they possess a generous feeling towards religion, culture and diversity. Mann (2016) feels that after the inclusion of the individuals from the other cultures, they are required to be committed towards the cultural values. These aspects highlights the triangular relationship between the state government, the individuals and the sub cultural identity. Attachment to the cultural values is the sole will of the individuals in terms of enhancing the stately pride.

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One of the concepts related to multiculturalism is that of multicultural awareness, which can be achieved through the means of language. With this language, the aspect of organizational culture is related. In a workplace, the employees belong to different socio-cultural background. Most of the employees hail from foreign cultures, which enhances the cultural diversity. In order to train the employees, ethical code of conduct is used, which helps in maintaining the workplace ethics (Ng and Metz 2015). Training involves organizational culture, which helps in reducing the instances of conflicts, discriminations and harassments. Moreover, the ethical code of conduct enhances the adjustability skills of the employees. Typical examples of this are the group discussions, which enhances the cultural diversity. When the employees are provided with the training, a feeling of mutual understanding is created. This approach indicates teamwork, which is necessary in terms of completing the tasks within the stipulated time.

Example can also be cited of the early childhood education, where multiculturalism has attained an important position. From the beginning, the children are exposed to multicultural environment. This is because provided with care and support by the extended families. However, when the parents choose crèche and childhood programs for their children, they intend to seek such programs, which matches with their mentality (Hlavac et al. 2018). In this stage, if the children are taught that they belong to different socio-cultural backgrounds, there are high tendencies that conflicting mentalities would develop. This approach contradicts the feeling of shared language or mutual understanding among the team members. One of the related concepts in this aspect is the interculturalism, which highlights the communicative exchanges between the cultures. The basic difference between multiculturalism and interculturalism is the mutual understanding, which ties the people within the cultural threads. There is an increased respect for others, enhancing the feeling the diversity within the communities.

Criticism and Conscious Approach towards Education

Comparison can be developed with New Zealand, Canada, England and USA, where the inhabitants share mutual understanding between themselves. This unity and coordination enhances the pride of the nation. Walsh (2014) opines that organizing debates regarding Islamic aspects, reflects the approach towards enhancing the cultural diversity. The debates enhance the awareness towards the religious differences. Example can be cited of the “mirror stage”, a concept developed by Jacques Lacan. In this, a child becomes an agent for enhancing the awareness towards the self and the society. Inner and outer images, provided by the mirror helps the individuals to gain awareness about their true self. Till the developing stage, the child attempts to form an identity of the self. In this process, he gains awareness about the process of identity formation.

Globalization can be one of the related aspects of multiculturalism. For example, when a company enters into the foreign market, their culture conglomerates with that of the cultures of the foreign country. The responses produced in the literature review lacks proper explanation about multiculturalism. Citing the practical business examples would have helped in enhancing the awareness of the readers regarding the expansion, which they could have achieved in the scope and arena of their business (Pruitt 2016). Mention can be made of the aspect of offshore management, which enhances the supply chain network for the companies and organizations. Offshore management conglomerates the different socio-cultural background for the companies. However, rationality is needed in this type of management for averting the instances of discriminations based on the culture, caste, creed, race and religion (Wilding and Nunn 2018).

I have learnt that multiculturalism has attained a high status in countries like Australia, New Zealand, and Malaysia among others. Issues of conflicts, discriminations and harassments are inevitable in the discussion related to culture (Malreddy, Heidemann and Laursen 2015). I have gained knowledge regarding the ethnographic distribution of Australia. This knowledge has helped me to gain knowledge about Australian culture. At the basic stage, I enriched my knowledge through the diversified cultural determinants within Australia- language, food, religion among others. However, I felt that the literature review failed to point out about the Aboriginal Tribes, who started the Australian civilization.

The discussion enriched my knowledge regarding the governmental interventions in terms of preserving the cultural heritage and diversity of Australia. Here, I can make mention of the policies like Ethical Code of Conduct. However, I feel Equality Act (2010) is a relevant feature in this aspect, which finds no mention in the online response in the literature review. I got to know that incorporation of this act within the political system helps in the creation of a democratic country, where initiatives are taken towards preserving the rights of the people (Baker and Rowe 2014).

Workplace Ethics and Interculturalism

I have achieved an understanding that language is one of an important determinants towards the preservation of cultural heritage. The language of a state is a matter of pride for the citizens (Reid 2018). If I belong to Vietnam and intend to visit Australia for business purpose, my approach would reflect eagerness towards learning the other cultures. This is a matter of pride for my country as well as the culture of the country, whose language I intend to learn.

I think I have emerged successful in establishing contradictions between the aspects like interculturalism and multiculturalism. Adequate research on both the subjects have enhanced my knowledge, skills and expertise on the mutual understanding between the people. I gave learnt that language is the agent, which differentiates interculturalism and multiculturalism. I can say that multiculturalism is the conglomeration of different cultures and interculturalism is the cultural confrontation of the individuals within the cultural dimension as a whole. Here, I can point out the aspect of mirror image, which makes the individuals aware of the demarcation between reality and appearance. This demarcation helps the individuals in taking judgmental decisions. Abbas et al. (2016)  feels that rationality in undertaking decisions enhances the societal position of the individuals. This enhancement is assistance in terms of assessing the position of the self within the society.

