Improving Human Resource Conditions In Myanmar Through Employee Engagement

HR challenges in Myanmar

What Are The Major Areas Of Issue Related To A Human Resource In Myanmar?

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What Measures Could Be Taken To Improve The Human Resource Conditions?

What Role Does Employee Engagement Play In The Development Of The Human Resource In The Companies?

How Employee Engagement Is Related To Job Security And Increasing The Productivity Of Enterprises?

The thesis is about the human resource practice that happens in an organisation especially in Myanmar. As per the prevailing situations of Myanmar, the conditions of human resource management are not that good. There are issues carrying in the field of human resource about which the companies are highly concerned (Bratton, John, and Jeff, 53). Measures need to be undertaken to improve the current situation of human resources in the country. People in Myanmar were lacking the specialised training facility which results in poor working and adverse quality in the different industries be it hospitality, tourism, food and beverage, automobiles or infrastructure. There are different HR challenges that an institute has to face. There is a situation of changing management where turnover of top management results in changing decisions (Armstrong, Michael, and Stephen, 24). Some policies made by the previous management might get changed when new management comes up. Employees have to adjust accordingly well in advance therefore appropriate training and knowledge of changing management should be rendered to the employees so that they could easily retain the changes and accept the challenges but most of the time prior information to employees is lacking which becomes the cause of concern for the organisation. The next challenge that an organisation and its employee’s faces are leadership development; the appropriate leader has to be chosen who is flexible and understanding. The one that could analyse the problems faced by the employees and resolve the issues that employees are suffering. The leader should be rigid to make out the work from the subordinates but the leniency should also be there to understand the employee and making things easy for them and co-operating them to deliver the work more effectively and efficiently (Stahl, Günter, Ingmar & Shad, 13). The competency of HR should be taken into consideration to promote the organisational effectiveness. The environment is customer focusing and in order to serve the customer and increasing the consumer gap the organisations generally forget about the most important asset of the organisation and that is the employees. Those companies that pay equal attention to its customers and employees are likely to flourish in the domestic as well as international market. They are the employees who deal first with the consumers and are the one to create the positive image of the company in the market. If the ill-treatment is given to the employees then this will affect their performance to the great extent and thereafter the growth of organisation might get depleted. To improve the condition of employees and resolve the HR challenges appropriate recruitment criteria has to be followed. Recruitment could be made either through campus selection, participating in the job fair and selecting the candidates from there or the employment exchange are given the responsibility to hold the recruitment and selection criteria, for this the requirement details are given to them and accordingly the selections are made. After selection, it is the prime responsibility of the company to conduct appropriate learning and development sessions for the newly recruited employees. Adequate training has to be given to avoid further discrepancies. Also, employees must be given benefits, bonus and incentives to boost up their morale and retain the employees for the longer period of time. In case of any accident or injury compensation to the employee and his family should be given to carry on the living and adopt the accurate treatment. These things develop the sense of belongingness and create loyalty among the employees and the zeal to work gets an increased to result in the better generation of income and gain the satisfaction of the employees (Budhwar, Pawan & Yaw, 10).

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Measures to improve HR conditions

On learning a bit about the above challenges that the HR faces, there are various techniques which are used to improve the business scenario and leading the organisations towards the success. The best technique which is connecting the entire human resource system is employee engagement. Employee engagement is the link to human resource development. When the employees are highly satisfied they would feel the attachment and there will be the sense of belongingness among the employees. The organisational commitment gets created with the result of employee engagement in the organisation. Employee engagement assists in building the business and making it hit the heights and achieve the desired objectives (Marchington, 23).

The research aim is to analyse the areas where human resource management is lacking and to identify the technique of improving the development of the business. One particular area has to be selected which operates and link the entire organisation and helps in changing the situation of Myanmar in context of human resource management. Such options have to be evaluated which can handle the complete organisation and solve the problems of employer, employee, customers and organisation as a whole. Each aspect of the human resource should be studied and one best solution should be researched upon in order to resolve the problem of human resource and build up strength in the particular field to bring upon the essential changes (Explorable).

