BBC Adaptation to Convergence

Examine and evaluate how one media organisation has adapted to convergence: BBC.
Across the media, many media organizations have responded and adapted to convergence through welcoming multi-media platforms to help with spreading their content. In this essay I will be discussing how the BBC has adapted to convergence and the outcome of it all.
What is convergence?
Convergence is when different of forms of media platforms come together to make a huge multi-platform to give the ability to distribute content to many people. Convergence has become both technological as well as social, the audiences play such an important role in making sure that content is distributed widely across the different platforms.
The World Wide Web has been one of the most important contributors to the huge phenomenon of media convergence. Over time it has developed so much that is has allowed a huge range of media related platforms such as video, print and audio to be accessible and available from anywhere. The internet has definitely changed a lot about the way that audiences now absorb and access all this information. Moreover, one main aspect of convergence which has become really popular is mobile. It has allowed any information to reach the hands of anyone using a handheld mobile which has internet on it. For example, many companies and organizations such as the BBC and Channel 4 News have started to change the way that they present their content, making sure that they use short and straight to the point headlines which is directed to audiences who are always on the go. This is simply because companies want to make sure that their content is accessible anywhere and at any time to make sure they keep audience satisfaction rates high, as well as making sure that audiences are always up to date with headline news that is happening all over the world.

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However, one thing which has helped things go further is obviously the internet. The internet has allowed the use of visual clips and images to act as the story teller of most of the headlines. Most websites that people visit using their mobiles, the BBC being one of them, they use photographs to tell the story of certain events. The photos usually have a small caption under them to briefly explain the picture, however, the image is the one that does most of the story telling. Photographs are a benefit for audiences who use handheld devices and smart phones because it allows them to see the image clearer and get a feel of what they are going to read about rather than reading through several lines. Also, looking at the videography side, most websites now allow audiences to watch a live stream of the channel. This makes sure that more audiences are able to view the content of the BBC anywhere. The news organizations are not the only ones to take advantage of this, radio stations as well as social networking sites have too.
Another company which uses convergence in this way is YouTube. YouTube is known to be a huge media platform in which people are able to upload videos accessible to millions of people all around the world. The BBC has a channel on YouTube which uploads videos of headline news for people that have missed the live stream and want to watch it again. This is another example of convergence.
Development of multi-media platforms.
In order for the BBC to gain full benefits of adapting to convergence, they have to take the advantage of migrating to multi-media platforms. For example, a famous strategy used by the UK television industry is called (360 degree commissioning). This is simply at the early stage of getting all the content together and making sure that there is a potential consumer value, once this is agreed on, the television industries return all the content to their audiences through a variety of media platforms, for example, mobile, online and so on. Another strategy used by television industries is the simple and basic use of websites and many other digital platforms to help put themselves out there. The main question to ask is if media industries are benefitting from being able to spread their content across various platforms. To dissect this question, it is best to look into the development of convergence and to look at audience feedback after convergence was used by the media industry.
The benefits of convergence and how the BBC have adapted to it.
The clear and obvious benefits of multi-media platforms are simply economic, it helps various companies and organizations in their content being distributed to so many audiences and making sure that the content is consumed across these platforms. Another main benefit is popularity. Organizations depend a lot of multi-platforms to make sure that the name of their company and their credibility is maintained. Considering that so many people now days have smart phones and have easy access to the internet on the go, it is easy for companies to make sure they are recognized through apps, websites etc…
The BBC uses multi-media platforms in the sense that they have apps in mobile phones that people can access so easily, they have made mobile friendly websites as well as making it possible for people to get notifications of any news that has just taken place. This is a great example of how the BBC uses convergence to their advantage. Another way in which the BBC uses convergence is through the huge development of devices such as media players and mobiles. The development of these digital platforms, with the internet being the main principle, it means that it has become so easy for content that the BBC has produced to be circulated and consumed by audiences all over the world. With the growth of social networks such as Twitter and Facebook, this makes it even easier for audiences to access information about the BBC and all the news that is up to date. The BBC have both an official twitter account as well as a Facebook account to make sure they are reached by as many people as possible.
Mass audiences are able to be reached easier by all these big industries through the use of convergence. Through digitization, it has been very easy to reformat content from several media platforms therefore creating a better economic advantage for industries. The creation of multimedia platforms has allowed a great amount of digital distribution, therefore, more audiences can access a variety of content on the internet. This creates a huge knowledgeable platform for industries because people will know who they are simply because they are able to access their content on the go.
An example which shows how the BBC have adapted to convergence is the availability of the BBC iPlayer. The BBC iPlayer is a service that allows audiences to catch up with any content they have missed. The BBC iPlayer was launched and made available to the public in 2007. Since then, it has become very popular and is used a lot by viewers.
Another example of convergence of the BBC is simply television. All the adverts that people see on their TVs’ now days all involve social networking in one way or another. Nearly every industry whether it be news or music, they all have some sort of social networking account in which all their audiences/fans, can keep up with all the industries information or simply content they have missed.
Furthermore, a key example of how the BBC have adapted to convergence in through the creation of their BBC radio station. By introducing BBC radio, the corporation has undoubtedly increased their audiences in terms of numbers, particularly to include those who are unable to view the television live stream because they are always on the move, as well as those from different socio-economic backgrounds (i.e. lower class families.)
Disadvantages of convergence.
Another disadvantage of convergence for companies such as the BBC would be cost-effectiveness. This simply means that providing their services and content through different mediums would incur extra costs for the corporation therefore potentially harming their profit margins.
Many organizations and companies such as the BBC struggle a lot in making any revenue from putting their content on the internet. Considering that many broadband companies have emerged in recent years, it has made it even easier for people to undertake illegal streaming therefore creating a threat to most television companies and their economy. Moreover, the whole idea of being able to access any content from any industry on the internet has made it economically difficult for companies such as the BBC. The internet has made it hard to place payment schemes on mainstream information. Many of these disadvantages have been discussed in Rupert Murdoch’s article about the newspaper industry and how newspaper organizations should start putting payment schemes in order to gain some sort of revenue from their content.
What the BBC could do better.
When discussing convergence and how the BBC adapted to it, there are a few improvements that the BBC could make to maximise their potential ratings. A step that the BBC could prosper to take would be payment schemes. This would allow the organization to charge viewers for a service that gives them the option to watch content that they have already missed through the live stream. In doing this, the BBC as an organization would increase their revenue allowing them to expand and offer further content to audiences. Nonetheless, this is merely a suggestion and one of many paths the BBC could take to exploit the use of convergence.
Conclusion.
Many companies if not most, have thought of going ahead with digitalization initiatives. All industries now have websites and several marketing techniques that do not include social media. Social media is obviously known to be a very important component of any marketing technique, however, digitalization must go further than just social media. Digitalization has changed so fast in such a small period of time that it is believed that in years to come, it will be deemed as a usual strategy to use when thinking about your company. This is critical in order for companies such as the BBC to make sure they are ahead of everyone else and that they are able to learn new things from digitalization. Considering that most things have now become digital, it is clear to see that the world is changing rapidly because of this. It is important for popular companies like the BBC to support the means of digitalization and to accept that it is of a benefit than it is a setback. Saying this, some organizations may feel that the digital scheme may not work for them, therefore it is smart to check the overall capability of it all before applying the strategy. Overall, the BBC has gained more than it has lost through adapting to convergence because the company now has such a huge platform for people to interact and share their content worldwide and make sure they are recognized by many people.
Referencing.

