Environmental Issues In Nepal

Population Growth and Migration

Nepal is a country which is full of natural beauty and it is renowned by its natural resources such as rivers, waterfalls, flora and mountain peaks. All the natural resources found there are slowly facing towards overexploitation. Undiminished use for the growth and development for hydro-electricity and irrigation, construction of road, agriculture and agro based industries, telecommunication and urbanization have created the tremendous imbalance in the entire eco system. A complete solution is needed that must include the environmental guidelines and policies in order to reduce the effects on the environment which fallouts from such huge growths.

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One of the major issue is the Population Growth and Migration.

The fundamental issue that exists in Nepal is the growing population and the migration. The population of Nepal is increasing by 2.6% per year. In addition to this, the population of Nepal migrates from the Trans-Himalayan region, from the mountains and from India as well to the Terai region. This can cause a terrible and tremendous pressure and stress on the land and other areas as well. This has also caused huge violation on the existing areas and forests of Nepal. So, eradicate such big issue, a national policy must be made and implemented as soon as possible in order to reduce the uncontrollable growing population and relocation, so that the worsening of the entire atmosphere generated by the growing inhabitants can be reduced to some extent (Bardsley and Hugo, 2010).

Deforestation takes place on a great and huge gauge and at a hastening rate, especially in the Terai areas up into the higher moderate climatic region. Deforestation generates serious issues of soil erosion majorly found on the hills, mountains and vertical topographies. This leads to speedy run-off leads to the scarcity of water, floods and devastation as an outcome in the Terai region. According to Donner in the year 1972, it was stated that this may result in the desertification in the country slowly and gradually. The problem of desertification is also found in some African and other countries as well (Conrad and Hilchey, 2011). The logically gentle, lengthy run off of a timbered region, becomes below the hefty rainfall of the monsoon majorly in the deforested region, drenching, and distended, fast-flowing rivers. For the period of dry season, the resources of water which are dispersed in the monsoon season are not sufficient because the water sequences dry up and the accessibility of water is minimized. The speedy run-off transmit valuable Nepalese top soil which is further exported to India as well as Bangladesh without any fee for the compensation and there, not often, minimizing the production of crops by siltation. The huge number of livestock in the country is reducing from time to time. This has taken place just because of the inaccessibility of food which is produced due to weighty cropping and the continuous hacking of the forests.


The attack of the weed named “ban Mara” (Eupatorium adenophorum) converted into exposed and troubled regions of the forest is later restricting cattle browsing. In the current scenario, the fecund capability of the arable land in Terai as well in hilly region has reduced as the fertile uppermost soil slips away and the usage of cattle mucks for composting and manure is decreased as the number of cattle is reducing day by day.  As an outcome, people living in the country are stressed and pressurized to clear all the forest regions (Middleton, 2013).

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The solution to the problem related to drinking water and Sanitation is still unacceptable. Only 11% of the entire inhabitants obtains piped drinking water which has been claimed according to the National Planning Commission. The excellence of the drinking water majorly in the Kathmandu is facing a huge loss. It was found that the drinking water is highly contaminated and it contains coliform bacteria specially Escherichia coli. This pollution can easily be found to inefficient process of water and its treatment at the water reservoirs. Nepal’s Department of Soil Conservation and Watershed Management have planned to take the important corrective action steps in order to preserve the barren and forest land of the country which is diminishing day by day. They have motivated community afforestation agendas such as soil protection, flood control, and cropland loss protection schemes. There is nevertheless, still there is a huge demand for additional growth and development of supplementary complete practices and policies for the environment protection (Malhotra, 2010).

Plantation of pine might have the environmental limitation, but from the look out of afforestation there are quick advantages as well. Pines grow very fast and they do not require too much care and they help in protecting the soil from the unnecessary pressure of heavy rainfall. On the contrary, pines are assumed to reduce the fertility of soil. There is an urgency for the appropriate speedy rising tree species which can be recycled for afforestation and it can source fuel as well as fodder.

