Design Controls And Arrangements For Lawn Mower, Forklift, And Highway

Types of Lawn Mowers

Lawn mower is a mechanical device used for cutting the grass of lawn; it is a machine that has revolving blades to cut a grass (Sears parts direct, 2018). Maintenance of beautiful lawn can be easily done with the use of proper lawn mower. There are two types of lawn mower explained below:

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Rotary mowers: These types of mowers are very common and find in in the form of electric or gasoline powered. These mowers cut and chop the top of the grass with horizontal blades. Rotary mowers have also bag for collecting the clippings of the chopped grass. Blades of the rotary mower are very sharp, as dull blades can’t chopped the edges of grass properly.

Reel mowers: Reel mowers are less common, as they are not electric powered. Reel mowers can work only when pushed forward by the person. When blades of this mower keep sharp, it can chop the grass properly with excellent quality of cutting. Reel mowers are inexpensive so, this feature of reel mower makes it popular among people.

Design of lawn mower: Before the process of fabrication the design of the mower is prepared by using the Autodesk inventor professional software. The structure of mower has three parts i.e. bicycle handle, base and wheels. Wheels and handles of the mower are used as navigation panel that controls the overall base of the mower and support the motor of the mower. Battery is attached to the blades and motor of the mower. The cutting head of the mower is attached to the front of the base, this helps in operations of the mower. For cutting head of the mower nylon strings are used, that are very flexible and lighter in weight. This design of the lawn mower reduced the weight, and results in easily handling of the mower. Overall structure of the mower is adjusted with the screws.


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Industries that are engaged in manufacturing of mechanical equipment or machines are the manufactures of lawn mowers across the world. Some of the example of manufacturers of lawn mower is Victa an Australian firm, Honda Motor Company Ltd., Toro, Husqvarna Group, and many more (Ryobi landscapes, 2018). 

There are many benefits of lawn mowing. Having a ride with lawn mowing machine has very significant effect on the body of the human. Riding with lawn mowing machine helps those who has the problem in standing properly, they can stand and move the lawn mower machine. Riding with lawn mower machine eliminates the problem of pull cord. So, it is very useful for health of the person as well for cutting of grass. These machines keep the lawn clean and chopped. People should go for the use of this machine.

Design and Manufacturing Companies

Use of this lawn mower machine has strengths as well as weaknesses or we can say that pros and cons of using this machine. Safety is the main concern everywhere, so here safety is also very important while riding with the lawn mower machine in the lawn. If not handled properly lead to the damage of lawn and blades of the machine cause any injury. There are different types of lawn mower machines in the market; some of the models of the machines help in reducing the emissions of the environment. Mowers are best for environmental sustainability. One of the biggest weaknesses of mower is its repair cost; people are hesitating to buy just because of its repair cost. Gas mower is bit more time consuming as well as costly. But gas mower is good for those who are looking for convenience.

Forklift is a vehicle that is used to lift heavy loads. It is a small industrial vehicle that having a powered operator at the front that can be used to lift the cargo or move something. These types of lifts are used by the industries, warehouses and factories to lift goods and helps in storage facilities. These lifts are electric powered and have combustion engines. These lifts have different structures, some of them have sitting place for driver and some are not. Use of this machine is very extensive in transporting goods and raw materials (How stuff works, 2018).


Truck frame: It is the most important component of the forklift which constitutes the base of the lift. Remaining components of the forklift are attached to the truck frame of the lift.

Counterweight: It is the iron weight attached to the rear part of the forklift. Counterweight is used to maintain the balance of the goods or raw material when lifted by the forklift. Battery is attached to the counterweight (NMC, 2017).

Power source: Combustion engine is used as a power source for forklift. Fuel of this engine is LPG gas, CNG gas and natural gas.

Carriage: Base of the forklift is its carriage. Carriage of the forklift is fixed on mast rails, which help it in moving upward and downward.

Mast: It is a vertical part of the lift that pushes the lift up and down while loading goods. Components of Mast are consisted of rails that give support to the lift.

Benefits of Lawn Mowing

Companies that are engaged in manufacturing of Forklift are, Toyota Industries Corporation, KION Group, Crown Equipment Corp., Lonking Forklift Co., Ltd., Hyundai Heavy Industries and many more (Nit co, 2018).

There are many reasons for using Forklift in a business. It is used in warehouses and storage facilities for good reason. Some of its uses are explained below:

Fuel efficient: Nowadays Forklifts are electric, which means these machines are fuel efficient. Earlier there were gas machines which were not fuel efficient.

Having high load capacity: Design of the forklift is prepared according to the need of the business. Every business has different requirements, so they need forklift according to their need. They have the capacity to lift high loads, that’s why they are used in warehouses.

Affordable: These machines are easily affordable in different sizes (Resource library, 2018).

