Causes Of The Indian Removal Act Architecture Essay

The Indian Removal Act of 1830 was unfolded was during a time of contradictions. While it was a period of expanding democratic institutions, it also pointed to obvious limitations of that democracy. States largely abolished property restrictions on voting and as the Western frontier was being expanded, it meant more opportunities of settlement for whites. However, the Western land of promise spelled disaster for the Native peoples who lived with the whites. No one better understood the contradictions of this age of democracy than the Cherokees, who adopted many of the white institutions only to suffer from the tyranny of the majority and were forced to the West against their will.

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In this study, I will answer the question: What were the causes of the Indian Removal Act of 1830 and what were its effects upon the Cherokee nation? Before the act, the American government sought to civilize and integrate the Native Americans into their culture, and the Cherokees were an example of the successes of assimilation. I will explore why there was such a significant shift in American policies toward the Native Americans from assimilation to removal. I will also discuss the long term effects of the Indian Removal Act that negatively altered the internal organization of the tribes and created factions within the Cherokee nation.
I relied on both primary and secondary sources to understand both Americans’ and the Cherokees’ perspectives on the act. In my research, I discovered the grievances harbored by the Cherokee nation when the American policies were changed and implemented. The Indian Removal Act is, without a question, a Cherokee tragedy, but it is also an American tragedy. The Cherokees had believed in the promise of democracy by the United States, and their disappointment is a legacy that all Americans share.
The Cherokees were only one of the many Native Americans forcibly removed in the first half of the nineteenth century, but their experiences have a particular significance and poignancy. The Cherokees, more than any other native people in their time, tried to adopt the Anglo-American culture. In a remarkably short time, they transformed their society and modified their traditional culture to conform to United States policies, to fulfill the expectations of white politicians, and most importantly, to preserve their tribal integrity.
This “civilization” policy required a total reorganization of the spiritual and social world of the Cherokees. They established schools, developed written laws, and abolished clan revenge. Cherokee women became involved in spinning and weaving while the men raised livestock and planted crops. Some Cherokee even built columned plantation houses and bought slaves. John C. Calhoun, secretary of war, writes to Henry Clay, Speaker of the House of Representatives on January 15, 1820, “‘The Cherokees exhibit a more favorable appearance that any other tribe of Indians. They are already established two flourishing schools among them.'” (Ehle 154). By adopting the white culture, the Cherokees hope to gain white respect. Acculturation was also a defensive mechanism to prevent further loss of land and extinction of native culture. Even more adamant Cherokees firmly believed that “civilization” was preferable to their traditional way of life. The progress of the Cherokees astounded many whites who traveled through their county in the early nineteenth century.
Adding to these achievements, a Cherokee named Sequoyah invented a syllabary in 1820 that enabled the Cherokees to read and write in their own language. They also increased the number of written laws and established a bicameral legislature. By 1827, the Cherokees had also established a supreme court and a constitution very similar to those of the United States. Their educated men even attended the American Board’s seminary in Cornwall, Connecticut, and could read Latin and Greek as well as understand the white man’s philosophy, history, theology, and politics (Anderson 7).
The Cherokees exceeded the goals proposed for the Indians by various United States presidents from George Washington and Andrew Jackson. In the words of a Cherokee scholar, the Cherokees were the “mirror of the American Republic.” On the eve of Cherokee removal to the west, many white Americans considered them to be the most “civilized” of all natives peoples (Anderson 24). What then caused the Cherokees to be removed? Why were they forced to abandon homes, schools, and churches? From demographic shifts to the rise in political factions, the ensuing conflicts that arising from the Indian Removal Act of 1830 still affect the surviving Cherokee nation today.
Causes of the Indian Removal Act:
It is important to recognize that the decision of the Jackson administration to remove the Cherokee Indians to lands west of the Mississippi River in the 1830’s was more a reformulation of the national policy that had been in effect since the 1790’s than a change in that policy. In the early years of the Republic, seizure of Indian land was a way of “civilizing” Native Americans. First articulated by George Washington’s Secretary of War, Henry Knox, on July 2, 1791 in the Treaty of Holston, the policy of seizing native lands was “that the Cherokee Nation may be led to a greater degree of civilization, and to become herdsmen and cultivators, instead of remaining in a state of hunters. The United States will from time to time furnish gratuitous the said nation with useful implements of husbandry.”
On the surface, the original goal of the “civilization” policy seemed philanthropic. Making civilized men out of “savages” would benefit the Native Americans and the new nation as well as ensure the progress of the human race (Bernard Sheehan, Seeds of Extinction: Jeffersonian Philanthropy and the American Indian, 119). However, the policy represented attempts to wrest the Cherokee lands. Knox and his successors reasoned that if Indians gave up hunting, their hunting grounds will become “surplus” land that they would willingly exchange for funds to support education, agriculture and other “civilized” pursuits (Perdue 25). For this reason, coercing the Indians to cede their hunting grounds would actually accelerate acculturation because they would no longer occupy the forest when they had fields to till. Thomas Jefferson, who became president in 1801, shared Knox’s beliefs. Jefferson’s negotiating tactics were far more aggressive than anything Knox envisioned as Jefferson ordered his agents to intensify the pressure on tribes to sell more and larger tracts of land. Soon, he let it be known that treats, intimidation, and bribery were acceptable tactics to get the job done (Anderson 35). Jefferson, with his aggression, merely uncovered that these civilization policies were not for the benefit of the Native Americans. Rather, the assimilation policy was a disguised policy of removal of the Native Americans by the American government. It is therefore important to identify that the cause of the Indian Removal Act did not originate in the 1830’s, but rather culminated in the early nineteenth century.
However, more immediate reasons did cause Congress to pass the Indian Removal Act of 1830 during Jackson’s presidency. The factors contributing to the fate of the Cherokees were the discovery of gold on Cherokee land, the issue of states’ rights, and the emergence of scientific racism. American speculators coveted the nearly five million acres the Cherokee Nation refused to sell. Whites desired land for settlement purposes as property was an obvious measure of wealth in the South. The southerners also desired more agricultural land as the invention of the cotton gin made cotton a lucrative business. In addition, intrusion into Cherokee lands became more urgent with the discovery of gold on its land in 1829.
Also, the Americans began to embrace a belief in white superiority and the static nature of the “red man” in the period after the 1820’s. Many Americans concluded, “Once an Indian, always an Indian” (Anderson 35). Culture, they believed, was innate, not learned. However “civilized” an Indian may appear, he retained a “savage” nature. When the civilization program failed to transform the Indians overnight, many Americans supported that the “savages” should not be permitted to remain in midst of a civilized society. Though earlier in his letter to Clay, Calhoun had praised the progress of the Cherokees, he concludes the letter writing, “Although partial advances may have been made under the present system to civilize the Indians, I am of an opinion that, until there is a radical change in the system, any efforts which may be made must fall short of complete success. They must be brought under our authority and laws, or they will insensibly waste away in vice and misery.'” The condescending tone that Calhoun takes to describe the Cherokees reveals the racist attitude of the early nineteenth century and sheds light onto one of the reasons why Americans urged Congress to remove Indians from their homelands.
In this racist atmosphere of Georgia, another vital cause of removal was states’ rights. Although the Cherokees saw their constitution as a crowning achievement, whites, especially Georgians, viewed it as a challenge to states’ rights because the Cherokee territory was within the boundaries of four states. The 1827 Cherokee Constitution claimed sovereignty over tribal lands, establishing a state within a state. Georgians claimed that such a legal maneuver violated the United States constitution and that the federal government was doing nothing to remedy the situation.
Sympathetic the Georgians cries was Andrew Jackson, who became president 1829. As a follower of the Republican doctrine of state sovereignty, he firmly supported a national policy of Indian removal and defended his stand by asserting that removal was the only course of action that could save the Native Americans from extinction. Jackson’s attitude toward Native Americans was patronizing, describing them as children in need of guidance and believed the removal policy was beneficial to them. To congressional leaders, he assured them that his policies would enable the federal government to place the Indians in a region where they would be free of white encroachment and jurisdictional disputes between the states and federal government. He sought congressional approval of his removal policy and stated to Captain James Gadsden in October 12, 1829 that the policy would be “generous to the Indians” and at the same time would allow the United States to “exercise a parental control over their interests and possibly perpetuate their race.” Though not all Americans were convinced by Jackson’s and his assurances that his motives and methods were philanthropic, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act in 1830 that allowed: 1) the federal government the power to relocate any Native Americans in the east to territory that was west of the Mississippi River; 2) the president to set up districts within the Indian Territory for the reception of tribes agreeing to land exchanges, and 3) the payment of indemnities to the Indians for assistance in accomplishing their resettlement, protection in their new settlements, and a continuance of the “superintendence and care.”
Effects of the Indian Removal Act:
The Removal Act of 1830 left many things unspecified, including how the removal of the eastern Indian nations would be arranged. During Jackson’s administration, one of the most important Cherokee groups that decided to leave was led by the powerful Ridge family. At the beginning of the struggle against removal, the Ridge family firmly supported Chief John Ross, one of the elected leaders of the tribe. Ross and his people also believed that the Cherokees’ years of peace, achievements, and contributions gave them the right to remain on land that was legally theirs.
However, the Ridges soon decided that the struggle to keep the Cherokee lands in the East was a lost cause. Major Ridge had been one of the first to recognize that Indians had no hope against whites in war. Two factions then developed within the tribe – the majority, who supported Chief Ross in his struggle to keep their homeland in the East, and the Treaty Group, who thought the only solution was to emigrate to the West.
Rather than lose all they had to the states in the East, the Ridge party, without the consent of Ross, signed the Treaty of New Echota in December 1835. They treaty conveyed to the United States all lands owned, claimed, or possessed by the Cherokee Nation east of the Mississippi River. Major Ridge explained his decision to give up the Cherokee homeland saying, “We cannot stay here in safety and comfort…We can never forget these homes…I would willingly die to preserve them, but any forcible effort to keep them will cost us our lands, our lives and the lives of our children'” (Gilbert 21).
By Cherokee law, the tribe owned all land in common, no individual or minority group had a right to dispose of it. Army officer Major William Davis who was hired to enroll the Cherokees for removal, wrote the secretary of war that “nine-tenths” of the Cherokees would reject the Treat of New Echota: “That paper called a treat is no treaty at all” (Gilbert 23). However, on May 17, 1836, the Senate ratified the Treaty of New Echota by one vote, and on May 23, President Jackson signed the treaty into law. The deadline for removal of all the Cherokees from the East was set for May 23, 1838. The Treaty of New Echota was not an honest or fair agreement between the United States and the Cherokee nation. Even Georgia governor William Schley, admitted that it was “not made with the sanction of their leaders” (Ehle 244). However, in January 1837, about six hundred wealthy members of the Treaty Party emigrated west, a full year before the forcible deportation of the rest of the Cherokees.
Cherokee removal did not take place as a single expulsion but instead spanned many years. In the late summer of 1838, a detachment of Cherokees began to exit the stockade where they had been held for many months awaiting the long journey to their new home west of the Mississippi. Some Cherokees had voluntarily moved west, though most remained in their homelands, still not believing they would be forced to leave. In 1838, the Cherokees were disarmed, and General Winfield Scott was sent to oversee their removals. John G. Burnett, a soldier who participated in the removal described the event saying, “Women were dragged from their homes by soldiers. Children were often separated from their parents and driven into the stockades with the sky for a blanket and the earth for a pillow. And often the old and inform were prodded with bayonets to hasten them to the stockades” (Ehle 393).
Those forced from their homeland departed with heavy hearts. Cherokee George Hicks lamented, “We are now about to take our final leave and kind farewell to our native land, the country that the Great Spirit gave our Fathers…It is with sorrow that we are forced by the white man to quit the scenes of our childhood” (Anderson 37). For Cherokees, the Georgian land had meaning far deeper than its commercial value. Their culture and creation tied them to this place, and now they were being compelled to surrender their homes and march west. Above all, Cherokees lost faith in the United States. In one Kentucky town, a local resident asked an elderly Indian man if he remembered him from his service the United States Army in the Creek War. The old man replied, “Ah! My life and the lives of my people were then at stake for you and your country. I then thought Jackson my best friend. But ah! Jackson no serve me right. Your country no do me justice now!” (New York Observer, January 26, 1839, quoted in Foreman 305-307.)
Exposure and fatigue during the deportation weakened immune systems, making the Cherokees susceptible to diseases such as measles, whooping cough, dysentery, and respiratory infections. The number of Cherokees who perished on the Trail of Tears, the name given to the 826 mile route taken took them west, is hard to determine. The most commonly cited figure for deaths is 4,000, approximately one quarter of the Cherokees, and is an estimate made by Dr. Elizur Butler, a missionary who accompanied the Cherokees (Anderson 85). By his own count, John Ross supervised the removal of 13,149, and his detachment reported 424 deaths and 69 births along with 182 desertions. A United States official in Indian Territory counted 11,504 arrivals, a discrepancy of 1,645 when compared to the total of those who departed the East. Sociologist Russell Thorton has speculated that removal cost the Cherokees 10,000 individuals between 1835 and 1840, including the children that victims would have produced have they survived (Anderson 93). Therefore, the overall demographic effect was far greater than the actual number of casualties.
When the Ross detachments arrived in the spring of 1839 to the Indian Territory, melding with the “Treaty Party” who left before the forcible removal was a daunting task. Removal had shattered the matrix of Cherokee society, ripping them from their ancestral sources and shaking their infant institutions of government. Civil war burst forth as the political chasm brought on by the Treaty of New Echota divided the Cherokee Nation. For more than a decade, the Cherokee fought this bloody civil war, and a distorted version of the old clan revenge system reemerged.
In June 1839, between six and seven thousand Cherokees assembled at Takatoka Camp Ground to resolve the looming political crisis. Chief John Ross insisted on the continuation of the eastern Cherokee government for several reasons. The Cherokee Nation had a written constitution and an elaborate law code and government, and they did constitute a substantial majority. However, the United States saw the Treaty Party as true patriots, Ross as a villain, and the recent emigrants as “savages,” thwarting all efforts to reconcile the divided factions in the Cherokee nation.
When the meeting ended with a compromise to be voted on a later date, 150 National Party men met secretly and decided that the Cherokees who had signed the Treaty of New Echota were traitors who had violated the Cherokee law prohibiting the unauthorized sale of land. Early on the morning of June 22, one group dragged John Ridge from his bed and stabbed him to death. Another party shot Major Ridge as he traveled along a road in Arkansas, killing him instantly. About the same time, a third group came to Elias Boudinot’s house and split his head with a tomahawk. Reacting to these acts of violence, the Treaty Party remained opposed to any government dominated by the National Party. They held their own councils and sent delegates to Washington to seek federal protection and the arrest of the persons responsible for the killings. Most of the Treaty Party continued to resist the act of union and bitterly opposed any concession to the National Party, widening the growing political chasm.
However, as long as the National Party refused to ratify the Treaty of New Echota, the nationalist Cherokees were refused payment of its annuities and funds by the federal government. The relative prosperity of the Treaty Party members ignited the dormant resentments of the impoverished Cherokees who had suffered the agony of the Trail of Tears (McLoughlin 17). In order to affirm the sovereignty of the Cherokee Nation and to alleviate the suffering of his people, Ross pressed for a renegotiation of the fraudulent Treaty of New Echota. While Ross was in Washington in the summer of 1842, violence in the Cherokee Nation escalated as members of the Treaty Party began killing individuals who they believed had been responsible for the death of their leaders. Gangs began to attack and kill other Cherokee citizens, most of whom were identified with the National Party, but became impossible to distinguish between political violence and common crime. The Starr gang, for example, coalesced around James Starr, a signer of the Treaty of New Echota. Under the guise of political resistance, Starr’s sons and others terrorized the Cherokee nation. In 1843, they murdered a white visitor to the Cherokee Nation and also burned down the home of John Ross’ daughter. The violence gave the federal government an excuse to keep troops at Fort Gibson, decry the inefficacy of the Nation’s government and meddle further in Cherokee affairs. The Treaty Party renewed their hope of undermining Ross’ authority since federal officials tended to blame Ross for the carnage (Perdue 156).
The letters during the time of this Cherokee civil warfare reflected the fear and anguish felt by the people. In November 1845, Jane Ross Meigs wrote to her father, Chief John Ross, “The country is in such a state just now that there seems little encouragement for people to build good houses or make anything. I am so nervous I can scarce write at all. I hope it will not be long you’ll be at home but I hope that the country will be settled by that time too” (Rozema 198). Less than a year later, Sarah Watie of the Treaty Party wrote her husband, “I am so tired of living this way. I don’t believe I could live one year longer if I knew that we could not get settled, it has wore my spirits out just the thoughts of not having a good home…I am perfectly sick of the world” (Perdue 141).
An uneasy peace came to the Cherokee Nation after the United States government forced the tribal factions to sign a treaty of agreement in Washington in 1846. The Cherokees, under Ross’ leadership was to be sovereign in their new land. It also brought the per capita payments so desperately needed for economic recovery of the Cherokee Nation. However, with this treaty, the Cherokees were caught in a series of contradictions. Cherokee leaders wanted to convince the white population that they were capable of managing their own affairs if left to their own self-government. But economically, they were tied to the financial aid of the federal government, growing ever more dependent on American funds. Furthermore, in midst of this “peace,” the Cherokees could not cast aside old fears that continued to haunt them. If whites could drive them from Georgia, why not from this place? From this fear spawned an attitude of distrust toward the American government that is still present in some Cherokee societies today (Anderson 115).
The causes of the Indian Removal Policy of 1830 are numerous and varied in interpretation. Some historians have equated Jackson’s removal policy with Adolph Hitler’s Final Solution and have even called it genocide (Peter Farb’s The Indians of North America from Primeval Times to the Coming of the Industrial State New York: E. P. Dutton, 1968). Not only did he encourage the geographical separation of Indians and whites, but thousands of Native Americans perished in the process. Whether or not he advocated this mass extinction of Indians, Jackson on the political front was a staunch supporter of state sovereignty and could not deny Georgia’s rights to the Cherokees’ expansive lands.
In addition to the impact on the Cherokee demographics, the Treaty of New Echota caused factions within the Cherokee Nation that broke loyalties and caused them to revert back to old clan revenge warfare. The resentment that was fostered between the New Party and the Treaty Party created lasting divisions within the Cherokee nation. Moreover, the Cherokee Nation, before the Indian Removal Act, had prided itself on the fact that it had adapted to white institutions with great degrees of success. However, engaging in clan warfare, the Cherokees took a step back in progress when embroiled in such violence that was primarily caused by the Treaty of New Echota.  Furthermore, the Cherokees remained dependent on federal government’s economic assistance when they were seeking to prove that they could function better as a soverign nation.
The removal of the Cherokees west of the Mississippi is one of the greatest tragedies in United States history. While the Cherokees have shown incredible resilience in recovering from the decimating effects of their removal, the injustice they faced from fraudulent treaties, ethnocentric intolerance, and discriminatory laws will forever stain America’s history.   