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Sanaz Fallahkhair. (unknown). An architecture for iTV and mobile phone based interactive language.. Media convergence. 1 (1), 1-6.
Robin Foster & Tom Broughton. (2012). PSB prominence in a converged media world. A changing world. 1 (1), 11-19.
Henry Jenkins (2004). The cultural logic of media convergence. 7th ed. London & New Dehli: SAGE Publications. 34-40.
Dwyer, Tim (2010). Media convergence:. United Kingdom: McGraw-Hill education. 24-30.
Julia Knight. (2015). The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies. Convergence. 21 (1), 1.
S Chakaveh. (2007). Media covergence, an introduction. Available: http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-540-73110-8_88. Last accessed 28 Apr 2015.
Christy Belden. (2011). Media convergence: Media and marketing. Available: http://www.slideshare.net/cbelden/media-convergence-7376828. Last accessed 28 Apr 2015.
Mathew Buckland. (2007). Convergence in the media. Available: http://www.slideshare.net/matthewbuckland/media-convergence?related=1. Last accessed 01 May 2015.
Unknown (unknown). Media covergence and the transformed media environment. Australia: unknown. 67-74.
H Jenkins, Convergence Culture: Where Old and New Media Collide (2006), 18­­­–19.

 

Adaptation of Immigrant Adolescents Within the U.S.

Adaptation of Immigrant Adolescents Within the U.S.

Abstract

 This research proposal is designed to answer various insufficiencies present in our understanding of the psychology of the adjustment of immigrant adolescents to the U.S. school ecology. The proposed research is expected to cater to aspects such as the impact that immigration into the U.S. has on students at various academic levels in relation to information concerning the mental well-being of this demographic especially in regards to adjustment. The main emphasis of this research will be the assessment of the behavioral, academic, and emotional adjustment of immigrant adolescents, especially among school-going children. The study will evaluate how these students cope in terms of post-migration stress and whether there is a social support system provided in different settings, such as at school and at home. The contributors of this research will be 200 immigrant students from the elementary, middle, and high school education levels. Elements such as varying levels of social support and of stress are expected to be connected with the aspect of poor adaptation in the new surroundings.

Adaptation of Immigrant Adolescents Within the United States

In the last two decades, the United States has experienced a constant wave of immigrants entering the country. The effects of this immigration have been hotly debated, especially in regards to society and the economy. However, a critical aspect that has been largely greatly understated in this discourse has been the psychological and emotional welfare of immigrant adolescents (Adelman & Taylor, 2015). Despite extensive research being conducted on the acculturation of immigrants in general, little is known concerning the adjustment of these school-going adolescents and the challenges they often encounter. These children are often forced to navigate new cultures that often pose unique health issues and in some cases, significant psychological consequences. The integration of these children into the different communities across the country can also have extreme psychosocial impacts on them. Some studies have sought to quantify how stressful the process of adaptation can be to this demographic (Gualdi-Russo, Toselli, Masotti, Marzouk, & Sundquist, 2014). Stress, in this case, arises from aspects such as exposure to a new culture or language and the abandonment of their familiar social context. This study will seek to determine the extent to which the immigrant adolescents struggle to re-establish themselves within the U.S. During this process; this research will also evaluate how the roles of these adolescents in their families are redefined upon entry into the country. The research has also identified several specific areas in need of examinations such as the processes of adaptation, the disruption of the social networks, the impact of the immigration-related stress on the students and the effects of any perceived discrimination or prejudice. Ultimately, this proposed study will provide a broader perspective on the adaptation and adjustment of immigrant adolescents within the United States and the psychological effects it has on these adolescents.

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An overview of the existing literature on immigrants reveals that a large percentage of immigrant adolescents adapt successfully to the social and cultural environment of the United States (Vang & Eckstein , 2015). However, Gualdi-Russo, et al. (2014) discovered that most of these immigrant adolescents were alienated from their non-immigrant peers and had a lower self-efficacy in terms of their acculturation process. In terms of academics, immigrant students also outperformed their non-immigrant counterparts from the same cultural backgrounds. However, it should be pointed out that this aspect experiences divergence across different socio-cultural boundaries. For example, African immigrants do not show the same accomplishment advantage when compared to other cultural groups (Toppelberg & Collins, 2012). On the other hand, academic achievement usually deteriorates as the immigrants continue to reside within the country. This is mainly because the immigrants who hail from poor minority backgrounds often assimilate to the urban culture of their peers which in most cases is antithetical to the goals of the educational establishments.

Literature Review

Various studies concerning the issue of adaptation of immigrants have highlighted potential antecedents that influence the adjustment of the students to the new surroundings. These include mental health, family, coping mechanisms, and contextual factors, among others (Perreira & Ornelas, 2011). However, there are also other influences that are integral to the acculturation of the immigrant students such as the socio-economic status, language difficulties, ethnic and racial prejudice, family and societal expectations, peer values, student-parent conflict, the students’ age, and the stress that results from the immigration process and loss of established social relationships (Guarnaccia & Lopes, 1998). However, the researchers also affirm that most of the current data on the adaptation process of immigrants is inconclusive and insufficient. This aspect explains why recent research has adopted a positivist approach to the adaptation of the immigrants and as a result, has yielded significant information about the risks associated with this experience. For example, aspects such as the bicultural competence which is the ability of the students to function in both the family and school contexts have emerged as a result of the conflict that arises within these cultures.

However, ethnographic research on the issue has revealed substantial variations in terms of the circumstances of the immigrant students and their families (Toppelberg & Collins, 2012). The studies have illustrated several psychosocial and educational obstacles and issues that emerge from the process of adaptation. As Schachner (2017) points out, immigrant adolescents often face a variety of exceptional circumstances, especially in relation to their educational needs. Additionally, some of the challenges that are brought about by the aspect of poverty include high residential mobility which affects the students’ ability to cope with the emotional stresses associated with the new institutional environment and their social norms. Therefore, as a result of an inadequate social support system, the process of adaptation often affects the immigrants’ psychological well-being. The psychosocial and educational challenges that arise due to these factors are undoubtedly interconnected and complex.

In the recent past, efforts by various sectors of the society provide interventions that can help support the immigrant population in terms of adjustment which have been crucial to their adaptation to the new environment in the U.S. (Adelman & Taylor, 2015) However, a further analysis of the causal factors that affect the well-being of the immigrant adolescents need to be discovered. The widespread research that has been conducted on this issue has acknowledged the presence of differing perspectives that seek to explain the adjustment outcomes experienced by this demographic. However, recent studies have gone further and incorporated research from countries across Europe and as a result have provided specific acculturative practices that influence the psychological adjustment process (Dimitrova, Chasiotis, & Van de Vijver, 2016). This process has been beneficial to bridging the gaps present and in turn improved our understanding of the different societal contexts involved.

Mental Health

In comparison to the consideration accorded to academic issues, there are few researchers that have assessed the effect of migration on the mental development of the immigrants (Rudmin & Kwak, 2014). As a result, recent studies have begun to address the mental health and psychological adjustment of the immigrant adolescents arguing that such aspects are just as essential as educational-related interventions (Dimitrova, Chasiotis, & Van de Vijver, 2016). Moreover, according to Portes and Rivas (2011), the psychological risks that are posed by the conflict-ridden and unstable environments present in the immigrant students’ background are often intensified by the inability to adjust to their new surroundings. As a result, various mental health conditions such as anxiety, depression, and other psychosomatic disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder often arise due to the complicated transition process associated with immigration.

Ample evidence has shown that youths are at a greater risk of exhibiting symptoms associated with psychological stress (Gualdi-Russo, Toselli, Masotti, Marzouk, & Sundquist, 2014). The school environment has specifically been highlighted as a source of stress from the immigrant students, especially those that come from minority cultures. According to Schachner (2017), the differences present between the school environment and the family ecology of the minority children are likely to result in the development of stress. This is because minority children have a higher likelihood of experiencing a discontinuity in the different social contexts of development. Consequently, these students often are unable to develop a shared comradery within the academic setting, which is integral for their educational success. Persistent and excessive stress within the school environment can also have severe consequences for the immigrant children’s adjustment into the new culture. Adelman and Taylor (2015) suggested that their existing different ethnic coping strategies that are adopted by immigrant students deal with academic-related stress. These coping mechanisms often isolate this demographic from the support systems present in the school and reduce their ability to connect to this environment.