  • To analyse the current situation of Myanmar in context of human resource.
  • To concentrate on the employee engagement program.
  • To study the importance of employee engagement and how it will enhance the productivity of the organisation.
  • To research upon the other relevant factors that affect the growth of the company and how can they be fixed (Farrugia, 278).

The rationale of the study is to learn about the depleting scenario of human resource in Myanmar. This topic is selected in order to research and develop the understanding that why the performance of employees in Myanmar is destructive and what measures could be taken into consideration to improve the prevailing conditions. For this, both the primary and secondary data is collected and quantitative as well as qualitative analysis will be made (Driver et al., 3). The research will be such that the data collected and analysed will be reliable as questionnaire will be framed and made to filled up by the employees of various organisations and their viewpoints are collected and in secondary research derivation and result will be brought up through own understanding and ideas from the other authors and experts (Master papers).

The hypothesis is the assumptions made to analyse the actual situation and reaches to the accurate decisions which might bring the changes in the existing environment (Best, John & James, 13). As per the following research, the hypothetical assumptions are as under:

Importance of employee engagement

H0: Studying the development of business through the application of employee engagement will positively result in the improvising the conditions of human resource department in Myanmar.

HA: Studying the development of business through the application of employee engagement will not positively result in the improvising the conditions of human resource department in Myanmar.

As per Hendry, in today’s scenario where high competition is prevailing, there is a need to perform in an outrageous way and undertake out of the box techniques to gain the fame and development. Human resources are the asset for every organisation and country. Many authors have given different definitions regarding human resources but basically, it is the maintenance and collection of competent humans (Hendry, 8). Human resource management involves the recruitment and selection of right person at the right place at the right place for the right job. But actually it is not just confined to the recruitment and selection, it is the wide aspect and there are lot more things that follow selection procedure. On selection, the induction program is conducted which includes the initial training level and basic introduction about the company. The newly recruited employee is made learn about the rules and regulations that are followed by the company. The policies and procedures are clearly explained to them and instructions are launches to highly abide by those policies and rules (Reiche, Sebastian, Mark & Gunter, 103). They are made introduced to the entire staff and different departments and entire knowledge regarding the premises, its manager, employees, behaviour and work are explained to the employees. The company should follow the employment law and adhere to it so that exploitation of the employees are avoided and reputation of the company gets retained thereby increasing the market goodwill of the organisation. Appropriate training should be rendered to the employees and proper monitoring should be done to keep the watch over the performance of the employees and figure out who all are outstanding and fewer efforts are required on them and who all are having issues in understanding the job and more efforts need to be paid on them (Business topic). Equal treatment should be given to the employees and discrimination on the basis of country, religion or culture should be done. Since in an organisation entry and exists are common, thus exist procedure should also be genuine making the journey of the employee memorable. According to Pedersen, the appropriate termination and retirement policies should be built and employees must be paid the entire amount entitled to them. The gratuity, PF and pension amount should be duly paid to the employees. Also in the employee where several people work together, it is likely to have certain conflicts and for that conflict, resolution committee should be framed (Pedersen, 35). Grievance redressal team should be there and appropriate arbitration must be conducted to give out the fair results and maintaining the harmony within the organisation. It is the duty of the human resource manager to see towards the environment and relations with the employees with one another. In an organisation better employer and employee relations should be framed to maintain the soothing environment of the organisation should be the priority (Tanaka, 45).

Research aim

According to Dal (2015), human resource management is the energy or say lifeline of the company. In order to ensure the growth of the organisation and thereby the country, it is important to have a hold on the human resources. Along with the customer satisfaction, the employee satisfaction is also equally important because more satisfied the employee more energetic will be their performance and there will be the sense of job security which will render job satisfaction and employee will feel committed towards the employees.

