Obesity Health Promotion Program: Goals, Objectives And Theoretical Models

Overview of Obesity and Associated Risks

Obesity is a chronic health issue that is characterized by increased weight and exposes individuals to be affected with various chronic disorders. Recent studies are of the opinion that about 160 million Americans are either obese or overweight. This chronic condition not only affects adults but also has become a concern for the American children. About 305 of the boys and 205 of the girls are found to be obese in the nation. About three quarters of the American men are obese or overweight. The prevalence of obesity was about 39.8% and this disorder had affected about 9.3 million people in the United States in 2015-2016. This disorder has become a concern for the nation.

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This is because obesity related conditions are seen to include heart disorders, type-2 diabetes, strokes as well as different forms of the cancer and these had become some of the leading causes of preventable as well as premature death. Studies have shown that the estimated annual medical cost of obesity in the United States was $147 billion in the year 2008. The medial cost associated with the obesity was $1,429 higher than those people with the normal weight were.

Therefore, it is very important for the people of the nation to be area of the complications that might rise because of the conditions of obesity. Therefore, health promotion programs need to be developed which would help the people to develop health literacy and modify their risky behaviors to lessen the prevalence of the disorders. This report would focus of the health behaviors that contribute to such disorders and accordingly set goals for the program.

Health behavior theories:

  • Different theories of health behavior can be taken in consideration for analyzing the health behaviors that make individuals develop obesity. One of them is the direct modeling theory(Teixeira et al., 2015). This theory states that individuals observe others in the social network engaging in particular behavior and tend to adopt them (Giles et al., 2014). Often different food blogging sites and their advertisements along with the unhealthy behaviors of many people on the social network become some of the contributors making people adopt risky health habits.
  • Another theory is the symbolic modeling theory. This theory states that individuals become more likely to model different types of behaviors by others especially like any celebrities that are portrayed by media (Peters et al., 2015). Often it is seen that young individuals get encouraged to but sweetened beverages, fast foods and many others when they see their favorite models perform the same behavior on media. This might also influence their behavior (Hollands et al, 2016).
  • Another health behavior model that can also be taken in consideration while developing a health modification program for the people in the nation is the trans-theoretical model. Often will-power as well as motivation becomes main component for the changes to the better health behaviors (Lobstein et al., 2015). The different steps are
  • Pre-contemplation – individuals are unaware of the ignorant of the problem
  • Contemplation – individuals consider making changes to behaviors due to development of awareness; health promotion program would help in its development
  • Preparation – individuals commit the change and organize steps to enact the changes
  • Action – the individuals change their behaviors for enacting the change
  • Maintenance – individuals need to sustain the change over six months to prevent the relapse

Therefore, this theoretical model would help in identifying the behaviors and accordingly develop goals to change the thinking procedures and develop awareness to alter their behaviors.

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Goals and Objectives

Reason: Health education would develop awareness of the issues and the risk factors along with complications that may arise with obesity. Moreover, developing awareness and health literacy levels would encourage the participants to modify the behaviors and ensure development of good health habits.

Goal 1:

Goal

Specific

measurable

achievable

relevant

timeframe

Develop awareness and motivate the individuals to undertake healthy behaviors

Health promotion programs will be conducted in the community halls along with the distribution of pamphlets and health education classes twice a week on weekends

Questionnaire  based survey should be done to measure how well the awareness program had resulted and whether the individuals had entered into the contemplation stage or not

As the programs would be held of weekends, so office going people as well as children; moreover the education and awareness would be done in layman language  and so success rate would be higher

Health behaviors can only change when individuals first learn that their behaviors are harmful for them, once they become aware they would them try to modify their behaviors. Therefore, it is important for developing their health literacy first (Giles et al., 2016)

It would be completed within first three months of the awareness program

Objective 1: Spreading of pamphlets that align with their health literacy levels among the different community members to make them aware about the causes and complications of obesity and make them educated. About 70% of the community members would be able to understand the disorder of obesity and take precautionary measures within 28 February 2019

Health Behavior Theories

Objective 2:  Conducting health education sessions in the community halls in every community to make the communities undertake strategies is important. This would prevent gaining of weight and ensure physical exercise regimes. About 70% of the community members would change their diet plan and undertake physical exercises in their lifestyle habits within March 2019.

