Importance Of IoT Smart City – An Analysis

Introduction to the Problem

The paper will analyze the importance of IoT Smart city, IoT (Internet of things) and Smart city, it mainly focuses on the concept of IoT in the smart city, the purpose of IoT, what is expected from IoT Smart City as well as the problem faced due to IoT Smart City to the environment.

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The purpose of this report is to cover the entire area of the study and the research design should be convenient to understand. The significant purpose of the research paper is to provide with the outline, brief as well as the basic idea about the topic to the instructor. It also aims to describe the problems or challenges faced.

The topic chosen for this report is IoT Smart City, it is an application that enables smart city throughout the world. It provides to integrate the sensors as well as monitoring various devices via a network, especially an internet, in order to provide better services as well as getting better opportunities to interact with the citizens(Latre et al., 2016).

The smart city is known to be the wired, the networked or a ubiquitous city which is grabbing attention across the world that promises of developing the technology for the economic growth of the city as well as its management. But there are various problems as well as challenges to be faced by the smart city, such as it requires smart citizen who ill energetically participate in governance as well as reforms (Monzon, 2015). The very first problem related to the smart city is power, without the wireless power smart city will be seen to be a sci-fi kind of fantasy for the citizens. Another question arises when discussing the problem of the smart city is:

What is deserved in a human habitat? This means that we could easily form a dystopia as same as utopia. Problem-based on Re-designing our environment that assures people that if the city is natural, the smart city will be supernatural is also a big challenge for developing smart city(Wiig, 2015). Without overcoming these challenges of IoT Smart City it will always remain a dream for the people as well as for the founders of IoT Smart City. learning, data mining, predictive analysis and big data analytics. Forth layer is the integration layer that integrates sensor data, GIS (geographic information system), economics and population.

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The fifth layer deals with interconnections between the different smart objects through various technologies such as NFC (Near Field Communication), ZigBee, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi or DECT/ULE. After that, the next phase involves acquisition of cameras, GPS (global positioning system), sensors, meters and smart phones. The last layer concerns with the IoT enabled market based on smart health, smart grid, connected and automated home and so on.

Literature review

II. Introduction to the Problem

The report focuses on development of smart cities based on Internet of Things (IoT). For this purpose, the report will follow a structured approach involving sequential stages of research. The research will begin with an introduction section. The introduction section will define the problem and challenges associated with the project topic. Thereafter, it will look into the areas where the present research i.e. IoT for smart cities can be useful for overcoming the stated problems and challenges.

Apart from that, the introduction section will encompass the fundamental objective and purpose of the study and will present a brief overview of how the study will be conducted. The second section of the report will include a detailed analysis and evaluation of a number of existing journals and articles based on the chosen topic of research i.e. IoT enabled smart city.

In order to achieve this purpose, online sources will be used to identify and select a number of journals and research papers published by various authors. A separate annotated bibliography section will summarize and critically evaluate the individual articles one by one with appropriate citations. Thirdly, a detailed literature review section will encompass all the associated concepts and theories learnt and studied from analysing the research papers in the annotated bibliography section.

More precisely, the literature review section will throughout review the research topic and thereby provide proper justifications and arguments based on the discussions on the result outcomes. Finally, the research findings will be presented with an in-depth understanding of the issue. The study will be concluded with a satisfactory data analysis and discussion of the research findings.

Internet of Things (IoT) is a promising technological advancement that can address various societal and environmental challenges around the world. IoT is able to connect smart devices, use big data analytics and create smart cities to retain environmental sustainability. Scientists and analyst are expecting that around 80% of the total population (around 7 billion people) of earth will live in urban developed cities across the world by the year 2050. As a result, the high population density will naturally demand more increased infrastructure and services in the urban cities (Zanella et al. 2014). In this context, it will be a significant challenge in the future to supply the growing density of population with the basic survival resources such as safe food, clean water, sufficient energy and pollution free environment.

Article 1: IoT-based Smart Cities: a Survey

Growing population and increasing number of city infrastructure, architecture and services will essentially lead to a degraded social and economic as well as environmental sustainability. Cities in the future will face potential problems related to economic growth, job creation, social resilience and ecological balance. Air and water pollution will be evident from the emissions from a huge number of motor vehicles. Apart from that, greenhouse gas emission, increased traffic congestion, malnutrition, starvation, increased consumption of natural resources, global warming, and climate change are only few of the problems that can be listed as the consequences ultimately damaging the quality of life.

Smart cities are a potential solution to this problem to enable the urban inhabitants to survive and sustain this rapid growth. Smart cities can be an effective measure to improve the quality of life of the citizens and provide social, environmental, ecological as well as economic safety to them (Theodoridis, Mylonas&Chatzigiannakis,2013). It is high time for the city service providers to anticipate and understand the grave consequences of this rapid urbanization and take appropriate actions to increase the efficiency of city management infrastructures. In other words, smart cities essentially make the city inhabitants more aware of their surrounding infrastructure along with the infrastructural components.

