Managing Change And Delegation In Organizational Context

Question1. Managing Change

The objective of the assignment is to outline the role of change in management, leadership, motivation, team development and delegation of authority. The report answers the question related to the case study.

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Change in management plays a key role in the competitive world. There are numerous theories which are related to the change management that are developed in the workplace. One of the theories that is Lewis theory with three stages model has been discussed below:


Unfreezing refers to the stop of each and every activity in the organization before the new changes are implemented in the organization. In this step, the improvement and enhancement of the people towards stage change are done to develop the culture of  modernization and they can be overcome with the existence comfort and effective zone of the organization (Dawson & Andriopoulos, 2014). 


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This step is also known as the transition or moving stage. This is the stage when the change is implemented in the reality in the organization. During this stage, people began to learn the new behavior, processes, and ways of thinking in the organization which will be helpful for them to sustain in the business environment.

The four forces which lead to the change in the organization which is applied by the Billy’s Awesome Seafood Company Ltd. are as follows:

Technology plays an important role in the company of Billy as all the work is done using the new technology in the business. If the company uses the advanced technology and software in its business then the customer complaints can be reduced and the logistics in the company will be maintained properly (Mariani, Buhalis, Longhi & Vitouladiti, 2014).


Globalization can be defined as the way through there will be the integration of the work can be done easily. Using this in the organization the implementation of change can be done with the effectiveness and efficiency. It also increases the consumer demand, needs and requirements in emerging global market (Cleverism, 2018).

Knowledge management can be defined as the management in which the company is trying to find out the needs and requirement of the consumers. The preference of the consumer, technology updating required in the business and innovation in the products offered by the company. The employees which are taking the initiative for the innovation should be given incentive so that they get motivated for adopting the change in the organization (Benn, Edwards & Williams, 2014). 

Social Media

Social media is one of the tools for the company to opt for the changes in the organization. The updating of the company changes in policy can be updated using the media. The business of Billy’s Seafood can be managed and get more utilization through the social media platforms (Fullan, 2014). 

There are three restraining forces against the change which the Billy’s Seafood Company is  facing which are as follows:


Uncertainty exists in every type of business irrespective of its nature and size of the business. The employee’s in the business are afraid of the changes that will take place in the work does not affect their potential in the company.

Question2. Delegation

Group Resistance

Group resistance is the set of group norms which are decided in advance by the group members. Failure to comply with the rules and norms followed in the organization by the group results in a sanction against the group members. Thus the group resists adopting the managerial and organizational changes in the workplace (McCleskey, 2014).


Dependency refers to being dependent on others for the work. Dependency leads to the rigidity which ultimately brings the resistance to change in the individual. Thus organization focus on the independence followed by each and every individual (Renninger, Hidi, Krapp & Renninger, 2014).

Delegation can be defined as the way through which the work can be transmitted to other so that top level management can focus on the core activities of the organization. There are several ways from which the delegation and outsourcing of the work can be possible. There are six steps for the effective delegation which are as follows:

Match the person to the job

In this, the right person is selected to do the task in the company. This right person can be chosen by the past performers of the organization as they are considered to be as the accurate predictor. The rule is that the important task is not delegated to the person (Firestone, 2014).

Agree on what is to be done

In this, the right person has been selected to do the task in the organization. There will be an explanation given to the right person that how the job has to be done and what are objectives of doing the work.

In this step, the person told about that how the job should be performed by the individual to get the ultimate work done by them. The approach of preferred working and method is decided in this step. The past performance of the similar job is to discuss by the trainer (Pinder, 2014). 

Taking the feedback

In this step, the feedback is given by the right person whether he has understood the profile and work given to him or not. From this step, it can be understood that the whether the employee is able to grab the information and objective explained by the trainer.

Set a deadline

In this step, the deadline is set by the past performers that how much time is required to complete the task. His entire schedule is based on the timeline given to him to complete the task. At the same time, arrangement for the regular reporting and periodic inspection is done (Wang, Luo, Lu, Sun & Maksimov, 2014).

