Women’s Fashion in the 1920’s

Women’s Fashion in the 1920’s

Throughout history, women’s fashion has been influenced by many factors, Women’s rights, prohibition, and many more. This influence was a big impact on women’s fashion that created a movement of change. Women showed more skin, giving a less feminine look. As flappers also popularized, women followed those trends wearing dresses, and embracing the “boy body”.

In 1920, the 19th Amendment was passed giving the right for women to vote. Not only did this give women more freedom with their political opinions, but it sparked many controversies because women believed that they had a bigger role to play in political decisions and things that were only believed men could do. For example, because women were becoming more active, the trend of wearing heavy undergarments faded. Women began by wearing corsets, which caused rib deformations and supposedly caused, argued by Victorian-era doctors, diseases. In a New York Times article, it explains that doctors in the nineteenth century had problems with corsets for causing disease without any evidence, because of not having the proper training. By the end of the 1920s, women still were not free from the body-constricting corsets, but as time slowly progressed, women began wearing bloomers, and eventually panties. Women also increasingly engaged in sports, which was not common before the 1920s. Sports like golf and tennis became more popular for women to participate in. For golf, women wore knee-length skirts, and in tennis, lightweight and slim-fitting dresses. Alison Kass, a Journalism major, explains “Although women of a certain age still continued to dress conservatively, forward-looking younger women now made sportswear into the greatest post-war fashion.”(8) Not only was sportswear comfortable and stylish for women, but it also gave them a new trendy style of clothing for women all around the United States to make a statement about women’s rights.

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As another way to express their newly earned freedoms, women dressed less feminine and more masculine. Women wanted a more masculine body and embraced looser fits. In an article about women and prohibition, it explains “The female form was suppressed with dropped waistlines, looser fits and boxier clothing.”(P.5) The previous trend of small waists and tight clothing was discarded, and women embraced their “boy body”(P.4) to start a movement. During this time, women also started to work out to get an overall slimmer body to achieve the ideal flat chests and small figure. Yhe-Young explains “A skinny woman with flat breasts resembling an immature boy was the stereotype of a fashionable woman.”(54) Many famous designers were inspired by this masculine trend and used it as a way for business. Knickerboxers, a popular men’s clothing item, was also becoming popular in the ’20s, and women used it as a way for comfortable clothing in the house, and even the workplace. Another way women used the masculine look to their advantage, was bob haircuts. During the Victorian Era, hair was highly valued for women and was shown as a symbol of femininity and status. With the bold look of bobs, it was often banned, along with sleeveless dresses. The Eastern Teachers Agency in Boston even went to the extent of declaring that they “did not want female teachers with bobbed hair[,]” and explained that it was not proper for teachers. Fass believed the reason for this was  “explicit expression of women’s sexuality[,]” which was unusual for men at this time period. This era of time gave women the ability to express who they really were, and give them a chance to show their dedication to women’s rights. Going against the women’s stereotypes and dressing less feminine gave people a greater understanding of why they deserved rights, and why they should have the same sexual equality as men.

Flappers became a major trend in the 1920s and were a crucial change in the way women dressed. Flappers were girls whose goal was to live their lives to the fullest, to an extent. They wore shorter dresses with tassels and cut their hair short which was a much different style then it was in the early 1900s. The reasoning behind this new trend of clothing is so the women who were flappers could move more freely. Kass explains that women began to “embrace their personal styles” (6). As flappers started becoming more popular, designers who designed traditional clothing started losing business. Kass also explains that during the time before World War I started, “the couture business suffered a loss in business. Poiret and other designers were called into the military and forced to close their couture houses” (7).

Prohibition is the 18th amendment, banning alcohol manufacturing and consumption. One of the main groups to support this law was women. Women were the main group to support prohibition because it led to violence, mainly against women. An organization called the Women’s Christian Temperance Movement, which was a group of women who supported temperance. Not only could they be in an organization, but they also got to be involved with politics which was not usual for women during this time.

During the early 1900’s women’s fashion made a drastic change. From tight corsets to loose fitting dresses, women used getting more rights to their advantage. This time period was a major turning point for women and fashion, which gave women more power to fight for what they believe in.


Portrayal of Women Changed in Horror Films Since The 1920’s

Fear is the most powerful emotion in the human race and fear of the unknown is probably the most ancient. You’re dealing with stuff that everybody has felt; from being little babies we’re frightened of the dark, we’re frightened of the unknown. If you’re making a horror film you get to play with the audiences feelings.