Safer: Before the invention of Forklift, people were used to rely on the very less safe means of loading goods. Forklift is very safe in loading goods from one place to another in warehouses (Nimankar, Mahale, Mestry, Morankar and Nille, 2018).

Safe and less time consuming features of Forklift attract people, to use this in their business for loading and unloading of goods in warehouses.

Strengths and weaknesses of Forklift:

There is less operating cost in using combustion model of Forklift

Electric Forklift is most prevalent in the market, because charges for electricity are less in comparison to charges of fuel.

Less noisy in nature, but it can produce little noise during back-up alarm.

Automatic process of Forklift reduces the wear and tear and fatigue of the operator.

It does not require early maintenance.

Weaknesses: There are some weaknesses of using Forklift in one’s business; some of the weaknesses are given below:

Stations for battery charging are needed in one’s business.

Regular supply of electricity should be needed in one’s business, and higher voltage is also needed for Forklift.

There is higher upfront cost in Forklift.

Electric Forklifts are only limited to lift 12000 lbs.

The specifications of Highway are developed by the Department for Transport for the Trunk Road Network. Design Manual for Roads and Bridges provides the best manual for the standards of the roads and bridges (Gibreel, Easa, Hassan and El-Dimeery, 2008).

Alignment: Alignment of the road is the horizontal tangents or curves of the roads.

Profile: Profile is the vertical aspect of the road, which includes crest, sag curves and the straight lines connecting them to the road.

Safety Concerns

Cross section: This shows the number and position of the vehicle on the road, like bicycle, car, trucks and many more. This also shows the lane, sidewalks, drainage system and many other categories of road that are the part of geometric design of road.


Design of the road is prepared with specific standards and guidelines that are proposed by the road authorities. Design of the road is prepared in keeping the speed, vehicle type and road grade in to consideration. Proper application of the guidelines implemented by good engineer will results in construction of safe and comfortable road (ADOT, 2018).

National authorities of roads and transports are responsible for construction of roads and highways in their own native nations.

There are strengths and weaknesses of Highways and roads. Some of them are discussed below:

Best designing standards of road, and best guidelines will results in perfect construction of roads, if followed by needed concrete. Various techniques are used in construction of roads like earthquake prevention techniques, drainage system of road, if all these applied in construction of road, will definitely results in best road construction (Mohan, 2008).

Construction of roads without keeping all the requirements in consideration will results in damage to the roads, or may led to the danger to the life of the people.

Bad structure of drainage system led to the water logging on the road.

Improper design of the road led to the short life of the road

Improper design of the road will cause disruption of breeding areas and routes of migratory species.

Electric transmission lines are used to transmit electrical energy from one place to another. Transmission of electrical energy is transmitted with the use of two or more conductors, and with towers and poles (Abd-Elaal, Mills and Ma 2018).


Proximity of houses near to the electric transmission lines have is very risky to the people. More is the proximity of the electric transmission lines to the house; more is the magnetic fields of the electricity. Lesser is the proximity of the house to the electric transmission lines, lesser is the magnetic field of the electricity. This type of electric pollution is very dangerous to the people lived nearby the electric transmission lines. Before taking any house, proper investigation should be there for any generation of magnetic field of electricity. Proximity of the house to the electric transmission lines has very severe effect on the health of the person (Alliant energy kids, 2018).

Details on the Components of a Forklift

The standards for overhead electric transmission lines are specify structural, geotechnical and electrical design of the transmission lines. The design standards of overhead transmission lines comply with AS/NZS 7000 (Benini, Bogliolo and De Micheli, 2000).

These standards specify all the requirements that shall needed for towers and poles.

Approved route and length

Climatic and weather conditions

Topographical factors

Level of pollution

Cultural and environmental heritage


Number of circuits

Type of conductor and size of conductor

Type and size of overhead earth wire

Undercrossing, overcrossings and traffic management

Parallel transmission lines induction

Safety design: Design of overhead transmission lines is according to the Safe Work Australia Safe Design of structures (Glover, Sarma and Overbye, 2012). 

Planning and profiling of design drawings. This includes type of conductor, design of temperature clearance (Gonen, 2015).

Schedules of lines should be in a tabulated form.

Dimensions and schedule of vibration damper

Construction tables

Railway crossings

Other crossings like, power lines and many more

Navigable Waterways crossings

Landing span for non-standard structures

Proximity with the electric transmission lines can cause serious injuries to the people. Proximity of the agricultural land to the electric wires can cause damage to the crops.

Close proximity to the overhead lines of the electricity can result in flashover that may kill lives.

Safety measures publications by Electricity Networks Association (ENA).

Suggest farmers to reduce the use of Polytunnels that will be damage by the electric radiations (Kiessling, Nefzger,  Nolasco and Kaintzyk, (2014).