Coping Mechanisms

Adelman and Taylor (2015) have argued for the adoption of a positivist approach in the assessment of the immigrants, especially when it comes to the coping mechanisms associated with adaptation. The research should, therefore, focus less on the dysfunctionality of the students and examine how this migration process can result in the students adopting a new repertoire of coping skills. These coping mechanisms often broaden the opportunities of the students and also enable the realization of new skills and world views (Vang & Eckstein , 2015). Various studies have acknowledged that immigrant students often possess a rejuvenated form of resilience that improves or sustains their ability to adapt to their new environments. However, for the students who are unable to cope with changes present, the research shows that they are at a higher risk for substance abuse, deviant behavior, psychological distress, and educational failure. Therefore, by putting the positivist and developmentalist models, research can explain the relationship present between psychological distress, adaptation, and migration. Ultimately, this will provide an extensive framework into the analysis of the adaptation experience.

Family

The literature review also emphasizes the influence of the family unit on the adaptation experience of the immigrant students (Toppelberg & Collins, 2012). One of the most crucial factors that have been established from this research is the significance of the intergenerational clashes present between the children and their guardians. As immigrant families often acculturate at varying degrees, it often leads to conflict due to the establishment of different goals. One of the main factors that often influence this process is the fact that most of these parents rely on the children as their interpreters. This aspect results in problems within the family unit as the parents believe that their reliance on their children erodes their parental authority (Perreira & Ornelas, 2011). Furthermore, it also means that immigrant children are exposed to duties and responsibilities they are not mentally prepared for.

Gualdi-Russo, et al. (2014) revealed in their evaluation of immigrant children that child-parent conflict was one of the most significant predictors of depression and reduced confidence. Additionally, the presence of different gender roles within the United States as compared to their ethnic backgrounds often resulted in conflict because of the adoption of new roles within the family. For example, in some cultures, females are often pressured to follow the traditional paths which generally do not value aspects such as female education. However, in the United States, due to the presence of strict laws, they are forced to change their perceptions (Adelman & Taylor, 2015). As a result, tension often rises between the immigrant children and their parents, especially when they begin to integrate themselves into the new culture of the United States. Such aspects challenge the traditional views of female roles in the family unit and eventually affect the adaptation process of the immigrant students.

Contextual Factors

In relation to the contextual factors, in most cases, the welfare of the immigrants is often connected to their acculturation alignments. This ideally means that the adherence to both cultures by the immigrants is ultimately conducive to their emotional and mental well-being and better developmental outcomes (Schachner, 2017). Additionally, effective policies for the immigrant student’s cultural and ethnolinguistic diversity and integration can have a potential influence on their ability to adapt or adjust. The proximal environments in which most of these immigrant children’s lives are entrenched, such as the societal attitudes present in the United States, constitute essential societal variables for their adaptation. Studies have shown that discrimination of immigrant children is essential when it comes to explaining the different outcomes in their adaptation (Schachner, 2017). Ultimately, the successful adjustment of immigrants relies on their ability to challenge acculturative and development tasks. Contexts that are able to deliver prospects for the investigation and expansion of choices, goals, and abilities often foster ideal results.

Expanded Scope of Research

Review of the existing literature has shown that the research of the adaptation of immigrant adolescents within the United States has mainly focused on academic adjustment, internalizing, and externalizing outcomes (Vang & Eckstein , 2015). In this case, internalizing outcomes refer to the depressive and psychological distress symptoms. On the other hand, externalizing outcomes refer to the conduct behaviors that these children exhibit within the school setting such as the tendency of substance abuse wile academic adjustment outcomes are the attitudes that pertain to school achievement. Conventionally, most of the empirical research conducted on the maladaptive processes associated with adaptation in immigrant children often results in adverse or negative outcomes (Portes & Rivas, 2011). As a result, immigrant adolescents have been reported to exhibit increased levels of adjustment issues when equated to their non-immigrant counterparts from the majority population. This phenomenon is referred to as migration morbidity. Therefore, the research conducted across a variety of contexts illustrates the relationship present between the excessive levels of psychological status and their migrant status of the children (Toppelberg & Collins, 2012). It should also be pointed out that several studies conducted across the United States have documented a rise in immigrant adolescents’ maladaptive behaviors, school difficulties, and disruptive issues especially in the school setting (Adelman & Taylor, 2015).

However, it is unfair for researchers to make the conclusion that immigrant adolescents are doing worse than their non-immigrant counterparts. This notion has often been challenged by studies which reveal that immigrants can convey better adjustment and adaptation abilities regardless of their more inferior socioeconomic status. Within the literature, this phenomenon is known as the immigrant paradox. Most of the evidence has been produced by studies in Canada. Within the United States, this paradox has been established by some of the studies thereby proving its existence (Rudmin & Kwak, 2014). This research has shown that when compared to the non-immigrant population, immigrants convey lower rates of internalizing symptoms like stress and depression. However, due to the influence of their socio-economically disadvantaged background, it becomes more challenging for studies to establish this fact. Similarly, evidence has been produced that support the immigration paradox in terms of academic behaviors and attitudes such that immigrants often reveal better adjustment outcomes within the school setting especially in relation to their self-reported feelings towards education (Adelman & Taylor, 2015). Ultimately, these different studies reveal that the scope of the research on the adaptation of immigrant adolescents within the country should also explore various aspects such as the immigration paradox and the influence of the immigrants’ disadvantaged backgrounds on the results.

Summary and Conclusion

Much of the empirical research highlighted in this literature review in reference to the immigrant adolescent adaptation has focused on the influence of various socio-cultural factors and how they influence the ability of this demographic to adjust. However, more research needs to be conducted on the shaping power of the immigrants’ expectations and aspirations and how it can ultimately affect the adaptation process. Psychologists and sociologists have also provided consistent evidence that highlights the impact of the new environment emotional welfare of immigrants. Therefore, the underlying rationale, in this case, can be perceived as straightforward. The focus of this research should be on the behavioral and academic adjustments of the immigrant children in relation to various factors such as exposure to family strains, mental health problems and the availability of a social support system that facilitates the process of adjustment. The hypothesis of this study will be that lower levels of social support and higher levels of family stress are directly associated with poor immigrant adjustment or adaptation. Causes of stress that will be investigated in this study include economic hardship, acculturation conflict, perceived prejudice, and aspects such as overall life stress.

Methods

Due to the complexities associated with the development of adjustment measures within the immigrant population, this formative research proposal will use a qualitative design to examine and analyze the scope of the adaptation process. Semi-structured interviews will be convened with a select number of immigrant adolescents to help reveal gaps in the research methods used. This qualitative research will be beneficial in the discovery of the extent to which there is a direct relationship between an immigrants’ socio-cultural background and their ability to adapt to the new social environment. Typically, it will be challenging for complex human behaviors to be established using quantitative research. Therefore, statistical inference will also be used to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the data produced. However, it should be noted that statistical reference will not be the main objective of the research. By relying on in-depth interviews that rely on open-ended questions, this research will provide a variety of information for analysis. Despite the long-standing significance of using comprehensive cognitive-behavioral analysis to examine the mental health of the participants, this study will opt for a different approach to identify the mental well-being. Such an approach will provide more insights about the patients and improve the perceptions of the research.

Sample

The sample involved in the research will be comprised of 350 immigrant students (175 boys and 175 girls) at different educational levels (middle schools and high school. The participants of the research will be selected randomly from different schools and will consist of newly immigrated school entrants. In order to affirm the validity of this study, informed consent shall be acquired from the students’ guardians. Additionally, all the students will be required to sign assent forms. In order to guarantee confidentiality, the participants’ names will be excluded from the interview during the process of statistical entry. As a result, the participants will only be identified by randomized number codes. The school staff, parents, and any other involved personnel will be advised not to disclose any information about the individual participants. The interviews will distribute consent forms to the guardians of the participants who fulfill the criteria of involvement required by the study. The guardians will send the forms through the post. Ultimately, the participating students will all be presented with gifts for their contribution to the investigation.