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The main purpose of horror films is to entertain, frighten and to invoke our repressed worst fears, in a terrifying and shocking way, while captivating and entertaining us at the same time. Horror films feature a wide range of styles, from the use of shadows and mise-en-scene within the early classic horrors films to the psychotic human serial killer and CGI monsters and aliens present in today’s horror movies.
The horror film genre is nearly as old as cinema, with the first silent short film directed by Georges Melies in 1896: Le Manoir du Diable. It only lasted for a few minutes and the audience adored it and it left them wanting more due to the way he made supernatural events the main aspect of this film. German filmmakers started to produce horror films and the first feature length vampire horror film was F.W Murnau’s Nosferatu released in 1922. However it was down to the genius work of Robert Wiene director of The Cabinet of Dr. Calligari released in 1920 that lead the way for the ‘serious’ horror films. In the early 1930’s the Universal studios created the modern horror film genre and brought a series of successful gothic-horror including Dracula directed by Tod Browning and Frankenstein directed by James Whale and both were released in 1931 followed by numerous sequels. In the 1950’s the horror film genre shifted from gothic to more modern horror. Aliens and monsters threatened to take over the world and humanity had to try and overcome the threats of these invasions. In the late fifties horror films became gorier which saw the remakes of traditional horror stories such as Edgar Allen Poe’s The Fall of the House of Usher & The Raven which starred the iconic actor Vincent Price.
The early 1960’s took the audience much deeper into the world of horror films, with the release of Alfred Hitchcock’s Psycho in 1960 which used a human as the monster and killer instead of a supernatural one to scare audiences. According to Prince (2004), the deeply disturbing admission, which undermines the audiences belief in rationality, with an existence where terms can be controlled or at the very up-most understood. With it’s savage attack on the audience and belief system, Psycho provided the path for modern horror and for our contemporary sense of the world. It seems that Monsters today are everywhere, and they can not be destroyed. (Prince, 2004.p. 4)
The psychological aspects that this can cause on the viewers is it can allow them to find their “Dark, unnatural, hidden self.” (Skal, 1993, p.17).This is because:
So much of our imaginative life in the twentieth century has been devoted to peeling back the masks and scabs of civilisation, to finding, cultivating and projecting nightmare images of the secret self (Skal, 1993, p.18)
This means that changing and developing the monster into a psychotic killer, externalises the viewer’s fear as the murderer could be anyone they know, right down to the person sat next to them in the audience in the cinema or at home. It makes the film seem more realistic and that it could actually happen to them. Tudor 1989, uses key words to explain how the viewer is feeling and shows how they move from an ‘external’ threat, ‘monsters are not real, so this won’t happen to me’, to an ‘internal’ threat, the killer seen as a human and ‘could be anyone they know’. This moves them from a sense of ‘security’ to ‘paranoia’.
In 1975 a young Steven Spielberg directed Jaws, which became the highest grossing film to that time period. In the late Seventies filmmakers started to produce disturbing and gory films such as Texas Chainsaw Massacre directed by Tobe Hooper in 1974. This saw humans being ripped a part by other humans who have psychotic tendencies.
Women seem to be portrayed within these horror films as merely sexual damsels in distress who usually get murdered within the first few minutes of the film. This is clearly demonstrated in the film Jaws, directed by Steven Spielberg in 1975 where a young drunken girl goes skinny dipping in the sea and gets eaten by the great white shark that haunts the waters of Amity Island. Scream shows a blonde, naive young girl (played by Drew Barrymore) who is home alone with no neighbouring houses near, wearing only a jumper and pyjama bottoms. The killer sees this as a weakness due to the girl being at her most vulnerable and uses it to ring and terrorise her. She is unaware of his intentions and talks back to him on the house phone until he tells her he wants to know her name so he can know who he is looking at! She is the perfect horror victim because she is defenceless and weak and the attack is unexpected. She continually screams at the top of her lungs for someone to rescue her when she is confronted by the killer, but who is she screaming to? No one is around her or within hearing distance of her cries for help, so they seem wasteful, useless and unnecessary even though in a situation where your life depended on it, It would seem necessary and practical that you scream helplessly for your life no matter if anyone could not hear or help you; it is a part of our survival techniques. This girl does not clearly demonstrate any survival techniques or skills. Instead it takes her a while to hang up the phone. When she eventually does she doesn’t phone anyone she knows for help or comfort, like family or friends or even the emergency service who would be reliable sources of help and survival. Instead she chooses to scream and run around the house and garden where no one can hear her as a better option for survival, which it is not, as it ends abruptly with her hanging from a tree with her internal organs hanging out. The film/scene portrays women as being merely weak and incapable as she struggles to run for her life in order to get away from the killer. She falls over constantly and trips over her own feet. The character also portrays the image of the dumb blonde as well being stupid and incapable of looking after her self. Horror films rarely seem to feature women in a non- exploitative way. Even in modern movies such as Jennifer’s body directed by Karyn Kusama, released in 2009 and exploits women in a sexual manner, as it shows Megan Fox’s character ‘Jennifer’ as a loose sexual canon who is thirsty for men, but with a murderous twist. With all this in mind this dissertation intends to look at how the portrayal of women has changed in horror films and if it has at all.
This dissertation intends to look at some of the films listed in this chapter to see if the portrayal of women in horror films has changed or developed over time from some of the first horror films to present day.
In chapter one I intend to look at early horror films and the portrayal of women within them. I will analyse Tod Browning’s Dracula 1931, Rob Reiner’s 1990 Misery with the award winning Kathy Bates, Bride of Frankenstein, Murnau’s 1922 Nosferatu and Robert Wiene’s 1920 The Cabinet of Dr.Calligari and explore the way in which women are portrayed and represented within these films. Then in chapter 2 go on to look at more recent films such as Alien, Scream, and Psycho and see whether or not any changes have taken place or if women are still portrayed in the same way. This dissertation intends to explore and find out about the role of which women where and are portrayed in within horror films. This dissertation seeks to developed the depiction of whether or not women were or are now being treated fairly within the film industry and If there are any changes in the portrayal of them and if not why not. Chapter 1: Early Portrayal of Women.
A horror film in which isolated psychotic individuals (usually males) are pitted against one or more young people (usually females) whose looks, personalities, and/or promiscuities serve to trigger recollections of some past trauma in the killer’s mind (Hutchings, 2004, p. 194).