Impact of The Children’s Act 2014 on Child Healthy Eating

The Children’s Act 2014
In 2003 a government initiative was launched in England and Wales. ECM (every child matters) was in response to the death of Victoria Climbie.
Victoria Climbie was an eight years old girl who was tortured and murdered by her guardians. Victoria didn’t have a healthy lifestyle which led to her tragic death. A public enquiry was led and major changes had taken place in child protection policies. Although her guardians were charged, new laws would mean there would be no repetition in the future.
The five points for every child matters.

Stay safe
Enjoy and achieve
Economic well being
Positive construction

ECM covers those with disabilities (up to the age of 24), children and young adults (up to the age of 19.)
A healthy lifestyle is making one’s own life happy. Its not just eating healthy food and exercising but includes mental and social wellbeing. A healthy lifestyle is very important for both adults and children. If parents eat, sleep and live healthy then the children will acquire the same habits which undoubtedly will lead a child to grow up healthy and happy. It is also the right of every child to be able to live a healthy lifestyle in order for them to achieve positive outcomes in their future.
In order for a person to live a healthy lifestyle and prevent chronic illness, they should aim to eat healthy food, exercise regularly and maintain a healthy BMI.
For healthy growth and development of babies, toddlers and preschool being physically active is very important for their health and to prevent illnesses.
Exercising is very important to maintain a healthy lifestyle for both children and adults, if parents integrate into their own lives this will then follow through to the future generations.
Encourage babies from birth to play on the floor, this will lead to head movements, pulling, pushing and movements of body and limbs, and this is a good form of daily exercise. (CDC)
Three hours is the recommended time, for children who walk on their own as daily exercise. Rolling around, running and skipping are activities they could do, better still to encourage children, to play ball games, chasing and climbing frames because these activities are best for this age group.
Parents should avoid taking cars to school and encourage children to walk as a daily exercise. Other effective methods like swimming, parks or general cleaning can be done as a family. (Web MD)
BMI (body mass index)
BMI is a way of seeing if your weight is appropriate for your height. Generally the higher you’re BMI the risk of medical illnesses is also higher.
BMI under 18.5 is considered underweight, it could be someone is just slim, but if due to poor diet and nutrients it can lead to illnesses such as anaemia, bone thinning and infertility
18.5-24.9 is normal; you are having the right amount of calories for your activities
25-29.9 is overweight this could increase developing stroke, CHD, diabetes
The way to calculate BMI is by dividing your weight in kilograms by your height in square metre.
57 / (1.3×1.3) =33.73 overweight
Weight height squared BMI
40/ (1.5×1.5) =17.78 underweight
Adults and children have different charts to work out BMI, as in adults there is no difference in males and females but in children there is. (Bupa)
Healthy Eating
Healthy eating is the third element of a healthy lifestyle. Meals should include food from all the different food groups so adults and children have an intake of all the different nutrients, vitamins and minerals for all around goodness.
At meal times children observing the parents eat healthy food, will want the children to share and explore the same food. As parents are the main carers of children from birth, naturally the same eating habits will appear in the child.


rice, pasta, potatoes
Other starchy foods

Energy, fibre vitamins. Iron

Effective bowel function


Milk, meat, fish, eggs, cheese

Protein, zinc iron, B vitamins

Repair and growth of the body cells. Healthy bones

Fruit and vegetables

All fresh fruit and vegetables, peas ,beans, sweet corn

Vitamins A,C &E, foliate and fibre

Excellent source of fibre, assist with a healthy weight


(unsaturated) olives, sunflower oil, salmon, fresh tuna, nuts


Lowering cholesterol


(saturated)crisps, oil, lard, chips, sweets

Vitamin A&D
Essential Fatty acids, energy



Sugar, jam. honey, juice

Vitamin A&D


Fat has two categories saturated and unsaturated, saturated fat can lead to coronary heart disease, it increases cholesterol. Unsaturated fat is more beneficial as it lowers cholesterol in the blood.
Sugary foods such as chocolates, fizzy drinks should be eaten less frequently and less in quantity as it could lead to weight gain and tooth decay.
An unhealthy lifestyle can cause many illnesses.
Chronic illness is a long term illness which usually cannot be reversed, it means having to adjust to the illness which may cause disruption to one’s life. Many things will change i.e. the way we live our life and how we relate to others. A chronic illness can make life stressful.
Common chronic illnesses

Stroke-this is when blood supply has cut off to the part of the brain, necessary oxygen doesn’t reach the brain. Cancer-there are over two hundred types of cancer and it effect different body parts, cancerous cells can grow and reproduce uncontrollably destroying healthy tissues around organs and other parts of the body.
Diabetes-there are two types of diabetes. Type 1 is when body doesn’t produce any insulin at all and type 2 when the body doesn’t produce enough insulin. Type 2 is usually found in older people. Not following the dietary rules can lead to eye problems and foot ulcers and more illnesses.
Coronary heart disease- coronary arteries are blocked by fattening substances which stop the blood flowing to the heart, this can be caused by high saturated diet and smoking, it’s the biggest killer in the UK.
High blood pressure (hypertension),-Around 30% of people in England have high blood pressure, blood is pressed against the walls of your arteries to pump around the body, if pressure is high that means there is a great strain on the arteries. If treatment is not done this could lead to stroke or heart disease.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (coped)-this is when the airways have narrowed causing the person not being able to breath, most likely cause can be smoking although fumes dust and air can cause this but very rare.(NHS)

A number of risk factors can be the root to the above diseases

Physical inactivity: We need to encourage the young to be active.
Unhealthy diet: high amounts of saturated fat, sugar and salt can be harmful.
Large consumption of alcohol

An unhealthy lifestyle is more likely to increase chronic illness, a person may have family history and so may be born into it, some illnesses are particularly to age gender or ethnic groups, nevertheless treatment and advice can be given to decrease the symptoms by following the healthy lifestyle
Inactivity can lead to poor health and chronic illnesses. Obesity in children is on the increase over the years. Unhealthy food in addition to inactivity has been a cause of this, there has been a fourfold increase in children and teenagers with obesity related illnesses.
Surveys in England conclude that 3 in 2-15year olds are overweight
Highest levels of obesity were found in older children, and those children with higher level of obesity lacked in physical exercise. Therefore exercise from young can reduce and reverse chronic illnesses like heart disease and diabetes.(BBC)
Children who are obese from a young age or have parents that are overweight will result in being overweight when older. The worst diet is known to be in the poorer families as they have less variety in healthy food because food which has high saturated fat and salt will be cheaper. (Faculty of public Health)
Activities for young children
Creative Activities
Activities can be done both indoors and outdoors. Other than physical activities, activities which bring out the imagination of children should also be encouraged, a crayon or a pen can write stories and draw pictures, these pictures can tell a lot of what children are thinking and feeling thus enhancing good emotional well being for children.
Needle work and cookery are also good ways of making children active, i.e. baking pizza, using different vegetables and vibrant coloured vegetables like green pepper, red pepper and sweet corn. Meals including different vegetables like a Sunday meal or a plate of fresh and different fruits, ranging in colours and shapes will bring the attention of the child making eating times healthy plus encouraging family time.(Childrenssociety)
Activities done as a family will also be a positive step towards a good well being
Physical Activities
In today’s world, internet, games and mobiles has made children inactive, sitting doesn’t burn of food. Physical activity whether in the form of exercise or play is vital for children to grow up healthy, mental well being is also important.
Depending on age, children under 5 should have at least 3 hours of physical play daily, as long as they can walk unaided. Children over 5 should have at least 1 hour of exercise daily.
Parents should make time for walks and playing in the garden, maybe even extending visits to the local parks, forest and cities. Older children would most likely prefer football, basketball and dance as all these include other children. This will help increase confidence and support social well being.
Local councils and libraries offer quite a lot of activities and ideas for children.

Wellbeing means the quality of life; there are many factors to determine wellbeing i.e. Income, background, health and education. Well being also cover how a person’s life is emotionally, physically and socially as well as many other things.
The root to wellbeing is the home, looking at whether parents are happy, confident and able to tackle everyday tasks and problems as well as providing a loving home.
Arguments and confrontation should be avoided in the as this can be detrimental to a Childs well being.

Routines and consistency doesn’t mean strict but gives a sense of stability, responsibility and safety to the child. Children will learn through trial and error, let the child learn through their own actions and mistakes and should they be punished make it clear as to what the punishment is for, but consistency in rules has to be there.(wiki How)
Taking time out to engage in conversation with children is vital; they need to be listened to by a parent or even an older loved one. The child will open up to any problems or difficulty because the love and attention is there leading to a good emotional well being.(wiki How)
A child care centre is where a child is happy and comfortable to be able to open up about feelings of happiness or sadness leading to show any signs of difficulties or problems, this should be evaluated on a regular basis. The carer needs to make the sure the environment produces this atmosphere of safety, love and care and encourages trust.
Places like school, nurseries and playgroup run number of sessions to help and support parents raising families. Parenting can be hard and at times, stressful. Just as it’s important for children to have a good wellbeing it is also important for parents.
Parents can also open up here, talking to staff and relating to other parents that attend, this will help any anxieties, stress or problems there may be.
These are trained staff who are experts in this field. The centres are nationwide, some are free and are provided by the government to support families some charge money.