Internet of Things provides a range of technologies that can be used to develop smart home, smart health, smart cars, smart space, smart industries, smart grid, and smart roads and smart everything. Internet of Things enabled smart cities include seven layers, each of which provides security and management facilities to a smart city. The first layer describes the smart city services such as smart health, energy, transportation, education and entertainment. The second layer concerns with applications and software such as software-defined networks (SDN), cloud, collaboration, service-oriented architecture (SOA) and application interfaces (Fortino& Trunfio, 2014).The third layer deals with machine(Gaur et al. 2015).

III. Literature review

According to Huet al. (2018), the following content discusses the issue of data management for power free generations concerning IoT implications over smart cities. The issues sustained through presence of hardware needs along with various networking implications for managing hybrid energy over the concept of smart city. For such, the implication for low drop rates can be procured if implemented the harvester technology for hybrid energy being a present sustainable conclusion.

According to Khajenasiriet al. (2017), the following content is with the concern of dealing with the implementation of the intelligent solutions for the smarter cities with procuring its applications. The primary aim for the research sustains connections over the heterogeneous devices over internet basis consulting use of architecture with flexible layers along with combination of facilities over the application tasks.

Article 2: IOT with M2M communication being smart city initiatives enablers

According to Paganelli, Turchi & Giuli (2016), the content deals with Web-of-things aims to promote easy accessibility along with handling smarter things through Web standards adoptions within the Smart cities. The Web technology concerning REST that is state transfer representation is with limitation over the poor infrastructure support toward web developers. For such, the remedy exists in form of applications concerning information model for Web resources along with Web digital representation

Annotated Bibliography

Article 1: IoT-based Smart Cities: a Survey

The problem statement regarding the topic is taken in form of description regarding the IoT technologies consulting to that of smart cities along with featuring the primary components consulting to that of smart city. The primary technological developments for the IoT in future are considered to be procurement of Radio-frequency identification along with use of the wireless sensor networking’s with middleware and that of addressing aspects. For such, the challenge sustained to be heterogeneity along with security and privacy issues (Arastehet al. 2016).

Article 2: IOT with M2M communication being smart city initiatives enablers

The problem of the context deals with implication of Internet of Things over the Smart City for their development along with establishing aspect through M2M communication establishment. For such the challenges exist in form of multimodality and that of heterogeneity over the physical things with lack of unified management (Datta& Bonnet, 2015). For such, the machine to machine framework subtend to procure the pertaining data analytics along with processing enacting efficiency for the smart cities.  

Article 3: use of computer vision regarding IoT consulting improvisation in smarter cities

The problem statement of the content is regarding the implication of the computer vision technology through procuring the Internet of Things for improvising the smart cities. The primary concern of computer vision sustains in form of smart vision through IP cameras along with the pictures through managing sensors. Further the hypothesis concerning accuracy for automation through use of smart visions subtends for modifying the possibilities existing for the use of smart vision through real environment analysis (Garcíaet al. 2017).

Article 4: Application of IoT over smart city architecture

The primary applications of the IoT consulting the Smart city architecture are taken to be made through networks of wireless sensors concerning greater amount of data analysis over information system aspects. The recent implications are taken to be generative for monitoring over environmental aspects along with transportation and healthcare application for the smart cities. For the management of such, the theoretical implications are taken through theory of Dempster-Shafer uncertainty with semantic web technologies (Gauret al. 2015).

Article 5: Use of sensor data with applications of End-User: IoT

The following content has been with the survey along with sharing of visions along with semantic technologies having applications over IoT over smart cities. For such, the effectiveness sustains in form of building unified and federal engine for the managing the IoT with Smart city (Gyrard& Serrano, 2015). Apart from such, the context entails the use of FIESTA-IoT with VITAL projects through addressing challenges in designing data workflows and integration of web technologies.

Article 6: IoT and smart cities

The concept of Smart city is taken in form of a platform through provision of IT platform offering a city view regarding the IT or creating more effective organisational system and improving the life quality. The IoT comprising architectural networks along with human interfaces with procuring data analytics are taken to be important for managing value creations (Harmonet al. 2015).

Article 7: Big data role within the Smart city

The concept of Big data has significant role for enhancing the smart city. Through the provision of Big data, the smart city gets offered through obtaining the valuable insights compelling through a greater data amount collection pertaining several sources. Concerning various sources, the compelling IoT factor concerns radio frequency identification along with service of higher networks. For this analysis, the application of Big data framework is favoured for its usages (Hashemet al. 2018).

IV. Findings and solution

During the completion of the discussion the chief business process that is commenced regarding the functioning of the data administration of the organization was announced with the proper determination of the process. This guarantees the circumstance that the statistics that is collected from the data analysis states that the announcement of this knowledge has been rising and the expansion of the business process can be achieved with maximum effectiveness.

