How An E-Commerce Approach With An Application Can Improve Private Parking Companies’ Efficiency And Revenues

Feasibility of Research Plan/ Research Methodology

Private parking Solutions (PPS) is a UK firm that provides parking services in various locations. At present, the firm uses cameras to help private car park owners better manage their parking spaces. However, the company needs to grow in a new direction and provide parking management services to generate new revenue, basing their system on information technology and the upcoming concept of Internet of Things. Towards, this end, this paper outlines how PPS can develop a new e-commerce system for parking services.  A solution for PPS will have to be developed in a theoretical model so it is understood, before the system can be implemented. This paper proposes an IT system with mobile functionality, and incorporating the IoT technology to enable PPS to attain the objective of growth and increased revenues and efficiency. A systematic review of literature and using secondary research are the proposed methodologies for attaining this objective.  To gain an understanding of the concept, the use of existing information and research is useful to help create the context for developing a solution for PPS. Undertaking secondary research is cost effective, easy, and can enable access to vast volumes of relevant information that will help in developing a suitable IS (information system)for PPS to use in order to meet its objectives.  Secondary research is a research approach that entails collecting, summarizing, collating, and synthesizing existing research; results from primary research conducted priorly for another purpose are used for the purposes of the current research. The methodology to be used in conducting the research is systematic review of literature; this is a research method in which past research is identified, selected, and critically evaluated for relevance and content and then used for answering an existing research question. This paper seeks to answer a research question on how PPS can leverage the use of an IT based information system to meet its business and financial objectives.  The systematic review of literature will follow a well-defined and systematic framework with clearly stated criteria before conducting the review (Dewey & Drahota, 2016).  The research will entail a comprehensive and transparent search for relevant literature on various databases that include Google Scholar, Research gate, and Science Direct, as well as any other relevant databases that may be encountered. The focus of the search and review will be geared towards answering the research question. The following principles will underpin this systematic literature review;

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  • Clarity of question and objectives
  • Transparency
  • Equality
  • Focus
  • Integration
  • Coverage
  • Accessibility (Pittway, 2008)

The research will be evidence based in which past research with evidence of applicability of e-commerce systems to business will be used and used to provide the justification for the proposed system for PPS.  The method (systematic literature review) is suitable for this research and accompanying question because research will be conducted effectively without having to undergo the complexities and costs associated with primary data collection. 

PPS at the moment uses some form of technology; it has a website (found at with social media presence, and also have an interactive website through which customers can contact the firm and make inquiries. However, its stated ambitions and objectives require a different approach, with a purpose built information system to run an e-Commerce business.  PPS requires a system that is easy to use, and works on multiple platforms, while also ensuring the security of the users and parking lot space owners. The proposed IT based information system is an application e-commerce suite that users install on their mobile devices instead of having to just access the website; the application is however linked with the PPS website and database system and servers to manage the entire system. The entire system will have an advanced architecture with sensors that form the internet of things (IoT), cameras, internet connection, servers, databases, a website, a cloud instance, and mobile based application to form the access point into the system.  Users will be able to download the application into their mobile devices, either form the PPS website or from an application store such as Apples’ App Store.  Once they download and install the application on a device (it can be installed in unlimited devices but with a single account name and number), it will require then to post more details. The user will get a message from PPS to confirm their mobile device number or type, and then they will input their details into the system, including name, address, telephone, and a photo ID, such as a driving license. The user will then link a payment system or systems, including mobile wallets, and credit cards, as well as online payment systems. This information is then stored in the PPS database and the devices will have GPS tracking enabled on them. On the backend, PPS will have sensors installed in parking lots and cameras to create an IoT ecosystem that automatically updates parking space information and updates this on the system.  When a client wants parking, they simply go to the app, enter the location where they desire parking and confirm; thesystem will then automatically provide an update and location of an empty space and alert the user. Upon getting this information, the user will then reserve the parking space and will be notified the time it will take them to get to the parking; the user will have about half an hour to get to the parking. At the entrance, they will pick a parking ticket token, or swipe their NFC enabled mobile devices onto a sensor and proceed to the parking. The system will automatically count the time taken and upon exiting the parking, the user will update the system to show they have exited the parking. At the exit, they will either swipe an NFC enabled mobile device, or enter the payment message to have the automated barrier open and clear them to leave.  When exiting the parking space, the calculated parking fees are automatically deducted from their linked payment method and a confirmation with a code sent.  The system is then automatically updated to show there is a free parking spot.