A healthy lifestyle is very important for a happy and content life, both mental and physical well being is important.

Reference list (Online web Resources)

CDC Healthy Living.
Faculty Of Public Health.
Wiki How

The Childcare Act 2006 in Early Years Education

Unit 3: Building Positive Relationships
Every child deserves a good start in life and support to fulfil their potential. Children develop quickly in the early years. A secure, safe and happy childhood is important in its own right. High quality early and pre-school learning, together, provide the foundation children need to make the most of their abilities and talents as they grow up.
Childminders and childcare providers registered on the Early Years Register must meet the legal requirements set out in the Childcare Act 2006 and associated regulations in order to remain registered.
The Childcare Act 2006 provides for the Early Years Foundation Stage Learning and development requirements to comprise 3 elements:

The early learning goals.
The educational programmes – the matters, skills and processes which are required to be taught to young children.
The assessment arrangements for assessing young children to ascertain their achievements.

The requirements laid down must be delivered by the child care provider with no exceptions.
Document published by the Department for Education on 27 March 20012 states that “there are seven areas of learning and development that must shape educational programmes in early years settings”.

Personal, social and emotional development involves helping children to develop a positive sense of themselves, and others; to form positive relationships and develop respect for others; to develop social skills and learn how to manage their feelings; to understand appropriate behaviour in groups; and to have confidence in their own abilities.
Physical development involves providing opportunities for young children to be active and interactive, and to develop their coordination, control, and movement. Children must also be helped to understand the importance of physical activity, and to make healthy choices in relation to food.

Communication and language development involves giving children opportunities to speak and listen in a range of situations and to develop their confidence and skills in expressing themselves.

Literacy development involves encouraging children to read and write, both through listening to others reading, and being encouraged to begin to read and write themselves. Children must be given access to a wide range of reading materials – books, poems, and other written materials, to ignite their interest.

Mathematics involves providing children with opportunities to practise and improve their skills in counting numbers, calculating simple addition and subtraction problems, and to describe shapes, spaces, and measures.

Understanding the world involves guiding children to make sense of their physical world and their community through opportunities to explore, observe and find out about people, places, technology and the environment.

Expressive arts and design involves supporting children to explore and play with a wide range of media and materials, as well as providing opportunities and encouragement for sharing their thoughts, ideas and feelings through a variety of activities in art, music, movement, dance, role-play, and design and technology.

Parents and carers play an important role in assisting children to build self-respect, and then – through the child’s personal understanding of that experience – develop the values and skills needed to express respect to others. This interactional process becomes a continuous cycle, as children with strong self-respect engage in constructive positive behaviours towards themselves and others, attracting praise and reinforcement, thus building further self-respect and further facilitating the capacity to demonstrate respect for others. Of course the counter to that occurs when a child experiences continuous disrespect, fails to build healthy self-respect, and then responds to those destructive and negative feelings by treating others in similarly disrespectful ways.
It is important that children learn about other people’s feelings and that we show them how we behave in society and to except all walks of life. We could help them to do this by having resources that show the different types of people. For example wheelchair users, people who are hard of hearing and other disabilities etc. You could also celebrate festivals from different cultures or religion. It is good to read the children stories about friendships and display posters that shoe diversity. Showing a child praise when they behave in a socially acceptable manner will give them more confidence and make them feel respected themselves.

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Introducing a child to their own culture, traditions, and heritage helps the child valuing themselves and then others. Researchers (for example, Brown, 2008; Hughes et al., 2006) consistently find that young people from minority groups have better life outcomes when they develop a sense of pride in their own heritage and culture. As parents, we can cultivate this strength by helping our children participate in meaningful activities and rituals, spend time with others who share their culture or tradition, or use their native or first language. It also comes from having positive messages and role models in the media and culture that reinforce the value of one’s heritage, culture, and identity.
If I was caring for a group of children from diverse cultural or ethnic backgrounds I would encourage them to explore their heritage and make it an educational project for the whole group. By making the approach inclusive rather than exclusive it would foster a greater understanding of cultural differences and backgrounds amongst all the children. For example: each week could be devoted to an individual child’s particular background with that child encouraged to explore and learn about their culture (traditions, religion, celebrations, food, history) – the depth of research being determined by the child’s age. The child could make a presentation to the group and be encouraged to find photos and other items to help present their culture. The child could possibly be encouraged to bring a family member with them to help with their presentation (if possible). The other children in the group would engage with the activity by making their own posters, drawings and decorations with the theme of the culture being presented. This activity would carry on for several weeks depending on the size of the group. As an alternative, if the group was not primarily multi-cultural the above plan could still be used with a cultural theme being decided on in advance and the children being encouraged to learn about the culture and share their findings with the group.
Consistency in parenthood and for children is having the rules, routines and expectations the same over the course of time. This helps the child better understand rules and discipline, and it helps the child’s world stay predictable and allows it to be a less confusing situation. Consistency helps children learn to be accountable for their actions.
Consistency is extremely important because children need set limits. When a child is allowed to do things and then reprimanded it is confusing to them. These children will push limits of adults while thinking it is okay to do so. Consistency will help the child to understand what is tolerable and what is not. What is acceptable and what is unacceptable. Being fair is only right. Children should be taught that for every action there is a consequence. It is also important for these children to help set the guidelines for what is a consequence. This should be done before the consequence is needed, not the moment of.
Positive reinforcement allows for the children to continue to have appropriate actions and become intrinsically motivated to do these actions. Positive reinforcement should be reduced over time otherwise the children will always seek the reinforcement instead of just doing the good deed in itself.
With negative behaviour it is important that you always give a reason for when you say no. The child will then know that it is not safe to cross the street because they might get hurt, or it is not safe to stand on the table because they might fall. If a child is given a reason for negative behaviour it is usually understood better and therefore will likely not happen again. And if you must give a child a limit follow through, or it will not work again the next time. The child will then push your limits and try to again get off of the hook.
In my opinion quiet time is a perfect time for children to just sit quietly and calm down and it helps you to simply get on with your work with minimum disruption. A child can be taken to quiet time without the whole class knowing and it is most effective when you simply, quietly and calmly walk up to a child and ask them to come to quiet time.
Quiet time is not to be confused with the naughty spot or naughty chair. There is a different negative feeling to being on the naughty spot, than there is to having quiet time. The naughty chair implies that the child is naughty, which is of course negative and unhelpful. Quiet time is not about making a child feel bad but an opportunity for a child to be taken out of a disruptive situation and as a consequence for unwanted behaviour. This way you are far more likely to end unwanted behaviour rather than temporarily distracted a child from it. Another good strategy is to acknowledge and praise good behaviour and mature interactions with others, rather than only acknowledging bad behaviour and aggression. Often, a child will engage in bad behaviour, including fighting with others, in order to gain the attention of nearby adults. Only paying attention to negative behaviour reinforces the idea that negative behaviour gets results.
Conflict between children and adults or between children can be very distressing. In child care settings conflict is very common for children having trouble with an adult authority.
Over the years many behavioural theorists debated whether conflict has a positive or negative impact on child development. Some of them felt that conflict is a natural part of life. Others viewed conflict as a negative occurrence instead of being accepted as part of being human.
Research carried out by Dennis, Colwell and Lindsey from the Texas Tech University found that there are gender differences between children identifying areas of conflict. The girls tended to have more conflict with their peers over the things that had been said displaying a child to child conflict, whereas the boys manifested themselves in the form of disobeying the teacher.
Research supports work of Vygotsky who find that “… conflict provides for a learning experience for children when they have correct modelling or “scaffolding” from adults” (Travick-Smith, 2003,p54). The research showed that there were certainly gender differences, with girls’ conflicts arising from reaction to “words” and boys’ conflicts with “actions”.
Among the many tasks of early childhood, two stand out: to communicate needs in a respectful way to other children and to listen with respect to the ideas of others. These areas of learning are important to all young children, but especially to those who participate in group settings away from home – preschool and child care programmes, playgroups, or summer camps. With the support of knowledgeable adults, children are able to learn the skills necessary for effective communication within peer groups.
As children learn to be together in a group, they will inevitably experience conflict with another child. Many adults find conflict among children frustrating and feel uncertain about how to be helpful. However, when adults are thoughtful and skilled in their approach to classroom conflict, children benefit. Conflict resolution is an important foundation for future growth and learning.
Department for Education, 2012. Statutory Framework for the Early Years Foundation Stage. Runcorn: Department for Education.
Riddall-Leech, S. (2010) Home-Based Childcare, Oxford, Pearson Publ Oxford Heinemann.
Statutory Framework for the Early Years Foundation Stage (July 2006) the Child care act 2006.
Tassoni, P. Beith, K. Bulman, K. Eldridge, H. (2007) Child Care and Education. Publ. Heinemann.  

Data Protection Act Principles in Childcare

Anyone who keeps records whether on computer or on paper must apply with this act. It should be clear to service user for what purpose the data are being kept. Information about a child should also be accessible to parents and shared with them. It is not compulsory just do on their demand. Information should not be kept for longer than necessary, though accident and incident records will be need to be kept in case they are needed for references at some time in future. Records must be stored securely.

PROCESSED FAIRLY AND LAWFULLY – It is very important that personal data should be processed fairly. In practice you must legitimate grounds for collection and using the personal data. You must not use the data in way that have unjustified adverse effects on the individual concerned. You must be transparent about how to use the data and privacy notices when they collecting their data. You make sure you do not do anything unlawful with the date.
OBTAINED FOR SPECIFIED LAWFUL PURPOSES – This data is clearly linked with first data protection. If you obtain personal data for an unlawful purpose then you will be in breach of both first and second data protection. For example to implement this data in you setting you must be clear from the outsets about why you are collecting personal data and what you intend to do with it. You must comply what act says about notifying given to the information commissnor.
ADEQUATE, RELEVANT AND NOT EXCESSIVE – The data protection does not define these words, clearly though they need to be considered. For examples a debt collection agency is engaged to find a particular debt. Its collects information several of people with similar name. During the inquiry some of these people are discounted. Company should delete most of the data, just keep minimum data. If you need to hold particular information about certain individual only you should collect it just for those individual. The information is likely to be excessive and irrelevant in relevant to other people.
ACCURATE AND UP TO DATE – The law recognise that it may not be practical to double check the accuracy of every item of personal data you receive. So the act make special provision about the accuracy that information that individual provides about themselves. When you go through this data protection you should take reasonably steps to ensure the accuracyof any personal you obtain, make sure that the any personal data is clear and carefully consider whether it is necessary to update the information.
NOT KEPT ANY LONGER THEN NECESSARY – personal data processed for any purposes or purpose shall not be kept for longerthen is necessary for that parpose. In your setting you will need to review the length of time you keep personal data and update archieve or securely delete information if it goes out of date.

A good evaluation of your chosen Data Protection Act principles.
When you start a business as a child care that it is very important to keep accurate and complete records. Your business record should include;

You should have keep record banking information
You must need a proof of income
You need to keep a proof of expenses that how much you spend on their food and stuff

You need to be organised, keep your records up to date and then hold on to them for seven tax years. Good records are important for your business because;

They can make filling in your tax returns easier and quicker
They can make it quicker for your tax agent or accountant to do your book and save your money.
They can give you the information you need to manage your business and help it grow, and make it easier to get a loan. Tax record is a legal requirement to running a business.

Legibility mean all information should be correct, readable and clearly. So following steps could be helpful for legible record keeping;

All written information should be neat & clean and use in black ink because it is clearer to read and photocopies.
It is more important that handwriting should be legible. If it is not readable someone can misunderstanding.
If someone changes to documentation such as medication form, parents permission form, it must be signed and dated.
White correction fluid should not be use over the mistake, just crossed with a line.

Make sure personal data always should be accurate if not, for examples if someone has removed from Chester to kings brook, a record showing that he currently lives in Chester is obviously inaccurate. But a record showing that he once lived in Chester remains accurate, even though he no longer lives there. You must always be clear about what a record is intended to show. Personal data always have to be up to date. This depends on what the information is used for like medication changing, food requirements. If the information is used for a purpose that relies on it remaining current, it should be kept up to date.
There is often confusion about whether it is appropriate to keep records of things that happened which should not have happened. Individuals understandably don’t want their records to be tarnished by, for example, a penalty or other charge that was later cancelled or refunded. However, the organization may legitimately wish its records to accurately reflect what actually happened – in this example, that a charge was imposed, and later cancelled or refunded. Keeping a record of a mistake and its correction might also be in the individual’s interests.
Before child coming in nursery or school basic information must be filled in. Supervisor should be explained to parents that this information will be treated with confidentially and that will be stored safely. The record will be reviewed regularly and kept up to date with parents’s help. superviser collects all information from parents.
When recording data on a computer it is very important to make sure that adequate reliable methods of backing up the data are employedso that if the computer malfunction or becomes damaged the files can be easly retrieved on another system. There are so many ways to keep record like – DIGITAL DATA, PAPER RECORD AND MANUAL RECORD.
TYPES OF DIGITAL DATA – Digital data exists on many devices today not just computer and server. Portable media such as USB thumb drives, CDs and DVDs as well as copier, printer and scanner hard and drives.
DESKTOP COMPUTER HARD DRIVES –LAPTOP HARD DRIVES – ZIP DISKS – FLOPPY DISKS – Most people are aware of the need to destroy hard drives found in desktop and laptop computers and other magnetic storage devices.
COPIERS – PRINTER – SCANNERS – ALL IN ONE DEVICES – Advanced office equipment, including, printers, copiers, and scanner as well as mobile devices, such as cell phones can be the source of unexpected digital data breaches.
USB THUMB DRIVES – LAPTOP (SSHD) -Thumb drives and external hard drives use solid – state drives (SSD) to store and transfer data. These drives look like magnetic hard drives but require specialized processing to ensure complete digital data destruction.
These digital data should be stored safely secured in small locked safes. It should be protect by the secret password. Children should not allow to use same computer or desktop which have a confidential files.
PAPER RECORDING – the data protection apply equally to personal data held on ICT system and on paper files. The following guidelines should be followed with regards to be held on paper files.

