Effectiveness Of Coping Strategies On Managing Stress Among University Students

Stress among University Students

In today’s world of competition, feeling of anxiety as well as stress is a part of life. While a limited amount of stress is beneficial for human beings. However when anxiety or stress level exist for a prolonged period of time, these factor turns to a burden and give rise to several health risk issues. With the enhancement of competition in global academic system, continuous and excessive stress is found to be affecting the lifestyle as well as cognitive performance of University students to a great extent. Some off the major issues faced by the students includes difficulty in concentrating, increasing amount of worry, tension and headaches, change in eating as well a sleeping habits and eventually lack of interest in pursuing university. In order to reduce the stress level of the students, several coping strategies like Pharmaceutical Cognitive Enhancement (PCE) to reduce the stress of university students by enhancing their alertness, focus memory as well as mood has been implemented.

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 With the increment in the pressure as well as competition in the academic world, A good number of university students are found to be the victim of stress as well as anxiety (Besser & Zeigler-Hill, 2014).  Excessive stress imposes high impact on the physical ability as well as cognitive skills of the students. While a good number of students are found get inclined towards drug as well as alcohol abuse in order to cope up with the increasing amount of stress, others are found to develop several psychological issues as a result of lack of confidence and motivation. It has be found that several universities like the university of Michigan provides several stress management training to students so that they can deal with the excessive amount of anxiety and stress. However, the number of students who are undergoing several physical as well as psychological treatments due to enhanced amount of stress in universities is increasing. Therefore, it is highly crucial to found out the degree to which coping strategies are effective for managing the stress level of university students.

The research issue of the research paper is the globally increasing number of students suffering from stress and anxiety due to excessive academic pressure, parental separation, relationship issues and lack of emotional support. This issue is imposing negative impact on various sphere of the academic life (Fares et al., 2016). Therefore it has become crucial to introduce appropriate coping measures for students who are suffering from stress and anxiety related issues.  In order to cope up with the issues, several university students are found to use abuse drugs and alcohols as well as develop smoking habits in order to cop up with stress. In spite of the fact that these processes are found to provide temporary relief from stress, these coping strategies has the potential to impose high impact on the both the psychological as well as physical health of the students. In this research, the author will find out the degree to which coping strategies are effective for managing stress of the students suffering from excessive stress and anxiety disorder.

Coping Strategies for Managing Stress

This chapter aims to state a brief resume of the findings of the research in the context of academic stress, achievement motivation, hardiness and problem-solving behavior. Stress is a much-talked topic that emerges as a key concern among the university students while managing their academic career and their performances.

Aspect of Stress

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Source of stress: One of the positive experiences of the students is their university life, though many students also view the experiences as chronically stressful. The academic requirements such as the tests, papers, presentations are contributing to the increased level of stress among the university students. According to van der Riet (2015), the major range of stress in the students and the adolescent has resulted from the parental separation, divorce, issues in personal relations and social failure. Academic failures have been reported to be the most common cause of the stress among the university students. There lies a strong relationship among the personality variables like the extraversion, eroticism, and lack of social and emotional support, loneliness and other psychological adjustments with the academic performance of the university students (Wang et al., 2015). Emotion plays a very important role in the context of academic performances of the university students. In a number of studies, it has been found that the most common factors contributing to stress and anxiety among the university students for adjusting their academic performances were extensive pressures of the courses, lack of proper physical exercises and long exam durations.