The stylish, imaginative and eerie 1920 film The Cabinet of Calligari explores the mind of a madman, set against an evil doctor who falsely incarcerates a hero in a lunatic asylum. Robert Wiene’s clever framing means the audience is never quite clear who is mad and who is sane. Wiene’s distorted take on reality is a disturbing experience, heightened by the rugged and harsh asymmetry of the mise en scene. If viewers were to watch this film nowadays they might find the pace slow, with long takes and little cutting between scenes. This is because the diegetic world is entirely artificial. The film takes the audience on a twisted, dreamlike tale, where all the scenery and objects take on a menacing new shape. It is not reality, and the stylised performances reflect that.
Nosferatu the first successful adaptation of Dracula is the first vampire movie, and presents Bram Stoker’s novel, Dracula. Murnau changed the main character name to Count Orlok. He did this because the studio could not obtain the rights to the original novel. The Count is grotesquely made-up, with long curling fingernails that can curl around the limbs of his helpless victims. Nosferatu gives us a far more frightening movie than any other of its time by using an early mastery of lights and shadows along with the stop motion special effects which created a very eerie and haunting film for its audience and for its time period.
In both of these movies the female character is portrayed as merely a weak, dependent individual, who constantly runs for her life but in the direction that will lead her to the villain/ killer, and when she is confronted with what she was running from she faints. Instead of running in the opposite direction and trying to save her own life it is as if she just gives up. This is showing women as weak, unintelligent and incapable of looking after themselves. It seems that all they are capable of doing is running, screaming and falling down:
In our culture men are taught the need for dominance and competence while women are taught warmth and expressiveness. The reciprocal stereotype thus develops that men are competent and assertive while women are submissive, and that women are warm and gentle while men are cold and rough
(McKillip, & DiMiceli, & Luebke, 1977, p. 82).
It seems that the female characters within these early classical films do not seem to be able to think critically and/or logically when it comes to trying to solve their problems, even when it comes to a matter of life or death. Its seems instead they rely on their emotions to guide them rather than their logic. They often choose to run into dark rooms and hide in places where the killer can easily find them or get to them. Even when there is a large group of people that could help them they seem to run in the opposite direction, which results in their ideas for salvation failing and makes them come across as damsels in distress who cannot think for themselves. In the early years of filmmaking, movies that were produced seemed to operate under a social value system to control and monitor women’s sexuality. It seemed that the female roles were to be kept as virgins for men to use them for pleasure and to dominate them. They were merely there to serve the male desires. Feminists identified the way that women were portrayed in film as sexual objects, a concept called ‘male gaze’.
The ‘male gaze’ is in some aspects the power that men have over women. This is very much a male dominated profession, directors, camera person, and runners are mostly male. It seems that without knowing and meaning to be, they are being sexist. They do bring the male gaze by making assumptions about what the audience want to see which female directors may not do or may do differently. It can also be classed as a form of visual harassment where men can watch women and fantasise over them in private or in public. Women in early films used to wear tight fitting corset dresses which clinched them in at the waist giving then an hour glass figure, giving them curves in all the right places, whilst also lifting and bringing together their bust making their assets seem much bigger and thus drawing the main focus in on them. It allows the male viewers to fantasise about what lies under her clothing and what it would be like to be with and have a woman like that.
The appearance of the female remains youthful, angelic, beautiful, thin, sexy, well-groomed, neat and nicely-dressed throughout the film even in the moments of their death or final struggle with the killer. They even seem to wake up looking beautiful, not a single hair out of place or a bit of their make-up smudged. They look and seem perfect, their clothes are not ripped or tarnished, and they do not sweat during strenuous activity.
In the original 1933 version of King Kong, directed by Merian. C. Cooper and Ernest. B. Schoedsack. The character Ann Darrow, played by Fay Wray, Clearly shows the passive female who is constantly screaming to be rescued by her male associates. It seems she is incapable of escaping from the grasp of the monster; she has to call upon the assistance of the stronger male sex. She is symbolised as a sexual object throughout the film for the monster and heroic male characters when her white dress is ripped and torn by the monster, revealing more of her flesh. This allows men to fantasise over her and her body and imagine what is under what little is left of her garments.
Tod Browning’s 1931 classic, Dracula, starring Bela Lugosi has a similar representation of women. Near the start a male character speaks about ‘Dracula and his wives’ implying there is more than one and no one seems to be fazed by the comment as if it is something of the norm. Women within the film are heavily made up with make-up, especially around their eyes. Its seems they have tried to make their eyes more bigger looking to make them more eye catching to the opposite sex as it is a well known fact that men are attracted to and like women with big bright eyes. They even go to bed and sleep in full heavy make-up and their hair looks immaculate with not a single strand out of place. The way they lay in bed, in a vulnerable position, one arm above their head, their neck fully on show just invites a vampire to bite down on their sweet fragrant neck. It is no wonder that the role of victims go to Female characters if they leave themselves carelessly open and vulnerable to the killer. Female characters clothing is long and floating but fitting around the waist to bring attention to the chest and outline of their upper body. Their hair is kept out of their face so that their facial features can be seen and the vampire women have an eerie persona around them and a not to be trusted atmosphere with there large staring eyes. They do as they are told and instructed to do so by Dracula in order to please and satisfy him. There seems to be not a lot of camera focus or time given to female character roles, except showing them in distress, worry and being vulnerable. The main female role, Mina, is not even taken seriously. She tells her fiancé and his associates about a ‘dream’ she had the previous night and how scared she was and still is. They tell her to forget it, saying it was not real. They do not seem to want to believe her or her thoughts and worries; they don’t seem to be valued or cared about. She is then advised by her father, whilst in the middle of speaking to Dracula that she is to go to her room and to bed immediately and then is said to be crazy by her fiancé. Male characters always seem to interrupt a female character in mid-sentence or in mid-thought as just shown. All major professions in the film seem to be run by men, for example all the doctors are male with female nurses to assist them and the servants and maids are female showing them running around after