HST 216: Source Study #2 – Spring 2022 Semester
Choose ONE ONLY of the following numbered questions and write a source study essay using
the specified text extract/s from Geanakoplos, and following the guidelines and lessons learned
from writing Source Study #1.
This assignment is due on Blackboard no later than Sunday April 24 @ 11:59 pm.
Question 1: According to this text extract, what was the importance of the Pechenegs, and how
did the emperor advise his son to deal with them and other northern peoples? What does this
tell us about the principles and methods of Byzantine diplomacy, and about Byzantine
perceptions of themselves and so-called “barbarians”?
Required Text Extract: Geanakoplos, extract #89A (Constantine VII, De Administrando Imperio,
compiled in 950s).
Question #2: According to this text extract, How should the emperor handle requests by
socalled ”barbarians” for imperial regalia and Greek fire? Why should these items not fall into
barbarian hands, and what were the intended purposes of these stories? What does this tell us
about Byzantine perceptions of themselves and the so-called “barbarians”?
Required Text Extract: Geanakoplos, extract #89B (Constantine VII, De Administrando Imperio,
compiled in 950s).
Question #3: According to these two text extracts, how were imperial audiences conducted and
how were foreign ambassadors treated at the Imperial Court? Explain the importance of
ceremonial protocol, diplomatic letters, gifts, and “special effects.” What were the political
purposes of these audiences for the Byzantines, and the desired (and actual) impact on
ambassadors like Luidprand?
Required Text Extracts: Geanakoplos extracts #29 (Constantine VII, De Ceremoniis [Book of
Ceremonies] compiled 940s or 950s), AND #5 (Luidprand, bishop of Cremona, Antapodosis,
written in 950s).
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