This should be operating of a policy whereby paper files containing such data are locked away when not required.
Paper records and files should be handed to those personnel with business reason to access them.
Personal and sensitive information held on paper must be kept hidden from caller to officers.
Secure disposal of confidential waste should be in place and properly used.
When paper files are transfer within In a department, usually should be hand delivery.

in the paper record have a same information but defferent way to keep it safe then digital. All paper work, files, information about financial should be out of reach of children. It should be locked on high place in childcare setting but they must be sealed in water proof bag.
Primary storages is a storages location that holds memory for short periods of times while the computer RAM and CACHE are both examples of a primary storages device. The capacity of RAM in terms of data storages is less but it offers a very fast access rate, this making it very pretty expensive. Processor cache is the part of RAM and is using for speeding up the execution. So primary storage allows faster access, it is highly violating in nature that means it clears up during the booting.
DATA STORAGES FOR DIGITAL – Computer data storages often called storages or memory is technology consisting of computer components and reading media used to retain digital data. It is core function and fundamental component of computer. Internal and external hard drives, DVD-R, CD-R, USB flash drives, web based storages AKA the clouds are primary storages for digital.
PAPER STORAGES – mostly files and folders and piles on your desk, stapled, paper clipped, computer, pen, pencils and some even have a typewriter need for paper storages. Using paper record increase the risk of grammar errors, improper data entry and other record inaccuracies. Paper also requires physical storages with could be costly expenses for business. By jpvsku
Evaluate for the best option
Paper records are best option for the home childcare setting. For paper records it is advisable to have a file rooms, and avoid having every employee maintaining their own filling cabinet. Proper files maintenance in the office is an effective record keeping strategy. It is very important that when you are planning your physical record keeping system to think in terms of RECORD SERIES. As you examine yourself make sure that information you produced is a logical relatively independent from other records. Why it is important because for longer terms and storages you will find deferent types of records need different strategies. A Common mistake made in records maintances is to information goes in but no way to information comes out so it will become soon unmanageable size.

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There is something special about paper records that make them more REAL than the same record in digital formats but this is not correct because digital is a faster and a properly produced, stored and maintained digital is just as valid in the eyes of the law as any paper records. Proper records management requires you to know which copy is your ‘‘copy of record’’. Once a copy of record has been established, the other copy can be destroyed safely
A common problem that faces many organizations is inconsistency in record keeping practices. This usually results from personal turnover which each new employee creates the systems. If this happening several times, the record keeping system may become a combination of many techniques and schemes. New employees should be trained in the current producer of the department. The best way to ensure that the consistency is through and adequate documentation.
In this UNIT I did try explain about data protection act 1998, how to implement it into childcare setting, record keeping information, deferent ways of recording, primary types of data storages and evaluate of paper records.

Recommendations for the Children Act 2004

The Children Act 2004 created the office of “Children’s Commissioner”. If you were to be appointed to this office, which changes and innovations would you propose to the law and policy relating to children and the family to ensure that your function is fulfilled? How would you justify such changes and innovations?
The Children Act 2004[1] was the product of a Government consultation exercise informed by the publication of the Every Child Matters[2] Green Paper which was drawn up to complement the Government’s formal response to the Victoria Climbi, Inquiry Report.[3] The Act provided for the establishment of the post of Children’s Commissioner to ensure a voice and lobbyist for children and young people at a national level. The current incumbent of this post is Professor Al Aynsley-Green.

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Section 2 of the Children Act stipulates that the Commissioner’s role will be to promote awareness of the interests and views of children and young adults up to the age of 20 including those in care or with learning disabilities. The Commissioner is also empowered to hold inquiries – on direction by the Secretary of State or on his own initiative – into cases of individual children with wider policy relevance
This paper makes various proposals aimed at improving the current regime of law, policy and administration concerning the welfare of children and vulnerable young adults in the United Kingdom.[4]
Bullying in Schools
Bullying is a serious issue and something that affects the life of almost every child at one point or another in their time at school. It is also an issue for adult society, given that bullies sometimes take their habits into later life and that victims may harbour profound emotional scars long after they grow up.
Bullying is consistently highlighted as a key concern, if not the paramount concern, in surveys of children.[5] As such it is submitted that proposals for action in this field would be warmly welcomed. The recent Anti-Bullying Week, which was coordinated by Professor Aynsley-Green, received considerable media attention and attracted the support of high profile media and sporting celebrities such as David Beckham. This indicates that there is widespread support for advances in policy in this area and this is significant because the likelihood of a proposal’s successful adoption and implementation is an important criterion in deciding which suggestions to put forward for consideration.
Some shocking incidents have recently increased the momentum behind calls for innovative and progressive enhancement of society’s response to the problem of bullying. In November 2005 Natashia Jackman, aged 15, was attacked by three girls at a school in Surrey.[6] One of the girls used a pair of scissors to attack Natashia, stabbing her in the eye and face. It transpired that Natashia had been the victim of prolonged and concerted bullying at school. It is submitted that tough new intervention in this field is necessary before the situation escalates into one where a terrible incident such as one that occurred in this case takes place. Even more serious are the suicides of schoolchildren who are driven to a final act of desperation after being victimised by other children in classrooms and playgrounds.[7] If given the opportunity outlined in the title to this paper this commentator would make a proactive and effective anti-bullying policy a top priority for immediate action.
In particular the following reforms are recommended:
(a) A senior member of teaching staff at every primary and secondary school should be appointed as bullying surveillance officer. This position should be recognised and incorporated within the workload of the staff concerned, allowing sufficient time for the fulfilment of this duty and the role should be subject to external quality assessment, just as teaching is.
(b) External speakers should be engaged to address children on bullying at school assembly. These should include authority figures such as police officers (who can explain the criminal consequences of such action), adult victims of bullying who can relate the experiences and the impact bullying had on them with force and even celebrities and notable figures could be enlisted to tour schools and offer influential advice. Professional footballer Rio Ferdinand recently starred in an anti-bullying television campaign[8] and it should be possible to gather together a sizeable team of prominent people who could participate in a scheme that would grab the attention of pupils and speak to them at their level.
(c) Specialist bullying mediators should be appointed to local education areas with appropriate skills and experience and a dedicated remit to deal with bullying both at school and in the homes of victims and perpetrators alike. It is argued that teachers simply don’t have the training to conduct such sensitive work and negotiation and the matter is too serious to be left to concerned amateurs, no matter how much classroom experience they may have.
(d) Pupils at all levels should be required to sign an anti-bullying pledge which emphasises that acquiescence in the face of bullying is an act that will itself attract punitive sanction under the school’s disciplinary code. Almost all of us will remember witnessing bullying, often sustaining bullying, of particular children from our schooldays, and almost all of us will probably regret failing to intervene to assist at the time.
(e) School disciplinary mechanisms should deal sharply with any incidents of bullying, imposing stern and escalating punishments including suspension and possible exclusion and involving parents at an early stage. Moreover, the victims of bullying must be effectively protected in the process. There is anecdotal evidence to suggest that teachers sometimes prefer to deal with the complaints of one set of parents of a bullied child, rather than tackle four or five sets of parents of the bullies themselves. This is an appalling state of affairs and one that must be brought to an end forthwith.
(f) A peer mentoring system should be introduced nationwide, to offer the victims of bullying the opportunity to speak with respected older children who have undergone training. Occasionally victims will be intimidated by the prospect of complaining to a teacher or even a parent. The other advantage of this suggested scheme is that peer mentors will typically have a better grasp of ‘ground-level’ activities and politics within a school than the most well- informed teachers. A range of incentives could be offered for participation in this scheme, and volunteering might prove especially attractive to older students with one eye on character references for work and university.
(g) A comprehensive national education and advertising campaign should be launched to back up these reforms. If sustained, such a campaign is capable of producing an attitudinal shift in society from one of generally passive acquiescence to one of intolerance and proactive intervention. Thirty years ago car seatbelts were considered an annoyance at worst and an optional extra at best, however a concerted campaign shifted opinions to such an extent that for most people riding in a car without a seatbelt is now unthinkable just a generation later. Public campaigns have proved equally successful in such fields as passive smoking and there is no reason why a properly funded and lengthy anti-bullying campaign could not produce a similar seismic shift in our collective attitude to the activity.
Better coordination, clarified responsibilities, increased funding
This commentator would make it a priority to bash heads together (ie. encourage better liaison and cooperation) among local authorities and key agencies to improve the service that they collectively provide to children. At present too many children either fall through the cracks in the system or have pressing needs overlooked because the division of responsibilities between different agencies and bodies is unclear, piecemeal and patchy. Perhaps the best and most notorious example of this problem is the appalling case of Victoria Climbie, the inquiry into which presented shocking findings suggesting poor communication and coordination between responsible agencies.
Moreover the general scarcity of resources dictates that it is often difficult for agencies to extend themselves beyond their own traditional spheres of activity in cases which may merit such action. It should surely be a priority in any general programme of reform to support child welfare professionals, be they working in the social services, police, education or health services, in an effort to work together more effectively, share information to identify difficulties and concerns, and provide the appropriate assistance more efficiently.
To this end the creation of universal national database holding all information relevant to children and young people and the interests that concern them is recommended. It is time to exploit fully the exponentially growing power of technology in a way that is beneficial to children. A policy aimed at improved integration and enhanced cooperation must also entail measures to ensure better and clearer accountability for children’s services. For too long children have suffered from ambiguities in this crucial area. It is contended that concrete accountability in particular should perhaps be the ultimate aim of any proposed reform. Public and professional accountability is without doubt to best way guarantee diligence in any office.
This clutch of proposals must go hand in hand with concerted lobbying for more funds from Government. Quality costs – that is something that every parent understands on an individual level in respect to the care of their own children and it is something that the community should be susceptible to accept on a collective basis for the nation’s young. It is submitted that such a funding priority should prove more popular with the electorate than almost any other drain on the public purse. In simple terms, it can only be a vote winner for a Government beset with criticism over funding of such endeavours as the Iraq War and it chimes with the overarching policy of comprehensive, all-inclusive care endorsed by the Beveridge report[9] which founded the welfare state.
Child Health and Welfare
It is proposed that new policies are implemented to address specific problems that affect the health and well-being of the nation’s youth. While some apparent progress has been made in other sections of society it is damning fact that smoking rates are actually on the increase among children, in particular girls.[10] Approximately sixteen per cent of girls currently smoke, compared to around twelve per cent of boys.
More than half of all children, male and female have consumed alcohol and a significant number are regular drinkers. Perhaps more startling is the fact that around seventeen per cent of children have abused solvents and a similar proportion have taken drugs, such as cannabis.
Around twelve per cent of children claim to be sexually active or at least to have had sexual experience. Married to this statistic is the fact that the United Kingdom is top of the European league table for teenage pregnancy.
Another concern for the health and well-being of the nation’s children is linked to dwindling participation rates in physical activity, both in and out of school hours, and to the point that standards of nutrition are negatively affected by the high and increasing consumption of convenience foods, fast foods, carbonated drinks and sweets. Girls have slightly healthier nutritional tastes than boys on average but sweets and sugary drinks are consumed at around twice the rate of fresh fruit and vegetables on a meal by meal basis.
In isolation every one of the above statistics is a cause for serious concern. When viewed collectively it is submitted that these facts present a startling picture which demands immediate and concerted attention. If this commentator was to be appointed Children’s Commissioner a basket of policies would be recommended to improve the health and welfare of the nation’s children. Proposals would include restrictions on advertising, tax measures designed to reward (rather than punish as is the case today) healthy dietary choices, and hard hitting campaigns educating about the risks of drug and substance abuse. It is hard to argue that the age for smoking should be increased above sixteen, given that a person can get married or join the army and fight and die for his or her country at that age. However, the sale of cigarettes to minors should be more rigorously detected and punished and general measures to deter smoking in the adult population would reduce both the number of role models and exposure to passive smoke in the home and community. In terms of sexual health, a policy leaning away from permissive rights to emphasise more strongly responsibilities and risks would be advocated and a more open and accessible sexual education programme, such as that successfully employed at Scandinavian schools would be suggested.
Concluding Comments
A society can be judged by the way in which it treats its most vulnerable citizens. The office of Children’s Commissioner carries the heavy burden of safeguarding and furthering the interests of the nation’s youth, which is the nation’s future, and as such it is a function that must be carried out with commitment, verve and vigour. It is submitted that the proposals set out in this short paper would, if implemented, attract popular support and therefore access to funding and improve the lot of children nationwide. Moreover, at first and indeed second sight it is hard to conceive of any cogent argument against the concerted pursuit of such objectives. As such these proposals merit serious consideration for prompt and wholehearted adoption.
THE END WORD COUNT: 2298 (excluding footnotes – bullying was given particular emphasis as requested)
Every Child Matters, Department for Education and Skills (2003)
Victoria Climbie, Inquiry Report, Lord Laming (2003)
Report to Parliament on Social Insurance and Allied Services, (Cmd. 6404) London: HMSO, 1942 ISBN: 0108502767
Bullied Girl Stabbed with Scissors:,,2-1868635,00.html
Suicide ruling over bullied girl’s death, The Scotsman, 14 May 2005
Survey of smoking, drinking and drug use among secondary school children, Office of National Statistics:

[1] The Act received Royal Assent on 15th November 2004.
[2] See:
[3] See:
[4] Although it is noted that there is a separate Commissioner for each national jurisdiction within the United Kingdom.
[5] The BBC television programme Newsround provides an online forum on bullying.
[6] Bullied Girl Stabbed with Scissors:,,2-1868635,00.html.
[7] See: Suicide ruling over bullied girl’s death, The Scotsman, 14 May 2005; and, inter alia:;
[8] See:
[9] Report to Parliament on Social Insurance and Allied Services, (Cmd. 6404) London: HMSO, 1942 ISBN: 0108502767.
[10] See:  

Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Teva Pharmaceuticals

Teva Pharmaceuticals is the largest generic pharmaceutical manufacturer in the world[1]. As of December 22, 2016, Teva Pharmaceuticals now holds the record for the largest fine by a pharmaceutical company for violating the foreign corrupt practices act. The settlement amount includes $283 million fine from the DOJ and a subsequent $236 million fine from the SEC. This total fine of $519 million far outweighs the previous record of Johnson & Johnson’s $70 million fine from 2011[2]. The question remains, what did TEVA Pharmaceuticals do that required a fine of $519 million? This paper will discuss the purpose of the FCPA, what Teva Pharmaceuticals did to receive a fine, and what we can learn from their mistake.
The purpose of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) is to prohibit bribery by any company or person who does business in the United States. This includes not only United States citizens, but also foreign executives and businesses that have operations in the United States. While the act is imposed on businesses that have dealings in the Unites States, the FCPA was especially designed to prohibit bribery in countries outside the United States. The United States doesn’t want its companies or people to use bribery as a form of persuasion abroad-whether legal or illegal. By allowing companies to give bribes, this would give these companies an unfair advantage over their competition and give a bad representation for United States. Even if the bribe is “typical” business conduct in another country, the government will impose harsh fines for those who violate this act.