Procedure

The initial interviews of the participants will happen before the summer of the participants’ initial year. Thereafter, follow-up interviews will be conducted after a period of two years. The participants will be individually assessed within the school premises at isolated settings. Each interviewer will be linked with a student according to aspects such as language and cultural background. After this process, each interviewer will be randomly assigned according their respective designated students across different grade levels. The restriction present in this case is that the interviewers are deemed accountable for specific participants by their education level or gender. Towards the end of every academic year, the teachers will provide the rating of the students’ school adaptation among other aspects such as psychological adjustment. Educational indicators in terms of performance, will also be acquired from the students’ personal academic records

Measures

Majority of the proposed measures within this study have been employed in previous studies. This means that these methods have excellent psychometric values. In order to be completely efficient, the measures will be translated according to each participant’s language, which will be then verified by the relevant professionals.

Social Support

The participants’ social support data will be attained via the Children’s Convoy Mapping Procedure (Schachner, 2017). The interviewees will be required to single out individuals whom they believe are most significant and closest to them within the inner circle of a coaxial circle illustration with individuals less close placed in the middle and outer circle illustration. The participants will be further asked to categorize five persons within their social networks that offer each of the five support functions tapping the domains of support that are quantified in the convoy model.

Acculturation Conflict, Stress, And Perceived Discrimination Measures

The overall life stress of each participant will be quantified using a pre-defined checklist of various strenuous life events that were adapted from (Gualdi-Russo, Toselli, Masotti, Marzouk, & Sundquist, 2014). Supposed prejudice and acculturation conflict will be quantified using measures that were developed by (Schachner, 2017).

Adjustment Measures

Various guides of emotional adjustment will include the Harter Self-Perception Profile and the Children’s Depression Inventory-Short Form. Over the past few years, these measures have established legitimacy and consistency, and this explains why they have been relied upon extensively among school-age children.

The achievement of the students will be examined through standardized achievement test scores and grade reports provided by the school. Other academic scores will be combined to provide a general achievement measure. In terms of psychological well-being, the study does not expect immigrant students to differ significantly from their non-immigrant counterparts. This is mainly because that psychological literature has shown that is often a decrease in the psychological well-being among all adolescent students regardless of their cultural background (Toppelberg & Collins, 2012). However, teachers will also be tasked with completing various behavioral adjustment measures for the children.

Data Analysis Plan

An initial study will be conducted to affirm the scale dependability of the various demographics so as to confirm that the characteristics of the different scales have not violated any statistical test assumptions. Moreover, additional itemization will assess the impact of the different factors that are not covered within the main emphasis of the research, such as the immigrants’ parental background. If necessary, some of these fluctuating aspects could be encompassed as control variables for the final evaluation. Due to the presence of expected attrition within some of the interviews, comparisons will be made before the process of data analysis, to establish if there exist systematic differences. As the hypothesis of this study is lower levels of social support, and higher levels of family stress are directly associated with poor immigrant adjustment or adaptation, multiple regression analysis will be relied upon in the evaluation of the results. The main criterion for this analysis will be adjustment scales for the second year that will be provided by the school. Additionally, an isolated regression analyses will be implemented after every adaptation directory. The predictors of this analysis will comprise of aspects such as stress measures, social support, and student age.

Discussion & Expected Findings

This proposed research will make a substantial contribution by providing a theoretical comprehension of various social support systems and how they influence academic outcomes and the required data on how the educators can cope with substantial and consistent influx of immigrant population. Whenever immigrant adolescents enter schools within the United States initially, they often come across a different setting that poses new strains for adjustment. Additionally, these immigrant adolescents often have a limited ability to communicate and therefore lack the social support system that was present in their native locales. As a result, they often encounter prejudice and grief that they were not accosted in their previous lifestyles. Consequently, their family members are also subject to a range of stressors that are associated with the process of migration which can include acculturation issues, and legal problems. Therefore, this planned research will offer a better comprehension of how immigrant adolescents at different demographics respond in terms of psychology and academics to diverse elements in present in their present environment. Most importantly, the research will offer recommendations that can be used to identify immigrant adolescents, especially within the school setting who are at risk of maladaptive behaviors and outcomes.

Conclusion

The thorough literature review that has been conducted in this proposal has indicated that there exists a gap in understanding the potential psychological effects of adjustments to immigrant adolescents that need to be addressed. The literature suggests the need to examine how various aspects within the ecology of these immigrant adolescents influence the adaptation process within the United States. In most of these cases, the lack of social support during the process results in maladaptive behaviors that are detrimental to the immigrants psychosocial and education outcomes. Therefore, this proposal has present a study that seeks to define appropriate strategies that can determine or establish the ability of different immigrant adolescents to acculturate or adapt to the new social environment. Through a comprehensive theoretical understanding of the challenges facing the immigrants coupled with a practical comprehension of the factors that influence this process, this study will provide a broader perspective on the adaptation of immigrant students within the United States and the psychological effects it has on these adolescents.

References:

Adelman, H. S., & Taylor, L. (2015). Immigrant Children and Youth in the USA: Facilitating Equity of Opportunity at School. Education Sciences, 5(1), 323–344.

Dimitrova, R., Chasiotis, A., & Van de Vijver, F. (2016). Adjustment Outcomes of Immigrant Children and Youth in Europe: A Meta-Analysis. European Psychologist, 21(2), 150-162.

Gualdi-Russo, E., Toselli, S., Masotti, S., Marzouk, D., & Sundquist, J. (2014). Health, growth and psychosocial adaptation of immigrant children. European Journal of Public Health, 24(1), 16–25.

Guarnaccia, P. J., & Lopes, S. (1998). The Mental Health and Adjustment of Immigrant and Refugee Children. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 7(3), 537-553.

Perreira, K. M., & Ornelas, I. J. (2011). The Physical and Psychological Well-Being of Immigrant Children. The Future of Children, 21(1), 195-218.

Portes, A., & Rivas, A. (2011). The Adaptation of Migrant Children. The Future of Children, 21(1), 219-246.

Rudmin , F., & Kwak, K. (2014, November 14). Adolescent health and adaptation in Canada: examination of gender and age aspects of the healthy immigrant effect. Retrieved from International Journal for Equity in Health: https://equityhealthj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12939-014-0103-5

Schachner, M. K. (2017). Contextual Conditions for Acculturation and Adjustment of Adolescent Immigrants. Jena: Friedrich Schiller University Jena.

Toppelberg, C. O., & Collins, B. A. (2012). Language, Culture, and Adaptation in Immigrant Children. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 19(4), 697–717.

Vang, Z. M., & Eckstein , S. E. (2015, August 12). Toward an improved understanding of immigrant adaptation and transnational engagement. Retrieved from Comparative Migration Studies: https://comparativemigrationstudies.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/s40878-015-0007-6

 

Analysis of The Film Adaptation of ‘Strangers On A Train’

Patricia Highsmith’s by Strangers on a Train (1950) and Alfred Hitchcock’s film adaptation of the work immerse the audience into the noir thriller’s cunning sphere of crime, a world where the impression of dread and unease is bolstered through the theme of the divided self and the uncanny form of the double, or doppelganger.
Highsmith’s Strangers on a Train offers a psychological exploration of Guy Haines and Charles Anthony Bruno and their entwined connection. Hitchcock alters the composition into a thriller, concentrating on surprise, uncertainty and action. In the text, the nature of the characters, Highsmith’s technical methods, and the plot configuration accentuates the resemblances between Haines and Bruno. In the motion picture conversely, the visual connections amid the two are tangled by the conversion of Haines in a guiltless hero. It commences with a chance exchange between two men on a train. Once Bruno alters the subject to an exchange of murders – “I kill your wife and you kill my father.”  The primary components are spun into a torrent of violence that will ensnare them both. Bruno advances to murder Guy’s wife, Miriam and extorts the latter into realising his part of a covenant that he was unaware he had enlisted into. Whilst in Highsmith’s other much-admired thriller The Talented Mr. Ripley (1955) sees its central character Tom Ripley embark on an expedition to Italy to return Dickie Greenleaf back to his father in the United States, but sooner than returning Dickie, he murders him and then assumes his character. Tom physically personifies both guises (Dickie and himself) whereas in Strangers on a Train, Guy progressively starts to emulate Bruno’s behaviour and consequently the figure of the divided self is devised. Moreover, it comes to be obvious that the motif of the doppelganger exposes vaster social qualms of deceit and permits Highsmith to present a social criticism of America and its misguided ‘dream’.