Wood consist of 87% of the entire fuel necessity for the individuals living in Nepal. Additional energy necessities are satisfied by the hydro-electricity. Increasing human encroachment for the cultivation and settlement has led to the causes of deforestation majorly in the Chitwan Valley. If the recent demand for wood continues, then it can be found that the areas of the forest will be deteriorated in 12 to 14years. One possible substitute to the high ingestion of wood is hydro power. Thankful to this fact, Nepal has previously connected hydro-power stations of several dimensions at huge number of areas in the country. Such major structures have a problem such as high siltation rate infilling the confiscated water reservoirs reservoir edge erosion, river bed unpredictability and the effect of the construction of dam ecosystems (Mirumachi, 2013)

Drinking Water and Sanitation

Ecological educations must continue the construction of dam phase in order to evaluate the potentials of such effects and improve them as far as required. Such category of study and information must form a stable part of environmental policy of Nepal (Massey, Axinn and Ghimire, 2010).

The last issue of the urban development and pollution

The urban inhabitants of Nepal is growing at a precise high speed rate of 4 to 5% per annum over the last decade. Urban surroundings are below pressure that come from air, noise, solid waste, sewage and industrial emission contamination. A part from this, the Bagmati River which swipes away the Kathmandu Valley is highly affected and contaminated by huge number of unnecessary resources which contains large volume of E. coli and additional pathogens such as Vibrio cholera. Shigella etc. Records as extraordinary as 1.3 x 10SE. coli per 100 ml, with an overall of 45 dissimilar pathogens, have been documented (Singh, 1978) in the manure liquids of the Kathmandu Valley. In the Bagmati river waters, it was noted down that 7.2 × 105 E. co6 per 100ml. Sewages from Banswari Tannery and additional factories are also eroded into the Bagmati. Respiratory illness and silicosis might be more predominant among local populations close to location such as the Himal Cement and the Godavari Marble industrial plants in the Kathmandu Valley and it is likely that the temperature overturns might be a serious issue that the Kathmandu valley may face in very near future (Baland et al., 2010).

The following action plans and intervention can be quite useful in order to address the above mentioned environmental issues in a sustainable ways.

  • Education and awareness programs against the environment degradation and the growing population because it is one of the major factor for the degradation of environment.
  • Internalization of the Environmental Impact Assessment i.e. EIA system must be majorly used for the development plans and programs.
  • Economic elements such as subsidies on biogas plants in the rural parts are supposed to have an optimistic impacts on the environment.
  • Deliver supplementary concession and extra amenities to the industries and initiatives to motivate sustainable level of depletion and accept domestic technologies and processes which may cause optimistic effects on the environment.
  • Managing the number of vehicles entry every year in the municipalities and color rating management of vehicles in terms of environmental health system.
  • Promotion of the usage of low-polluting means of transport and environment- friendly fuel.
  • Growth and development of combined settlements for rural and relegated regions and threatened clusters to keep a balance on the regional distribution of population and control land deprivation.
  • Limitation of illegal, unrestrained and unorganized urbanization and settlement development process.
  • Involvement towards poverty mitigation by increasing the generation of income.
  • Utilization of adult-power, take advantage of the local dividend, in local development by encouraging adults in innovative and productive actions (Angelsen, Larsen and Olsen, 2012).


Thus, it can be concluded that the environmental problems which are found must be minimized in order to create a sustainable economic development majorly in Nepal. Instant actions must be implemented to degrade the environmental issues. It basically affects the living standard of the people.


Angelsen, A., Larsen, H.O. and Olsen, C.S., 2012. Measuring livelihoods and environmental dependence: Methods for research and fieldwork. Routledge.

Baland, J.M., Bardhan, P., Das, S., Mookherjee, D. and Sarkar, R., 2010. The environmental impact of poverty: evidence from firewood collection in rural Nepal. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 59(1), pp.23-61.

Bardsley, D.K. and Hugo, G.J., 2010. Migration and climate change: examining thresholds of change to guide effective adaptation decision-making. Population and Environment, 32(2-3), pp.238-262.

Conrad, C.C. and Hilchey, K.G., 2011. A review of citizen science and community-based environmental monitoring: issues and opportunities. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 176(1-4), pp.273-291.

Malhotra, P., 2010. Water Issues between Nepal, India and Bangladesh. IPCS Special Report.

Massey, D.S., Axinn, W.G. and Ghimire, D.J., 2010. Environmental change and out-migration: Evidence from Nepal. Population and environment, 32(2-3), pp.109-136.

Middleton, N., 2013. The global casino: An introduction to environmental issues: An introduction to environmental issues. Routledge.

Mirumachi, N., 2013. Securitising shared waters: an analysis of the hydropolitical context of the Tanakpur Barrage project between Nepal and India. The Geographical Journal, 179(4), pp.309-319.