Manage by exception

Manage by exception is nothing but the core areas of the job are identified and analyzed. Management by exception is a powerful time management tool from which the work can be done efficiently and effectively with other people (Bressman & Gluck, 2014).

If performance is moving in the direction as per the expected schedule then no short plans are made to improvise the performance and vice-versa  will be taken in the rules and regulations. But if the job is not going according to the schedule or decided then some measures are taken to cover those deviations which are coming in the way. The quality and quantity of the work are maintained by the employee at the time of performing the job (Mega, Ronconi & Beni, 2014).

(Source: 12Manageteh Executive Fastrack, 2018)

The arrangement of groups is common in a business environment to sustain in the business. Developing the team spirit in the organization is just so to have the coordination and cooperation in the organization. There are five stages in the Bruce Tuckman team development which are as follows:


In this stage, the formation of the group is done in the organization. The interpersonal relations are maintained by the people to have the group to consult the things. The team members behave quite independently.  They may be motivated by the team harmony and support by the top level but are relatively uninformed of the issues and objective of the team. The project manager will try to bring the team together and trust and team together to ensure that they trust each other and have the ability to develop a working relationship among them (Mostashari, Sanghavi & McClellan, 2014).


In this step, various ideas are competing with each other for a consideration. Using this method, the team members get the confidence in themselves that whether they are moving in the right direction or not. Another advantage of using this development stages is that the team members are showing their own personalities and express themselves freely. The manager of the team guides them how they have to move and which direction is g0od for them (Beck & Cowan, 2014). 


Norming can be defined as the rules, methods, behaviour and regulations followed in the organization.  using the norming in the structure enable the project team members to work with more effectiveness as they know in advance what role they have to perform an in which manner they have to behave by following the rules and regulations. Efforts are taken by the manager to resolve the problems of the individuals and to achieve the group harmony among them (Day, Fleenor, Atwater, Sturm & McKee, 2014).


In performing the interpersonal structure of the organization becomes the tool task. In this stage the role of the members become more flexible in the organization. Project team is able to done the job smoothly and effectively without the inappropriate conflict or the need for external supervision.


In this stage, the task is being completed and the team is being disabled. In this stage, the team members felt that they are felt apart and lost by the group. The introduction of the new stages is there that is the forming stage of team development (Tschannen, 2014). 

Group leadership can be defined as the finding the person who can able to lead the group and can manage the workings of every member of the team. It has been found that the various roles are played by the team members to support the work and to accomplish the goals as early as possible. Some roles which are been performed by the team members are group task role, self-oriented role and group maintenance role (Biemann, Cole, & Voelpel, 2012).

Group task role is based on different roles needed to take a project in which the work is done step by step from initial conception to an end action. In this group task role, the objectives and goal so the group are fulfilled by the group members. This will encourage and motive them to work effectively and efficiently. On the other hand, maintenance roles are focusing on maintains the group ethics and boosting the morale of the employees so that they can work better in the organization. This role is tries to improve the interpersonal relationship in the organization. It will bring the harmony and integrity in the work and the common goals that are the organizational goal can be achieved (Colbert, Judge, Choi & Wang, 2012).

Self-orientation roles in the individual made them to achieve their goal which earning high from the company and this will be achieved only when the organizational goal are fulfilled.  The group maintenance role helps in maintaining the good and strong relationship with the team members in the workplace. This will fulfil the interpersonal needs and the requirements of the group members. This will maintain the effective communication and collaboration in the workplace. By maintaining the group roles, self-orientation roles, company can be to maintain the cultural and leadership in the organization (Ginkel &  Knippenberg, 2012).

There are various reasons existed to which the employees resist to change in the organization. Some of which are as follows:

Poor communication

Poor communication in the staff members affects the working of the organization. Not only the working is affected but the profitability and culture also get harnessed. If the communication is not done properly then the implementation of changes in the organization is difficult.

Misunderstanding the need for change

In this staff member of the company are misunderstand the need for the change. They understand that the change will decrease their potential to work which will ultimately harness the working and adoption to change in the organization (Palthe, 2014).