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Highsmith outlines the foundation for her novel in Plotting and Writing Suspense Fiction (1966) as “the germ of the plot for Strangers on a Train” being “Two people agree to murder each other’s enemy, thus permitting a perfect alibi to be established.” Highsmith’s novel confronts somewhat incongruously with that plot nucleus, since Guy Haines does not agree vocally to the exchange of murders proposed by his fellow “stranger” Charles Anthony Bruno on the train. In Guy’s revelations about his spouse, Miriam, to Bruno and in his silence following Miriam’s murder, however there is a tacit acquiescence, and Guy ultimately turns into a full collaborator in the trade of murders, killing Bruno’s father to death as his share in the exchange. In Hitchcock’s adaptation, conversely, the trade of slayings is considerably more partial, with Bruno murdering Miriam however Guy, in response, strives instead to forewarn Bruno’s father, the intended second target. As implied by the vivid plot transformation in the film, the two compositions are markedly dissimilar in focus and direction. Highsmith concentrates on the intellectual exploration of the two men and their interwoven relationship as each other’s doppelgangers. Hitchcock’s however transforms the material into the genre of film noir meaning a subsequent focus on action and the distinguishing Hitchcock rudiments of tension and surprise to reveal a visual allusion to the theme of the divided self.
Hitchcock’s introductory shots for the film encapsulate an impression of the film as a whole. Particularly low camera arrangements in the opening sequence prepare the viewer for a scenario that will take place principally in a clandestine world of tension and incubus. The opening credits run through a scene looking back from the interior of a cavernous train station to the brightness of the world outside. As they draw to a close, a taxi turns into the entrance. Bruno exits the vehicle, or more precisely, Bruno’s garish shoes and trouser legs. A subsequent taxi pulls up at the curb and discharges Guy’s modest trouser legs, shoes, and tennis racquets. The film commences with an interchange into darkness from which it will return only at the conclusion. As critic Lesley Brill points out:
“As the action of guilt and entrapment commences, images of descent and imprisonment proliferate. The camera stays at knee level for a minute and a half after the credits, until Bruno’s foot and Guy’s bump under a table in the lounge car. This opening sequence includes an expressive shot of the shadow of the train proceeding along the intersecting and diverging tracks of the railyard… The image of the converging rails at the beginning of Strangers on a Train serves as an emblem of the plot, in which characters in a chaos of unconnected human lives coincidentally converge and collide, turn apart, and pursue crucial actions in parallel.”
These opening images of the two pairs of feet travelling towards each other and of the converging railway tracks accentuate the correlation between the two men, the premeditated image of them as doubles. One’s perception of the aesthetic opposition between the two pairs of shoes is revealed in the opening sequence. Guy’s plain dark shoes and Bruno’s more ostentatious two-toned spats become an equivalent “imposed by the editing on what would otherwise be pure contrast.” This perception of Bruno and Guy as doppelgangers is fortified both visually and verbally throughout the scenes that ensue by such elements as Guy’s cigarette lighter with its engraving of crossed tennis racquets, the connection between the ‘doubles’ of tennis player Guy and the scotch doubles ordered for them both by Bruno. Bruno’s contemplative mutters of “Crisscross” as he reclines in his private compartment, retaining the lighter Guy has left behind and musing over the exchange in murders he has just proposed to Guy.
However, in spite of the film’s technical virtuosity in implying the theme of the divided self, the viewer’s impression of Bruno as the delegate of Guy’s unexamined and subjugated desires is extinguished by the plot aim of the film resulting in an exodus from the subtleties of Highsmith’s novel. In terms of narrative, Guy is a guiltless man, culpable on a conscious level of neither Miriam’s death nor Bruno’s plans to have his father murdered. Hitchcock’s editing procedures visually conjoin Guy and Bruno, for instance, when Hitchcock cuts from a scene in a telephone booth where Guy, drowned out at first by a train, yells about Miriam shouting, “I said I could strangle her!” to a view of Bruno’s curved, upheld hands. The progression unequivocally connects Guy’s yearning for Miriam’s death to the methods by which Bruno will achieve that murder. Yet the quintessence of the film’s plot is that Guy, the blameless protagonist, will ultimately arise uncorrupted from the world of darkness into which Bruno has momentarily thrust him.
Hitchcock’s Guy, having entered Bruno’s father’s bedroom at night in harmony with Bruno’s homicidal plot, endeavours to forewarn the father, only to find a dubious Bruno there in his place. The disparity, rather than the resemblance, between the two men becomes discernible. While Guy carries a firearm with him on his nocturnal mission, the haste with which he pockets the gun outside the bedroom and cries out the name of Bruno’s father makes it unfeasible to consider that Guy is truly coaxed to perform the murder to shield him from Bruno’s coercing extortions. Consequently, the scene’s tension arises from Hitchcock consciously deluding the audience, rather than from any impression of Guy as a potentially multifaceted and capricious persona dithering between two possible alternatives. Once Guy is faced on the staircase by an evidently ferocious guard-dog, the viewer is swept into concern for Guy’s welfare, that very unease (bearing in mind that Guy may be on the verge of murdering a vulnerable old man in cold blood) is devised to coerce the audience to consider the ethical equivocality of their own responses. Thus far the audience’s moral quandary is manifestly contrived as there is no real possibility of Guy murdering Bruno’s father, and this alters the whole progression into the degree of a clever ruse.
As the film continues, viewers visibly distinguish the men’s vivid opposition regardless of the turmoil of proceedings and the commotion of the police. In the film’s crucial scene, Guy pursues Bruno to the carnival grounds where Bruno murdered Miriam. The unintended shooting of the carousel operator drives the carousel to hurtle at top speed, Guy is darted dramatically from the structured, benign world he desires into the volatility and anarchy linked with his doppelganger, Bruno. Yet, the opposition between the two men remains vital, encapsulated by a vignette where a young boy struggling to help Guy is shoved violently by Bruno and almost tumbles from the wildly revolving carousel. Guy endangers himself to rescue the child, with the consequence that he himself is almost killed by Bruno. Once the carousel’s collision and the discovery of Guy’s lighter in the dead Bruno’s hand have exposed Guy’s guiltlessness to the police, Guy is able to resume to a concord with the ordered world outside the carnival gates and his divided self. The film finishes, however, not with the fatality of Bruno, but with a droll correspondence that denotes the extent to which Guy is free of Bruno and the danger to Guy’s world and his sensation of self-conflict that Bruno signified.
Previously in the film, the function of other lesser ‘strangers’ on trains also understates the impression that the nexus between Guy and Bruno is inexorable, compelled by something within Guy himself rather than by destiny. Just as the minister’s inquiry is a inoffensive reiteration of Bruno’s question earlier in the film, so another passenger has earlier jolted the foot of another man inadvertently, just as Guy had jolted Bruno’s. Guy’s hypothetical compliance to Bruno’s murder conspiracy – “Now, you think my theory’s okay Guy?” You like it?”, “Sure, Bruno sure. They’re all okay”, is amusingly echoed, on the same evening that Bruno murders Miriam, when Guy heedlessly reassures the drunken Professor Collins, in response to a muddled query about different calculus, “Yes, I understand.”
The well-defined opposition between Guy and Bruno throughout the latter part of the film is accountable for a constituent of moral obscurity in the film as a whole. Guy’s optimistic prospect of marriage to Anne and political career has been offered to him courtesy of Bruno, who has eradicated Miriam, the only hindrance to Guy’s prosperity. Guy’s capacity both to withdraw himself from that homicidal yearning and to benefit from its outcomes has been depicted in various ways. Critic Donald Spoto describes it as “one of Hitchcock’s darkest ironies”, while Robin Wood observes that “the effect seems at times two-dimensional, or like watching the working out of a theorem rather than a human drama.” 
In juxtaposition to Hitchcock’s film, Highsmith’s text constructs the bond between Guy and Bruno a chief element of the novel’s general objective. Highsmith’s utilisation of both Guy’s and Bruno’s narrative perspectives perform structurally as Hitchcock’s traversing does in his adaptation, compelling one to visualise the two men as intricately concomitant doubles, instead of as unconnected entities. In Hitchcock’s motion picture this visual melding flows counter to the development of the narrative itself, in Highsmith’s novel the natures of the characters, the stylistic methods, and the composition of the plot all accentuate the doubling.