Avoidance:If work is conducted under any high voltage area, then it can be carried out somewhere else i.e. far from electric transmission lines. Do not place any material near to the structures of the electric poles, transformers and many more.

Diversion: There should be proper arrangement for diversion of overhead lines.

Structural steel is the type of steel which is used for making construction materials in different shapes. Structural shapes take the form of elongated beam. The size, composition, storage and strengths are regulated by standards in countries. There are many shapes in which steel structures can be prepares, most commonly used structure is I-beams (Designing building, 2018)


Design of structural steel work:There are various designs of structural steel

Those companies, who are engaged in the iron and steel production, are the ultimate manufacturers of structural steel works. Steel is the alloy of iron; it has various uses, like aeroplane sheets, beams, shades etc.

Fuel Efficiency, High Load Capacity, and Affordability of Forklifts

Most of the steel construction is done with mild steel. Mild steel is immensely strong in nature (Free pick, 2018).

It is used in high rise buildings, because it has strengths and speed of construction (NWL, 2018).

It is used in industrial buildings, because it has capability to make large spaces.

It is used in warehouses

It is used in residential buildings and

Also used in temporary structures, because they can be easily set up and quickly remove

That’s to make your building, warehouse, industry always prefer structural steel, because these structures have strength (Australian steel institute, 2018).

The structural steelwork specification states the material and product to be used in structure.

AS/NZS 1163 hollow sections of cold formed structural steels

AS/NZS 1252 steel bolts with high strength associated with nuts and bolts

AS/NZS 1397 metallic coated hot sheet

AS/NZS 1554 welding of structural steel

AS/NZS 3678 rolled plates and slabs

AS/NZS 3679.1 rolled sections and bars

AS/NZS 3679.2 welded sections of steel

All of the organizations or industries have major use of structural steel work structures. Structural steel is used everywhere in industries like in big projects, finished products and many more. Warehouses, buildings and high rise buildings all have the use of structural steel. The experts from industries prefer to use structural steel over the use of any other building material; this can be preferred only because of numerous benefits of structural steel work. But everything in this world has some advantages and some disadvantages, so structural steel work has also the advantages and disadvantages.

Steel is tensile in nature: Steel has a high strength, so it can be used in every shape and size of the requirements. Structural steelwork is light in weight in comparison to other steel work.

Steel can be easily fabricated; the structures of steel are produced at shop floors and assembled at onsite, this process of production and assembling saves the time and also increases the efficiency of the building.

Structural steel is flexible inn nature; it can be mould in any form and shape. Steel can be easily converted in to sheets, wires and many other shapes as required by industries.

Steel is not so expensive; structural steel is cheaper in comparison to material

Durability of the steel is its one of the best strength. Steel structures have capacity to withstand external forces like, earthquake, landslide etc.

As we all know that steel is the alloy of iron. So is has susceptibility to corrosion. This problem of corrosion can be solved by using anti-corrosion applications on structural steel.

Safety Features of Forklifts

Huge fire proofing cost in incurred, as steel is not fireproof. When there is high temperature steel loses its properties.

Structural steel has high maintenance cost, as it has to be painted with corrosion-resistant.

Steel also has high expansion rate.

All the advantages led to the high use of structural steel work in buildings, warehouses and at many more places. It can be concluded from the from the above advantages and disadvantages that steel has various use, structural steel has strength to be used at various places.


Abd-Elaal, E.S., Mills, J.E. and Ma, X., (2018). A review of transmission line systems under downburst wind loads. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics

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Alliant energy kids. (2018). Overhead transmission lines [online] Available from: [Accessed 11/08/2018]

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Australian steel institute. (2018). Structural steel design engineer [online] Available from: [Accessed 11/08/2018]

Benini, L., Bogliolo, A. and De Micheli, G., (2000). A survey of design techniques for system-level dynamic power management. IEEE transactions on very large scale integration (VLSI) systems, 8(3), pp.299-316

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Gibreel, G.M., Easa, S.M., Hassan, Y. and El-Dimeery, I.A., (2008). State of the art of highway geometric design consistency. Journal of transportation engineering, 125(4), pp.305-313.

Glover, J.D., Sarma, M.S. and Overbye, T., (2012). Power System Analysis & Design, SI Version. Cengage Learning.

Gonen, T., (2015). Electrical power transmission system engineering: analysis and design. CRC press

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Kiessling, F., Nefzger, P., Nolasco, J.F. and Kaintzyk, U., (2014). Overhead power lines: planning, design, construction. Springer

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Mohan, D. ( 2008). Road safety in less-motorized environments: future concerns. International journal of epidemiology, 31(3), pp.527-532.

Nimankar, S., Mahale, N., Mestry, A., Morankar, A. and Nille, S., (2018). Human Powered Forklift. transfer, 5(04).

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