people and keeping things tidy as if it was a woman’s job to do so. Women faint and scream at the slightest thing and go to the male characters for comfort, reassurance and safety. Mina screams to be rescued and saved by what has happened to her (being turned into a vampire by Dracula) and cries to show her vulnerability and inability to cope and look after herself in strenuous situations. Women are looked upon as being ditzy, crazed, vulnerable, and unable to look after themselves and needing to be cared for, ‘everything is ok because I’m here’ spoken by Mina’s fiancé in Dracula. This statement shows Mina’s fiancé to believe everything will be alright because everything will be stable and safe when a male figure is around because they are the main source of protection, security and without them women would not be able to cope or be able to live. It’s as if women are under a spell or some power as they are attracted to Dracula, sending out the message to the audience that men have a hold and power on women within the film. At the end of the film when Dracula is being killed, Mina is sexualised as she starts to hold and caress her body showing she feels Draculas pain which is giving the male viewers a chance to fantasise over her.
James Whale’s 1935 sequel The Bride of Frankenstein portrays women as either servants or sat around an open fire sewing, which is a stereotypical view of women. They wear long floating floor length dresses that nowadays look as if they are something you would wear to a special occasion not everyday just lounging around the house. This shows that a woman’s appearance in early horror films was very important. The dress is fitted around the waist and chest area and their hair is swept up out of their face to allow their facial features and expressions to be seen. Women are also seen to do what is right by their man in order to please them; they won’t leave their man’s side unless they are told to do so by him. They are also represented as being clumsy, careless and unaware and seeming to not have a clue of what is going on around them. For example this can be seen when a young women is faced with Frankenstein the monster and walks backwards off a small cliff resulting in her being vulnerable to the monster and having to scream to be rescued by a male passer by. This gives the message that women are incapable of looking after themselves and need to look to a man for protection. The Bride of Frankenstein is very clumsy in appearance; she falls over her own feet and sometimes over nothing. Her balance is very off so she seems unstable and needs to be supported by men and her facial expression is vague. This film portrays women as clumsy, vague individuals who just would not be able to function properly without the help and supervision of a man.
This chapter has argued that women had no real main part or position within early horror films, only to be there to act as the main prize for the male leading role that happens to save her life and at the same time look good and give the male audience something alluring to look at. Chapter 2: The new view?
Female characters do seem now to be receiving a more positive representation and women can be routinely seen to defeat male villains and showing strength and intelligence, moving from victim to heroine. It seems that women are coming into their own and showing that they are as strong as men and are not just sexual objects tshat they once used to be perceived as, through more strong assertive roles in films such as Ridley Scott’s phenomenal and classic film, Alien, released in 1979. This film reverses the traditional role of women from the passive and powerless heroine who is constantly screaming for her life in order to be rescued by the dominant male figure, to an active and more powerful feminine character. The role of the main character Ripley, who happens to be a female despite having a male associated name, is an authority figure on board the ship, whose main task is to guide her seven crew members to a nearby planet to answer an SOS. All the terror and action unfolds around her and she ends up being the only survivor, out-living all the male characters. The male characters are represented as being weak and naïve which is shown by the mistakes they make and the failures to properly do their duties and tasks which consequently results in their brutal deaths. As with women in early horror movies these males’ deaths occur comparatively early in the film. Ripley is the only one who outlives what is trying to kill her and her crew due to the fact that she makes the best judgements and thinks about her actions and plans out her escape. Due to the early deaths of Ripley’s crew members, most of the main action of the film is based on and happening around her, making Sigourney Weaver’s character, Ripley the star and hero of the film as she is the only survivor at the end, along with her cat. The somewhat passive, fearful, and dependent female role figure is continuing to slowly disappear from our screens within horror films with a few exceptions: or has it? Women are still being shown as merely an object of desire that needs to be saved and protected by a male figure. This dissertation argues that the role of Ripley is still a female sex icon for the male audience, she seems to be placed there to fulfil the male sexual needs to have a half naked, toned female body strolling around on screen in order for them to enjoy the film more. Has men’s taste in women changed? To some extent it may have. There is a media generated image now which sells the idea of healthy toned sexuality. This is partially replacing the previous curved and voluptuous body. Take Marilyn Monroe for instance. She use to drive men wild with her size 12/14 curves, however nowadays some men just don’t find this attractive. It seems that men prefer to see slimmer women in films because it allows them to look at and fantasise over another woman’s body that is maybe different to the one that they ‘have’ in their own life, be it their wife or girlfriend. This could be why women are concerned with their physicality because it also allows the female audience members to dream and fantasise about the perfect body, which they too could have. The old horror films looked at female and male relationships and it seems that in nowadays horror films there is a new way of seeing these relationships but is it a new way? At the end of the film Ripley strips down to her underwear and wears a tight fitting top with no bra. Her compromising moves and her hot sweaty and toned body gives the male viewers something interesting to look at and fantasise over. It seems to comply with and fulfil all male audiences’ requirements; it has aliens, fighting, guns, bloodshed and, of course, the hot female who gets semi naked. So has the role of women actually changed or have male expectations of female behaviour changed? Do men find sexually aggressive women attractive in our world? Do men secretly love to be dominated by the opposite sex or does it make them feel inferior? Or is this a truthful picture of the sexualised feminist role model of our age? According to Lehmann women’s lives were dominated by their sexual reproductive functions (Lehmann, p.9) (http://psychology.about.com/od/sigmundfreud/p/freud_women.htm. 20th November 2009)
FrFeud believed that women envied men for having a penis; ‘penis envy’. He suggests that during the phallic stage (aged 3-5) girls distance themselves from their mother; as they blame her for the lack of a penis and due to this devote their affections to their father. (Budd, Susan .2005. P.142-143)