Fear of the unknown

Sometimes staff gets fear by the name of the change in the polities and roles in the organization. Staff members fear by the unknown changes implemented in the organisation.  

Low Confidence

Lack of trust, confidence, and motivation in staff also affects the change in the management process adversely. Low trust is a sense of feeling among the staff members that do not have faith and believe in the organizational change policy (Lucas, 2014).

In the given case study, the CEO of the company needs to use the ADKAR theory to manage the changes which are occurring in the work environment.  

  1. B) The approaches which can be used to resist the changes in the organization by the staff are as follows:

Education and communication

CEO can start the training and development program in the organization so that the staff members know in advance what they have to do to achieve the goals of the organization. Providing the proper education to the staff makes them aware about the new technologies which are going to adopt the changes easily don in the organization. The communication of those changes in advance makes them feel that they are also the part of the company (Samimi, Zarinabadi & Shoshtar, 2014).


Offering staff the good incentives when they are performing well in the organization can make them the changes easily without any fear. The negotiation approach is used in the organization when staff losses its power or works during the change procedure. Negotiation is used to get motivated and inspired staff.

  1. C) Possible drawbacks of the approaches which are explained in part B is discussed below:


Education and communication

This approach will take a lot of time in giving training to the staff and educating them. Not only the time, the cost is also indulged which is quite high.


Sometimes negotiation approach used in the company may result in the ineffectiveness and inefficiency. Due to lack of flexibility in the organization, negotiation approach may not be useful (Leonard & Frankel, 2011).

  1. A. There are ample reasons to implement the change in the firm that is discussed below.

New technology

 It is one of the significant reasons to initiate the change management in the workplace. Identification of new and innovative technology helps in performing work effectively (Herrmann & Nadkarni, 2014).

Performance gaps

The firm goals and targets are not being met or other organizational needs and requirements are not being satisfied. The changes are essential to close these gaps.

Identification of opportunities

 To find the effective and unique opportunities, the company initiates the changes in the workplace (Hornstein, 2015).

It has been analyzed that the CEO of Air New Zealand Company can use Kotter’s theory to implement the change in the workplace. This theory focuses on the people more instead of change itself (Clay, 2017). By inspiring a sense of urgency for change and maintaining that momentum.  Under this strategy, a forming strategic vision is set by the company to initiate the change management within the organization. There are 8 steps of Kotter’s change management theory. The 8 steps include creating a sense of urgency, developing a core coalition, formulating a strategic vision, getting everyone on board, removing barriers and minimizing friction, generating short-term wins, sustaining acceleration and establishing the changes in stone. This model helps the CEO to know and understand whether technology and resources are suitable or not for the company. It also helps in conducting day to day business activities and operations successfully (Thomas, 2015).

  1. The two motivation theories that can be used by the company to motivate the workers have been discussed below.

Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory

This theory is propounded by Frederick Herzberg. The Herzberg’s theory considers two factors such as hygiene and motivational factors to inspire the staff for carrying out the business operations in a hassle-free manner. The hygiene factors such as working conditions, policies of the company, safety, and environment create dissatisfaction among the workers. On the other hand, motivation factors such as achievement, recognition, work itself, advancement, growth, and responsibility lead to job satisfaction among the workers. If motivational factors are effective then the top management and leaders can motivate the workers towards the achievement of goals and objectives.

Vroom’s expectancy theory

This theory can also be used by the company to inspire the employees for attaining the desired goals and objectives. It is a cognitive process theory of motivation. This theory is developed by Vroom after considering three factors such as efforts, performance, and reward. All these factors can motivate the workers and also improves the skills and knowledge of the workers. The worker’s expectations and requirements are boosted and encouraged by incentives and rewards. This theory also helps in understanding the level of motivation and confidence of the workers. In this way, Vroom’s expectancy theory can be applicable in Air New Zealand Company to inspire the subordinates (Parijat & Bagga, 2014).

  1. If the employees have not get encouraged and motivated with the help of motivation theories then the organization can use various other techniques or methods to inspire the workers in the workplace that have been discussed below.