The coalescing of the two central protagonists in Highsmith’s novel initiates, as does Hitchcock’s graphic connecting, with the train journey. The chance meeting between Highsmith’s Bruno and Guy is fortuitous only in the most perfunctory manner. While the encounter is unforeseen, the sense of divided identity surfaces instantaneously and is fortified by Guy’s renunciation of its existence as he ruminates, “All he despised, Guy thought, Bruno represented. All the things he would not want to be, Bruno was, or would become.” Regardless of such remonstrations, Highsmith’s Guy is rapidly lured by something in his acquaintance, contrasting Hitchcock’s Guy, who is portrayed as interchangeably entertained, irritated, or peeved by Bruno and his designs. Once Bruno proposes his philosophy that “a person ought to do everything it’s possible to do before he dies, and maybe try dying to do something that’s really impossible,” provokes a reaction in Guy to expose a resemblance to Bruno. “Something in Guy responded with a leap, then cautiously drew back. He asked softly, Like what?”
The author persists to emphasise the psychological nexuses among the two men by means of her depiction of Guy’s docile susceptibility when he is faced with Bruno’s belligerent inquisitiveness. Hitchcock’s reworking belittles this impression of compliance, rather depicting Guy as a thriving tennis player; a profession of which facilitates him to stress his physical poise and imply that he is a man of action. This tough, dynamic, athletic Guy effectually defies Bruno’s murder plot by endeavouring instead to alert the intended target. In comparison, Highsmith’s Guy is not a tennis player but a successful architect with a penchant to dwell in his own mind, to witness the world in standards and concepts while refusing to acknowledge his own stifled sentiments and desires. When he encounters Bruno, his acquaintance on the train he carries a volume of Plato, an old school text that he inadvertently leaves in Bruno’s compartment and that afterward becomes evidence to be used against him. Guy acquires the text as “an indulgence to compensate him, perhaps, for having to make the trip to Miriam.” Whilst what he reads makes sense to him, a darker, internal voice queries, “But what good will Plato do you with Miriam.”
Haines’ incapacity to confront his problematic sentiments over Miriam renders him an easy target for his doppelganger Bruno, with his nonchalant, unswerving curiosity. Unearthing in Bruno that outsider to whom he can declare Miriam’s infidelity, Guy becomes conscious that “he had never told anyone so much about Miriam.” Bruno arouses in Guy the responses he has struggled both to disguise and obscure. When Bruno probes how many lovers Miriam had, Guy in responding, finds himself ensnared in an outpouring of emotion when he replies, “‘Quite a few. Before I found out.’ And just as he assured himself it made no difference at all now to admit it, a sensation as of a tiny whirlpool inside him began to confuse him. Tiny, but realer than the memories somehow, because he had uttered it.” In the face of, or perchance because of, this current of passion, Highsmith’s Haines remains susceptible and submissive, enabling Bruno to control him through his incapacity to tackle problematic situations. His weakness enables Bruno to assume the role of his darker double, influencing his thoughts and emotions more readily that previously conceived.
Whereas Hitchcock’s tougher, more dynamic Guy Haines effectively opposes Bruno’s efforts to lure him to murder; Highsmith’s perplexed, docile architect fails to contest Bruno because he embodies a part of Haines himself. Moreover, in the novel the parallel between Guy and Bruno instantaneously assumes a nuance of magnetism and rapport tempered in the film’s presentation of their initial meeting. In the film, Bruno has no sooner encountered Guy than he commences into allusions to Guy’s publicly established relationship with Anne, a senator’s daughter, and his wish to obtain a divorce so that he and Anne are able to marry. In Highsmith’s novel, Bruno and Haines’ exchange concentrates on Miriam, the reviled and detrimental third party. He knows nothing about Anne, and later feels resentful when he discovers Guy’s relationship with her. Nevertheless, Highsmith’s Anne is significant even in her nonappearance; given that Guy is thinking about Anne when he commences the encounter with Bruno. “Suddenly he [Guy] felt helpless without her. He shifted his position, accidentally touched the outstretched foot of the young man asleep, and watched fascinatedly as the lashes twitched and came open.” Consequently begins the convoluted triangle as Guy’s loyalty moves between her and Bruno.
Later in the text, Haines’ affiliation with Anne and Bruno develops into an almost ominous ménage à trois. During his wedding, Guy encounters Bruno in the church and muses that “He [Guy] was standing beside Anne, and Bruno was her and always would be. Bruno, himself, Anne. And the moving on the tracks. And the lifetime of moving on the tracks until death do us part”  This conveys the assimilation of personas between Bruno and Haines and further highlights Guy’s divided self. Before long and in spite of this, three eventually becomes a crowd. Haines’ and Anne’s home is plagued by an unwelcome Bruno, who is as instantaneously comfortable as if he were one of the occupants. After a while, Bruno begins to regard Anne as the intrusive presence and commences to reflect and behave harmfully toward her. Anne’s valued sailboat becomes marred on a clandestine sail that Haines and Bruno embark on together and Bruno ultimately considers killing Anne as the only impediment left stuck between himself and Guy. This is revealed when he ruminates, “Anne is like light to me, Bruno remembered Guy once saying. If he could strangle Anne, too, then Guy and he could really be together.”
Haines identifies an unadulterated, harmful side of his identity echoed in Bruno. As Guy travels to Great Neck to murder Bruno’s father, he distinguishes the rapport between them in a different way than during their initial encounter: “He was like Bruno. Hadn’t he sensed it time and time again, and like a coward never admitted it? Hadn’t he known Bruno was like himself? Or why had he liked Bruno? He loved Bruno.” Following the murder, that consciousness of combined identity intensifies as Haines deliberates how goodness and vice, hatred and love subsist simultaneously in human nature. He reflects, “Bruno, he and Bruno. Each was what the other had not chosen to be, the cast-off self, what he thought he hated but perhaps in reality loved.” This demonstrates that it is hopeless to ‘cast off’ the immoral facet of his being. In struggling to do so, by way of shouldering each other’s culpability, Haines and Bruno become intricately coupled in a process of gradual corruption whereby they begin to bear a stark resemblance to one other. In an enigmatic act of disintegration he does not assume accountability for his own deeds, only for his motivations, illuminating the possible reassuring consequences of externalising his double. Haines suggests that, “The curious thing was that he felt no guilt, and it seemed to him now that the fact Bruno’s will had motivated him was the explanation. But what was thing, guilt, that he had felt more after Miriam’s death than now?” This misallocation of fault generates such a rift that the two parts of his life no longer appear to keep together, and from this point on his identity disintegrates and wanes. This discernment is established by a vision later that night, in which Haines visualises himself awakening to discover Bruno bounding into his room. To Haines’ interrogation, “Who are you? Bruno finally retorts, “You.” While he and Bruno are on the train early in the novel, Guy understands how the intellect and precision of his innovative professional life counteract the disordered emotion and sightlessness of his private life. As soon as he has committed murder, Guy comprehends a glaring juxtaposition:
“He felt rather like two people, one of whom could create and feel in harmony with God when he created, and the other who could murder. ‘Any kind of person can murder,’ Bruno had said on the train. The man who had explained the cantilever principle to Bobbie Cartwright two years ago in Metcalf? No, nor the man who had designed the hospital, or even the department store, or debated half an hour with himself over the colour he would paint a metal chair on the back lawn last week, but the man who had glanced into the mirror just last night and had seen for one instant the murderer, like a secret brother.”
In conclusion, such an incongruity of identity cannot be prolonged, and only one part must be triumphant. In this instance the curbed, immoral side assumes responsibility. In the opening sequence of Hitchcock’s adaptation, the image of railway tracks converging, and then diverging, establishes the milieu of the film. Haines’ and Bruno’s fates will join, and then part. In Highsmith’s novel, on the other hand, the representation of the railway tracks is used throughout to underscore Guy’s impression of foisted direction, a termination of choices, “the lifetime of moving on the tracks.” Ultimately, Highsmith portrays the conflict that lies within the divided-self using the motif of the doppelganger. As well as demonstrating the capacity for criminality in everyone, she criticises a society that commands obedience. This need for conformity is eventually what urges the need for suppression for all that is deviant, leading to the fragmented and duplicitous nature of society and its inhabitants. Highsmith and Hitchcock both exploit the conventions of the dark, subversive world of the noir thriller to reveal that society, like their characters, personify its own sinister double or doppelganger within it.
 