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Over the last few years, Teva Pharmaceuticals, specifically Teva Russia and Teva Mexico (Fully owned subsidiaries of Teva Pharmaceuticals) have been bribing foreign officials in order for them to buy more of their drug named Copaxone[3]. While nothing was wrong with this drug from a scientific aspect, Teva was implementing many different measures to increase revenue for the company. Keisha Hall, a former employee and director of finance for the Latin American division, filed a lawsuit stating that, “Teva’s unethical practices included unauthorized payments to doctors in Chile, bribes to physicians working in regional hospitals, and low inventory controls in Mexico[4].” In another report coming from Ukraine, Teva “…provided various things of value to a Ukrainian Official to induce him to use his official position within the Ukrainian government to improperly influence the registration of Teva pharmaceutical products in Ukraine.”
The DOJ investigation revealed emails that explained how TEVA would pay these government officials with money from the incredibly high margins their drugs were being sold for in exchange for influencing the Russian government to purchase this drug through Teva.
Teva subsequently entered a plea deal to cooperate with DOJ and SEC. However, because Teva failed to “voluntarily self-disclose the FCPA violations to the Fraud Section” the fine was not discounted. Teva claims it has since redone it’s corporate governance program, ceased relationships with fraudulent 3rd parties, and removing any necessary employees[5]. They have also boosted their internal control procedures.
Teva Pharmaceuticals disobeyed the law and reaped over $214 million in excess illicit profits by paying government officials around $60 million in kickbacks[6]. While some may argue they were just trying to increase revenue and weren’t harming anyone, they manipulated the market and broke the law. A fine that is roughly double what they made in illicit profits now seems reasonable. Teva Pharmaceuticals has received pretty negative press and the stock price reflects consumer sentiment. Since 2015, the stock has fallen from $70 per share to $33 per share. While bribing may seem like a quick way to generate extra revenue, the downside outweighs any benefit. As the government continues to give out these large fines, hopefully corporate America will start to act more ethical.






Applications and Adaptations of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for Adolescents.

Blackledge, J., & Hayes, S. (2006). Using Acceptance and Commitment Training in the Support of Parents of Children diagnosed with Autism. Child and Family Behavior Therapy, 28(1), 1-18. doi: 10.1300/J019v28n01_01

Blackledge and Hayes (2006) investigated the effectiveness of a 2-day (14 hour) group format Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) intervention on the depression and distress of parents and caregivers of children with a autism diagnosis. The intervention was presented as a supportive and collective experience to assist parents and caregivers with better methods to cope with the difficulties and stress associated with supporting an autistic child. The authors aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the ACT intervention with participants being recruited from 3 differing geographical regions in an intent to attain the common mainstream of parents in this particular situation. The study consisted of self-report instruments measuring therapeutic mechanisms of change and outcomes in depression, distress, and perceived control over their children’s behaviour. ACT-specific concepts were measured using the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-9-item version (AAQ), which measures experiential avoidance, cognitive fusion, and complications in acting in the presence of adverse private events, and the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire (ATQ-B), which measures the frequency of automatic negative accounts an individual has. The psychological needs of parents and caregivers of children diagnosed with autism is largely ignored. The focus of this study was on the decrease of distress and depression levels of these parents post-treatment and attempted to reassess the treatment gains 3 months after the completion of treatment. Limitations of this study included the small trial which involved only 20 participants, thus the study could not control for social support or expectancy. Furthermore, the process measures utilised in the study were not optimal, in addition to many of the participants not being highly distressed despite the intervention analysing the effects of this training on the levels of distress experienced. Due to the very general processes measures that were applied in the study it was unknown whether there was improvement from parents and caregivers in accepting difficult emotions and defusing from aversive cognitions. The study found that the use of ACT with parents and caregivers of children diagnosed with autism is effective in reducing the processes measures of experiential avoidance and cognitive fusion. The study additionally provides evidence that ACT can be effective in this population in adjusting to the difficulties associated with raising their children. Given that parents and caregivers often have high rates of depressive and anxiety disorders, this study is beneficial in looking at the support and care needed to raise autistic children and provides evidence that ACT may improve the psychological situation faced by these parents and caregivers (Breslaud & Davis, 1986). Results from this study indicate that the creation of an ACT family-based treatment for both parents and autistic children may be of value.

Murrell, A., & Scherbarth, A. (2011). State of the research & literature address: ACT with children, adolescents and parents. The International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy, 7(1), 15-22. doi: 10.1037/h0101005

Murrell and Scherbarth (2011) present a review of empirical and theoretical work on the use of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) with youth and parents. Personal communication, online databases, and ACT-related websites were utilised to accumulate information regarding published and unpublished work. The authors aimed to summarise the state of ACT work that has been administered with children, adolescents, and their parents and to provide further questions and recommendations for ACT researchers. Published articles were identified using the PsychInfo database, with search terms including ‘ACT’, or ‘Acceptance’, and ‘child’, ‘adolesc’, or ‘parent’. Unpublished work was found in published articles or the research labs link or directly from important researchers in the domain of ACT with youth. The review only included articles that were written in English. The research, which involves ACT in the population of youth and parents, focuses on individual problems in children and adolescents, such as anxiety disorders and chronic pain, and parents, such as impaired parenting. Limitations involve the issue of treatment measures, which should reflect the acceptance and valuing components of ACT and not solely traditional measures of symptomatology. Additionally, although many treatment protocols included measures of functionality, some did not, and it seems that there is no standardized measures of valuing for children. Furthermore, most study designs were case studies and uncontrolled group-design studies, however, when comparing gold-standard for treatment studies larger samples and controlled designs are crucial. In support of previous research, it was concluded that ACT appears beneficial in parents in regards to aiding therapeutic progress in youth. This review adds to the limited literature available on ACT work conducted with children, adolescents, and their parents. Additionally, the authors provide recommendations that will be valuable to future researchers and the community of ACT.

Swain, J., Hancock, K., Dixon, A., Koo, S., & Bowan, J. (2013). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for anxious children and adolescents: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials, 14(140),  1-12. doi:  10.1186/1745-6215-14-140.

The paper involved describing and evaluating a protocol for Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for children and adolescents with a diagnosis of anxiety disorder. The aim is to determine the effectiveness of a manualized ACT group-therapy programme in the treatment of anxiety disorders in the population of youth. Additionally the authors aim to identify which mechanisms of change regarding the ACT intervention are crucial to changes in outcome measures for the adolescent participants. The randomised controlled trial will involve the randomisation of patients to ACT, Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) or a waitlist control. Participants in the ACT or CBT groups will receive 10 one and a half hour group-therapy sessions each week, whilst participants in the control group will receive CBT after 10 weeks. Repeated measured are to be taken immediately after the completion of therapy and three months post therapy. The authors scope of the study is to add to the paucity of research regarding the efficacy of ACT in youth with anxiety. Limitations are not definite with the trial not yet being completed, however, there is suggestion that difficulties may arise concerning recruitment and retention of participants, particularly adolescents. The authors conclude that to date this will not only be the largest trial of ACT in the treatment of youth, but will also be the first randomised controlled trial which examines the effectiveness of ACT in youth with a diagnosis of anxiety disorder. This study will be of value by adding to the current research and literature and also has the potential to provide extensive data on the effectiveness of ACT for anxiety disorders and the mechanisms involved in the process of change. Furthermore, this study may provide methods for parents to help their children and give useful information when selecting treatments in contemporary clinical practice.

Swain, J., Hancock, K., Hainsworth, C., & Bowman, J. (2013). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in the treatment of anxiety: A systematic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 33(8), 965-978. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2013.07.002

Swain, Hancock, Hainsworth and Bowman (2013) conducted a broad systematic review to examine the effectiveness of  Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) in the treatment of anxiety. Databases, such as PsychoInfo, PsychArticles, and Medline, were utilised for published data up to October 2012. Proquest database was used to identify unpublished literature, such as dissertations and theses. Furthermore, reference lists were analysed and citation searches conducted. The study aimed to evaluate the empirical research for ACT in the treatment of anxiety, including both published and unpublished literature, and to assess the utility of ACT in the treatment of anxiety. Data was extracted from studies that met the inclusion criteria which involved ACT intervention studies which applied a minimum of two of ACT’s core processes; studies specifically aimed at treating anxiety disorder, problem anxiety or anxiety symptoms; outcome measures arranged to determine reduction of anxiety symptoms or remission and of established psychometric quality; and articles prepared in English. A method of quality assessment termed Psychotherapy Outcome Study Methodology Rating Form (POMRF) was utilised to review the articles which examines 22 individual methodological elements. The scope of the study involves applying ACT specifically to anxiety disorders and treating anxious symptoms. The study focuses on outcomes that include reductions in clinician-rated and self-report anxiety measures and investigating whether the diagnostic criteria is achieved for a given anxiety disorder. Results are tentative due to the limited number and quality of eligible studies. Due to the relationship between effect sizes and POMRF scores being unknown, no analysis of this relationship was able to be conducted. The POMRF assessment of methodological rigour identified that the majority of studies demonstrated various fundamental design errors, such as no control comparison. Most disorders were examined by only a small number of studies and used various outcome assessment tools therefore making comparisons challenging. Additionally, it was difficult to compare the effectiveness of ACT to other psychological treatments due to studies being often underpowered to identify the differences, or between-group analyses not being stated. Furthermore, typical in this domain of research, problems were found in the variety of therapeutic terminology used, diversity in treatment modalities, and some studies being found to be statistically insignificant. The review, which used a broad inclusion criteria and literature to maximise findings and reduce publication bias, provides preliminary evidence for ACT in the treatment of anxiety in clinical and nonclinical populations. Furthermore, ACT demonstrated statistically significant results in individual and group configurations. This review has been advantageous in adding to the current literature by providing preliminary support for the utility of ACT as an alternative intervention in the treatment of anxiety. However, additional research is required to examine the effectiveness of ACT in relation to specific anxiety disorders and underrepresented populations, such as youth and the elderly.

Pahnke, J., Lundgren, T., Hursti, T., & Hirvikoski, T. (2014). Outcomes of an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy-based skills training group for students with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder: A quasi-experimental pilot study. Autism, 18(8), 953-964. doi: 10.1177/1362361313501091

Using a quasi-experimental design, this study investigated the feasibility and outcomes of a 6-week Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) training programme for a group of young adults with high-functioning autism. The study aimed to evaluate whether an ACT model, which has been modified in ways that make it feasible to use with individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), reduces stress and emotional distress, and increases psychological flexibility in individuals with ASD. The intervention endeavoured to use acceptance and mindfulness skills, and behaviour change procedures to support individuals with ASD deal with difficult emotions, cognitions and body sensations. Additionally, the intervention aimed to break experiential avoidance patterns, and assist in identifying valuable life directions and then act accordingly. Furthermore, it was proposed that the intervention would support individuals with ASD to acquire skills that would aid them to cope with uncomfortable mental events and sensory inputs and use goal-directed behaviours. The study recruited participants that had been diagnosed with ASD within a special school environment to increase the ecological validity of the intervention. The intervention measured participant characteristics and the outcome of the intervention were measured by the Stress Survey Schedule, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires (SDQ), and the Beck Youth Inventories (BYI). The Stress Survey Schedule and the SDQ were teacher- and self-rated, whereas the BYI was only self-rated. Using the 6-week ACT training programme, the study focused on decreasing levels of stress, hyperactivity, emotional distress and increasing prosocial behaviour, and psychological flexibility. The main limitations identified were the small sample size and low statistical power, which consequently limited the analyses of potential effects of background factors, such as gender, IQ, age, and co-morbidity, on the treatment results. The ACT programme resulted in a decrease of reported student and teacher stress and increases in self-reported prosocial behaviour. Thus, it was concluded that the ACT training programme has the potential to be an effective treatment which is feasible in a special school environment and has the capability to be useful in reducing stress and psychiatric symptoms in young adults with ASD. The results of this research are crucial in the development and implementation of ACT-based treatment programmes for young individuals with ASD. To test the validity of the intervention larger studies and replications of the programme would be beneficial and in various environments.

Halliburton, A., & Cooper, L. (2015). Applications and adaptations of Acceptance and Commitment therapy (ACT) for adolescents. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 4(1), 1-11. doi: 10.1016/j.jcbs.2015.01.002

The authors of this review concentrate on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and its relevance and applicability for professionals who work with adolescents. The aim was to investigate the similarities and differences between a traditional cognitive-behavioral therapy (tCBT) approach and an ACT approach and determine which of the two approaches would be the most effective for adolescents. The review consisted of ten studies that utilized many or all of the ACT components, such as mindfulness, acceptance, and defusion, in the population of adolescents between the ages of 11 and 17. These studies were collected from a range of journals and disciplines. The review focuses on recognising developmental adaptations and consideration that have been accumulated from a range of cognitive-behavioral approaches and that can consequently aid in the use of ACT in adolescents. Limitations involved the small sample sizes and single case designs that were utilised in many of the studies used in the review. Additionally, several studies acknowledged using self-report surveys, which can be unreliable and subject to social desirability, and symptom measures, that were not adequately adapted for the adolescent population. The authors concluded that there is some support in using ACT and ACT techniques in the adolescent population. However, it is noted that the translation of ACT protocols used with adults to adolescent needs to be treated with caution in regard to the methodology and assessments used. Furthermore, methodological problems in studies have limited conclusions on the effectiveness of ACT compared with tCBT and additional empirically supported therapies. This review provides service providers with valuable information regarding treating adolescents with new and existing therapies that may be effective and beneficial for this population. It should be acknowledged that further research on a more diverse sample of adolescents will help professionals identify which types of adolescents that ACT could be a favourable therapy option for.