This could explain why the writer wants Ripley to surround herself mostly with a ship full of a male based crew because the writer wants to show the envy women have over men. What the male crew members have and what Ripley is missing and also other females, women may start to become to see it as a disability. Perhaps it is because Ripley starts to realise that because of this disability, she is still able to be one of them and like them if not better. This could be argued that it is proven at the end of the film by outliving all the other male crewmembers.
In a paper entitled ‘The psychical consequences of the anatomic distinction between the sexes’ written in 1925, Freud wrote that:
Women oppose change, receive passively, and add nothing of their own. (Freud, 1925) (http://psychology.about.com/od/sigmundfreud/p/freud_women.htm. 20th November 2009) (Budd, Susan .2005. P.142)
The slasher film genre involves a repressed male killer who stalks and brutally murders his victims in a graphic and random manner. The unfortunate victim tends to be a teenager or young adult who lives in the middle of nowhere away from any type of civilisation, meaning there is no one around them or there for them to call upon when they need help. These types of films tend to begin with the murder of a young helpless woman and ends with the heroic female character surviving by managing to out smarten the killer after having some sort of life- depending struggle and being psychologically victimised for an extended amount of time by the killer, forcing her into an uncontrollable stage of paranoia and terror. However usually the killer doesn’t die or someone else takes over from where the last killer left off resulting in several sequels. The director has a tendency to introduce at the beginning of the film the main heroic female character as being resourceful and determined even though throughout the film she finds her friends and relatives dead. This could almost be the plot summary of what happens in the 1996 teen horror Scream directed by Wes Craven and released in 1996. The main character that just so happens to be female but has a male associated name, “Sidney” watches as one by one her high school classmates and friends start to be killed off in a sadistic manner. This links in with Ripley in Alien. They both have male associated names and watch whilst the people they care for and those around them are killed and they are left to try and defend for themselves. However, even though Sidney is the only one who outlives the killer(s) and ends up in all the Scream sequels she is still portrayed as a slightly weak female who requires help and comfort from the friends she still has and from those who have not already been mutilated. Where as Ripley relies on her own knowledge and survival skills to save her self from death.
Rob Reiner’s 1990 Misery, starring the award winning Kathy Bates, shows Kathy’s character, Annie Wilkes, as a very caring and kind women at the start of the film as she rescues a novelist called Paul Sheldon by pulling him free out if his car in the middle of a blizzard storm. As she is a nurse she nurses him back to health by re-setting his legs as he has a compound fracture of the tibular in both legs and the fibular in the right leg is fractured as well. He also has a dislocated arm which she manipulates back into place. Se shaves him, feeds and waters him and also baths him, which shows her taking on the mother role of wanting to take care of and look after him as if he was an incapable child and not a grown man. The audience also learns at the beginning of the film that she is a fanatic fan of this author and that the blizzard prevented her from taking him to the hospital as it has caused road blockages. She starts to become slightly scary when she tells Paul that she would follow him to his hotel where he was staying and stare up at his window and wonder what he would be doing and that is how she found him in his un-conscious state in his car down the side of an embankment. The audience then start to learn that Annie has a very sort temper when she reads his new novel and is upset by the profound language he has used and starts shouting and ordering him to change it but then snaps back into being all nice and apologies, making the audience think nothing else about it. However as an audience when we start to realise that she is very unstable when she informs him that no one knows that he is there with her as she hasn’t informed anyone like she says she has and that the roads and telephone are not blocked and that he better hope that nothing happens to her because if she dies then so will he as he will have no one to look after him. Again this is showing her unstable and psychotic side. As the film goes on we realise she is living her life through one of the characters within his novels and eventually the film ends with her killing the sheriff who becomes suspicious of Annie and investigates her house and eventually finds Sheldon. Annie kills the sheriff by shooting him and then plans on killing herself and Paul so they can live together in peace without anyone trying to find them and interfering in their lives. However it doesn’t end with a happy ending for Annie as she and Paul get in a fight to the bitter death which results in Paul hitting her over the head with his type-writer that Annie bought for him and surprisingly doesn’t kill her or knock her out. She attacks him and they end up in a locked fight on the floor leaving the audience in suspense on who is going to win. Eventually Paul manages to grab one of Annie’s large ornaments that just happen to be lying near by and smash it into her head which eventually kills her leaving him to get free. Misery portrays women as weak, unstable; reliable on men as Annie, who throughout the film always asks for reassurance from Paul along the lines of ‘Am I doing it right?’ Other women in the film such as the sheriff’s wife, works for her husband and does what he tells her, it’s as if it is expected of women to do what ever is told of them from a male character, as if it is the male characters who hold all the authority. They are also portrayed as being crazy, unsuitable and able of being on their own and looking after themselves. This is shown in the film when the audience become aware of the fact that Annie’s husband left her (however later on in the film we are lead to believe she may have killed him) which could be because he didn’t want to be with her anymore and she couldn’t deal with the fact of being on her own not through a choice of her own but that of a man’s. Annie becomes suicidal and starts telling Paul she is thinking of killing herself when she gets depressed because of the rain or other reasons or factors that are out of her control, which makes her seem as a control freak who needs to be in control of everything and have things going her way otherwise she is unable to cope and becomes unstable.
So let us return to the question of whether the portrayal of women has changed. It may be thought that the role of women within horror films has somewhat developed and changed. There still are movies that wish to show the female sex as weak and insignificant figures within society. This can be seen in the Scream films which show the main female and ‘so-called’ heroic character screaming to be rescued and looking for comfort by male companions or from those around her. Are the female character roles in films slipping back into the old way of how they were portrayed? Is this a reaction against the up-front controlling woman that was emerging in films such as Alien. Are men reasserting their status?
It has been found that men tend to reduce women in television and film to three basic categories: homemaker, professional and sexual object. It has also been found that men tend to fell threatened when certain subgroups, of women, such as feminists or female athletes, express non-stereotypic behaviour in the media. These two subgroups of women in particular can threaten men’s economic success and physical strength.
( DeWal, Altermatt & Thompson, 2 