Gamify and incentives

The top management and leaders can motivate the workers by providing incentives and bonus to the employees. Performance-based rewards and incentives can be provided by the top management and managers to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the workers.

Develop trust

The top management and leaders also need to develop trust, loyalty and confidence among the workers. It is one of the significant techniques to encourage the employees and along with this; it also helps in maintaining a favorable working environment in the workplace.

Reward based on feedback

 Top management and leaders need to collect feedback based on the performance and efficiency of the workers. Feedback and opinion will help in determining the performance and further, it also helps in encouraging the workers (Wilches, Tobar, Peñaherrera, Cuzco, Jerves, Heyden & Vila, 2015).

Provide life balance

 It is significant to inspire the workers to take vacation time. A strong culture that provides work-life balance, enhanced performance and overall happiness in the workplace leads to the achievement of targets and goals. It also helps in maintaining a favorable working culture within the organization.

  1. Yes, I think that most effective and unique techniques for encouraging the workers are giving the appropriate bonus and incentive to them. The work is not achieved without providing incentives and bonus to the workers.

Zed manager can use the normative leadership model to motivate the employees. This model provides the support to the leaders in evaluating and assessing the influential factors present in the environment. This factor directly or indirectly affects the managers and their working. The leaders must involves the employees in their decision making process. The normative model discussed below:

Autocratic (I)

The leaders or managers solve the problems of the company by making the decision from the information available to them. This model can be used by the Zed Company to make the effectiveness sin the decision making process (Norzailan, Othman & Ishizaki, 2016).

Autocratic (II)

The leaders and employers can make the decision by acquiring the information from the employees and associates of the organization.

Consultative (I)

In this method the leader shares the information and problem of the business to its employees and subordinates. It will help them to have the good decisions making in the organization.

Consultative (II)

In this method, the mangers get the recommendations and ideas from the subordinates to solve the issue or problem prevailing in the organization.

Group (II)

In this method the problems or issues are shared with the group of employees and ask their different ideas and opinion to resolve the obstacles (Blaskovics, 2016).

  1. One of the styles used in the organization can be the transactional leadership in which the rewards and punishment are given for the good and poor performance. This principle is used in this style to adopt the goals and objectives of the organization. The disadvantages of the transactional leadership style are discussed below:
  • The transactional leaders are unable to get the clear structure in the organization.
  • This leadership style does not promote the creativity an innovation suggested by the employees which will demotivate them and they become rigid in the workings of the organization.

Employees are accountable for each and every mistake dine in the organization whether they are responsible for that mistake or not (Zivkovic & Veljkovic, 2016).

  1. Advantages of the transformational leadership followed by the Zed manager in the organization are as follows:
  • This leadership style focuses on inspiring and motivating the employees its best so that they can perform better in the organization.
  • Transformational leaders the vision in their minds that what objectives and goals to be achieved so that the company can grow and develop more in the environment.

Learning the corporate styles and new initiatives is one of the important advantages of this style (Blaskovics, 2016).

  1. The Zed managers need to involve the employees in the decision-making process so that the decision can be made with more effectiveness and efficiency. Some points are highlighted below top develop a transformational leadership in the company:

Personalize management style

In this step, the manager’s develop the style by their own initiative from which the further decision is made.  The subordinates and employees also develop their own style of doing the work according to the work delegated to them.

Encourage creativity

This style promotes the creativity in the organization as employees can take their own decisions.

Motivate the inspire

The transformational leaders inspire and motivate the employees so that they can perform their duties and responsibilities well.

In this way, zed managers can able to make the proper decision making in the organization by using the transformational leadership in its business and can get the effectiveness in the operations. From this, the junior managers also develop in the organization and can develop their managerial skills (Mari?, 2013).


From the above discussion, it can be concluded that every company needs to follow the management in which they have to include the leadership styles, motivation and change to resist so that easy implementation of policies and rules can be done in the organization. The implementation of new change in the organisation will lead to grab the new opportunities from the market and can earn profitability in the business.


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