Livheim, F., Hayes, L., Ghaderi, A., Magnusdottir, T., Hogfeldt, A., Rowse, J., … Tengstrom, A. (2015). The effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for adolescent mental health: Swedish and Australian pilot outcomes. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(4), 1016-1030. doi: 10.1007/s10826-014-9912-9

The high and increasing prevalence of mental health conditions, particularly depression and anxiety, among adolescents calls for further research to identify effective prevention interventions (Calear & Christensen, 2010). Livheim et al., (2015) investigated the effectiveness of a group intervention based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) in two pilot studies conducted in Australian and Swedish school settings. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the brief intervention, which was based on the principles of ACT, on depressive symptomology in the Australian study and stress in the Swedish study. Both studies were conducted with adolescents in real-world conditions in normal school environments. 66 participants were enrolled in the manualized 8-week program in the Australian study, which involved a scheduled comparison, with random allocation for girls and a replication for boys. 32 participants were enrolled in the Swedish study which was 6-weeks, due to the shorter school terms, and was a randomized controlled design. The Australian study focused on the effectiveness of an ACT-intervention based on the fundamental variable of depression and associated symptoms, whereas the Swedish study concentrated on the effectiveness of an ACT-intervention on self-perceived stress and related symptoms. Limitations of the study included the lack of long-term follow-up to confirm the results; the relatively small sample size and limited age-range and gender variability, which consequently made it challenging to generalise results; and all participants were volunteers. It should additionally be acknowledged that the data was all self-reported questionnaires, thus the authors suggest future research should include further objective measures, such as attendance at school. The Australian study demonstrated a significant reduction in depressive symptoms and psychological inflexibility for adolescents in comparison to a control group who received standard care. The Swedish study found a significant reduction in levels of stress and anxiety in addition to increased mindfulness skills. Therefore, the authors suggest that the ACT intervention may be beneficial for reducing stress and depressive symptoms in adolescents. The present study contributes to the literature supporting an ACT-intervention in adolescents with mental health issues and emphasises the need for additional prevention programmes. Given that depression, anxiety and stress are common issues among adolescents, future research that compares an ACT intervention to attention control or credible alternatives in effectiveness trials would be of value to this domain of research and provide further support for an ACT intervention.


Wicksell, R., Kanstrup, M., Kemani, M., Holmstrom, L., & Olsson, G. (2015). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for children and adolescents with physical health concerns. Current Opinion in Psychology, 2, 1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.copsyc.2014.12.029


The article provides an overview of the research conducted on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for youth whom have physical concerns such as pain, acquired brain injuries, cystic fibrosis, and sickle cell disease.The authors aimed to identify whether ACT is effective at improving or retaining functioning in youth with physical concerns, and if this is maintained in the presence of longstanding symptoms and associated distress. Papers for this review were either from an ongoing systematic review in regards to ACT and pain, or through complementary searches in PubMed and PsychInfo. Measures of outcome and process variables of children included Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAWQ) and the psychological Inflexibility in Pain Scale. Measures to assess parental processes included the Parent Psychological Flexibility Questionnaire (PPFQ) and the adapted parent version of CPAQ. The paper focuses on the treatment effects of ACT in developing guidelines to match specific interventions to individuals, maximising their effectiveness. The main limitation was the minimal studies that have been conducted regarding ACT in youth with physical concerns. Additionally, majority of the studies conducted involved individuals suffering from chronic undefined pain and the methodological quality largely varied. Thus no conclusions could be drawn concerning how ACT works and for whom.In conclusion, ACT appears to be promising in the treatment of youths with physical concerns and ACT-oriented interventions may enhance the effects of medical interventions. However, it is emphasised that more research is required to evaluate ACT. This paper is valuable in determining the utility of an ACT approach in the treatment of a specific population and therefore provides beneficial supplementary information for the research of ACT.

Swain, J., Hancock, K., Dixon, A., & Bowman, J. (2015). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for children: A systematic review of intervention studies. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 4(2), 73-85. doi:10.1016/j.jcbs.2015.02.001

A systematic review was completed by Swain, Hancock, Dixon and Bowman (2015) examining published and unpublished research regarding Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) interventions for children. With the increasing number of available studies, the aim of this systematic review was to examine the evidence for ACT in the treatment of children and produce support for future evidence-based clinical decision-making in this domain. Furthermore, the authors intended to deliver an integrated synthesis of the literature by including an analysis of the findings and an evaluation of the methodological accuracy of included studies. The authors utilised an extensive inclusion criteria in order to maximise review breadth. Quality assessment was administered using the 22-item “Psychotherapy outcome study methodology rating form” (POMRF), which has been recognised as a critical step in progressing the field (Gaudiano, 2009). POMRF measures methodological items such as research design and therapist training, and assigns each study an overall score between 0 and 44 with higher scores demonstrating greater methodological rigour. The prevalence of research focused on quality of life outcomes, symptoms, and psychological flexibility on measures reported by parents, clinicians and patients. The research also concerned the maintenance of the treatment gains at a follow-up assessment after the commencement of the treatment. The authors acknowledge that limitations of the intervention studies may include author bias, which cannot be ruled out due to the majority of the studies being administered by a group of affiliated researchers. This is also associated with therapist allegiance and experience and skill, which both inadvertently may result in study outcomes being distorted by preferences towards a treatment or theory, and treatment gains related to the experience of the therapist (Luborsky, Singer, & Luborsky, 1975). Another limitation is the lack of measurement in quality of life (QOL) outcomes, which has been suggested to reflect the clinical significance of changes and effectiveness of ACT. The review concludes that the emerging evidence indicates ACT is effective in the treatment of children across an extensive range of issues. However, the authors emphasise the need of larger scale methodological trials from an extensive research group, research on various age groups, and ACT treatment delivered through group or family-based formats to further strengthen these findings. This review provides evidence that for clinicians ACT may be regarded as a feasible therapeutic option when working with children. Furthermore,  it is proposed that ACT may be used with individuals with intellectual disabilities, such as autism.

Leoni, M., Corti, S., Cavagnola, R., Healy, O., & Noone, S. (2016). How Acceptance and Commitment Therapy changed the perspective on support provision for staff working with intellectual disability. Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, 10(1), 59-73. doi: 10.1108/AMHID-09-2015-0046

The authors acknowledge that a career in mental health can be emotionally and psychologically demanding increasing the risk of burnouts and psychological distress, however, it is acknowledged that such a profession can also be rewarding and satisfying. The article examines the effects of interventions for professionals working with individuals with intellectual disabilities, with a particular focus on the efficacy of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) training. The paper aims to develop and facilitate an improved understanding of distressing processes, and methods to implement positive resources to promote well-being. Appropriate theoretical models and literature associated with stress reduction were examined from a Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) approach with a specific focus on ACT. The paper focused on the wellbeing and behaviour of professionals whom support individuals with intellectual disabilities, in addition to ACT and various third wave generation behavioural approaches. The paper acknowledges limitations including when staff behaviour becomes controlled by cognitions, thus it is difficult to develop a reliable measure to access these thoughts and the level of fusion. Additionally, small sample sizes in the interventions and a need to increase replication studies to investigate the impact of ACT on specific intellectual disability settings (i.e. gender, age, type and frequency of therapy) are noted. Furthermore, it is acknowledged that it may be challenging to state exactly whether changes in stress levels are a result of exclusively ACT or a combination of ACT and ABA training, as ACT training contains elements of ABA (Bethay, Wilson, Schnetzer, & Nassar, 2013). The research provides evidence that ACT-based interventions appear promising in improving the well-being of professionals working with intellectual disabilities in addition to reducing the risk of burnout and increasing psychological flexibility. Brief ACT workshops were also confirmed to be efficient in reducing occupational stress and increase feelings of efficacy.This research is of value as it provides evidence that the implementation of ACT interventions can be effective and beneficial for both staff and the individuals with intellectual disabilities that they support.

Villatte, JL., Vilardaga, R., Villatte, M., Vilardaga, JC., Atkins, DC., & Hayes, SC. (2016). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy modules: Differential impact on treatment processes and outcomes. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 77, 52-61. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2015.12.001

The authors emphasise the impact of selecting and implementing components of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), a promising candidate for modularization. ACT open consists primarily of procedures focusing on the acceptance and cognitive defusion processes of the psychological flexibility model, which aim to decrease the occurrence of detrimental responses to cognitions, sensations and feelings. ACT engaged consists of procedures which identify the values and action processes of the psychological flexibility model and intends to increase motivation and meaningful behaviour. The study aims to investigate the functional relationships between ACT intervention components, processes, and results which consequently will aid in the development of a modular, transdiagnostic treatment specifically for the adult population. 15 adults who met the inclusion criteria, which involved meeting clinical case status on the Brief symptom Inventory and being aged 18 years or over, were included in the study. 7 participants were allocated to ACT open and 8 participants allocated to ACT engaged. The results of the treatment measures were based on the severity of psychological symptoms and the quality of life. The study focused on evaluating the specific effects of each ACT component (ACT open and ACT engaged) on the treatment process and outcomes when employed in clinical service settings. A limitation identified included the small sample size (N=15), which indicates that the study should be replicated in a larger sample across various therapists, treatment settings, and participants. Both ACT open and ACT engaged established broad symptom improvements; increases in quality of life; high treatment acceptability and completion rates; and satisfaction from participants. Treatment effects were also maintained at a 3-month follow up. Therefore, it is suggested that ACT components could be included in a modular method to completing evidence-based psychosocial interventions for the adult population. The results of the study are of value at a clinical and community level as they highlight the differences of implementation in both components of the ACT intervention and show the effectiveness of the ACT process with adults seeking mental health treatment.

Ong, C., Lee, E., & Twohig, M. (2018). A meta-analysis of dropout rates in acceptance and commitment therapy. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 104, 14-33. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.02.004

The article looks at the overall acceptability of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and how it measures to that of other empirically supported treatments. The authors administered a meta-analysis to investigate the rate of individuals that drop out of ACT interventions. The aims of the study involved examining dropout rates in ACT across a wide variety of psychological and behavioural issues, comparing dropout rates in ACT to those in other psychological interventions, and determining moderators, such as client characteristics and therapy variables, of dropout in ACT. For studies to be included in the meta-analysis, which was conducted following the PRISMA guidelines, they had to meet a specific criteria including: random assignment to treatment condition; inclusion of at least one comparison condition; participants having a psychological diagnosis, behavioural issue, or physical diagnosis; therapy being conducted face-to-face; in line with the ACT protocol; and be published in English. The authors used the Psychotherapy Outcome Study Methodology Rating Scale to analyse results from 68 studies. The review focused on the dropout rate, which is a crucial aspect of treatment utility, of clients who participate in ACT. As the meta-analysis solely focused on randomized controlled trials, the generalizability of the results to other settings was consequently limited. Due to insufficient data the authors acknowledge that analyses regarding moderating variables, that may be associated to dropout, were unable to be conducted. Additionally, dropout rates based on overall attrition were only investigated as a result of the limited data and may be higher than reported. The studies involved did not use the same scales to analyse the data which complicates the analysis of results. In addition to comparable effectiveness of ACT to other treatment, ACT demonstrates comparable dropout rates. Higher-level clinicians/therapists were associated with increased dropout rates in addition to “therapist experience” being identified as a factor that can significantly influence dropout rates. This study reveals that there is no significant differences in dropout rates in regard to ACT and other interventions, therefore ACT has the ability to be effective for a range of psychological and behavioural health concerns. However, it should be acknowledged that studies which resulted in high dropout rates may not have been published and therefore results of this meta-analysis may be skewed.

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Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) is a newer psychotherapy that has produced plenty of clinical and research interest and increased in popularity in recent years. After investigating research regarding the behaviourally based and broadly applicable model, it can be concluded that ACT is successful in treating a vast variety of psychological problems, such as depression and anxiety, psychopathology, and physical health concerns. Additionally, although ACT was originally developed in the domain of clinical psychology, ACT has demonstrated potential in aiding individuals’ health behaviour change. A dominant finding in the reviewed articles was that interventions based on ACT have demonstrated significant improvements in differing populations in regard to the levels of depression and psychological flexibility. The core principles and processes of ACT have been identified as being applicable in individuals who do not have psychological or physical impairments themselves but are tending to individuals with a range of issues, such as physical concerns and intellectual disabilities. ACT has been found to mitigate psychological distress and reduce levels of depression in these caregivers. Furthermore, there is an abundance of research which have demonstrated that ACT is a feasible and effective treatment option in many populations even when compared to other empirically supported and established therapies such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). It was acknowledge that evidence does not exist for ACT to be used above CBT, however, both treatments were found equally effective in treating anxiety in the population of children.

The articles reviewed did not provide any contradictory research results.

The results of the review suggests that the ACT model can have a positive impact and cause significant improvements on individuals when applied by trained professionals. This can be associated to long-term implications involving client satisfaction and precision in client-therapist communication. It is also to be acknowledged that the review found clinical expertise to be associated with improved outcomes of ACT. Furthermore, the research indicated that due to the focus that ACT has regarding acceptance, self, and emotions the model is attractive to many nonbehaviorual and skilled clinicians, suggesting that the limited number of concepts of ACT can still have a board clinical appeal (Strosahl, Hayes, Bergan, & Romano, 1998). Some of the outcomes identified went beyond alterations in symptoms to outcomes of major systems importance, such as the interest from government and care organisations regarding the brief time period which has an evident impact on cost effectiveness in health care delivery systems. Another implication was that the sample sizes for previous studies has been small and populations diverse, thus conclusions need to be taken with caution. In one particular study the participants resided in the identical school area which limited the generalizability of the results. Most of the studies, which seem to support many critical aspects of ACT, represent smaller pilot studies with methodological limitations.