1920s Advertisement Fabricated a Template for the Female Body for Years to Come

Design can often shape and impact society in remarkable, unexpected ways. The Art Deco, or style moderne, movement of the 1920s originated as an allusion to technological advancements and societal reform. However, did the slender, linear characteristics associated with the style, and the appearance of these features in advertisements, aid as the driving force of an era of dissatisfaction in women’s body image?

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The early twentieth century was the genesis of advertising as an occupation. Individuals within society began comparing the profession to that of law or architecture.[1] Consequently, advertising agencies began to branch out into major cities and began operating under large bureaucratic firms.[2] Following World War I, the concept of advertising had been drastically refined.[3] According to David Clampin, an advertising and marketing historian, the nature of marketing after 1914 shifted towards mass production and goods that were more affordable to the masses.[4] Prior to the war, sellers relied on romanticism to entice other sellers to bring an abundance of goods to one location.[5] They reused this tactic to advertise the war in an amorous way. Drawing on a sense of excitement and adventure, people created an all-pervasive message that could persuade the average person.[6] This moved society towards a culture of purchasing items for “intimate and emotional reasons, as opposed making purchases through rational, factbased, decisions.”[7] During the war, soldiers would write letters to home; these letters would get passed on to local newspapers and get published.[8] In the earlier months of the war, journalists could visit and report directly from the front lines.[9] Although this was short lived, there was a huge increase in newspaper readers as people rushed home to read updates from the front lines. To advertisers, this was an opportunity for them to appeal to new potential customers.[10] In commercial magazines and newspapers, 43% of advertisements began taking up full pages whereas before the 1920s roughly 87% of the ads were partial pages.[11] Art Deco became popular around this time on a global scale. Art Deco was associated with smooth, curving surfaces; geometrical forms such as chevron or zigzags; and long, slim forms. The style was meant to reflect the growth in product production and advancements in machinery.[12] Art Deco was an advancement in design; yet, women found excessive exposure to slender and thin figures which instilled the message that in order to be attractive, you must reflect this ideal. [13]

Figure 1. Before and After Skinny Jeans Photo.
The Art Deco era was defined as unique, elegant, and marked a period of optimism following World War I. The first Art Deco fashion phase was lead by Paul Poiret. Inspired by the dance company, Ballets Russes. As a desire to imitate aspects of the East, he began his different stages of creating this new look. In 1908 he launched a high-waisted line.[14] High-rise pants, when worn correctly, create the illusion of a longer lower body, creating the appearance of an overall slimmer, and leaner body. Figure 1 clearly depicts a women before wearing highrise jeans, where the pants seem to emphasize the bottom of one’s stomach, compared to the “After” image where the jeans compresses the  stomach and creates the effect of a higher waist line.The entire purpose of these pants are to create the illusion of a thinner figure. Following the release of his high-waisted line, Poiret put an end to the use of corsets to move away from restrictive undergarments. Echoing the purpose of his high-waisted pants that sought to use clothing itself to alter the image of one’s body. However, Poiret was less focused on a hourglass shape, and desired a thin, cylindrical figure. He diverted the emphasis away from tailored clothing, and made dressmaking more about draping. He created garments that emphasize on the basic skills of draping, inspired by Greek chiton, Japanese kimonos, and the North African and Middle Eastern caftan.[15]

Figure 2. Draping a Greek chiton
Greek chitons were most commonly worn by both men and women during the sixth and early fifth centuries B.C.E.[16] This garment was created with a singular rectangular piece of cloth, and depending on how it was draped and wrapped, it would form a kind of tunic for the wearer.17 Figure 2 poses one of the numerous way one could drape their chitons. Poiret drew on these past ideas and combined them with his vision of a “Modern Women,” which, to him, was his wife Denise. He created a new style that would effect both fashion and advertisement.”Denise. Slim, youthful, and uncorseted, she was the prototype of la garçonne. Poiret used her slender figure as the basis for his radically simplified constructions.” [17]

Figure 3 Figure 4
He utilized the image of his wife, Denise, a thin women, and projected that ideal to Vogue and other large, influential fashion platforms.
With the emergence of this new style, women could no longer use undergarments such as corsets to shape their figure. Both Figure 3 and Figure 4 are photos of two of Poiret’s dresses. Just from first glance, especially in figure 4, they focus on the natural shape of one’s body. This new aesthetic endeavored for women to not use restrictive undergarment to create the image of an unrealistic physique. Nonetheless, while he managed to unlace women from their uncomfortable corsets, the dresses he made were only tailored towards woman with slim and petite features. Both of Poiret’s dresses closely resemble those drawn and portrayed on covers of fashion magazines such as Flou, Fashion Plate, Figure 5, and Vogue Magazine, Figure 6.

Figure 5 Figure 6
Both covers are clearly very unrealistic depictions of the human body. The women are almost just skin and bones, portraying a very unrealistic ideal for all women viewing these images, especially in Figure 5.
In Figure 6 the women portrayed in the image is also extremely thin, but the lower half of her dress greatly mimics the Greek chiton style mentioned above. This magazine cover was also created in the Art Deco style, where it’s decorative, but still geometrical through the thin linear forms in the back.
With such an overwhelming amount of exposure to advertisement following World War I, women became obsessed with meeting the unfeasible body standard that had been set by society.[18] Even though the 1920s can be seen as an era that liberated women, as they were granted new rights and could embrace a life that was viewed as unconventional by many, stressing over their public image restricted women from truly redefining their roles in society.[19] Restricted by a mold of expectations created by mass advertising the pressure to be slim encouraged new, unhealthy eating habits.
The propaganda advertisers of the past put out lead to a culture of exposure to unattainable body standards through media, causing body image dissatisfaction for decades to come. Based on a more recent study done by the meta-analytic review in 2008, 57% of the experimental studies resulted in a strong correlation between thin-ideal media and body dissatisfaction in women.[20] A women’s reflection on her body image would become more and more negative upon being exposed to media portraying slender and slim figures. Similar pressure arose in other areas of advertising. For example, exposure to images of cars or houses would result in unchanged levels of self-esteem but would affect their individuals living ideals: whether they had a house or car. Whereas when women were shown average-sized and plus-sized models, they often resulted in feeling unchanged levels of self-esteem. When met with the dissatisfaction with their bodies, women often internalize the negative effect of society’s body ideals. Research has shown that this leads to dieting, excessive exercise after eating, restrictive eating habits, binging, and purging which are all behaviors that correlate with eating disorder behavior.[21] Also, when women learn to reduce their internalization of body standards, it increases their selfesteem.[22] Even in modern society, mass media continues to encourage young girls to conform to an ideal figure just to be accepted by society. Kilbourne, a activist known for her work done with women in advertising, also believes their through her TEDxLafayetteCollege presentation where she said:
“…theres not way to measure up to this impossible ideal. The self-esteem of girls in America often plummets when they reach adolescence. Girls tend to feel fine about themselves when they’re 8, 9, 10 years old, but then they hit adolescence and they often hit a wall.”[23]
Unrealistic and idealized images facilitate self-comparison among women, resulting in an upward shift of individuals’ personal image expectations. [24]
Over the years, advertising has evolved, yet the same underlying message communicated to a generation of women remains. In 1979, Jean Kilbourne created her first film, and among her collage were ads saying, “Feminine odor is everyone’s problem.” (Figure 7) This was an advertisement for deodorant. “If your hair isn’t beautiful, the rest hardly matters.” (Figure 8) Advertisement for Pantene hairspray. “I’d probably never be married now, if I hadn’t lost 49 pounds.” (Figure 9) An ad for weight loss. [25]

