HCC Biology Amino Acid Groups Essay


Write an essay about the different amino acid groups as essential and nonessential. The essay should include sources as well as why it is important to our body.

Biological Molecules
Organic and inorganic compounds are both composed of different elements, organic compounds
usually contain hydrogen and carbon in their structure and made within living organisms.
Organic molecules have functional groups that are unique for each of them thus creating
proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. All of these compounds are built from very basic units called
monomers that are linked together to create larger macromolecules. Metabolism is the only
mechanism that is utilized by living organisms via dehydration and hydrolysis. Anabolic
reactions are dehydration reactions when two monomers are linked to a larger level, and the
catabolic reactions the molecule is hydrolysis by the addition of water molecule and breakdown
to the basic units.
They are generally called surges; they contain a large number of carbon and hydrogen with other
substances. And are macromolecules with different levels of complexity in the structure. In
general, they have a fixed ratio of one carbon: two hydrogens: one oxygen in a chemical formula
of C6H12O6. They range from Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, and polysaccharides.
The first level of carbohydrate, three different kinds of monosaccharides are Glucose, Fructose,
and Galactose. The three molecules have the same number of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
That way they are called isomers with differences in the structure orientation. Glucose is full that
can be used by our body cells and allow us to stay alive. All three are produced by autotrophs.
The anabolic reaction between monosaccharides will result in larger compounds linked with
glycoside linkages resulted from the dehydration. Three different kinds of disaccharides are:
1. the sugar table sucrose is composed of one glucose and one fructose molecule
2. the second is what makes the milk Lactose which is composed of glucose and galactose
3. the third is Maltose which composed of two molecules of glucose.
Very large macromolecules that result from dehydration of large numbers of monosaccharides,
there are two major categories of this level in animals is called glycogen and in plants is called
starch. In plants, another level that is very complex known as the Cellulose makes very important
structural carbohydrates for plants cell walls and some bacteria. The human digestive system can
breakdown all levels of carbohydrates except for cellulose, which is used in our food as fiber,
that lubricates and provides health to the colon. Carbohydrates have many functions is living
organisms they are the source of energy, they are used for cell walls, they are part of cellular
membrane structures such as surface markers
Lipids are generally called fat is another macromolecule that is built via dehydrations from basic
units that contain carbon and hydrogen. Lipids have different levels of structures from basic to
more complex; they include triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids, and wax.
This is the first level of fat formation it results from dehydration of three fatty acids and one
glycerol molecule. The fatty acids can be saturated or unsaturated fatty acids. Saturated fatty
acids are from animal sources and they are solid at room temperature. Fatty acids have the
maximum number of hydrogen attached to their carbon and the carbons have single bonds
between them. Unsaturated fatty acids are from plant sources and usually liquid at room
temperature, they do not have the maximum number of hydrogen attached to their carbons that
bring double bonds between the carbons. All fatty acids are hydrophobic in relation to water.
This very important form of lipids that found in the plasma membranes of cells, the membrane is
composed of phospholipids with each phosphors part is hydrophilic and the fatty acid tails are
Another important form of fat with a ring shape structure, functionally it is part of our hormones
about 10% of those hormones are made from steroids such as our sex hormones.
When triglycerides are attached to alcohol they create a large complex structure called wax,
which is also hydrophobic to water. Fats have several functions in living systems they are part of
the cell membrane, structure of sex hormones, insulation in the skin, protection for organs such
as the heart, and a source of energy.
Proteins are large macromolecules that are considered very important for living bodies. Proteins
are known to be the most diverse of the organic molecules in their structures and functions;
changes in the structure of the protein will affect its function.
Protein functions include defense Gamma Globulins for antibody productions, signals such as
hormones, enzymes, skin and bone and muscle proteins, in the blood several kinds of proteins in
the red blood cells and the plasma proteins. From this, we can see the importance of proteins in
our lives. Proteins are built from amino acids, there are 20 different amino acids that can be
found in both animals and plants. The amino acids are grouped into essential and nonessential
amino acids, essential amino acids are 9 out of the twenty and the non-essential are 11 amino
acids, the essential amino acid are required to be part of our diet for protein structure and if they
are missing no substation will be allowed, the non-essential one can be replaced by another. The
amino acid structure is composed of a central carbon atom, hydrogen, amine group, a carboxyl
group, and a variable R unit; the R is different from one amino acid to another.
The dehydration (synthesis) reaction required that the amine group of one amino acid is facing
the carboxyl group of the other, this will extract water molecule out resulting in the formation of
peptide bond when three amino acids liked this bond is called a dipeptide, but when the number
increase we will call it a polypeptide bonds. The formations of proteins are controlled by the
DAN and the RNA via transcription and translation and have different levels, the primary,
secondary, tertiary, and quaternary levels.
Primary Level
This the first level of protein synthesis, the amino acids are oriented amine to carboxyl and
peptide is established, when many of them happened this is known as the primary protein
structure, the only attractions between the amino acids are the peptide bonds. The primary level
is the most important because it will determine the final protein structure, an example of this
level of proteins is the enzymes.
Secondary Level
The primary protein is twisted into what is known as the alpha helix twist, this twist bring amino
acids are closer to each other promoting more attractions between them in what is known as
hydrogen attraction, this creates numbers of attractions make the proteins more stable and used
for more functions, an example of this level is the alpha keratin protein that makes our skin
waterproof and makes our hair and nails.
Tertiary Level
The third level of protein structure, when the alpha helix is twisted one more time in what is
called the beta plate sheet formations, will cause the sulfur unites in the proteins to interact with
each other’s resulting in covalent bonds known as the disulfide bridges which make the protein
more stable. The third protein structure can be found in the muscular tissue.
Quaternary Level
At this level the protein is not only composed of amino acids alone, other elements are added to
the tertiary level to make it more stable and functional, this can be detected in the red blood cells
when hem units are added to create hemoglobin molecules, and in the thyroid hormones when
Iodine is added to build thyroxin.
Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids
Nucleotides are composed of carbon, phosphate, and nitrogen bases the Adenine, Guanin,
Cytosine, and Thymine, and the ATP molecule that is used for energy. They are organized into
two highly important molecules Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic acid (RNA) both
will be discussed in future units in more detail.

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