 There are 5 core values that every employee demands. According to Kehoe, first and foremost there is responsiveness which depicts the balance between individual’s families and professionals. The other one is compassion that argues upon the hierarchy of growth, safety and health and securing the future for the old age. Then is the dignity which quotes the self-esteem and societal relations. Empowerment also plays a vital role in building the better human relations and discusses the job training and further opportunities for growth and to ensure the flow of positivity among the peers, superior and subordinates advocacy is highly required. But the actual scenario is entirely different from what is actually needed. The employees are unable to render all those responsiveness, compassion, desired dignity, empowerment and the advocacy (Kehoe, Rebecca & Patrick, 372).

Poverty is the foremost challenge faced by Burma, Myanmar. In the situation of poverty, the people are ready to work in an adverse situation as well. They are working under the circumstance that does not focus on the socio-economic status of the person. They are performing all the hardships so as to stay well, stay alive and be strong. The human resource departments are not considering the situations of the people and they are not even provided with the basic essentials of life to lead a better life (Budhwar & Yaw, 17). The safety measures are not the issues of concern to them and therefore such people get deprived at the societal level as well. They persist the poor self-esteem. The employees are abused at the workplace and education status is also not optimum. The company has weak financial status and appropriate knowledge of employment and labour law is not there. A lot more discrimination is taking place. The basic causes behind all these issues are that there is not the appropriate rendering of education, therefore, people are not aware of the prevailing market situations. The people have not availed the primary health benefits thus they are suffering from heavy diseases like HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis and the diseases like that and awareness of adequate vaccination is not yet provided and the main cause behind this is lack of knowledge. Due to this, the country is not developing to the accurate speed and economic development is slow down (Oo et al.). The other major issue that is been faced is the security of food. Due to the less supply of food the psychological needs of humans are not fulfilled and due to which people are suffering from heavy diseases and energy is not there to work efficiently.  The other attribute that strikes the human resource of Myanmar is the occurrence of natural calamities and due to lack of education prior-preparation has not been made. The cyclone Nargis is the example of it which causes destruction to the life and economy of Myanmar (Atlas Staffing).

Rationale of the study

Therefore measures need to be taken to support the people and rendering them knowledge by providing better education. For that government of Myanmar should take the certain crucial decision to save the lives and economy of the country. Appropriate education and health facility must be provided to the citizens. Proper employment law needs to be constructed and opportunities for the job have to be created so that living and economy would be re-established (Bamberger, Biron & Meshoulam, 215). Government and big organisations and non-profit organisations should take the responsibility to improve the livelihood of poor and cyclone prone families by offering them certain treatment and jobs to earn a better life. Small-scale industries like fishing and handicrafts could be encouraged and make people learn about these skills. Motivational and encouraging campaigns for the citizens must be arranged to enhance the flow of hope and fill the energy within them to do something better with their lives. With the provision of suitable education slowly and gradually the country will take up the pace and start earning the name at the global level by adopting the globalisation and performing business beyond the boundaries in overseas (HR Texas).

As per Mizne, employee engagement is the involvement of employees within the organisation. It is directly proportionate to the organisational commitment of employees (Mizne). On learning the issues and situation of Myanmar and discussing upon the improvement of the same it is analysed that the largest problem of Myanmar at the highest level in domestic boundaries and further in the international market is a quick turnover of the employees. Due to discrimination and lack of employment law employees do not adhere to the single company and switch the companies on frequent intervals (Gethppy).

As per Sashi, another reason for employee turnover is that the candidates require attaining the heights and gaining new position for the better future. For the sake they switch the job, therefore much loyalty is not there. If a certain amount of loyalty is there then that lasts no longer, it is for the short period of time only (Sashi, 262). Initially, the HR was also known as Personnel and at that time profit maximisation was the priority thus the attention was not paid to the situation of employees. According to Saks & Jamie, in today’s time, even the preference is given to employee satisfaction. The satisfied employee delivers more and the quality of work is also better which automatically generates the results of growing profit. The required benefits and adequate basic pay should be given to the employees. Timely motivation is required as well to decrease the rate of turnover. When all these things along with the deserved growth are given to the employee they would get engaged with the organisation and a sense of commitment is developed within them. The switching of the job will get depleted and the long-term relationship gets build up (Saks & Jamie, 170).