Figure 7 Figure 8
In these ads, especially in Figures 7 and 8, these quotes are printed exceptionally large, used as the heading of their advertisement. By strategically creating a disputable title, they can then present their product as the solution to whatever feeling the viewer got from viewing the ad.

Figure 9
The nature of advertisement has matured into weaponized propaganda, ensuring that women perpetually exist in a psychological state of inferiority. A women’s subconscious then motivates them to purchase products previously advertised to them in efforts to ameliorate these feelings and desires. Men and women are carefully studied by advertisers, resulting in the production of propaganda that portrays these firm’s unique ideals for each group. While men may suffer from meeting societal desires and expectations, ads targeting men often advocate aberrant sexual conduct, depicting sexuality without a relationship, and even abuse. [26] Needless to say, most men are not deviant, yet the ads often encourage young and impressionable men to conform to these depictions. This portrayal of men places a significant strain on a women’s interpretation of all men. In the early 20th century, the marketing industry was blatantly sexist. Following the saying “sex sells”, they would often create sexist advertisements.[27] Although more subliminal in modern-day society, the long-lasting culture of internalized sexism has made women turn against one another. This is profoundly dangerous, as advertising has the power to create a culture where consent becomes trivialized, and women are turned into a sexual object. This can easily blur the lines between sexual liberation and having your sexuality exploited to sell a product. It creates hyper-masculinity and rape culture, body shaming, slut-shaming, and transphobia. It causes lowself esteem, further encouraging eating disorders and body dysmorphia.[28]
As we move forward, traditional advertising will dissipate. In the past, the goal of advertisements was to create appealing visuals and text; they didn’t have to do more than simply look good and appeal to a consumers emotions. This was the reality of Advertisement, especially following the increase in popularity of the television. However, with even newer technological advancements, we now have more power and access to information at our fingertips than ever before. Emphasis has now been placed on design research, as the functionality of the product has become the advertisement itself. For example, Amazon, the world’s biggest online retailer, often doesn’t include persuasive text within every image of each product being sold. Design and advertisement is now about how something actually works and less about promises.
In summary, throughout the history of advertising, firms have portrayed women at unrealistic standards, inspired by an era of design focused on thin-ideals, which has driven the dissatisfaction of women’s body image. Women, especially adolescents, have been exposed to advertisements that portray fake complexions that originate from historically significant designers such as Poiret. Such images unfortunately help them develop a learned helplessness where they believe they will never be beautiful or in shape compared to these fake models. On a broader spectrum, women of all ages feel forced to purchase items that make them look more attractive to meet the standards of men and even other women. With regards to men, they have watch these same advertisements and have grow up having expectations that women have to look a certain way and that if they don’t, they are inferior to other women who do meet, or at least try to meet, impossible beauty. Advertising firms have undeniably contributed to the insecurities that women and men have through multiple mediums and industries, especially the beauty industry.
“Commercial Advertising as Propaganda in World War One.” The British Library. The British Library, December 9, 2013. https://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/commercial-advertisingas-propaganda.
“News from the Front.” The British Library. The British Library, December 9, 2013. https:// www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/news-from-the-front.
The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed., “Art Deco” Accessed October 21, 2019, https:// www.encyclopedia.com/literature-and-arts/art-and-architecture/art-general/art-deco
“Women’s Self-Worth & Body Image in the 1920’s.” Developing Perspective of Women in US History 1870 to Present, March 2, 2012. https://blogs.lt.vt.edu/rslabach/2012/03/02/womens-selfworth-body-image-in-the-1920s/.
“Art Nouveau and Art Deco.” Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion. Encyclopedia.com, November 30, 2019. https://www.encyclopedia.com/fashion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcriptsand-maps/art-nouveau-and-art-deco.
“Doric Chiton.” Fashion Encyclopedia. Accessed December 10, 2019. http:// www.fashionencyclopedia.com/fashion_costume_culture/The-Ancient-World-Greece/DoricChiton.html.
Hughes, James. “How Advertisers Used World War I to Sell, Sell, Sell.” The Atlantic. Atlantic Media Company, August 6, 2014. https://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2014/08/howadvertisers-used-world-war-i-to-sell-sell-sell/375665/.
Jean Kilbourne, “The Dangerous Ways Ads See Women.” Filmed May 2014 the TEDx Lafayette College Conference, TED video, 15.50, https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=Uy8yLaoWybk
Kim, Jung-Hwan and Sharron J. Lennon “Mass Media and Self-Esteem, Body Image, and Eating Disorder Tendencies” Clothing & Textiles Research Journal 25, no. 1 (2007).
Koda, Harold, and Andrew Bolton. “Paul Poiret (1879–1944).” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ hd/poir/hd_poir.htm (September 2008)
Mason, Sara E. “Ohio Link.” Ohio Link, May 2012. https://etd.ohiolink.edu/!etd.send_file? accession=dayton1335295760&disposition=inline.
Peck, Emily. “Advertisers Are Actually Teaming Up To Fight Sexism. For Real.” HuffPost. HuffPost, June 20, 2017. https://www.huffpost.com/entry/advertising-sexism-unstereotypealliance_n_59482fa0e4b07499199ddfeb.
“Poiret: King of Fashion.” metmuseum.org. Accessed December 1, 2019. https:// www.metmuseum.org/exhibitions/listings/2007/poiret.
Polly, Richard W. “The Subsiding Sizzle: A Descriptive History of Print Advertising, 1900-1980.” Journal of Marketing (Pre-1986). Vol. 49 (1985): 24
Pope, Daniel. The Making of Modern Advertising. New York: Basic Books, 1983.
Sandoiu, Ana. “How Does Social Media Use Affect Our Body Image?” Medical News Today. MediLexicon International. Accessed December 2, 2019. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/ articles/323725.php#4.
Visual Bibliography
Figure 1: End ‘Muffin Top’ with Asda’s ‘Bum and Tum’ jeans. Digital Image. ShoppersBase. February 13, 2013. Accessed December 5, 2019. www.shoppersbase.com
Figure 2: Ancient Greek Fashion. Digital Image. Hellenicaworld. Accessed December 7, 2019. http:// www.hellenicaworld.com.
Figure 3: Poiret, Paul. “Pré Catelan.” Digital Image. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1918. Accessed November 30, 2019. www.metmuseum.org
Figure 4: Poiret, Paul. “Irudree.” Digital Image. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. 1922. Accessed November 30, 2019. www.metmuseum.org
Figure 5: Historic Fashion Periodicals at Les Arts Décoratifs. “Paris – Flou, Fashion Plate” Digital Image. WGSN Insider. February 10, 2012. Accessed November 29, 2019. www.wgsn.com
Figure 6: Historic Fashion Periodicals at Les Arts Décoratifs. “French Vogue.” Digital Image. WGSN Insider. November 1, 1925. Accessed November 29, 2019. www.wgsn.com
Figure 7: How Gendered Advertising is Creating a Generation of Stereotypes. “Feminine Odor is Everyone’s Problem.” Digital Image. Norwich-Eaton Pharmaceutical. April 8, 2018. Accessed November 28, 2019. rockymendola.wordpress.com
Figure 8: How Gendered Advertising is Creating a Generation of Stereotypes. “If Your Hair Isn’t Beautiful, the Rest Hardly Matters.” Digital Image. The Pantene Company. April 8, 2018. Accessed November 28, 2019. rockymendola.wordpress.com
Figure 9: The Kokomo Tribune from Kokomo, Indiana. “The Kokomo Tribune.” Digital Image. Newspapers. May 18, 1969. Accessed November 30, 2019. www.newspapers.com