The system will enable efficient and streamlined management of parking spaces and lots for PPS; it will be able to manage the parking spaces for various people and charge them a management fee.  The system will enhance its revenues because ideally, PPS will not own any or several parking spaces; it will just manage them effectively on behalf of their owners. The system will ensure increased revenues and better customer service through automated updating of information on parking spaces, along with location. Customers will only have to punch in the location where they are seeking a parking space, rather than driving around trying to locate a parking space.  PPS will not need to have a parking attendant at every location, although it could still have them, but automation will ensure the availability of parking spaces is automatically updated. Through the application, PPS will be able to provide excellent customer service as customers will be able to post questions or seek further information and get an instant response. Because the system will be centrally controlled from a cloud server, PPS will attain very high levels of efficiency; parking spaces will not lay empty for long as the system will always provide updates on availability and customers can then decide to reserve and use the available parking spaces. The system will have an inbuilt pay processing system linked to a financial and accounting system run by PPS. At the end of every parking session, the customer will drive out and click their devices to show they have checked out. The system will give an update of the time taken and charges, which the customer then confirms and the system deducts from their linked payment method (for example, the credit card).  The operational structure of the company, how it deals with customers, and revenue management, as well as parking management system will be drastically changed and improved. Within the system, a parking space owner can also download the application and sign up as a parking space provider; PPS will then enter into a contract with this client and they will be able to monitor the use of their parking space. PPS as well will be able to get a high level view of operations, how many new customers, comments from social media users, revenues raised, and even complaint and deal with them in real time.  

Because they will only invest in the application and IoT infrastructure as well as cloud database and website with attached systems, PPS will attain high efficiency and low overheads and wastes, resulting in increased revenues and an increase in the number of customers. PPS will be able to be more competitive, offering a value service at a low cost to many customers that find parking a problem, especially when they have to move around looking for parking.  The system will capture a lot of data including the number of active customers, their parking habits, the parking spaces most in demand, amounts received for parking, amounts due to parking space owners, and demand hours. Armed with this information, the management at PPS will be able to make effective decisions using the amount of data the system generates. With social media connection, PPS will be able to offer customer service, promote their business, and get insights by capturing raw user generated data and using cloud system analytics service providers to analyze the data and give details. The result will be that decision making will be accurate and backed by facts and figures from system generated reports as well as big data analytics. This way, PPS can continue to grow and scale up its operations with more customers and subsequently, greater revenues and higher level of competitiveness.  

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Migration Plan

Below is a Summary of the benefits of the New System

Enhanced stopping – Users locate the best spot accessible, sparing time, assets and exertion. The parking garage tops off effectively and space can be used legitimately by business and corporate elements.

Decreased activity – Traffic stream increments as less autos are required to drive around looking for an open parking spot.

Diminished contamination – Searching for stopping consumes around one million barrels of oil a day. An ideal stopping arrangement will altogether diminish driving time, subsequently bringing down the measure of day by day vehicle discharges and at last decreasing the worldwide natural impression.

Improved User Experience – A brilliant stopping arrangement will incorporate the whole client encounter into a bound together activity. Driver’s installment, spot recognizable proof, area inquiry and time warnings all flawlessly turn out to be a piece of the goal entry process.

New Revenue Streams – Many new income streams are conceivable with brilliant stopping innovation. For instance, part proprietors can empower layered installment choices reliant on parking spot area. Additionally, remunerate projects can be coordinated into existing models to energize rehash clients.

Incorporated Payments and POS – Returning clients can supplant every day, manual money installments with account invoicing and application installments from their telephone. This could likewise empower client faithfulness projects and important client input.

Expanded Safety – Parking part workers and security protects contain constant parcel information that can help anticipate stopping infringement and suspicious movement. Tag acknowledgment cameras can accumulate germane film. Additionally, diminished spot-seeking movement in the city can lessen mischances caused by the diversion of hunting down stopping.

Constant Data and Trend Insight – Over time, a brilliant stopping arrangement can create information that reveals relationships and patterns of clients and parcels. These patterns can end up being precious to part proprietors with respect to how to make alterations and upgrades to drivers.

Diminished Management Costs – More computerization and less manual action saves money on work cost and asset depletion.

Expanded Service and Brand Image – A consistent experience can truly soar a corporate or business substances mark picture to the client. Regardless of whether the goal is a retail location, an airplane terminal or a corporate business office, guests will without a doubt be awed with the front line innovation and comfort factors.

