Diagnosis Of Depression And Personality Disorders: A Case Study Of Diana Miller

Procedures Used to Diagnose Depression and Personality Disorders

To successfully diagnose depression and personality disorders, there are various procedures used. They could range from interviews, psychological evaluation, to medical history review. In Diana Miller’s case, her various actions and behavior such as being irritable most of the day, being restless, and loss of interest in most of her daily activities, are proof that she was being affected by the  above named disorders, (Cuijpers 2016). She fills up her lost space and lack of friends by engaging in fast crowds and drug abuse so as to feel loved and have a sense of belonging. It is also possible that the death of her younger sister causes her to experience post traumatic stress which greatly affects her. Disco Di’s constant drug abuse and wild behavior is indication of low self esteem resulting to her viewing life as worthless hence suicidal thoughts and attempts on her life, (Infurna et al 2016). This leads to the agreement that the diagnosis made by the psychiatrist about her mental and personality conditions are true and that Diana severely suffers from both borderline personality and major depressive disorders. These two disorders could coexist according to a research done by  scholars, thus they both present themselves in a similar way in Diana Miller’s life as maniac events. It also leads to the belief that she suffers from addiction to various drugs such as alcohol and valium. It could also be possible that she suffers from sexual abuse, which happens mostly when she is drunk and while partying, hence overshadowing her conscience and mentality about men leading to the phrase,” looking for a perfect man” since all her encounters with men have been disappointing, (Joshi et al 2016). Marginal identity issue is a condition in which a man’s psychological wellness is influenced to a degree that it makes them feel and contemplate themselves as well as other people while significant depressive issue or clinical sadness, is a condition that influences the state of mind, conduct, rest and diet of the individual experiencing it. This examination is essentially about a young lady by the name Diana Miller who happens to experience the ill effects of the above confusion to the degree that she endeavors suicide. It surveys the analytic highlights utilized, social elements, and treatment techniques important to regulate treatment to her and the connection of the above named elements to the achievement of her treatment.

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Impact of Cultural and Gender Factors on Diagnosis

Cultural factors could range from cultural beliefs and traditions to cultural practices and they      differ from one community, country, ethnicity, and nationality to another. Gender factors on the other hand are simply the factors that affect a particular gender and they differ in both males and females. Diana’s diagnosis is greatly affected by the above named factors. Being born in Toronto by a mother who is of Ecuadorian origin and a father who is of Kenyan origin, there is a huge clash in the cultural and social setting of her life. The environment she is raised in is highly westernized, (Antypa et al 2016). This therefore brings up the effect of the environment to her initial condition.

According to a research done by Pike, Hoek, and Dunne in 2014, the western culture and environment could result to complications such as lifestyle diseases and eating disorders such as binge eating which strongly depicts itself in Diana, when she engages in binge eating. Females or ladies in general usually crave for attention. Diana lacks this attention since she has no female friends. To fill up her lack of friends and an awesome social life she engages in desperate moves such as engaging in wild crowds to capture their attention. Her craving for excitement leads to her having engagements with random men and when she refuses their sexual advances she puts out into the streets hence the cause of her first suicidal attempt when she is seventeen years of age, (Koyanagi, Oh, Stickley, Haro & DeVylder 2016). This is a clear indication of  major depressive disorder. The social environment also shapes the diagnosis of Diana. Social environment means the social surrounding of a person in terms of friends, family and relatives.

Diana had no female friends and the only sister she had died when she was only twelve years old. Being in her adolescent period, Disco Di’s social environment requires her to be close to friends and family and lack of friends to support her during her grieving times greatly affected her social life. According to a review article,  some family members may cause distress to a person suffering from OCD symptoms, (Daoud et al 2016). Diana’s parents were overly involved in trying to treat their child through intensive twice weekly psychotherapy in which she had no lots of interest. She had a feeling that the attention being given to her was little hence craved for 100% of their attention which she did not get thus led to worsening of her mental distress condition.

Treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder

To treat Disco Di’s borderline personality disorder, both psychotherapy and pharmaceutical therapy should be used. Therapy such as behavioral, mentalization, transference, and finally schema focused therapy should be greatly integrated during her treatment for borderline personality disorder. Emphasis should be put on dialectical behavior therapy since it is known to reduce depression, hopelessness, anger and also substance dependence which is a common phenomena in Disco Di’s case. Medications such as clomipramine should be used to treat Diana Miller and should be recommended by a psychiatrist or a physician from a certified institution which is in accordance with the medication laws, (Wen, Chan, Tan & Tan 2016).                                                             

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The best paradigm to examine Disco Di’s behavior is the diathesis stress paradigm. This paradigm states that people have different ways of developing a disorder especially when faced with psychological or socio-cultural stress and it happens in a biological diathesis. Borderline personality disorder develops due to interpersonal experiences caused by various environmental and biological factors. Also Disco Di’s suicidal behavior is caused by a psychological stressor such as the death of her younger sister and happens when she is at a susceptible age of twelve. According to an article by, depression and suicidal thoughts are developed by psychological stressors such as death,  (Segal, Williams & Teasdale 2018). This proves to be true in Disco Di’s case. Finally the behavioral inhibition may be another diathesis which may lead to depression and anxiety an positively correlates and affects both adolescents and children therefore makes BI a possible diathesis for anxiety which strongly applies to Disco Di’s case since she experience stressful events in her life.

Conclusion:

In conclusion, it is evident that Disco Di suffers from the above named disorders and that treatment is possible. It also calls for more research and enlightenment to the general public and various professions to take part in treatment and diagnosis of persons affected by the above named disorder. Diana had no female friends and the only sister she had died when she was only twelve years old. Being in her adolescent period, Disco Di’s social environment requires her to be close to friends and family and lack of friends to support her during her grieving times greatly affected her social life.

References:

Infurna, M. R., Reichl, C., Parzer, P., Schimmenti, A., Bifulco, A., & Kaess, M. (2016). Associations between depression and specific childhood experiences of abuse and neglect: a meta-analysis. Journal of affective disorders, 190, 47-55.

Joshi, S., Mooney, S. J., Kennedy, G. J., Benjamin, E. O., Ompad, D., Rundle, A. G., … & Cerdá, M. (2016). Beyond METs: types of physical activity and depression among older adults. Age and ageing, 45(1), 103-109.

Antypa, N., Vogelzangs, N., Meesters, Y., Schoevers, R., Joy,K  & Penninx, B. W. (2016). Chronotype associations with depression and anxiety disorders in a large cohort study. Depression and anxiety, 33(1), 75-83.

Koyanagi, A., Oh, H., Stickley, A., Haro, J. M., & DeVylder, J. (2016). Risk and functional significance of psychotic experiences among individuals with depression in 44 low-and middle-income countries. Psychological medicine, 46(12), 2655-2665.

Daoud, N., Haque, N., Gao, M., Nisenbaum, R., Muntaner, C., & O’Campo, P. (2016). Neighborhood settings, types of social capital and depression among immigrants in Toronto. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology, 51(4), 529-538.

Wen, M. C., Chan, L. L., Tan, L. C. S., & Tan, E. K. (2016). Depression, anxiety, and apathy in Parkinson’s disease: insights from neuroimaging studies. European journal of neurology, 23(6), 1001-1019.

Segal, Z. V., Williams, M., & Teasdale, J. D. (2018). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression. Guilford Publications.

Cuijpers, P. (2016). Are all psychotherapies equally effective in the treatment of adult depression? The lack of statistical power of comparative outcome studies. Evidence-based mental health, ebmental-2016.