Methods Of Office Automation: Ad Hoc Testing And Prototyping Model

Ad hoc testing benefits

In this report, two methods are explained in ways that enable office automation in an organization. Namely, the office automation can be planned by;

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Ad Hoc Testing

Ad hoc testing combines the improvisational and informal points of approach to analyze the viability of an organization’s automated office. The procedure used in this plan is non-methodical whereby the testers lack in depth information on the requirements of the software to be developed. This feature could lead to unintended miss of flaw detection that in other well-developed testing are detectable (Benatallah, 2013). In spite of the disadvantage, the method of implementation allows fast attending to obvious flaws that would need more time to fix when systematic procedures involved in detailed testers are employed.

Prototyping model

A prototype is a preliminary model that is built to test a process. This idea applies in office automation in that a prototype of an office automation is built, underwent testing and worked on again till a better prototype is developed from which a final working system is produced. Not all necessities for proper project development are available ahead of time hence can be recursive during its evolution between the developers of the software and users (Breeding, 2012).

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Prototyping involves several steps;

  1. Specification of the system requirements before commencing.
  2. Designing a preliminary system.
  3. Coming up with a first prototype that is a smaller version of the intended design.
  4. Evaluating the first prototype and taking note of strengths and weaknesses.
  5. Modification of the first prototype to improve its performance(Escalante, 2011).
  6. A second prototype is then developed and evaluated.
  7. The above procedure is recurrence until the desired prototype is obtained.
  8. Construction of a final project about the final prototype.
  9. The project is put to practice and scaled up to the required size for usage.

Ad hoc testing benefits.

  1. Unlike formal testing, ad hoc testing allows usage of new testing ways that lead to better defect spotting(Gillam, 2011).
  2. In situations of short time availability, the test passes as it takes less duration to diagnose a system’s in-depth functionality.
  3. Documentation is not necessary thereby focus left on software testing.
  4. The testing can be done at any time in any place in the Software Development Cycle.

Ad hoc testing issues

  1. Bugs can be recreated due to unstructured testing.
  2. Highly depends on the skill of the tester(Goscinski, 2012).
  3. No documentation means the examiner relies on memory that may fail in future.

Prototyping model benefits

  1. Users take part in the development.
  2. Early error detection.
  3. Provision of a working model enables the user to get a better picture on the project’s functionality.
  4. Easy identification of bugs.
  5. Development of better solutions due to user involvement in development.

Prototyping model issues

  1. The increase in system complexity.
  2. Series of prototyping means tedious implementation and repair system development.

 Summarized advice to the company

There are various ways to install office automation. From these different forms, ad hoc testing provides a faster scrutiny and office automation development but in an informal manner. The method involves employing a skilled individual to develop an automated office and has some advantages that come with it. In spite of these benefits, raises significant disadvantages whenever applied.

Secondly, the prototyping model is the next preferred method of planning. This model entails project after project design where each project is tested for defects and strengthened before an ultimate and final design is chosen (Jamsa, 2012). The method generates a lot of work but functions properly.

The prototyping model is a better way to employ office automation. Prototyping entails user involvement during development and gives a picture of intended usage instructions of the project before the final design is due. This gives a rough idea of the working of the cloud computing enabling easier maneuver. Moreover, there is detailed documentation on developments leading to the availability of referencing in future and future company expansion (Jr., 2011). The model, therefore, proves to be a better way to come up with office automation and implementation for SoftArc Engineering Company.

Ad hoc testing issues

Differences between locally hosted infrastructure and IaaS provider.

Hardware differences. Locally hosted infrastructure involves purchasing of equipment yearly with trending business making the hardware obsolete making the process expensive whereas in IaaS providers there is dedicated hardware support allowing continuous upgrade of the system meaning seamless and inexpensive costs (Breeding, 2012).

Software differences. Any increase in staff number in locally hosted infrastructure lead to an added overall expenditure due to increased licensing requirements, and this could be tragic if the combined staff is temporary. IaaS providers have an adjustable Service Provider Licensing Agreement (SPLA) present for software vending allowing flexible options for monthly licensing per staff basis (Borko Furht, 2010).

Support differences. In locally hosted infrastructure, any increase in complexity of server and storage lead to the greater hiring of skilled internal labor in the required fields that could result in staff unavailability whereas in IaaS providers there is support agreements between vendors and clients that reduce onsite work requirement (Gillam, 2011).

Access differences. Using physically on-site servers increases dependency on that network whereby remote location may be disconnected from it or get limited access while having dedicated data servers of multiple networks ensure a high level of uptime with extremely reduced network outage instances.

Performance differences. On-site premise infrastructure performance configuration is limited depending on who and how it was installed while IaaS infrastructure is about ongoing performance procurement that aims at improving returns thereby reducing its limits (Escalante, 2011).

Security Differences. Locally hosted infrastructure has less data safety in that customer personnel can physically access information making it potentially risky. In IaaS provision, there is strict data access policies and proceedings leading to high-level security assurances in that proper notification is availed in case one needs access (Borko Furht, 2010).

