Design And Implementation Of Database For Toronto Attractions And Events

First Normal Form

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Eessaar, (2016), describes normalization as a technique of arranging in database to avoid data update, insertion, deletion anomaly and redundancy. Normalization involves the following steps:

  1. Select data origin and convert the data to un-normalized table.
  2. Transform un-normalized data to 1NF by removing every repeated fields to new table.
  3. Transform data in 1NF to 2NF by removing each non-key attributes that are only reliant on part of the entity.
  4. Transform data in 2NF to 3NF by removing new entity which is a non-key primary key.

We are going to match the above rules with our tables to ensure that our database tables are in third-normal-form:

First Normal Form 

In order to convert our entities into first-normal-form Noh, et al (2018), says, we are required to answer this question: are the columns combined make exceptional record at every time and which column is used to uniquely identify the row? To answer this, let’s look at our tables below:

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Dinner (Din_ID, Din_Title, Din_Description, Din_Price)

Visitor (Vis_ID,Vis_Name,Vis_Gender,Vis_Address, Vis_Country,Vis_Visit_Date)

Attraction (Attraction_ID, Attraction_Description, Operation_Hours, Admission_Amount, Attraction_Type)

Employee (Emp_ID, Emp_Username, Emp_Password, Emp_Name,Emp_Gender,Emp_Address,


Event (Event_ID,Event_Title,Location,Event_Type,Event_Time,Event_Date, Admission_Amount)

Movies (Movie_ID,Movie_Title, Movie_Description,Genre,Year,Director,Language,Show_Time, Rating)

Restaurant (Res_ID, Res_Title, Res_Description,Res_Location,Res_Price_Range,Res_Rating) 

The answer to the first and second part the question is YES. Reason being that, all the columns combined together make a unique row at every moment due to use of primary key.

Second normal form

For any entity to pass 2NF, it has to pass 1NF test and each non-primary key doesn’t functionally depend on PK. Keenly observing our tables above, we notice that each entities has passed 1NF. However, for the second condition, every entity fulfils this rule except for visitor and employee tables.

Employee (Emp_ID, Emp_Username, Emp_Password, Emp_Name, Emp_Gender, Emp_Address, Emp_Country)

Visitor (Vis_ID,Vis_Name,Vis_Gender,Vis_Address, Vis_Country,Vis_Visit_Date)

These two entities have address field which does not specify which kind of address we are talking about. Therefore, we are going to have address entity arranged as below:

Address (Address_ID,Personal_email_address, Compnay_address, Street, City, Zipcode) whereas the other two tables will have a new look as below

Employee (Emp_ID, Emp_Username, Emp_Password, Emp_Name, Emp_Gender, Emp_Country)

Visitor (Vis_ID,Vis_Name,Vis_Gender, Vis_Country,Vis_Visit_Date)

Third Normal Form

A db is said to be in third-normal-form if and only if it satisfies 2NF requirements and doesn’t have any transitive functional dependency. For instance, field A determines field B which determines field C.  Looking at our tables none of them has this characteristic, thus our db is in 3NF. 

Normalized Logical model(See clear drawing in attached Ms.Vis1o)

SQL Data Types

Jukic, Vrbsky, & Nestorov, (2016), insists that every column in a database entity must have a data type and a name. A database developer must make a decision on what type of data will be stored inside every column during the creation of an entity. Letkowski, (2015), seconds that data type is a guide for Structured Query Language to understand what kind of data is to be kept inside every column.

Second Normal Form

In our database design, we used the following datatypes:

CHAR (size) to hold fixed length string.

VARCHAR (size): to hold varying length string

Decimal (size,d): used to store large number stored as a string.

Date(): used to store date format

Time (): to indicate time of the day.

Year (): used to store year in 2-digit or 4-digit format.

SQL Scripts to Create tables

Address table


Address_ID varchar (4) NOT NULL UNIQUE,

Personal_email_Address varchar (20),

Compnay_address varchar(20),

Street varchar (20),

City varchar(20),

Zipcode varchar(12),


Employe Table


Emp_ID varchar(4) NOT NULL UNIQUE,

Emp_Username varchar (12),

Emp_Password varchar(6),

Emp_Name varchar (30),

Emp_Gender varchar(6),

Emp_Country varchar(20),


Visitor Table


Vis_ID varchar(4) NOT NULL UNIQUE,

Vis_Name varchar (20),

Vis_Gender varchar(6),

Vis_Country varchar (20),

Vis_Date Date,


CHECK (Vis_Gender = “Male” or “Female”));

Dinner Table


Din_ID varchar(4) NOT NULL UNIQUE,

Din_Title varchar (20),

Din_Description varchar(100),

Din_Price Dec (3,2),


CREATE TABLE Attraction (

Attraction_ID varchar(4) NOT NULL UNIQUE,

Attraction_Description varchar (100),

Operation_Hours Time,

Attraction_Type varchar(20),

Admission_Amount Dec(3,2),

PRIMARY KEY (Attraction_ID));

Event Table


Event_ID varchar(4) NOT NULL UNIQUE,

Event_Title varchar (30),

Location varchar(20),

Event_Type varchar(20),

Event_Time Time,

Event_Date Date,

Admission_Amount dec (3,2),


Movies Table


Movie_ID varchar(4) NOT NULL UNIQUE,

Movie_Title varchar(20),

Movie_Description varchar(100),

Genre varchar(50),

Published_Year Year(4),

Director varchar(20),

Language varchar(20),

Rating Dec (2,1),


Restaurant Table

CREATE TABLE Restaurant(

Res_ID varchar(4) NOT NULL UNIQUE,

Res_Title varchar(20),

Res_Description varchar(100),

Res_Location varchar(20),

Res_Price_Range dec(3,2),

Res_Rating dec(2,1),


SQL Statements to Insert Into Table

INSERT INTO Restaurant

VALUES (‘R001’, ‘NileValley’, ‘NileValley bla bla bla’, ‘Santiago Street’, ‘$78.02-100.00′,’7.5’);


VALUES (‘M001’, ‘The Running Dead’, ‘The running dead is a fictious bla bla bla’, ‘Fiction’, ‘2014’,’Liutenantoro’, ‘English’,’9.1′);


VALUES (‘EV01’, ‘Twisted Beginning ‘, ‘MaliMA’,’Art’, ‘9.00AM’, ’16/8/2018′, ‘$23.90’)

INSERT INTO Attraction

VALUES (‘AT01’, ‘Gallery Ma Bla bla bla bla’, ‘8.00Am to 5p.m’,’Gallery’, ‘$34.03’);


VALUES (‘D001’, ‘Salmi’, ‘Salmi is a meal bla bla bla. It is taken together wiht bla bla’,’$45.30′);


VALUES (‘V001’, ‘Marcos Luis’, ‘Male’,’North Korea’,’12/08/2018′);


VALUES (‘E001’, ‘Tony’,’Pasword’,’Tony Mike’,’Male’,’Australia’);


VALUES (‘A001’, ‘[email protected]‘, ‘[email protected]‘,’Ti1′,’Toronto’,’00200′);

SQL statements to select required Values

SELECT * FROM employee;

SELECT * FROM visitor;

SELECT * FROM dinner;

SELECT * FROM Attraction;

SELECT * FROM event;

SELECT * FROM movies;

SELECT * FROM Restaurant;

SELECT * FROM Address; 


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