Research Hypothesis

As stated by Macey & Benjamin, in order to engage the employees in the organisation their performance evaluation and thereafter appraisal have to be done. With the measurement of performance, the portions where the person lacks is figured out and improve on those parts are being made. The healthy competition takes place which enhances the potential and performance of the employees. These small things make a huge difference in the organisation. Now the things are not just confined to hard work but the smart work has also been involved, the ideas behind all these activities are to create the sense of belongingness and building up the relationship within the organisation. Even if one day the employee leaves the organisation the relations should be maintained which might work in analysing the competitors move through them and also the employee themselves feel like referring others to the former organisation. This is the general level of professionalism that is been maintained in every organisation nowadays (Macey & Benjamin, 19).

As discussed employees engagement is of utmost need for the organisation to grow. They are the asset to the company and it is the prime responsibility of the HR to recruit and select the competent person and retain them wisely by maintaining healthy relations and giving the employees chance to grow (Kompaso & Sridevi, 89). Certain valuable attributes that add value to the organisation and performance of the employees are:

Fitting the employees within the organisation: The foremost thing that is relevant to the employee engagement is fitting the employee within the organisation. There are three ways in which the employee could be absorbed within the organisation. First and foremost thing that HR need to notice while making recruitment is that the candidate fits in the culture of the organisation. There may arouse the situation where the employee is capable enough for attaining the job but the only problem that arises is the culture. If the candidate does not fit in the organisational culture than it is intelligent step to avoid such employees if they are unable to cooperate within the organisation that they must not be recruited to avoid the further problem in the organisation. Another measure stated by Marescaux, Winne & Seals is that the HR could take is that after appointing the candidate the newly recruited employee should be demonstrated the culture, values and norms of the organisation and it must be brought to their knowledge that tense traditions, policies and rules must be strictly abided. In an organisation, there are various employees that belong to divergent cultures and traditions which must be respected and no discrimination should be encouraged by any means. In case if such a thing happens then a particular penalty should be imposed on that person. The culture must be safeguarded on the priority. As discussed earlier the values and culture of the organisation must be communicated to each and every employee. The HR of the company must take steps to maintain the desired harmony within the organisation and establish the healthy employer and employee relationship. The internal structure of the organisation should stay strong, better the internal organisational culture and climate better will be the results outside the organisation. The company is likely to develop if the unity has been maintained. The organisation where all the employees are treated equally and their suggestions are given the importance by the managers then such an organisation is likely to achieve success and set the trend in the market (Marescaux, Winne & Seals, 30).

About human resource management in Myanmar

Appreciation: As per Weber & Tarba, after analysing the cultural values and studying the importance of the tradition and organisational culture than is the chance of appreciation. In order to boost up the morale of the employees and enhance the competitiveness, there is a need to appreciate the work of employees and render them the positive reviews (Weber & Tarba, 292). The value of the employees could be increased by HR on adopting the following appraisal techniques:

First of all the performance of the employees are recognised and this could be done by keeping a watch over them and monitoring the performance. By watching it is not meant that the employee is pressurised to perform the work, the observation should be made for the concern to develop a sense of sincerity among the employees and resolving the issues that the employee might face during the course of work. Through this, the potential of the employees is recognised and superior get to know that how many efforts are required on which employee. This balances the working and establishes a salient growth or organisation as well as employee. Secondly, the praise from the employer is not always a sufficient tool to motivate the employees, at times the appraisal from the staff and peers are also required. For this, the open appraisal and examples must be set but this thing must be kept in mind that unhealthy comparisons shall be avoided. This not only boosts up the energy within the employee but also build up the relations within the organisation. Long with performance appraisal employer should focus on the potential appraisal as well because in an organisation there are multiple employees and every person and its working differs from one another. The requirements and motivational level of every employee is different, therefore in an organisation there are certain employees that might be introvert in nature but comprise of high potential, thus the employer need to extract out this latent talent from the employees and making the environment favourable for them as well to ensure the cumulative progress of the organisation (Barends, 2016).