Adaptation to the Impacts of Climate Change on Mau Forest Management in Kenya

ADAPTATION TO THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON MAU FOREST MANAGEMENT IN KENYA.

Introduction

Mau Forest is one of the largest Forest in Kenya which has direct and indirect impact on community’s livelihood. The Mau Forest is the largest canopy ecosystem in Kenya and serves as the largest watershed area in most part of the country (Bird Life, International, 2013).

However, a research that has been carried out in the resent past shows how fast the Mau forest ecosystem is being degraded (Zbinden &Lee, 2005). Degradation is on the rise in developing countries such as Kenya caused by poor governance and over dependence by the people of Kenya on forest timber as a source of livelihood.

Climate Change is identified as a major threat to the social and environmental aspects of most parts of Kenyan Forests and already the pinch is being felt and it is getting difficult to cope with emerging environmental stress (Sivakumar et al 2005). Reports indicate that there has been a decrease in the distribution of rainfall annually over the last few years and further predications states that any slight changes in extreme events may result to floods (Sivakumar et al 2005).

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Climate change therefore, is threatening many forest ecosystem  and this may directly or indirectly impact on  agriculture which most people depend on in Kenya (Chandarappa et al., 2011).Due to this unforeseen climate extremes, communities have resulted to develop coping strategies according to different seasons, known as “the ability to adjust, to take advantage of the opportunities or to cope with the consequences” (IPCC 2014,115). This has resulted in the shift of focus to good policy formation and governance.

Kenya has currently made an initiative to develop very good policy framework and plans, for adaptation to the impacts of climate change in Mau Forest. The biggest challenge, however, is on the part of implementation. This essay will be looking at the Kenya policy as a key governance intervention and how it contributes towards adaptation to the impacts of Climate Change and Forest management.

Government Intervention/Strategies.

Policy/Program/Plan Formation.

Sustainable Forest Management in Kenya

Sustainable Forest Management (SFM), is one of the strategies that has been incorporated to solve degradation of Mau forest ecosystem. This method has been pointed out as a means to build resilience on forest ecosystem to the impacts of climate change and solving illegal habitation, illegal logging and other forest crimes including illegal poaching (Kishor & Belle, 2004), and this has been championed at national and international level (FAO 2011, Mc ginley & Finnegan, 2003).

Since the implementation of the policy the Government has since achieved to recover 4,500 acres of land since they issued a ban on charcoal burning and illegal logging in the Mau forest (Standard Digital News Paper, 2019). The Kenya Forest Service has then come in to encourage the local community to participate in reforestation plan to restore the forest and build back its resilience to climate change (Standard Digital News Paper, 2019).

This has ensured transparent governance is achieved, since it steers the community and the economy by collaborating to achieve a common goal (Ansell and Torfing., 2016: 4). Therefore, Community Farmers Association was formed, CFAs gave local communities the right and security to participate in sustainable farming practices to protect the forest and develop resilience to climate change. These was enacted to encourage farmers to work towards increasing the Kenyan forest cover to 10 percent by the year 2030. This policy has been viewed to be good since it gives power to the community and has championed the protection of Mau Forests.

The policy has since encouraged establishment of institutions to achieve governance and provide the public with effective, transparent, impartial, and accountable manner, subject to resource constraints (World Bank, 2000), for the purpose of ensuring the Forests are properly managed and conserved. The Kenya Forest Service (KFS) was set up to conserve and sustainably manage the forest (Forest Act 2005). The government also went ahead to initiate the bottom up approach form of governance among the institutions by decentralising the institutions.

Sustainable Forest Management also recognizes that forests are source of tourist attraction and therefore enhances forest conservation.  Many institutions were then put in place to oversee the forests such as National Environment Management Authority, Kenya Forestry Research Institute (KEFRI) among others.

Despite this effort being put in place by national and international environmental organisations there is witnessed very little consumption of the policy and implementation of it.  (Global Witness 2009, World Bank 2003). Kenya Forest Service has claimed that some of the locals are still cutting down olive and cedar tree illegally, for charcoal burning (Standard Digital News Paper, 2019). Further, most of the communities living around the Mau Forest have moved into the forest and build permanent house structures and efforts to evict the communities from the forest has proven futile (BBC News, 2009). Mau Forest, moreover, which has been known to be the lifeline of most of the major rivers and lakes in Kenya, such as Mara River which is famous for wild beast has started to dry up and most of the wild beast are migrating (Standard News Paper Kenya, 2019), even after the implementation of the Sustainable Forest Management strategy to boost the Mau forest resilience to climate change impact.

The government has since denied the evidence and cited that insufficient funds has been the main cause for lack of implementation of the policy which will assist to put up the infrastructure, that will enable forest to adapt to climate change impacts (Gondo 2011). Which seems so ironical from the facts being brought out by the media.

The government is partly to blame for lack of commitment to ensure that the sustainable forest management strategies are implemented. This is because, most Governments in power try to put more effort on the agriculture and tourism sector and leave behind the forest sector, not bearing in mind that all these sectors flourish better if forests are protected and made resilient to climate change. This has led to formation of weak policy framework in the forest sector (World Bank/WWF Alliance 2003, Gondo 2010).

It has also been highlighted that lack of stable political regimes has hindered implementation of SFM for sustainable developments (World Bank/WWF Alliance 2003, Mc Ginley and Finnegan 2003, Global Witness, 2009). Mau Politics has often been viewed as a hot bed and most politicians fear to tackle the issue on Mau forest restoration in order to gain the communities votes. However recently, a brave politician came up with an initiative still under the Sustainable Forest Management and urged the residence to drill hole and he used aerial method to plant tree seeds in the spirit of Mau Forest Restoration to build resilience to climate change impact (Standard Digital News Paper, 2019).

Recommendations for Building adaptation to the effects Climate Change and Forest Management

Kenyan Government needs to rethink the issue of governance of by focusing on the following:

Adaptive Management Strategy

Kenya needs to put in place adaptive management strategies whereby they learn from the mistakes that occurred on the previous policy and incorporate lessons into the future to improve the forest ecosystem in Kenya and build resilience to the effects of climate change.  (Millar et al., 2007).

When making plans, policies and strategies the government and law makers need to be ready to take risks and be willing to incorporate change in the course of the process (Hobbs et al., 2006). This is because there are already unpredictable number of ways in which climate change may affect the forests and this can range from species disturbance, growth and distribution of trees (Lindner et al 2014).

Building and Promoting Resilience

Forest that are resilient are not only able to cope with the changing climate extreme effects but are able to return to their previous state either naturally or with new management interventions (Spittlehouse & Stewart, 2004). The government also aims to promote Forest resilience by ensuring that there are proper maintainers of heterogenous stand structure and well prescribed fire treatment (Drever et al 2006). The government also, needs to allocate sufficient funds towards maintainers and resilience of forests, because of the adverse effects of climate change that may accumulate over time (Miller et al., 2007)

Mitigation Strategies

The government should come up with mitigation strategies that reduce Green House Gas emissions. The main strategy the government should use is conserving, protecting and increasing forest cover to reduce Green House Gas Emission, promote growth and carbon sequestration, thus reducing carbon emission. Most of the forest management practices have been known to reduce carbon sequestration in the atmosphere (Nilsson et al., 2011; Larssonet al., 2009)

Forests fires are believed to be a major cause of high concentrations of Green House Gas emission, as a result of wildfire. A recent case study of fire outbreak in Kenya occurred in Mt. Kenya where tens of thousands of hectares of bamboo forests were burnt down (BBC News, 28th February 2019).