Different ways student cope up with stress: According to the studies conducted by many researchers, university students tend to cope up various measures and ways to cope up with their stress levels. Fares et al. (2016), in his work, states how students tend to get addicted to alcohol and drugs to manage their stress levels and their levels of anxiety caused due to different factors. Researches furthermore identified gender differences and age differences as significant factors contributing to the academic stress levels which induce the students to adopt some of the worst measures like smoking, drinking and other vices, hibernation, avoiding or ignoring the issues, dwelling on the negative and eating up personal feelings. According to the works of Besser and Zeigler-Hill (2014), students experiencing a high level of stress tend to hide away their thoughts and feelings under the cover. They tend to sleep more often which results in increased lethargy among them that hampers their focus on their academic performance.888 in his work identifies overeating and random cravings for high calorie and junk foods as one of the measures students in the university level use to cope up with difficult times to manage their stress levels. Researches furthermore identified the tendency of compulsive spending among the university students as the measures to deal with stress levels (Hintz, Frazier & Meredith, 2015).

Impact of Stress on Students’ Health

Impact of stress on the university students contributes to dissatisfied and bad performance in their academics. The measures that the students generally cope up are the most unhealthy and worst ones which furthermore results in negative effects on their health and new issues in their life.

The Project (1500 words maximum). In this section you need to use the headings provided to give information about all aspects of the methods and procedures

The aim of the project is determine the degree of effectiveness of the coping strategies adopted by university students to manage stress and improve their academic performance.

The objective of the research includes:

1.To find out the frequently used coping strategies used to the students to manage their stress level.

2.To determine the degree of effectiveness of the coping methods.

3.To find out the positive as well as negative impacts of the coping strategies imposed on the students

4.To find out whether the coping strategies impose any positive or negative impact on the culture, society or environment or not.

5.To develop appropriate coping strategies for stress management of University students.

In this portion, the researcher will interpret the result of data analysis on the basis of the objective as well as the purpose of the study. According to (Lewis, 2015), three basic research design includes exploratory research design, explanatory research design and descriptive research design. The exploratory research design will chiefly include the background information of the problem statement identified. Along with that, the explanatory design assists in finding out of the reasons the problems has arisen. On the other hand, the descriptive research design will help the researcher to relate the objectives of the research to the findings obtained. Keeping a symmetry between the research objectives as well as the finding of the research paper demonstrate the attentiveness of the researcher towards the issues of the research and his dedication to find an appropriate solution.

In order to conduct an authentic research it is highly crucial to select appropriate sample. Sampling method is defined as the process that involves selection of candidates appropriate for a certain research question (Meyers, Gamst & Guarino, 2016). The two basic sampling methods followed by the researchers include probability and non-probability sampling. Considering the fact that, in this research paper, random sampling will be performed, the chose sampling method for this research paper will be probability sampling. The sample size of this research will be 10 University students who are currently pursuing study in university X, a renowned university of Australia. Along with that, the researcher will also conduct literature review of 10 relevant articles in order to gather secondary dates. The article chosen for the research will be written within the year 2013 to 2018.

Objectives of the Research

For this research, qualitative methodology will be followed. Both primary and secondary data collection method will be involved. Primary data collection is crucial since it will help the researcher to directly communicate with the sample and access their point of view associated with the research problem (Gile, Johnston & Salganik, 2015). Thus, it can be understood that primary data collection will enhance the authenticity of the research to be conducted. In the mentioned research, an open ended interview will be conducted with the selected samples. As discussed earlier, the sample that will be selected to conduct this research are 10 students of university X.  Each sample will be asked 10 open ended questions related to their anxiety or stress disorder as well as the coping methods used by them to deal with the mentioned illness. Along with that, the researcher will also conduct literature review of 10 relevant articles in order to gather secondary dates. The article chosen for the research will be written within the year 2013 to 2018. This will be done to enhance the relevance of the research with current situation of the university students. By comparing the primary as well as the secondary data obtained, the researcher will be able to reach to an effective and authentic conclusion art the end of research.

Qualitative data analysis is comprised of identification, examination as well as interpretation of patterns and themes in textual data. It also helps the researcher to determine how these patterns and themes can assist in finding out the answer the research questions at hand (Frank, 2012). Considering the fact that an open-ended interview will be conducted with the university students for primary data collection, narrative data analysis will be performed. In the mentioned data analysis procedure, researcher conducts research relying on the basis of the information provided by the samples in the form of written or oral data (Clark et al., 2012). These approaches typically focus on the lives of individuals as told through their own stories. In order to determine the degree of authenticity the data obtained, data analysis of the literature review will be conducted.