According to Abraham, employee engagement is dependent upon the two major factors job security and motivational factors. But job security and motivational factors are not the interrelated terms. It is not necessary that the person having the job security is highly motivated. In the present times, it is not just about the satisfaction from the job that the security and surety are there, employees require the challenges and want to grab the opportunity to explore their efficiency and increase the effectiveness of work. Motivation is the key to satisfy the employee and enhance the zeal to work (Abraham, 30). As per Morgan (2014), the appraisal criteria should be adopted by the employer in order to boost up the morale and explore the hidden potential of staff members, on performing this activity confidence gets build up and belongingness of the employee increases. Along with appreciation, there is a need to manage good relations with the peers, superior and subordinate. The stress-free environment should be provided to the employees and work-life should be balanced so that the employee stays energetic and come up with the fresh mind to deliver enthusiastic work. The opportunities must be rendered to the employees so that their growth could be ensured and career development takes place and also this will signify the security in the job and employee will stick to the organisation for long-term (Joshi, 13). The salary offered to the employees must be reasonable and as per the calibre of the employees, this develops the confidence and authenticities are depicted through this. The job and work of the employee should be based on the personal interest of the person because forced works are never fruitful and the place where interest lies more efforts more learning is been made and the individual come up with the new techniques and fresh ideas to enhance the quality of work which is beneficial simultaneously for the employee as well as the organisation (Zikouridis).

All the above measures ensure the development of market goodwill of the company. This results in increasing the productivity of the organisation. As per the study, the happy employee tends to serve the best and they are the first one to face the employees. The impression of the company is created by the employees only; they act as the representative of the organisation. Employees are those that have better and practical knowledge of the market. They are aware of the tastes, trends and fashion that are currently prevailing because they have the face to face interaction with the customers and they collect the review regarding the move of the competitors (Armstrong, 159). Therefore top management should adopt the decentralisation approach in the company and suggestions from the employees need to be entertained and incorporated for the better perspective of the organisation. This is not only beneficial for the company but good from the perspective of the individual as well. They feel an important part of the company and get more dedicated towards their work. This is the stage where the employee engagement is attained and the belongingness is achieved. Employee engagement is the combination of motivation, job security and job satisfaction. The lack of employee engagement leads to stress at work and disturbance in professional life, therefore the organisation where employee engagement has been implemented where the rate of employee turnover is comparatively low. The dissatisfaction among the employees are the basic cause of employees turnover rate, either they are not paid as per the position or they were been explored through one or the other way. Therefore Farndale, Elaine & Inge quotes that employee engagement is stated as workplace approach where the appropriate conditions to the workers are provided and their potential is paid value. Employees are made to get committed to the values and beliefs of the organisation and adopt the culture that prevails within the organisation for the longer period of time to achieve the success and learn a lot from the organisation and groom up the personality (Farndale, Elaine & Inge, 615).

The data collection technique involves two common methods to collect data and they are a primary and secondary collection of data. The primary collection involves first-hand information collected directly from the sample size. The primary data collection involves the construction of questionnaire, feedback form from the customers, face to face interview with the citizens at local areas. It also includes the observation and experimentation of the information in order to gain the facts and figures which are relevant and reliable and not the vague (Time, 235).

 Secondary data collection as the name suggests is the second-hand collection of the information. It involves the accumulation of information from various literary sources such as a magazine, newspaper, journal articles and books and through online web pages. Thereafter the analysis is been conducted through the observation and understanding of the experts who previously researched upon it. The data collected through the secondary data could be slightly unreliable as the relativity cannot be measured (Xaperezindin).

For the particular thesis, both the primary and secondary data will be gathered in order to achieve the appropriate knowledge and figure out the solution of the research questions. For the sake of primary data collection questionnaire in the Google, forms will be created and the links will be forwarded to the sample size. The sample size for this thesis is 20 respondents and this data on submission gets cumulated and the charts and excel sheets are created automatically through the inbuilt software (Best & Kahn, 204).