Behavioural aspect can be brought into the discussion. This is because preservation of the cultural values is the sole responsibility of the people. Learning about one’s culture reflects the planned approach in terms of attaining personal development. On the other hand, willingness towards knowing the other cultures is a reasoned approach in terms of contributing to the process of enhancing cultural diversity as a whole. Adhering to the standards and protocols of legislations is a collaborative approach towards assisting the government in preserving the cultural sentiments of the people of Australia. I can also point out my cognitive learning towards the cultural values identified by the state government. Researching on the debates have helped me in gaining an insight into the approaches of the citizens towards preserving the cultural values. Here, I can point out the aspect of Islamic question, which itself reflects enhanced perspectives towards religion and culture.  

I can say that debates are related with the aspect of conflicts, which contradict the mutual understanding between the team members. On the other hand, I can also point out that debates result in conglomeration of the different cultures. Typical example of this can be the group discussions between the employees of a company or organization. The online discussion did not provide any such example.

Globalization, Offshore Management, and Multiculturalism

I can develop contradiction between fragmented identity and culture. Fragmented identity is the individual and the culture is the approach of the individual towards preserving the culture, in which they have received their upbringing. These aspects relate with the concept of self and society, which determines the culture, tradition and customs of a particular nation. I think Australia is just a mere fragment for the concept of culture as a whole. I think when it is a discussion on multiculturalism, it needs to involve the culture of the whole world. However, time and financial constraints prevail, therefore, Australia has been selected for enlightening the issue of multiculturalism.

Conclusion

Conglomeration of different cultures is the situation when multiculturalism takes shape. However, this is not without the issues of conflicts, discriminations and harassments. Along with this, debates regards issues like the Islamic question destroy the integrity, unity and coordination between the individuals. The provided literary response fails to incorporate basic cultural aspects of Australia, which necessitates the need for stating aspects like globalization, interculturalism, language among others.

References

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Ali, J.A., 2016. Multiculturalism, Muslim radicalism, and the problematic of Muslim integration in Australia. Muslim integration: Pluralism and multiculturalism in New Zealand and Australia, pp.151-169.

Baker, S.A. and Rowe, D., 2014. Mediating mega events and manufacturing multiculturalism: The cultural politics of the world game in Australia. Journal of Sociology, 50(3), pp.299-314.

Blair, K., 2015. Young adults’ attitudes towards multiculturalism in Australia: tensions between the multicultural state and the intercultural citizen. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 36(4), pp.431-449.

Boese, M. and Marotta, V. eds., 2017. Critical reflections on migration,‘race’and multiculturalism: Australia in a global context. Taylor & Francis.

Dickens, L., 2015. The ‘Shattered Racialised Person’and (Post) multiculturalism in Australia. In Reworking Postcolonialism (pp. 87-101). Palgrave Macmillan, London.

Hlavac, J., Gentile, A., Orlando, M., Zucchi, E. and Pappas, A., 2018. Translation as a sub-set of public and social policy and a consequence of multiculturalism: the provision of translation and interpreting services in Australia. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 2018(251), pp.55-88.

Levey, G.B., 2017. 1. Intercultural dialogue under a multiculturalism regime: pitfalls and possibilities in Australia. INTERCULTURALISM AT THE CROSSROADS, p.105.

Maginn, P.J. and Hamnett, S., 2016. Multiculturalism and metropolitan Australia: demographic change and implications for strategic planning. Built Environment, 42(1), pp.120-144.

Malreddy, P., Heidemann, B. and Laursen, O. eds., 2015. Reworking postcolonialism: Globalization, labour and rights. Springer.

Mann, J., 2016. The Search for a New National Identity: The Rise of Multiculturalism in Canada and Australia, 1890s-1970s. Peter Lang Publishing, Incorporated.

Ng, E.S. and Metz, I., 2015. Multiculturalism as a strategy for national competitiveness: The case for Canada and Australia. Journal of Business Ethics, 128(2), pp.253-266.

Pruitt, L.J., 2016. Multiculturalism at play: young people and citizenship in Australia. Journal of Youth Studies, 19(2), pp.269-285.

Reid, D., 2018. Sharing the halal snack-pack: multiculturalism as neo-assimilation in Australia. Continuum, pp.1-16.

Roose, J.M. and Possamai, A., 2015. Between rhetoric and reality: Shari’a and the shift towards neoliberal multiculturalism in Australia. In Cultural, religious and political contestations(pp. 91-105). Springer, Cham.

Walsh, J.P., 2014. The marketization of multiculturalism: Neoliberal restructuring and cultural difference in Australia. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 37(2), pp.280-301.

Wilding, R. and Nunn, C., 2018. Non-metropolitan productions of multiculturalism: refugee settlement in rural Australia. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 41(14), pp.2542-2560.