Ethical Issues: In this item list the key ethical issues that are associated with your project

Please refer to the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research (this document is discussed in ‘Topic 3: Research Proposals’ in the learning materials in the course Blackboard. These questions are still included in the current HREA online form.

Research Design

The probable risks for the participants are the breaching of the confidentiality and privacy. The personal data can get exposed that is against the confidentiality standard, or the responses can be modified or can be used in some other works.

The collected data should not be used in other works or any kind of manipulation should be avoided to preserve the authentication of the work. The researcher should be aware of the biasness and protection of the collected data is necessary for an authentic work(Miller, Birch, Mauthner, & Jessop, 2012). Since this is a mixed method and includes both primary as well as secondary analysis, secondary data can be a large scale of survey as well as well as the data collected as part from the original work.

Are there any other risk involved in this research, e.g. to the research team, organization, others? If so explain how these risks will be negated/minimized/managed

Normally there ate general agreements about the sharing of the large surveys but very little information lies in the sharing of the original works. Data confidentiality and data protection should be taken care of(Ponterotto, 2013). If the data is freely available on Internet, public forums and books, permission for using it further should be taken. The ownership for the actual data would be acknowledged. Furthermore ethical approval should be taken from appropriate ethics committee (Ponterotto, 2013).

Describe the consent process

The ethical guidelines would help the researcher to conduct the research appropriately. The consent of the participants is mandatory before taking up the interview (Miller, Birch,Mauthner, & Jessop, 2012). The research should convey the purpose of the research and the probable outcome of the research.The questions of the questionnaire or those asked during the interview should avoid personal questions or should not hurt the emotions of the participants (TRIPATHY, 2013).  Any participants should not be forced, if not willing to take part in the survey.

How will participant privacy and confidentiality be protected?

In order to conduct the research, the researcher will have to follow the ethical guidelines, in compliance with the data protection act of 1998.Interviews should be conducted privately in separate rooms. The data should only be handled by a reliable person.

Describe the information storage and security for data both during and after the completion of the project.

The hardcopies of the collected data or any recordings should be preserved in locked in cabinets to prevent loss or should be preserved electronically for keeping it safe against unauthorized access. The softcopies will be kept in encrypted files (Ponterotto, 2013). 

Dissemination: Provide a brief outline of the ways in which you plan to disseminate the findings of your project.

Key findings can be communicated with the other researchers through scientific publications, news releases and presentations. Key findings should be properly disseminated among the various community groups. In this case, this research findings can be informed to the nurses and the midwives or to the psychologists (Wilson et al., 2010). The audiences that will be considered are the study participants, researchers, the health departments, the media outlets, community groups, government and the policy makers. Information and messages should be tailored to each of the audiences.  Mass media, TV, radio, social media outlets can be used to communicate the findings in an effective and fast way (Wilson et al., 2010). Information can also be placed in publications and the websites of some community organizations. Local ways of dissemination can be used such as presentation of the findings in seminars, health fairs or community events. Flyers and brochures are also effective in displaying the findings.

While the planning of the dissemination strategy all the considerations can be made-

  • The information should be kept short.
  • Non-clear, non-technical languages should be used for conveying the message to the target audiences. The principle points should be highlighted clearly.
  • Proper graphics and easy to read fonts should be used for captivating he attention of the viewers.

In this item you need to identify the things that would need to be funded to facilitate the efficient conduct of your research project. For example, research assistant to collect data, copying costs if using a hard copy survey tool, transcription costs for interview data, hardware and/or software, etc. For each item you nominate provide a short statement justifying the inclusion.  N.B. for this proposal you are not required to nominate a $ amount for the items you include.

