Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior – Study And Analysis


The study of consumer behavior is critical for all business entities. Generally, life revolves around humans consuming services and goods. To achieve a competitive edge, businesses need to understand the process of a consumer purchase decision (Chhabra, 2018). The knowledge of the consumer psychology will enable business organizations to develop competitive strategies that will be advantageous to them. Organizations need to realize that consumers are different in their personality and therefore in their preferences too. Consumers are also motivated by various factors to go for the products and services they choose. A study into consumer behavior among other market elements is therefore inevitable.

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Many variable factors influence the consumer buying decision for any product in the market. Consumers behave differently due to these factors. I carried out a market survey to investigate the factors influencing the consumer behavior. The goal of this research was to find out how perception, culture, family and lifestyle, motivation, attitude, and group and individual differences influence the consumer buying decision. The survey shows that consumers have different tastes and preferences about nestle and PepsiCo products. The research process is herein discussed as well the summary and analysis of how the mentioned factors influence consumer behavior.

Foremost, the survey instrument used was a questionnaire which contained the purpose of the survey on the first page. To measure the influence of the variables above on consumer behavior, an appropriate survey instrument should provide room for customer opinion (Jipp & Papenfuss, 2011).  Additionally, the sample size is of the essence in coming up with accurate conclusions about the market (Coombes, 2011). Taking into account the two factors, I developed a questionnaire to gather data for this survey. Twenty-five participants accessed this questionnaire and gave their feedback. The questionnaire consisted of open-ended and closed-ended questions that sought to find out why the customer preferred a particular product.  Closed-ended questions aided in finding out the family background and lifestyle of participants. Also, they helped to predict their attitudes. Open-ended questions sought the opinions of the customers which contributed in a deduction of the motivations, differences, perceptions, and culture. For the validation of this questionnaire, I presented copies of the survey to the department responsible for the consumer behavior course. The professors in charge went through the survey carefully to determine whether it addressed the intended goal adequately. They suggested the addition of interval questions to find out some important specific information from the participants.

Data Analysis

Households were a more appropriate target for this survey. A convenient sample was used to gather data for this survey. However, I sought to reach different households, that is the high-class, the middle-class, and the low-class. The questionnaire was administered to twenty families and five individuals. I delivered all questionnaires in person to improve the response rate from the participants. I also informed each participant of the goal of the survey to find a relevant response from them. After one day of delivering the questionnaires, I collected the questionnaires back and recorded a relatively high response rate of 90%. For me to retrieve all the inquiries back, I sought the helping hand of a friend who helped deliver them and mark the households. Through this, I managed to retrieve all the questionnaires dispatched.

In this qualitative research, the primary method of the data analysis was the identification of themes and dispersion measurement (Grill, 2017). Recording the responses from the questionnaires marked the process of data analysis. Firstly, I organized the responses regarding the classes and lifestyle for the households. For the individuals, the sampling was random, and therefore there was no need to organize their responses. Secondly, I noted the viewpoints of the respondents concerning each question. The process if interpretation for these responses took a lot of time because it is the most critical. A lot of information was extracted from the answer to open-ended questions. By analyzing the response of participants analytically and logically, I came up with the themes and trends in consumer behavior. There were similarities in the responses of individuals and households of the same class. Each household and individual indicated their lifestyle in their responses.

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Notably, the respondents showed that each consumer of any particular product puts their preferences first even with budget constraints in their purchasing decision. The research met its goal of seeking a response from individuals as well as households. No tool of analysis is required for examining the respondent’s opinions. The responses of the participants were structured in an easy to understand manner which reflected their feelings as well as their thoughts about Nestle and PepsiCo. Therefore, it was easy to infer conclusions about their attitudes, perceptions, culture, lifestyle, and motivations. Furthermore, the responses provided the information needed concerning the goal of the survey.

Consumers prefer not be generalized but to be treated individually. They advocate for their tastes and ideas. Most factors influencing consumer buying decision are psychological. Different aspects influence various people in varied ways. Firstly, the perception has a critical role in the decision-making of a customer (Dhadhal, 2018). A consumer must first be exposed to a product or service and then interpret them. There are various ways by which consumers are exposed to products. After that, their attention is drawn to the product, and they begin to understand it in their ways. Many respondents of this survey insinuated that their first encounter with products determined how they interpreted the product. For example, advertisements structured poorly did not attract many consumers to a product. Some consumers associated the quality of a product with its price (Dagher & Itani, 2014). Thus, they preferred some nestle products to PepsiCo products.


Secondly, motivation emerged as a strong determined of consumer choices (Foxall, 2015). There are theories put forward to explain human motives for purchasing products. Human motives are classified from basic to advanced motives. Food is a human’s primary need. Most respondents admitted that on any day, they shopped for food more than any other item.

Additionally, other needs after they had satisfied their hunger. The Maslow’s needs hierarchy presents the categories of requirements for humans in the order of advancement. Most respondents subscribed to the needs hierarchy (Prakash & Pathak, 2014).

Thirdly, the personal attitude of consumers is of the significant essence in coming up with marketing strategies for organizations (Gomes, 2016). Attitudes are shaped by perceptions and even personality. Friends and family can play a crucial role in shaping the attitude of a potential consumer. Household respondents admitted that their family members influenced their take on many products. Moreover, consumers have varied level of commitment to products. It takes time for a consumer to identify with a product completely.

Moreover, there are differences, group or individual, that influence how consumers settle for products (Gomes, 2018). In references to responses provided in the questionnaires, people are different regarding their personality. Members of a family may exhibit close personalities which led them to prefer certain products. There core traits that distinguish personalities and they include extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, openness to experience and instability. Individual respondents showed that people preferred products which suit their personality. Some people are more attracted to products that are unique and may not be accessible to many.

Furthermore, family and lifestyle is a strong critical factor in analyzing consumer behavior (Ramya & Ali, 2016). A difference was noted in the responses of households considering their socio-economic statuses. High-class families were at liberty to choose products which best product which satisfied their needs. Middle-class families considered their budget restraint while purchasing some products on the market. On the other hand, low-class families settled for the cheapest product that would fulfill their needs.  In their view, the durability of a product mattered more than other factors. High-class families obtained more luxury goods within short periods of time.

Also, culture specially influences consumers. Culture constitutes the education levels and awareness of individuals (Piacentini & Cui, 2014). Exposure to different ways of life and environments enable people to to look at products differently. While another person would look at a product as a luxury, another one would view it as a need. This was the case for households with different lifestyles. People living in different environments may value products differently. Education levels affect peoples’ outlook on life and the products that they need.


This research can help students and lecturers who are studying consumer behavior and business entities which are focused on the customer-oriented approach to marketing. It will add on to the knowledge of factors influencing the satisfaction of consumers. It should be noted that consumers should be treated with care in business because they drive sales revenue. Business organizations can implement some of the critical information in this research so that they are to come up with competitive strategies.  To achieve better performance, organizations can implement some of the critical findings of this research.


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