Although research involving randomized clinical trials and controlled time series investigating ACT is growing, for ACT to continue to advance in the future and to clarify the efficacy of its research some issues need to be addressed (Strosahl et al., 1998). Most studies of ACT thus far have been conducted with the adult population, therefore the results of its effectiveness when applied to adolescents and children is restricted. It would be valuable for ACT to be applied in a diverse population in order to investigate its promising trans-diagnostic and robust effects. Furthermore, increasing efforts are required to replicate previous findings utilising independent and larger samples, this is important when examining the robustness of the preliminary effects previously reported. Additional research involving controlled experimental studies which examine processes crucial in ACT, such as self and values, will aid to supplement and further support the results from larger efficacy trials (Gaudiano, 2011). It has been proposed that traditional symptom measures may be unsuccessful in identifying hypothesised ACT-specific change processes and influence null results. Future research in regard to developing more reliable and valid measures for processes and outcomes in ACT is recommended. Additionally, including more objective, behavioural task-based measure will aid self-reported measures.

The articles reviewed demonstrated that ACT interventions were successful in treating individuals with physical health concerns and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in addition to individuals that aided in their care. It has been proposed that 33% of adults with an ASD diagnosis additionally have a physical disability, however, there is limited research on ACT in the comorbidity of physical health concerns and ASD (Rydezewska et al., 2018). Due to the high comorbidity it would be of benefit for future research into an effective intervention to treat this population.


Bethay, S., Wilson, KG., Schnetzer, L., & Nassar, S. (2013). A controlled pilot evaluation of Acceptance and Commitment Training for intellectual disability staff. Mindfulness, 4(2), 113-121. doi: 10.1007/s12671-012-0103-8

Blackledge, J., & Hayes, S. (2006). Using Acceptance and Commitment Training in the Support of Parents of Children diagnosed with Autism. Child and Family Behavior Therapy, 28(1), 1-18. doi: 10.1300/J019v28n01_01

Breslau, N., & Davis, GC. (1986). Chronic stress and major depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43(4), 309-314. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.1986.01800040015003

Calear, AL., & Christensen, H. (2010). Systematic review of school-based prevention and early intervention programs for depression. Journal of Adolescence, 33(3), 429-438. doi: 10.1016/j.adoles cence.2009.07.004

Gaudiano, BA. (2009). Ost’s (2008) methodological comparison of clinical trials of acceptance and commitment therapy versus cognitive behavior therapy: Matching apples with oranges? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47(12), 1066-1070. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2009.07.020

Gaudiano, B. (2011). A review of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and recommendations for continued scientific advancement. The Scientific Review of Mental Health Practice, 8(2), 2-22.

Halliburton, A., & Cooper, L. (2015). Applications and adaptations of Acceptance and Commitment therapy (ACT) for adolescents. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 4(1), 1-11. doi: 10.1016/j.jcbs.2015.01.002

Leoni, M., Corti, S., Cavagnola, R., Healy, O., & Noone, S. (2016). How Acceptance and Commitment Therapy changed the perspective on support provision for staff working with intellectual disability. Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, 10(1), 59-73. doi: 10.1108/AMHID-09-2015-0046

Livheim, F., Hayes, L., Ghaderi, A., Magnusdottir, T., Hogfeldt, A., Rowse, J., … Tengstrom, A. (2015). The effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for adolescent mental health: Swedish and Australian pilot outcomes. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(4), 1016-1030. doi: 10.1007/s10826-014-9912-9

Luborsky, L., Singer, B., & Luborsky, L. (1975). Comparative studies of psychotherapies. Is it true that “everywon has one and all must have prizes”? Archives of General Psychiatry, 32(8), 995-1008. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1975.01760260059004

Murrell, A., & Scherbarth, A. (2011). State of the research & literature address: ACT with children, adolescents and parents. The International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy, 7(1), 15-22. doi: 10.1037/h0101005

Ong, C., Lee, E., & Twohig, M. (2018). A meta-analysis of dropout rates in acceptance and commitment therapy. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 104, 14-33. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2018.02.004

Pahnke, J., Lundgren, T., Hursti, T., & Hirvikoski, T. (2014). Outcomes of an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy-based skills training group for students with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder: A quasi-experimental pilot study. Autism, 18(8), 953-964. doi: 10.1177/1362361313501091

Rydzewska, E., Hughes-McCormack, LA., Gillberg, C., Henderson, A., MacIntyre, C., Rintoul J., & Cooper, SA. (2018). Prevalence of long-term health conditions in adults with autism: observational study of a whole country population. BMJ Open, 8(8), 1-11. doi: 10.1136/ bmjopen-2018-023945

Strosahl, K., Hayes, S., Bergan, J., & Romano, P. (1998). Assessing the field effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: An example of the manipulated training research method. Behavior Therapy, 29(1), 35-64. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7894(98)80017-8

Swain, J., Hancock, K., Dixon, A., Koo, S., & Bowan, J. (2013). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for anxious children and adolescents: Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials, 14(140),  1-12. doi:  10.1186/1745-6215-14-140.

Swain, J., Hancock, K., Dixon, A., & Bowman, J. (2015). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for children: A systematic review of intervention studies. Journal of Contextual Behavioral Science, 4(2), 73-85. doi: 10.1016/j.jcbs.2015.02.001

Swain, J., Hancock, K., Hainsworth, C., & Bowman, J. (2013). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in the treatment of anxiety: A systematic review. Clinical Psychology Review, 33(8), 965-978. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2013.07.002

Villatte, JL., Vilardaga, R., Villatte, M., Vilardaga, JC., Atkins, DC., & Hayes, SC. (2016). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy modules: Differential impact on treatment processes and outcomes. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 77, 52-61. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2015.12.001

Wicksell, R., Kanstrup, M., Kemani, M., Holmstrom, L., & Olsson, G. (2015). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for children and adolescents with physical health concerns. Current Opinion in Psychology, 2, 1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.copsyc.2014.12.029



Evaluation of Data Protection Act in Childcare

1.) Choose and evaluate four of the 8 Data Protection Act principles, providing examples of how these would be implemented in a child care setting.
The importance of confidentiality and Data Protection for home based childcare When working in a childcare setting it is often inevitable to come across confidential information about children and families you are working with. Confidential information is personal information, which should not be shared with unauthorized person or organizations. It also means a child minder should never discuss a child with a friend or other parents. Most common information held by childcare practitioner are name, address, phone number, birth date, record of parent(s)’ and/or emergency contact details, the contact details of the child’s GP. All these information is to be kept confidential as individual have the right to keep information of this type private. The purpose of the Data protection Act 1998 is to regulate the use of personal information by business and organizations. In a childcare setting, childcare providers such as child minders will need to comply with the Act as they are often required to deal with and keep a large amount of information on each child. Therefore passing information to a third party without the parents consent is illegal. A court can prevent the disclosure of confidential information by injunction and where appreciate, award damages if unlawful disclosure has been made It is important to comply with the Data Protection principle when keeping children’s personal information that is covered by the act.

Personal data shall be obtained only for one or more specified and lawful purposes, and shall not be further processed in any manner incompatible with that purpose or those purposes.

A child care provider should be specific about the reasons for requiring the information to be gathered, and what they are going to use it for. If, after collecting the data, it is decided to use the information for another purpose, consideration should be given as to whether this is fair to the individual. If you wish to use data for an additional purpose, further consent should be obtained from the individual and securely held. Good.

Personal data shall be accurate and, where necessary, kept up to date.

The fourth principle is concerned with the accuracy of information that is held. In everyday business practice this is something which is not always easy to guarantee. However, the Act makes provision for this and asks employers to ensure that data is “reasonably” accurate. How could child carers ensure that their information remains accurate and up-to-date?

Personal data processed for any purpose or purposes shall not be kept for longer than is necessary for that purpose or those purposes.

This principle contains commonly asked guidance as to how long data should be kept for before it is destroyed. The Act is not specific about the length of time data should be held for, but gives guidance on good practice so that organizations are better informed to write their own policies.

Appropriate technical and organizational measures shall be taken against unauthorized or unlawful processing of personal data and against accidental loss or destruction of, or damage to, personal data.

The types of data security used will vary depending on the size of the organization and the number of individuals that information is held on. Information security is concerned with the prevention of data being disclosed to those who may use it for illegal purposes. For example, fraud, identity theft and those working for organizations that could be at risk of harm by information being divulged. The Act requires that appropriate security measures are installed which are sufficient for the information that is being stored. What security measures can the child care setting take to prevent unauthorised processing of data?
2.) Evaluate the need for accurate, legible and up-to-date record keeping, and identify the consequences of non-compliance.
It is important to keep records which are up to date to provide accurate, current, comprehensive and concise information concerning the condition and the care required for all individuals. All records which are produced weather written or electronic must be signed and dated; they must also be stored correctly in accordance with that data protection act 1998(The Data Protection Act 1998 (DPA) is a United Kingdom Act of Parliament which defines UK law on the processing of data on identifiable living people. It is the main piece of legislation that governs the protection of personal data in the UK. Although the Act itself does not mention privacy, it was enacted to bring UK law into line with the EU data protection directive of 1995 which required Member States to protect people’s fundamental rights and freedoms and in particular their right to privacy with respect to the processing of personal data.) It is vital that records are kept up to date, as this ensures that the individual’s needs are being met, and may also help to reduce the likelihood of abuse; up-to-date is particularly important with regard to medication changes, food requirements and particular needs that a child may have,. In addition, up to date contact information is highly important. There is nothing worse than contacting a parent in an emergency and realizing that the mobile number on the child’s information form is an old one.

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Practitioners must make sure they record information clearly, accurately and up to date. The parents should have a free access to their children files; information should not be kept for longer than necessarily and always stored in a secure place. Every setting should have policies and procedures about how to record and store information which meet Ofsted requirements and are according with the government law Data Protection Act 1998. The policies should include information about different ways when comes to record information such observations, risk assessment, incidents, medical information about the child or special diet requirements, concerns or information about the child progress, record of any meetings or conversations with the parents and other professionals. Keeping records of every work it’s an essential part of a job when working with children.
When recording information practitioner must: – consult with the manager if he is unsure – check any spelling errors – when using a computer , store them in a place where nobody else have access to. – keep the information clear, short and as accurate as possible so the other member can carry on if the key person is absent – avoid using children’s names and pictures to maintain confidentiality – when writing in observation sheet the record must show that the child’s needs has been met and identified – in case of any concerns about the child practitioner must contact the manager first before making any notes – some information needs to be recorded in a specific format or using specific templates according to Common Assessment Framework – information which are stored on the computer must have the encryption software which design to encrypt computer data in a way that it cannot be recovered without access to the key.
Your whole answer for this question has been taken from the above website. This is plagiarism as you are submitting another persons work as your own. You need to write your answers in your own words to demonstrate your understanding of the subject. If you wish to reference, you should include short quotations that support the points that you have made. You cannot include full answers as a reference.
3.) Explain the different ways of recording digital and paper records in the child care setting.

Digital data- Digital data can be slightly more temperamental than paper records, due to the sometimes unpredictable nature of information technology. When recording data on a computer, it is necessary to ensure that adequate and reliable methods of backing up the data are employed so that if the computer malfunctions or becomes damaged, the files can be safely retrieved onto another system. For a home child care provider, the easiest way of backing up data is to use a portable hard drive which can be plugged in to the computer and data saved onto it, it should be stored in a safe place, which is preferably locked, as it will contain confidential information. It is good practice to take a regular (weekly) back up, so that a situation of data loss occurring is minimized.

The data that is stored on the computer should be protected by a password. When you switch a computer on, the settings allow for a desktop password to be employed. This should be used so that if the laptop is ever stolen, the data contained within it will be safe.

Paper storage- Paper records are generally more accessible, and so should be stored safely and securely depending of the type of information that is recorded.

For example, child records and information relating to medication and special requirements may need to be easily accessible. However, financial information, particularly in a larger setting where staff may be employed, will need to be filed away in a locked cupboard or cabinet.
4.) Identify the primary types of data storage for digital and paper records, and evaluate the best option for a home childcare setting.

Computer software- The advantages of using accounting software is that many reports are already written into the software that are required to be submitted to HMRC for tax purposes, which can cut down the amount of work when processing the end of year accounts. However, a disadvantage is that sometimes pre-designed accounting software does not give users the degree of flexibility that is required to design their own reports, and can sometimes prove time consuming and complex.

As a child care provider, as previously discussed, it will be necessary to undergo regular that are pertinent to the business, and not personal financial records.

Manual Records- it is perfectly possible to run a home child care, or larger child care setting, by using a manual accounting system. There are many excellent accounting books available to purchase, especially those through the National Child Minding Association which provides a range of stationery and accounting equipment for home child care providers.

For me the perfect type of data storage to run a home child care setting is the Manual records because If updated regularly, manual records are just as useful for preparing end-of-year accounts, but they do not have the flexibility to construct individual reports; for example, a list of expenses month-by-month, or a list of annual income. This will need to be added separately. And not only school expenses or accounting department but also for all the records of the children all throughout the year, some documents need to be signed by the parents and the child carer so it is ideal to have the manual records.
Data protection act 1998-  

Right to Information Act, 2005


The knowledge and the freedom of information are playing an important role in the society for the advancement. For a country like India, which is one of the biggest democracy in the world it is necessary to provide accountability and transparency in the governance. To achieve this there should be freedom of information to the citizens of the country and this as a right. It is the responsibility of the state. So, in the Indian constitution under the fundamental rights article 19 talks about protection of certain rights of all citizens. And article 19 (1) (a) talks about freedom of speech and expression. It is meaningless unless until it provide the access to get information. So, under this article the right to information emerged to facilitate the access to the information. Even though it is recognized as fundamental right we need a process through which we can exercise this there created a necessity for an act to come. As a result, The Right To Information Act came to exist in 2005 in India.