Data analysis could also be said as data analytics which is used for investigating the information collected through various sources. It assists in cleansing and transforming the data carrying the objective of converting all those data in the user information and thereby the valuable conclusion could be cultivated resulting in better decision-making skills. With concern to the research thesis both the data, collection technique has been used (Miles, Huberman & Saldana, 69). For primary research face to face interview and collection of feedback form have been used. The questionnaire is constructed using the Google form and the sample size of 20 has been selected. The interpretation of this quantitative data will automatically get constructed in the inbuilt software of Google form and the relevant charts will get prepared. Other ways to analyse the primary data is by using the statistical approach and applying the t-test, f-test, z-test, chi-square test and ANOVA. The questionnaire comprises the mix of open and close-ended questions which clarifies the purpose of the study to great extent (Treiman, 65). The advantage of primary research is that the data collected is way more reliable and the companies could learn from this analysis and adopt the changes in their current business to improve the situation and enhance the profitability of their business using the unique techniques. The disadvantages that primary collection faces are that it is time-consuming. Many times it happens that some of the people from sample size do not respond to the feedback form and questionnaire which affects the calculations of the research and appropriate study does not get conducted (Sjovaag & Stavelin, 224).

Along with the primary data, the secondary data collection has been done. This research is known as qualitative data and does not comprise any sought of calculations and measurement of statistical data. It is analysed using the self-observation technique and experimenting with the facts and figures (Silverman, 331). In secondary data analysis, the researcher comes up with own views and recommendations. The researcher expresses the suggestion and thought upon the study which depicts that the idea of the research or the research topic could be treated other way round, the drawback of secondary research is that at times the reliability lacks in the information collected because every person has different thoughts and all are correct to the possible extent (Schreier, 178). The cross analysis could be made to check the authenticity of study. The advantages of secondary data are that it is easily accessible and saves the money. Along with cost, the time is also been saved which could be then used for better analysis and conducting further deep study to find out more facts and figures (Seers, 2).

The research philosophy depicts the manner in which the report has been constructed and the approach chosen for constructing the entire thesis. For this particular thesis epistemology philosophy has been adopted which include three basic attributes which are positivism, interpretivism and realism (Knobe & Nichols, 3).

Positivism: The positivism approach to philosophy is related to the facts and helps in gaining knowledge through the observation. This results in increasing the trustworthiness upon the study and the data were It is an independent research and it is limited to the collection of data and its interpretation (Crossan, 51). There are certain principles of positivism which state that research must be explanatory and every single point must be covered to clear the understanding. Along with this, the adequate hypothesis must get created and this hypothesis should be duly tested to accomplish the research process successfully. The research is both the art and science thus the common sense must be avoided and factuality should be paid attention (Bunge, 258).

Interpretivism: This philosophy understands the human behaviour and interest of human being in the study. It is bound socially and focuses on the cultural values. This theory defines the situation in which the human behaviour is revealed that is how the person manages the behaviour and acts in the adverse situation. It involves the interpretation made by the researcher while conducting the study. They are the assumptions and hypothesis created by the researcher (Edirisingha).

Realism: The realist is the Latin word which depicts that things are actually real. It focuses on the real outer world that really exists and it draws the attention of learner as well. The theory consists of two aspects which are direct and critical realism. Direct realism stands for all those material and matter that can be seen and heard and through this, the derivation could be derived. Critical realism is those unconscious thoughts and facts which could not be seen but they are deeply related and hidden reason behind the happening of things (Maxwell, 22).

The research approach is the attitude of the researcher towards the study. It defines the way in which the research has been conducted. Basically, there are two main approaches to the research that is quantitative and qualitative research. Quantitative research is statistical in nature. They are qualitative in which the result is measured in numerical form. It also involves the experimentation and assumption upon which the research is been made to understand the topic of study more deeply (Sekaran & Bougie, 24). They are the practical aspect of study as it inculcates the face to face interaction with the respondents and adopting their thinking and undergoing the evaluation using the critical realism philosophy of research. Such an approach is counted as authentic and reliable as they are calculated, approved and successfully experimented (Smith, 249).

