Impacts of US Military Forces in Latin America Research Paper


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Please use Annotated bibliography provided  to do the research paper

Annotated Bibliography
Virginio A. Arroyo Saez
Dr. John C. Koehler, Ph.D
POLI-4315-110- Foreign Policy
October 28, 2021
Impacts of US Military forces In Latin America
Evan, E. (2019, February 19). The U.S. military in support of strategic objectives in Latin
America and the Caribbean. PRISM | National Defense University. Retrieved October 19,
2021, from
In this article, the author talks about how the military forces help develop direct or indirect
actions by expanding the security corporation and maintaining the law. The security forces
are obliged to act against a politically or economically influential criminal actor like, for
example, in Mexico, they have the cartels. In Guatemala, they use SIPLAGDE to optimize
and develop better military forces in Guatemala Army and mention how to bring
connectivity towards Venezuela, Cuba, Bolivia, and Nicaragua that are anti-U.S is
important to them even though we are neighbors. Talk about the limitation that military
forces have in certain areas since the military forces play a huge role in security.
Holden, R. H. (1999). Securing Central America against Communism: The United States
and the Modernization of Surveillance in the Cold War. Journal of Interamerican Studies
and World Affairs, 41(1), 1–30.
In this article, the author talks about the collaboration that the U.S. sponsored programs of
military and police collaboration with the Central American governments during the Cold
War. Also, it talks about the Military contribution to the surveillance in five countries of
Central America: Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica. The
United States forces also expanded in Panama and also Cuba that located in the Caribbean.
“the U.S. Agency for International Development’s Office of Public Safety (OPS), which
had four experts assigned full-time to Central America in each of four areas:
communications, immigration, record keeping, and contraband control” the U.S. forces
recommended different ways on how to create a better security system in those rural areas
since keeping to intensified through the years.
Isacson, A., & Kinosian, S. (2016, April 15). Which Central American military and police
units get the most U.S. aid? WOLA. Retrieved April 19, 2021, from

In this article the Autor talks about how the military and the police forces collaborated in
central America governments. talks about how the military forces help on the surveillance
in central America also known as the “Northern Triangle” on how the US contributed on
border security, they train military police forces on how to engage the drug trafficking that
“Central America is the main drug trafficking corridor in the Western
Hemisphere”(Isacson, A).
Wola, org. (2020, October 7). Monitoring U.S. assistance to Central America. WOLA. Retrieved
October 26, 2021, from
This website shows how much the Military and the US have contributed to the security of
Central America by supporting Borders security, Drug Control, help on economic Growth,
Human Rights Security, Justice Sector, Violence prevention, and much more towards
central America between 2016 to 2017. Showing the amount of money in different
categories and location is a very impressive number. We can see that use military force
plays a huge role when it comes to security. Also, the military play a huge roll on Counter
Drug Assistance “Under Section 1004, the Department of Defense provides support for
counter-drug activities for military and police units in Guatemala. Support includes
equipment, training, maintenance, vehicles, infrastructure, aerial and ground
reconnaissance, and intelligence analysis services” (Wola, org. 2020). that was a total of
“$29,783,000” (Wola , org. 2020) that . You can see that the Military is used to fight war or
assist on first response and shows that they have a system to prevent illegal transactions or
events that have happened and are still happening daily.
Klare, M. (n.d.). U.S. Military Operations / Latin America. NACLA. Retrieved October 29,
2021, from
In this website, the author talks about “The Military Assistance Program (MAP)” that the
main focus of this program is military operations in Latin American. It talks about the
bases located in the Panama canal zone and Puerto Rico and the little island called
Vieques that play a huge role for U.S. military forces to train in those locations to
maintain their readiness on point. The website mentions that “Vieques is an island located
just off the eastern tip of Puerto Rico which is used primarily for military functions. Of the
island’s 33,000 acres, some 26,000 have been appropriated by the U.S. Navy for bases and
training facilities.” (Klare, M )And “In April 1965, for instance, some 10,000 servicemen
participated in exercises at Vieques which involved some 22 Naval warships and 160 Air
Force, Marine and Navy aircraft”( Klare, M)
Ríos Figueroa, J. (2016). Constitutional Courts As Mediators : Armed Conflict, Civil-Military
Relations, and the Rule of Law in Latin America. Cambridge University Press.
The book’s main focus is on the function of constitutional courts in democracies when the
armed forces are waging various forms of internal armed conflicts: Colombia, Peru, and
Mexico in Latin America, as well as Israel, Turkey, and Pakistan. The book demonstrates
that constitutional courts can be instrumental in striking a democratically accepted balance
between the exercise of civilian authority and the legitimate needs of the military in its
pursuit of order and national security through detailed analyses of the political context,
civil-military relations, and constitutional jurisprudence on military autonomy and the
regulation of the use of force.

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