Goal 2:

Reason: If the advertisements on media are stopped and the posts and blogs on the social networking sites can be checked regarding poor health choices like fast food advertisement and others, there is a high chance that youths will no more be influenced

Goal:

Goal

Specific

measurable

achievable

relevant

timeframe

Stop any advertisements and broadcasting activities that influence negative healthy behaviors

Developing legislation for banning all such advertisements influencing risky healthy behaviors would prevent  risky behaviors in youths

Community surveys and social analysis can be done to understand how much the prevalence had decreased after banning of such advertisements

This is achievable as advocating about the issue to the governmental departments would enable them to understand the depth of the situation and thereby they would ban the advertisements and keep a check on social networks

This is relevant because as the youth would be not watching such advertisements, they would not be influenced by such lifestyles and the chance of adopting the risky behaviors would reduce (Enright et al., 2016)

This would take about 6 months

Objective 1: Conduct social analysis and develop reports that need to be sent to the government to make the government identify how inappropriate advertisements on television and social media can result in poor lifestyle choices leading to obesity. The report would be sent to the government within November 2018.

Objective 2: Advocate for the issue to the government about how it is affecting the youths of the nation and develop a policy based on the legislations of banning the advertisements and pose strict penalties for overcoming such rules. The policy would be developed and published within December 2018.

Goal 3:

Reason: Organic foods will lessen the chance of accumulation of calorie and abdominal fat and will reduce the chances of obesity. Moreover, they would be also gaining fewer calories and hence chance of disorders like stroke, hypertension and others will decrease.           

Goal

Specific

measurable

achievable

relevant

timeframe

Stopping the selling of cheap calorie dense fast foods and promoting the intake or organic d foods by reducing their price

Calorie dense foods should be stopped in the market by the government and organic foods should be promoted

Social researches and observational studies need to be conducted to analyses how the enabling of the objectives would result in the lessening of the prevalence of obesity

Once the government is shown proofs about how the cheap fast foods are harming the health of the nation, they would themselves take this as a priority and start promoting organic food use. Therefore the goal is achievable by providing them reports and proved of researches

Calorie dense foods increases calories resulting abdominal fat accumulation that causes many disorders, hence this goal would be relevant to stop sue of this form of foods

This would require around 6 months

Objective 1: Collect data about how many people are using such calorie-dense foods in the communities and send to government. This would help the government to gain an idea about the resources they would need to introduce organic food within the market. This should be achieved by 22 December 2018

Objective 2: Advocate about the harm caused by such disorders to the government and make people aware of this harms. Develop policy so that communities can only sell organic foods and not sell any fast foods making them aware of the penalties. This would be done within 22nd December 2018

Barriers and Challenges

            The goals developed for the health promotion program would enable development of healthy habits at the personal levels and modify the risk factors in the community that promote chances of obesity. However, one of the barriers is even development of health literacy dos not ensure that individuals will be motivated enough to take steps to change their habits. Therefore, this issue need to be worked upon on an individual level may be by motivational interviewing or by cognitive behavioral therapy. Moreover, the other barriers are that the initiatives, which need to be taken at the governmental level, might take huge time and situations may worsen within this time. Therefore, important steps are also important to care for that as well.

References:

Davis, R., Campbell, R., Hildon, Z., Hobbs, L., & Michie, S. (2015). Theories of behaviour and behaviour change across the social and behavioural sciences: a scoping review. Health psychology review, 9(3), 323-344. 

Enright, G., Gyani, A., Raadsma, S., Allman-Farinelli, M., Rissel, C., Innes-Hughes, C., … & Redfern, J. (2016). Evaluating factors influencing the delivery and outcomes of an incentive-based behaviour change strategy targeting child obesity: protocol for a qualitative process and impact evaluation. BMJ open, 6(12), e012536. 

Giles, E. L., Robalino, S., McColl, E., Sniehotta, F. F., & Adams, J. (2014). The effectiveness of financial incentives for health behaviour change: systematic review and meta-analysis. PloS one, 9(3), e90347. 

Giles, E. L., Sniehotta, F. F., McColl, E., & Adams, J. (2016). Acceptability of financial incentives for health behaviour change to public health policymakers: A qualitative study. BMC Public Health, 16(1), 989. 

Hollands, G. J., French, D. P., Griffin, S. J., Prevost, A. T., Sutton, S., King, S., & Marteau, T. M. (2016). The impact of communicating genetic risks of disease on risk-reducing health behaviour: systematic review with meta-

Lobstein, T., Jackson-Leach, R., Moodie, M. L., Hall, K. D., Gortmaker, S. L., Swinburn, B. A., … & McPherson, K. (2015). Child and adolescent obesity: part of a bigger picture. The Lancet, 385(9986), 2510-2520.

Peters, G. J. Y., De Bruin, M., & Crutzen, R. (2015). Everything should be as simple as possible, but no simpler: towards a protocol for accumulating evidence regarding the active content of health behaviour change interventions. Health Psychology Review, 9(1), 1-14. 

Teixeira, P. J., Carraça, E. V., Marques, M. M., Rutter, H., Oppert, J. M., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., … & Brug, J. (2015). Successful behavior change in obesity interventions in adults: a systematic review of self-regulation mediators. BMC medicine, 13(1), 84.