A qualitative approach is based on the secondary studies which are collected from the research made by other experts. It is influenced by the thoughts of previous researchers and helps in building up the perception of the person. It contributes in changing the idea towards the particular thing and assists in creating one’s own viewpoint which is rather related and the topic and could be moulded in another aspect as well. This helps in introducing the varieties of thoughts and increasing the perspective of the studies. These informative are rich in knowledge and facts that’s why the term quality is been used for it (Langford, 110). The components involved in the qualitative approach are an authentic business newspaper, magazines, circulars, journal articles and the authentic web pages. The drawback with the qualitative research is that reliability of the information is less as a comparison to the quantitative data. The reason behind it is that the facts and thoughts vary from person to person and none of them could be claimed upon. Neither is all relevant cent percent nor is all vague thus relativity cannot be drawn (Henwood, 1612).

But overall both the approaches are important in one or the other way. The topic or problem which is practical in nature there is a need to conduct the quantitative search whereas the topic where theoretical research and deep study is required there qualitative approach will be opted for (Frels & Onwuegbuzie, 188). In this particular research, there is a mixed need for both the approaches, for authentication the questionnaire upon the employee engagement was made to fill by the respondents and for the sake of deep study the qualitative approach is used to understand the facts and figures in the better way (Klassen, 378).

As per Farooq, the research design is based on the structure of the research in the way that how the research needs to be conducted. It helps in analysing the opportunity and researching the problem. Before initiating the research first and foremost thing is to identify the problem, afterwards piloting is done to know whether the problem actually prevails or not, is it the topic to be researched upon?  Thereafter the planning and plotting are been done and the objective is defined. The data collection process starts and technique of gathering the information was selected. For the particular project both primary and secondary research has been undertaken (Lewis, 474). For primary research, the questionnaire aspect has opted and for secondary research, the earlier research papers, books, journal article and business newspaper are chosen. After collecting the data the information is analysed through a quantitative and qualitative technique using the positivism, interpretivism and realism philosophies. The research approach has been designed and afterwards, the action plan should be constructed followed with Gantt chart. The research limitations must also be quoted as it depicts the trials and errors made while performing the research and that these issues and failures at the place would not be repeated in the future (Cresswell & Poth, 111). At the end, the report must include its main part which is findings and discussion along with the conclusion and recommendations. Based on such a design the research plan is made and the researcher must abide by this plan for better accomplishment of the study (Farooq).

To analyse the set-up of the research the foremost thing that needs to be done in preparing the research plan. The research plan involves the step by step movement of the study. It helps in focusing on the research topic and preventing the deviation from the topic. For that, the appropriate action plan should be drawn followed by Gantt chart.

S. No.


Initiation Date

Duration (in days).

Completion Date


Selecting the research topic

3rd September 2017


3rd September 2017


Constituting aim

4th September 2017


4th September 2017


Literature review

5th September 2017


10th September 2017


Research Methodology

11th September 2017


15th September 2017


Data analysis

16th September 2017


19th September 2017



20th September 2017


21st September 2017


Conclusion and recommendation

22nd September 2017


22nd September 2017

Research limitations are those measures which the researcher cannot control. They are the points where the research report is lacking. If taken care and mistakes are avoided the result could be much accurate. The limitations within the research must always be analysed to acknowledge the mistakes and learning out of it. These limitations result in raising the opportunities and incorporating suggestions to make the things even better the next time the research is been conducted (Connelly, 325). The limitations with this particular research are quoted as under:

  • The sample size for the primary research is less; this could be increased for gaining even better and authentic results of the research. More the sample size more will be the collection of data and reliability of the research gets increased.
  • In the secondary data collection, the information provided is as per the imagination and perspective of the researcher. It is not completely reliable and does not draw much relativity to support the report.
  • The studies conducted and material collected is less and further information could be gathered for delivering better outcomes which might be more fruitful and the researcher may get to learn more about it. The topic should be remained intact and diversion from topic should be prohibited.
  • Another limitation is the less availability of resources for gathering the information and analysing it for better evaluation and interpretation.
  • The environmental control is there which curbs the approach of research and limits the scope of the study.
  • Since both quantitative and qualitative approach has been applied thus it is time-consuming and cost id also indulged in this research making it expensive.
  • The primary data could be analysed but the secondary data analysis is difficult. There is no perfect technique used to analyse the secondary research data and it is based on the experiments and mere thoughts and ideas of the researcher.