PPS will require a total upgrade of its infrastructure, with a new enterprise system architecture incorporating an e-commerce website, an application suite that can be downloaded,  sensors with internet connection, cameras with artificial intelligence, a cloud based database, and various supporting systems. The systems include finance and accounting system, a payment processing system, a HR system, and a CRM system with database to manage customer information as well as their complaints. In addition, the system will have social media connectivity to be used for customer service, advertising and promotion, and for providing insights based on customer generated content and big data analytics.  The IoT will require investments in computer systems and sensors with internet connectivity and low power consumption, as well as intelligent cameras for parking spaces.  These systems will continuously feed information into a hybrid cloud server with a database that will then update all the connected applications installed on user devices, as well as the company’s website

Impacts to PPS and changes to Infrastructure

At the point when information accessible in heritage framework yet after relocation process,if it isn’t accessible in target framework, at that point it is named as information misfortune. Information misfortune is most noteworthy hazard in information movement. Cost included redressing information misfortune and business cost required because of poor information includes as to money related and notoriety hazard.

There can be two collapsed compromise, Count Reconciliation and Key money related segment compromise.

Contrasting number of records in heritage framework and target framework will give reasonable evaluation about information misfortune in relocation. It isn’t essential that dependably heritage framework record check and target framework information tally should coordinate; there might be business guidelines to dismiss records in view of specific parameters. In the event that such principles were utilized, at that point number of records in inheritance framework should coordinate with number of rejected records in addition to record check in target system.Tester ought to likewise approve purpose behind dismissal are according to business rules. 

Key money related section compromise is recording summation of all key budgetary segments ex shutting balance, accessible adjust and so forth and contrasting amongst inheritance and target framework will bring about distinguishing proof of information misfortune. On the off chance that confuse is discovered, we can penetrate down to granular level to discover which record or records were crisscrossing and underlying driver investigation should be performed to discover purpose behind such information misfortune.

Arrangement and substance of information in heritage framework and target framework is distinctive in examination because of relocation process then it is called defiled information. Because of information movement, oddities or excess or copied information or nearness of non-significant information are identified with information trustworthiness issues. Information defilement and information honesty influences business and activity productivity and it thoroughly beats motivation behind relocation.

Approving every single information amongst heritage and target framework is best philosophy to keep away from information debasement. Following Data approval approachs are broadly utilized

  • Test Data Validation
  • Subsets of information Validation
  • Finish informational collection approval.

Test information approval: It includes in irregular choice of record from inheritance framework and contrasting same and target framework. Testing isn’t surrender confirmation framework as it chooses little arbitrary records. Profiling tests records get further more information scope then irregular examples. 

Subset of information approval: Instead of picking arbitrary example records for check amongst inheritance and target framework, here we pick subset of records in view of line number, for example, initial thousand records or ten thousand to fifty thousand records. Just preferred standpoint is it select more records and expecting more information scope in light of higher likelihood

Finish informational index approval: It is perfect approval strategy that we ought to endeavor in relocation testing. It thinks about each record in bidirectional way, looking at each record in heritage framework against target framework and target framework against inheritance framework. Short/exemption inquiry is utilized to look at information between frameworks. At the point when two distinctive database sellers are included, such correlation is unthinkable, to beat occasion need to make in possibly one database with both heritage and target framework information.

Factor to consider in Data approval:

  • Solidness of task.
  • Information scope.
  • Execution time.
  • Effectiveness of Query/Script.
  • Semantics hazard

Amid relocation, it happens at some point significance of inheritance section and target segment hold same importance yet their unit of estimation is extraordinary and it significance of information is totally changed. Vital to see in this situation is information isn’t loosed or tainted, relocation is effective yet not valuable in term of target.

For instance, on the off chance that we have a field called sum in the source database and it is getting relocated to base sum in target application. In the source application, this specific field manages the Indian rupee yet at target side, the base sum field thinks about US dollars. In the event that 10 INR (Indian Rupee) is getting moved to 10 US dollars, it is a misstep since 10 INR can never be considered as 10 US dollars.

Other such case is the source application fields manage decimal indicates up 2 however target application does not think about any such imperatives. In some cases the source application field’s arrangement with decimal indicates up 2 yet target application does not think about any such requirements.

Constant clients and topic specialists ought to include in possibility think about and such semantic issues ought to be recognized before in venture life cycle.

Test degree ought to incorporate experiments to recognizing the irregularities and inconsistencies between the moved information and the parameterization of the objective application.

Analyzers physically think about items show in the source and target application by taking a gander at the principle screen of the application.


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