This guarantees the context that the concentration in the application of the technique of internet of things can be administered with the assistance of the data management system. This report also ensures the fact that with the execution of the internet of things, the main proficiency that will be observed provides high benefit to the residents of the metropolis that tools the stage of internet of things. There has been a hike in the usage of the policy of internet of things by the rate of 23%. The all over rate of cities that implements the technique of internet of things is 54% (Jara, Genoud& Bocchi 2015)

Advantage and disadvantage

The advantage that are present in the implementation of the internet of things are as follows: –

  • The statistics that are collected during the processing of the data management will include the fact that the data prosecution can be processed with the help of this platform. The data that are collected in the process of maintaining man management, incurs the fact that the centralization of the data can be occurred. In case the centralization of the data is occurred the main processing that is taken into consideration is that the higher authority can gain access to the functioning of the research body
  • The technology of the internet of things also incurs the fact that the processing of the data management can be performed with the help of the smart phones. In case the residents of the smart city gains access to the transportation system. In case the data terminology gets better, the business commencement and the data transcription gets performed with the help of the data commencement (Khatoun & Zeadally 2016). This ensures the fact that the data procurement of the smart technology will help in data management and this leads to the fact that the data management of the processing will be concluded with the help of the technology of internet of things.

Disadvantage of the implementation of the platform of the internet of things are as follows: –

  • Main disadvantage of implementation of internet of things include the circumstance that user of this technology uses the terminology of the internet of things. In order to implement this technology, the main procession is that the imposters can gain access to the statistics that are deposited in the data center of the city. This indicates the element that in case the imposters’ gets the data that they desire of, they can affect the entire processing in a negative way. This is the reason that the implementation of the technology might degrade the security origination of the city (Buhalis & Amaranggana 2013)
  • The data base might not be well structured and this leads to the statistic that the dispensation of the informations might get lost in the framework of the organization. this is the only motive that the treating of the informations organization gets processed in an inefficient manner

Recommendations

Despite several advantages there are many disadvantages that are present in the course of the using of the implementation of the technique of the internet of things. These recommendations are as follows: –

  • The database that are being must be possessing a better security system
  • The framework that is being used must be having a high robust structure and the framework that is present must be well organized in order to complete the business processing with highest intensity (Tei & Gurgen 2014)

Conclusion

From the above report it can be concluded that the implementation rate of the technique of internet of things are increasing in a rapid rate. This rapid rate of increase in the implementation of the platform of internet of things proves the fact that the global acceptance of the product is very high. After incurring the global acceptance of the technology, the main prospect of the business technology will be ensuring the fact that the commencing of the business termination is made with the help of this technology. Despite this problems that lies in the processing of the determination of the occupational administration is the only aim that increases the exposure and popularity of the technology.

References

Latre, S., Leroux, P., Coenen, T., Braem, B., Ballon, P., & Demeester, P. (2016, September). City of things: An integrated and multi-technology testbed for IoT smart city experiments. In Smart Cities Conference (ISC2), 2016 IEEE International (pp. 1-8). IEEE.

Wiig, A. (2015). IBM’s smart city as techno-utopian policy mobility. City, 19(2-3), 258-273.

Fortino, G., & Trunfio, P. (Eds.). (2014). Internet of things based on smart objects: Technology, middleware and applications. Springer Science & Business Media.

Gaur, A., Scotney, B., Parr, G., & McClean, S. (2015). Smart city architecture and its applications based on IoT. Procedia computer science, 52, 1089-1094.

Zanella, A., Bui, N., Castellani, A., Vangelista, L., &Zorzi, M. (2014). Internet of things for smart cities. IEEE Internet of Things journal, 1(1), 22-32.

Ejaz, W., Naeem, M., Shahid, A., Anpalagan, A., & Jo, M. (2017). Efficient energy management for the internet of things in smart cities. IEEE Communications Magazine, 55(1), 84-91. Retrieved from: 

Jin, J., Gubbi, J., Marusic, S., &Palaniswami, M. (2014). An information framework for creating a smart city through internet of things. IEEE Internet of Things journal, 1(2), 112-121. Retrieved from: https://bit.ly/2Nq3Cgf

Mohanty, S. P., Choppali, U., &Kougianos, E. (2016). Everything you wanted to know about smart cities: The internet of things is the backbone. IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine, 5(3), 60-70. Retrieved from: https://bit.ly/2NUQ0Jt

Rathore, M. M., Ahmad, A., Paul, A., & Rho, S. (2016). Urban planning and building smart cities based on the internet of things using big data analytics. Computer Networks, 101, 63-80. Retrieved from: https://tarjomefa.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/6427-English-TarjoeFa.pdf

Zanella, A., Bui, N., Castellani, A., Vangelista, L., &Zorzi, M. (2014). Internet of things for smart cities. IEEE Internet of Things journal, 1(1), 22-32. Retrieved from:

Buhalis, D., & Amaranggana, A. (2013). Smart tourism destinations. In Information and communication technologies in tourism 2014 (pp. 553-564). Springer, Cham.

Hancke, G. P., & Hancke Jr, G. P. (2012). The role of advanced sensing in smart cities. Sensors, 13(1), 393-425.

Khatoun, R., & Zeadally, S. (2016). Smart cities: concepts, architectures, research opportunities. Communications of the ACM, 59(8), 46-57.

Jara, A. J., Genoud, D., & Bocchi, Y. (2015). Big data for smart cities with KNIME a real experience in the SmartSantander testbed. Software: Practice and Experience, 45(8), 1145-1160.