Reference List

Besser, A., & Zeigler-Hill, V. (2014). Positive personality features and stress among first-year university students: Implications for psychological distress, functional impairment, and self-esteem. Self and Identity, 13(1), 24-44. https://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15298868.2012.736690

Clark, A. M., Savard, L. A., Spaling, M. A., Heath, S., Duncan, A. S., & Spiers, J. A. (2012). Understanding help-seeking decisions in people with heart failure: a qualitative systematic review. International journal of nursing studies, 49(12), 1582-1597. Retrieved from: https://gala.gre.ac.uk/14173/3/14173_ROBINSON_Sampling_Theoretical_Practical_2014.pdf

Fares, J., Al Tabosh, H., Saadeddin, Z., El Mouhayyar, C., & Aridi, H. (2016). Stress, burnout and coping strategies in preclinical medical students. North American journal of medical sciences, 8(2), 75. DOI:  10.4103/1947-2714.177299

Frank, A. W. (2012). Practicing dialogical narrative analysis. Varieties of narrative analysis, 33-52. Retrieved from: https://in.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/41823_2.pdf

Gile, K. J., Johnston, L. G., & Salganik, M. J. (2015). Diagnostics for respondent?driven sampling. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society), 178(1), 241-269. Retrieved from: https://rss.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/rssa.12059

Hintz, S., Frazier, P. A., & Meredith, L. (2015). Evaluating an online stress management intervention for college students. Journal of counseling psychology, 62(2), 137. DOI: 10.1037/cou0000014

Lewis, S. (2015). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Health promotion practice, 16(4), 473-475. Retrived from: https://nategabriel.com/egblog/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/creswell2.pdf

Meyers, L. S., Gamst, G., & Guarino, A. J. (2016). Applied multivariate research: Design and interpretation. Sage publications. Retrieved from: https://library.mpib-berlin.mpg.de/toc/ze_2006_1176.pdf

Miller, T., Birch, M., Mauthner, M., & Jessop, J. (Eds.). (2012). Ethics in qualitative research. Sage.https://books.google.co.in/books?hl=en&lr=&id=g2pEAgAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PP2&dq=ethical+consideration+in+qualitative+research&ots=sHEq5YMnH7&sig=nmUrAfuuATUQn1eIeDk1Q49S6G8#v=onepage&q=ethical%20consideration%20in%20qualitative%20research&f=false

Ponterotto, J. G. (2013). Qualitative research in multicultural psychology: Philosophical underpinnings, popular approaches, and ethical considerations.https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/2326-3598.1.S.19

Stoliker, B. E., & Lafreniere, K. D. (2015). The influence of perceived stress, loneliness, and learning burnout on university students’ educational experience. College Student Journal, 49(1), 146-160.Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kathryn_Lafreniere/publication/282817514_The_Influence_of_Perceived_Stress_Loneliness_and_Learning_Burnout_on_University_Students’_Educational_Experience/links/5856b8df08aeff086bfbcf6a.pdf

TRIPATHY, J. P. (2013). Secondary Data Analysis: Ethical Issues and Challenges. Iranian Journal of Public Health, 42(12), 1478–1479.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4441947/

van der Riet, P., Rossiter, R., Kirby, D., Dluzewska, T., & Harmon, C. (2015). Piloting a stress management and mindfulness program for undergraduate nursing students: Student feedback and lessons learned. Nurse Education Today, 35(1), 44-49. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2014.05.003 0260-6917

Wang, J. L., Wang, H. Z., Gaskin, J., & Wang, L. H. (2015). The role of stress and motivation in problematic smartphone use among college students. Computers in Human Behavior, 53, 181-188. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2015.07.005

Wilson, P. M., Petticrew, M., Calnan, M. W., & Nazareth, I. (2010). Disseminating research findings: what should researchers do? A systematic scoping review of conceptual frameworks. Implementation Science?: IS, 5, 91. https://doi.org/10.1186/1748-5908-5-9