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Various countries in the world have already been practicing this Act with different names for many years. This act is referred to as Freedom of Press Act in Sweden, in USA and UK this act is called Freedom of Information Act, in South Africa it is Promotion of Access to Info Act, in New Zealand it is Official Information Act, in Pakistan it is called Right to Information Act. 90 countries in the World have been practicing this Act.
Before this act was passed in the center different states of India have also been practicing this act. Tamil Nadu and Goa has been practicing this Act since 1997 and Rajasthan and Karnataka have been practicing since 2000. Delhi since 2001 and Maharashtra and Assam enacted this since 2002.
Actual journey of the Right to Information Act in India has started in 1923 through the Official Secret Act. Later in early 1990s it again gained some importance and in the year 2005 after repetitive petitions the RTI Act was passed.
This Act was enacted by the permission and the authority of the President of India. In the Parliament, it was enacted in June, 2005. This Act is applicable to all the states in the country but not to Jammu and Kashmir. This Act main objective is to facilitate the access to get information to citizens of the country in a secure way and by this to encourage accountability and transparency in governance. Here the information seek by the citizens is may be in any form. It may be physical form like records, papers, documents, etc or it may be in digital form like e-mails or in any electronic form.
There are some exceptions to reveal the information in this Act also. Information that cannot have access to reveal is information related to sovereignty and integrity of India, information prevented by Courts, Cabinet papers, information related to issues under investigation, trade secrets, intellectual property, information related to fiduciary relationship. In Indian constitution, article 19 (2) talks about this.
If anyone wants to get some information he/she has send a request to public authority with whatever the fees applicable. They can send their request by writing it on paper, letter or even by electronic media also. They have to mention the full address of the public authority.
After receiving the request by the Public Information Officer (PIO) he has to check whether the seeking information is allowed or not. If it is allowed then the PIO will send that information within 30 days. Otherwise it may reject due to some reasons like security, copyright, commercials, etc. If the person, who requested do not get the requested information or proper response from the public authority within 30 calendar days, the person has a chance to give a complaint either to Information Commission or to first appellate authority. This type of complaints can give due to various reasons like late response, demand of cost of information that is not at all reasonable.
For the first appeal, the applicant has to application fee along with his/her application. There is no fee when one appeals to Central Government offices. The officer senior to Public Information Officer is called first appellate authority. After one’s appeal reached to this appellate authority they will ask an explanation from PIO. They might invite the person to hear. They will pass a reasonable order within 30-45 days. If the person is not satisfied then also he /she can file second appeal either with State Information Commissioner or with Central Information Commissioner, according to the case. There is no such given time limit for getting response at this level. Too many cases are filed up with these offices.
The RTI Act consists of more than 30 sections and its subsections. In order to get response every time, one has to know about all sections and amendments related to this act. Here are the some important sections of this act
Section 3 tells that all citizens have the right.
Section 4 tells about proactive disclosures by authorities.
Section 6 deals with the request for obtaining information.
Section 7 tells about how a person request will be treated.
Section 8 tells about exemptions.
Section 19 (1): First appeal
Section 19 (3): Second appeal
Section 20: Penalties and Disciplinary actions.
This act has been utilized by the people to get information and acted as a tool for judicial approachability wherein the effectiveness may vary from state to state. It has always stood as the authentic means to get information in a formal way in various sectors from education to land. This has also disclosed the regularities to inefficiencies.
An empirical evidence for RTI success is the RTI filed by Activist Anil Galgali for Reliance Infra regarding meter connection details. Initially, he was denied information that it was for the public authority, later he complained to the State Information Commission of Maharashtra for deny of information. Due to intervention taken by SIC even the case moved to Bombay High Court, stay was given by Bombay HC on the decision of SIC Maharashtra.
RTI has played a vital role and have attained success in various cases such as monitoring of attendance of village in UP school teachers, payment of pension dues from railways, corruption in the master of role in the employment guarantee schemes. RTI also gives the privilege of filing a case irrespective of age which was utilize by an 9 year old student to monitor over the over-speeding of vehicles.
Though the Central Information Commission as the power to penalize the politicians does not provide information about their assets and liabilities within stipulated prescribed time but until now this provision is not often used.
Our former Prime Minister had stated that even though the RTI Act had been working good there were few concerns regarding public servants expressions. Aruna Roy had criticized the former Prime Ministers view saying the Government has always been inefficient.
RTI has also resulted in violence like threatening and in some cases it has also costed lives about 250. The most famous killings were of Satish Shetty from Pune who exposed the land scam, Lalit kumar Mehta for exposing corruption in MGNREGA, and Shela Masood being shot dead at Bhopal.
Though the RTI was brought with a noble intention, it is also misuse by pseudo activist where they tend to get an incentive by blackmailing the people wherein it is further leading to ill practices in the society.
The RTI has brought a sort of monitory and accountability to check the irregularities and inefficiencies in the government. The awareness regarding RTI is low in terms of how to apply, initiation, and some feel that the government is not towards the positive approach of it. The long urge of RTI activists were addressed through Whistle Blowers Protection Act in 2014 wherein it gives power to complainant to make complaint to Competent Authority.
For making RTI Act more feasible it has to adopt a type of single window clearance system through appointment of officers and staff for making the process and getting information quickly. Further, the government should show keen interest to protect the interest of whistle blowers and activists.
RTI can be seen as an ultimate tool for the public to make informed choices that would help to re-imagine future and build a better society.

Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act 1986


Many of the countries are believed children are big resources of their country in the context of well being and development. According to the eminent person Herbert Hoover, 31st president of United States said that “children are our most valuable resources”. Therefore, government of the each country start many programs and laws for protecting children from various conditions. I would like to explore the topic about “Child labour (prohibition and regulation) act” in the year of 1986. Along with why government look into this act and provisions, what are the significant impacts of child labour by this act? These would be explained in the following paragraphs.

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First and foremost, what are the reasons behind causes of child labour, Child labour is socio-economic phenomenon. This phenomenon is trapped in vicious circle by poverty, illiteracy, unemployment, demographic expansion, deep social prejudices and above all the government interest are commonly consider as the most prominent causative factors for large scale employment children. It has been officially started that “child labour no longer of economic exploitation but it necessitated by economic necessity of the parents and many cases that of the chid himself”. Moreover, there are several causes which have failed to check out child labour. Particularly in India the causes of failure are poverty, low wage of the adult, unemployment, migration to urban areas, large families, lack of subsistence income and children ignorance by parents these are incentives to the children comprises in the activities.
In order to tackle this problem government has initiated some acts before enacted this act that are

Merchant Shipping Act, 1951
Mines Act, 1952
Motor Transport Workers Act, 1961
Beedi and Cigar Workers Act, 1966

Due to improper implementation of existing acts and the lack media coverage these acts sufficiently not benefited to children. That is why; government has taken step to reduce child labour in the field of formal and informal sector. At that time act was come out that is child labour (prohibition and regulation) in the year 1986. In addition, Indian constitution provides many provisions to the child, prohibited child labour and it also mention the rights of the child. They are,
Article 23: prohibition of employment children from factories
Article 39: certain principles of policy to be followed by state that are referring to the secure of children that the health and strength of workers, men and women and the tender age of age children are not abused and that citizens are not forced by economic necessity to enter evacuation and unsuited their age and strength.
Article 45: provision for early childhood care and education to the children below the age of six years.
Article 21-A: right education the state shall provide free and compulsory education to all children age of six to 14 year.
Even though, children were exploited by the factories and small scale industries. Therefore, the government of India enacted that was “child labour (protection and prohibition)” in the year 1986. This is an act prohibit the involvement of children in certain employments of hazardous places and to regulate the conditions of doing work for the children in certain other employments of non hazardous nature. Although there are little legislation which prohibit employment of children below 14 years and 15 years in certain specified employments but there is no specified procedure laid down in the legislation for deciding matters relating to employment, occupation are processes which necessities the prohibition children employment therein. At the same time there is no law for regulating the working condition of the children in the most of the employments where employment of children is not explicitly prohibited and the children are working exploitative conditions. Therefore the main intension of this act basically,

which is ban the employment of the children below the age of 14 years in the specified occupation and processes
to lay down for procedure introducing modification to the schedule of banned occupations or processes from time to time whenever need arises
to regulate the condition of the children in employment where they are not prohibited works
to prescribe the enhanced penalties employment for children if they are violation by the employers and management
as per the child labour(prohibition and regulation) act 1986 the committee addressed that is “child” means a person who has not completed 14 years old
the act prohibit employment of children in engaging 18 occupations like, transport at passengers and goods or mails by railway, work relating to the at construction and railway works, foundries, handloom and power loom industry, mines and plastic factories, domestic houses and automobile workshops and garages. Similarly, 65 process works for example, beedi making, carpet weaving, manufacture of matches and explosive or fireworks as well different industries, factories, coal mines, manufacture industry above these placed in part A, part B areas. Regarding these works children are prohibited by this act
under the act, “the child labour technical advisory committee” constituted to advice the central government for the purpose of additions of occupations and processes in the schedule parts
the act regulates the condition of all employment in all occupations and processes

The main provisions are, no child shall be permitted to work in any establishment in excess of such number of hours, as may be prescribed for such class of establishment. The period of work each day shall be fixed no time to exceed three hours and that no child should not work more than 3 hours. Moreover, every child employed in an establishment shall be allowed in each week, a holiday or whole day, which day shall be specified by the occupier In a notice, every occupier shall maintain, in respect of children employed or permitted work in any establishment, register should be available for inspection by n inspector at all times during working hours or when work is being carried on there is tendency first, should be noted nm end date of birth of the every child employed to work, hours and periods of work of any such child on the intervals of rest to which is entitled, the nature of work such child, like that related information should be prescribed. In addition, the government made gazette form for chid basis on health and safety on the children employed as well addressed minimum amenities should be provided by the owner at the working places. When the children are working in hazardous places it is found by someone he has right to complaint to the near police station. In addition, consequences of child labour, it is impact children physical and mental growth development as well health disease like, respiratory problem, skin disease, they will become disabled, bone fractured. These are lead to ill development.
Education is very important part of the development. Lack of schooling and engaging family needs daily then, studies have found low enrolment and high children employment, schools are the platforms for the early intervention against child labour. Child labour can be controlled by economic development increasing awareness and making education affordable across all levels, and enforcement of all anti child labour laws.
The government of India has taken certain initiative to control child labour started a program in 9 district that is “ NATIONAL CHILD LABOUR PROJECT (NCLP)” under the schemes funds given to the district collector for running special school for child labour as well under this scheme provides formal and non-formal education, vocational education and spends 100 rupees per month.
In one hand, how this act impacts on children life, primarily, based on this act government has expended this act in 2008. As well as, two acts were came that are “the juvenile justice (care and protection) in 2000, this act made prevent the bondage child labour as well if any one procure the children for domestic and industry works those persons punished by regarding this act. In the year of 2009, government has made act for education to the child that is “Right to education (RTA)” by this act free and compulsory education to all children between six to fourteen years. According to this act government has addressed that 25 percent of seats should be allocate for the disadvantages people. Moreover, between the 1981 to 1991 national sample survey organization conducted 43rd round of surveys it’s convey that the estimates the number of children was to the tune of 17.30 millions. As per the 1991 census, revealed that the number of working children in India was 11.28 million.
This Number gradually decreasing in the following years. Because implementation of labour act by the legislation. The 1998 national census of India estimated the total number of child labour to be at 12.6 million out of total 250 million of child population. This count was reduced to 5 million in the year 2009. The 2011 national census of India found that the national number of child labour , aged five to fourteen to be 4.30 million out of the total 260 child population. By this enumerate we have observed child labour was gradually reducing due to child labour acts as well another government schemes. For example, in the “domestic households” before implementation of act the children are working in restaurant and as a domestic labour more than 20 million than when the government of expanded the child labour prohibition and regulation act and banned the children from domestic works as result of, as per the 2011 census, less than 0.1 million children are engaged as a child labours. In addition, effect of this child labour act 1986, influence on children education and health as well as human development these all are contributed to increasing Indian economy and human development index. This act has impacted on education of children as well it is lead to improve aggregate literacy rate by in the year 1981 total average literacy rate is around 44 percent. This was increased to 52.3percent in the year of 1991, as per the 2011 this literacy rate was increased to 74 percent we observed contribution of provision of act stop to children in work places and push them in to schooling as well according to the 2011 census, children are engaging a fewer in the factories and industry as a result, child death rates were gradually decreased.
On the other hand, loopholes and weakness in the child labour (prohibition and regulation) act 1986, while prohibiting bonded child labours from hazardous industries also allow it to thrive in other forms. A child working in a factory consider hazardous and is not to allowed. But if the child is a part of family labour, he is allowed to work. Hence the act 1986 has a large scope of exploitation of children. If they could be brings under the family-child labour phenomena.
Eventually, poverty is one of the important factors of raising child labour. Hence enforcement alone cannot help solve it. So the government has been laying lot of emphasis rehabilitation of these children and should be improving economic condition of their families. In India many NGO’s working for eradicate child labour like, CARE and CHILD ROGHT TO YOU, government need to boosting these NGO’s, similarly, government need to enforcing right to education in the tribal areas. Moreover, government has to be expanded NCLP schemes to maximized districts. Government should be takes a fore step to domestic child labour and extract laws from other countries and implement in India. As well, Supreme Court shall takes significant steps whether punishment or control for exploitation of articles 23, 24 and 21A. Individually who are educated they should be provide awareness to ST’s, SC’s and below poverty level people about important of child for our country development.
Fuller, R.G., (1994), “Child Labour and Constitution”, Ashish Publishing House, New Delhi, page no.283.
Dewan, V.K.,(2009), “Child labour A Socio-legal Perspective”, pentagon publication, NewDelhi, p.582.
Purushottam kumar,p., (2010,june 25), “Need to look in to Child Labour act 1986”, Lawers Club India website., google.