[1] Daniel Pope, The Making of Modern Advertising (New York: Basic Books), 175
[2] Ibid., 175-177
[3] Ibid., 185
[4] “Commercial Advertising as Propaganda in World War One.” The British Library. The British Library, December 9, 2013. https://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/commercial-advertising-as-propaganda.
[5] Ibid.,
[6] Ibid.,
[7] Ibid.,
[8] “News from the Front.” The British Library. The British Library, December 9, 2013. https://www.bl.uk/world-warone/articles/news-from-the-front.
[9] Ibid.,
[10] “Commercial Advertising as Propaganda in World War One.” The British Library. The British Library, December 9, 2013. https://www.bl.uk/world-war-one/articles/commercial-advertising-as-propaganda.
[11] Richard W Polly, “The Subsiding Sizzle: A Descriptive History of Print Advertising, 1900-1980.” Journal of Marketing (Pre-1986). Vol. 49 (1985): 24
[12] The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed., “Art Deco” Accessed October 21, 2019, https:// www.encyclopedia.com/literature-and-arts/art-and-architecture/art-general/art-deco
[13] Jung-Hwan Kim and Sharron J. Lennon “Mass Media and Self-Esteem, Body Image, and Eating Disorder Tendencies” Clothing & Textiles Research Journal 25, no. 1 (2007). 4.
[14] “Art Nouveau and Art Deco.” Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion. Encyclopedia.com, November 30, 2019.
[15] “Poiret: King of Fashion.” metmuseum.org. Accessed December 1, 2019. https://www.metmuseum.org/ exhibitions/listings/2007/poiret.
[16] “Art Nouveau and Art Deco.” Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion. Encyclopedia.com, November 30, 2019. 17 Ibid.,
[17] Harold Koda and Andrew Bolton. “Paul Poiret (1879–1944).” In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York:
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/poir/hd_poir.htm (September 2008)
[18] “Women’s Self-Worth & Body Image in the 1920’s.” Developing Perspective of Women in US History 1870 to Present, March 2, 2012. https://blogs.lt.vt.edu/rslabach/2012/03/02/womens-self-worth-body-image-in-the-1920s/.
[19] Ibid.,
[20] Sara E Mason. “Ohio Link.” Ohio Link, May 2012. accession=dayton1335295760&disposition=inline.
[21] Jung-Hwan Kim and Sharron J. Lennon “Mass Media and Self-Esteem, Body Image, and Eating Disorder Tendencies” Clothing & Textiles Research Journal 25, no. 1 (2007).
[22] Ibid.,
[23] Jean Kilbourne, “The Dangerous Ways Ads See Women.” Filmed May 2014 the TEDxLafayetteCollege Conference, TED video, 15.50, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uy8yLaoWybk
[24] Jung-Hwan Kim and Sharron J. Lennon “Mass Media and Self-Esteem, Body Image, and Eating Disorder Tendencies” Clothing & Textiles Research Journal 25, no. 1 (2007).
[25] Jean Kilbourne, “The Dangerous Ways Ads See Women.” Filmed May 2014 the TEDxLafayetteCollege
Conference, TED video, 15.50, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uy8yLaoWybk
[26] Ibid.,
[27] Emily Peck. “Advertisers Are Actually Teaming Up To Fight Sexism. For Real.” HuffPost. HuffPost, June 20, 2017. https://www.huffpost.com/entry/advertising-sexism-unstereotype-alliance_n_59482fa0e4b07499199ddfeb.
[28] Ibid.,