The findings and discussions are the main portions of the research; it involves the gist of study. They are the suggestions and facts that are noticed while investigating and the discussion is conducted and relevance is drawn. It involves identification and gaining knowledge through distinct sources and hypothesis has been created to measure the relativity of investigation that has been made (Sium, 150). The findings and discussions drawn out of this research are:

  • Employee engagement is interconnected with the organisational commitment. If the employee is completely engaged with their work then automatically the commitment with the organisation gets developed.
  • The employee engagement directly affects the productivity of the organisation. It ensures the job satisfaction of the staff members.
  • As per research the candidates between the ages of 31-45 years feel valued at their workplace. Most of the people participated in research are male candidates.
  • 8% people feel that teamwork is a prime necessity and the members in the group assist each other in the accomplishment of the goal.
  • It was figured out from the primary research and calculations that 72.2% organisations take a step in releasing the stress of employees which boost up the morale to work effectively and efficiently.
  • 8% of the sample size believes that they share the positive relations with the staff.
  • 2% of the people are interested in their jobs and find it valuable.
  • 8% of sample size states that growth rate is neutral while 29% are satisfied and 5.9% are either fully satisfied or dissatisfied.
  • On considering the motivational techniques 33.33% are either satisfied or neutral with the motivational aspect of the organisation and 27.8% are dissatisfied with the motivational strategy and 5.6% are fully satisfied.
  • The employee engagement is the major aspect of the human resource management. They assure the popularity and reliability of the organisation.
  • It depicts the goodwill of the company and strength of the country.
  • The belongingness and attachment of the employee could be assessed through employee engagement.
  • It renders the better exposures to employees and proves to be the best motivational factor.
  • From the research and its findings, it could be concluded that employee engagement is highly dependent upon the organisational structure and culture.
  • If the person is valued and adequate motivational factors have been implemented they feel engaged within the organisation.
  • The organisational productivity increases with the increase in job satisfaction. Employees perform their best when soothing and calm environment is provided to them. The pressurise work only helps in enhancing stress whereas supportive environment and adequate policies of labour law bonds up to the employees in the company and increases the attachment.


Hence, from the entire research, it could be cultivated that employee engagement is the crucial element for the growth of human resources. In Myanmar, the condition of human resource management is not stable and business development has to be made. Considering this purpose, the study has been undertaken and critical element is selected which connects with all the measures of human resource. The employee engagement is that factor which helps in improving the situation and assists in the development of the business. The situation of human resource management is analysed and what actually human resource management is and for what it is meant is evaluated. The roles and responsibility of HR have been discussed thereafter the issues connected with the human resources management in Myanmar is examined. In Myanmar, the situation is worse and the poverty level is high. The opportunity of employment is less and more starvation is there. The government of Myanmar has taken steps to improve the policies and practices in the country and for that sake, the job opportunities are created. The employee engagement has been introduced which states the involvement of the person within the organisation. It depicts the organisational commitment that an employee carries. The importance of employee engagement has been discussed and its emergence has been focused on. The employee engagement assists in building up the relations with the peers, subordinate and superior. It strengthens the internal structure of the organisation. The employee engagement is related to the job security and satisfaction within the job. If the employee is satisfied and motivated towards the work the committee is raised automatically and the employee feels the belongingness. The engagement of employees is beneficial for both the organisation as well as the nation.  The literature review upon these conditions has been made. The appropriate methodology for research has been selected. For data collection, both primary and secondary method has been selected. The epistemology philosophy has been selected and adequate research design is chosen for conducting the research. Data analysis has been made by the way of questionnaire and collecting the reviews and ideas through the secondary research. After analysing the data its interpretation and evaluation have been made and finally, the findings are extracted and discussions are made. Along with it, the research limitations were also noted and thereafter the conclusion is drawn.


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