Scalability differences. Locally hosted infrastructure bind scalability by their installment of on-site hardware and software making the capability of short-term company adjustment difficult but IaaS provider ongoing performance procurement that aims at improving returns thereby reducing its limits (Jamsa, Cloud Computing, 2012).

Power and cooling differences. Locally hosted infrastructure have higher power consuming rate due to various servers involved in them, and their cooling takes unusual time, but IaaS infrastructure is only accountable in a monthly subscription that is lower indicating less power consumption and faster cooling properties (Borko Furht, 2010).

Why consider moving into IaaS

Scalability. IaaS allows scaling up or downscaling the company servicing facilities whenever it is needed (Borko Furht, 2010).

Flexibility. The company can easily choose better servicing facility with the shifting software and hardware technology (Borko Furht, 2010).

Prototyping model benefits

Strategic focus, the IaaS is managed by the provider leaving more time for focus on company development.

Security. IaaS provides tight security clearance for access to business data.

Fast implementation. IaaS offer fast delivery of ordered software and hardware.

Difference between IaaS, SaaS, and PaaS

Software as a Service (SaaS) services involves a third party provider that delivers applications over the Internet to users. These applications can be accessed by the users for purchase or usage (Page, 2014). The third-party vendor entirely manages the service. One example of SaaS is the email.

Platform as a Service (PaaS) is about cloud service that is used for development and provides applications used within the cloud components. This service enables development of applications, their testing and provision in a fast and efficient way making it be utilized by the third-party providers. One example is Apprenda.

Lastly, Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) is a self-service cloud model that enables access, monitoring and management of data infrastructure. In spite of the providers having a virtual administration of the cloud service, the IaaS user can manage personal information. One example is the Google Compute Engine.

Recommendation of the best cloud service network

The most appropriate service is the Software as a Service (SaaS). Most companies are incorporating SaaS into their marketing strategy to become more competitive (Rafaels, 2015). This need has arisen due to the various critical benefits that SaaS users gain from purchasing such cloud service.

To begin with, the cloud service enhances configuration of information and even further customization. The same documents and data in cloud storage can be accessed by individuals given different settings who can change the appearance and presentation of the same information on their devices without interfering with others’. Meaning there is a self-service provision similar to those having own computer hardware with the installed applications.

Secondly, there is accelerated feature requirement. Whenever an update is produced, an automated updating is triggered critical to that request with frequent update releases and the act done all through the cloud storage (Thomas Erl, 2013). The technology allows central hosting of applications that is managed by the provider thus eases identification of areas to be improved and faster development testing.

Lastly, there is collaborative workability. Central hosting of data will enable the employees to share, discuss and plan within and outside the organization. In addition to that, employees can offer improved version of the software being used due to the data obtained from extensive monitoring of software usage (Thomas Erl, 2013).

Prototyping model issues

Problems encountered in Software as a Service (SaaS)

One problem is the need for constant internet connection at any given time. The employees will only conduct work when they are online and not at any particular point will they access company information offline. This hinders employees from doing work whenever they are in areas without access to the internet reducing the company’s productivity.

Another drawback is insecurity. Most businesses the submitting their large amounts of data to outsiders in the name of cloud storage since this ultimately hands over data control leaving no idea of how the provider will assure data safety in case of a disaster and so forth.

To end with, the company will not be able to control the software application version that they will be using. The SaaS makes an automated updating of software with the aim of improving performance. However, some business conduction could work better with outdated applications compared to the updated, and the company would have no option but to try to reduce loss other than sticking to the preferred update (Goscinski, 2012).  

Remedies to the discussed shortcomings

The disadvantage of the need to regularly connect to the internet can be dealt with by use of Software plus Service. The idea is to compromise by having the ability to enjoy the cloud service and using a traditional on-site software solution. This remedy gives the best of both worlds.

The issue about insecurity due to massive data hand-over to service providers can be handled by ensuring the provision of a well legally documented contract that provides security as per the service level contract. More to that, the company can choose a well-established SaaS provider having an excellent reputation that might reduce their insecurity (Page, 2014).  

Having to stick to the current software update that hinders company progress can be evaded but at a cost (Page, 2014). The company can request for better-customized software that functions to their advantage. The custom may be the past better working software or an improved version of the current.  


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Breeding, M. (2012). Cloud Computing for Libraries. Beijing: American Library Association.

Escalante, A. (2011). Handbook of Cloud Computing. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.

Gillam, L. (2011). Cloud computing. Stoke: Springer Science & Business Media.

Goscinski, A. M. (2012). Cloud Computing: Principles and Paradigms. Washington: ohn Wiley & Sons.

Jamsa, K. (2012). Cloud Computing. Leicester: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Jr., C. F. (2011). Cloud Computing: Technologies and Strategies of the Ubiquitous Data Center. Hull: CRC Press.

Page, G. (2014). Cloud Computing: Automating the Virtualized Data Center. Manchester: Cisco Press.

Rafaels, R. (2015). Cloud Computing: From Beginning to End. Amsterdam: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform,

Thomas Erl, R. P. (2013). Cloud Computing: Concepts, Technology & Architecture. Barcelona: Prentice Hall.