# Deductive Logic Questionnaire

Description

Problem Set #2
1. Translate the following argument into SL, then use a truth table to determine whether it is valid or invalid. If it is invalid, specify a counterexample.
(10 pts. for translation, 10 pts. for truth table, 5 pts. for verdict)
Although most Americans approve of gun control, it is neither wise
nor moral. For gun control is wise if and only if it prevents criminals
from obtaining weapons. And gun control is moral if and only if it
preserves our liberty. But it is not the case that gun control both
preserves our liberty and prevents criminals from obtaining weapons.
2. Using only NOR (↓), construct a formula that is equivalent to α → β. (5
pts.)
3. Construct a proof for the following argument: ¬E, F → (D∨E), ¬D ∴ ¬F .
(10 pts.)
4. Prove that the following formula is a theorem: (P &¬Q) → ¬(P ↔ Q).
(10 pts.)
1
Problem Set #1
1. Suppose α is a contradiction. (5 pts. each)
(a) Is it possible for α ∨ β to be a tautology? If yes, give an example. If
no, explain why.
(b) Is it possible for α → β to be contingent? If yes, give an example. If
no, explain why.
2. Suppose the set {α, β, γ} is inconsistent. (5 pts. each)
(a) What can you determine about the formula ¬α ∨ ¬β ∨ ¬γ? Explain
(b) What can you determine about the argument α ∴ ¬(β&γ)? Explain
3. You are on the island of knights and knaves, where (a) every local is either
a knight or a knave, (b) knights always tell the truth, and (c) knaves always
lie. You meet three locals: Peggy, Joe, and Zoey. Peggy says, “I’m a knave
only if Joe is.” Joe says, “Peggy is a knight but Zoey is a knave.” Zoey says,
“Joe and I are different.” Using a truth table, can you determine who
is a knight and who is a knave? (10 pts. for translation and symbolization
key, 10 pts. for truth table, 10 pts. for interpreting truth table)
1
1. Suppose α is a contradiction.
(a) Yes. α ∨ β is a tautology when β is a tautology.
(b) No. Conditionals with a false antecedent are true; contradictions are
always false; so α → β is always true when α is a contradiction.
2. Suppose the set {α, β, γ} is inconsistent.
(a) The formula ¬α ∨ ¬β ∨ ¬γ is a tautology. To say that {α, β, γ} is
inconsistent is to say that its members can’t all be true at the same
time. This means that in every case at least one of them must be
false, which means that in every case at least one of the disjuncts of
¬α ∨ ¬β ∨ ¬γ must be true. Since a disjunction is true when at least
one of its disjuncts is true, this makes ¬α ∨ ¬β ∨ ¬γ a tautology.
(b) The argument α ∴ ¬(β&γ) is valid. By the inconsistency of {α, β, γ},
there’s no case where α is true and β&γ is true. Thus there is no case
where α is true and ¬(β&γ) is false, i.e., there are no counterexamples
to the argument.
3. P = Peggy is a knight; J = Joe is a knight; Z = Zoey is a knight.
P
T
T
T
T
F
F
F
F
J
T
T
F
F
T
T
F
F
Z
T
F
T
F
T
F
T
F
P ↔ (¬P → ¬J)
T
T
T
T
T
T
F
F
J ↔ (P &¬Z)
F
T
T
F
F
F
T
T
Peggy is a knight. Joe is a knave. Zoey is a knight.
1
Z ↔ ¬(J ↔ Z)
F
F
T
T
F
F
T
T
1. Translate the following argument into SL, then use a truth table to deter-
mine whether it is valid or invalid. If it is invalid, specify a counterexample.
(10 pts. for translation, 10 pts. for truth table, 5 pts. for verdict)
Although most Americans approve of gun control, it is neither wise
nor moral. For gun control is wise if and only if it prevents criminals
from obtaining weapons. And gun control is moral if and only if it
preserves our liberty. But it is not the case that gun control both
preserves our liberty and prevents criminals from obtaining weapons.
2. Using only NOR (1), construct a formula that is equivalent to a + B. (5
pts.)
3. Construct a proof for the following argument: -E, F + (DVE), -D ::-F.
(10 pts.)
4. Prove that the following formula is a theorem: (P&-Q) +-(P HQ).
(10 pts.)
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