Mitigations measures that the government needs to put in place is measures that increase fight against forests to fire, storms, pests and diseases that may decimate the forests. The government can take the initiative of introducing firebreaks along the high-risk areas and reduce spread of pest and diseases through thinning and pruning and through biological means. (Canadell & Raupach, 2008).

Integrated Management Strategy

Due to high uncertainty of climate change patterns no measure can be termed to be more appropriate for all seasons (Hobbset al., 2006; Spittlehouse & Stewart, 2004). An integrated management system can be taken by the government that will suit different dynamics. The strategic decision will depend on temporal and spatial scale. Mitigation strategies will be beneficial at global level while adaptation can be beneficial at regional level (Klein  et al., 2005).

Under the   current constitutional dispensation, some forest functions were devolved to the county Governments to improvement on service delivery. But the impact is still not felt since forests are still facing degradation. Those in charge of forests at county level in Kenya, are yet to be passionate about forest conservation and obtain the required knowledge on the growth, productivity and suitability of different tree species, to avoid extinction of species.

Conclusion

Kenya faces similar problem common to any developing countries. Climate change needs to be urgently addressed by increasing resilience of the forest to improve the country’s economy. The forest sector will “need some fundamentally new approaches to address this issue” (Hamann & Wang, 2006).

Due to the rapid changes and uncertainty that are occurring in the environment such as climate change, it is vital that the Kenyan Government come up with initiatives that adapt to the extreme climate changes to promote sustainability. Proper systems should be set up both at the regional and national level for effective decision making, this is important in the process of capacity development for adaptation to climate change through Proper planning.

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Kenya Forest Service Strategic Plan 2009/2010 -2013/2014: https://theredddesk.org/countries/plans/kenya-forest-service-strategic-plan-200910-201314 Accessed, 19th June 2019

Kimani, J. N (2008). Sustainable Forest Management & Enforcement Strategies in Kenya Kishor, N. & Belle, A. (2004). Does Improved Governance Contribute to Sustainable Forest Management? The Haworth Press, Inc. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f602/8dddfb0d6e219c7fcfc62b8c44264cb57cbc.pdf Accessed, 19th June 2019

Klein, R.J.T., Huq, S., Denton, F., Downing, T.E., Richels, R.J., Robinson, J.B. & Toth, F.L. (2007). Inter-relationships between adaptation and mitigation.(Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Chang. Cambridge, U.K: Cambridge University Press

Larsson, S., Lundmark, T. & Ståhl, G. (2009). Möjlighetertill intensivodling av skog. Slutrapport från regeringsuppdrag Jo 2008/1885.Sverige Lantbruksuniversitet, Umeå. [In Swedish].

Lindner, M., Fitzgerald, J.B., Zimmermann, N.E., Reyer, C., Delzon, S., van der Maaten, E., Schelhaas, M.-J., Lasch, P., Eggers,J., van der Maaten-Theunissen, M., Suckow, F., Psomas,

A., Poulter, B. & Hanewinkel, M. (2014). Climate change and European forests: What do we know, what are the uncertainties, and what are the implications for forest management? Journal of EnvironmentalManagement, 146, pp. 69-83.

McGinley, K. & Finegan, B. (2003). The ecological sustainability of tropical forest management: evaluation of the national forest management standards of Costa Rica and Nicaragua, with emphasis on the need for adaptive management. Forest Policy and Economics No.5 p.421–431 

Millar, C.I., Stephenson, N.L. & Stephens, S.L. (2007). Climate change and forests of the future: managing in the face of uncertainty. Ecological Applications, 17(8), pp. 2145-2151.

Nilsson, U., Fahlvik, N., Johansson, U., Lundström, A. & Rosvall, O. (2011). Simulation of the effect of intensive forest management on forest production in Sweden. Forests, 2(1), pp. 373-393

Schmithüsen, F. (2002). Towards Sustainable Forest Management of Tropical Forests in West and Central Africa. Danzer Group

Sivakumar, M.,Has, H & Brunini, o. 2005. Impacts of present and future climate variability and change on agriculture and forestry in the arid and semi-arid tropics. Climatic Change, 70, 31-72.

Spittlehouse, D.L. & Stewart, R.B. (2004). Adaptation to climate change in forest management. Journal of Ecosystems and Management, 4(1).

Standard Digital Newspaper, 7th July (2019), Senator Kina stirs up Mau politics with his latest conservation bidhttps://www.standardmedia.co.ke/article/2001332881/senator-kina-stirs-up-mau-politics-with-his-latest-conservation-bid Accessed 11th July 2019

Standard Digital News Paper, April (2019), Mau Forest Politics: Chicken Coming Home to Roast, https://www.standardmedia.co.ke/article/2001319785/mau-politics-chicken-coming-home-to-roost Accessed 11th July 2019

Standard Digital News Paper, 15th May (2019),  Over 4,500 Acres of Mau recovered https://www.standardmedia.co.ke/article/2001325508/over-4-500-acres-of-mau-forest-recovered-says-official Accessed 11th July 2019

United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (2008). Sustainable Development Report on Africa Five-Year Review of the Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development Outcomes in Africa (WSSD+5)

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World Bank/WWF Alliance (2003). Establishing the Foundation for Sustainable Forest Management in Africa: Legal Origin of Timber as a Step Towards Sustainable Forest Management. Natural Resource Monitoring Services (NRMS) Sustainable Forestry Programme, Geneva

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Zbinden, S, and Lee. D., 2005 Paying for Environmental Services: An Analysis of Participation in Costa Rica’s PSA Program

 

Climate Change Adaptation Plan for the City of Melbourne

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY –

Figure 1- Significant extreme weather events experienced in Melbourne (CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION STRATEGY, 2017).

 

INTRODUCTION –

1.      OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY AREA AND MAIN CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS THE AREA IS VULNERABLE TO –

Figure 2 – Map showing the City of Melbourne

The City of Melbourne is a local government area in the central city of Melbourne in Victoria, Australia with a population of 135,959 according to the 2016 census and also has an area of 36 square kilometres and was established in 1842. Bears its council seat in the Melbourne city central.

The impressions of climate change are now being experienced at the city level. For generations the suburbs in the CoM have been moulded by cultures and people from all over the world. The City of Melbourne is made up of the Melbourne city central and a few inner suburbs which includes – Kensington, Flemington. Parkville, Carlton North, Carlton, North Melbourne, West Melbourne, Docklands, Port Melbourne, Southbank, East Melbourne, Melbourne and South Yarra. The high ambiguity in the range of possible outcomes of climate change stresses the need for immediate strategic action. Whilst global efforts in retorting to climate change are robust, the role of both private bodies and local governments in planning and executing local government actions is also highly necessary (Climatechangeinaustralia.gov.au, 2019). Local and state government bodies in Victoria are well known for their advanced agendas toward climate change resilience (Wales et al., 2012). Below is a table showing the risks and its potential impacts in the CoM.

Table 1 – Table showing the impacts of excessive rainfall in the City of Melbourne

Table 2 – Table showing impacts of heatwaves in the City of Melbourne

The above climatic conditons are to be controlled to protect the City of Melboune from the risks and the council along with various local bodies has suggested adaptation policies for the city of Melbourne. The CoM Climate Change Adaptation Strategy and supporting Action Plan reports the high-level risks of extreme weather events with the aim to reduce their imminent impacts on the city’s current and evolving conditions, including a anticipated doubling of the population to 145,000 people by the year 2030 (Rissik and Reis, 2013).

 

2.      INCREMENTAL AND TRANSFORMATIONAL ADAPTATION MEASURES TO FOSTER IMPACT-SPECIFIC AND GENERIC RESILIENCE –

The CoM was cautioned that by 2030, the city will be significantly affected by warmer temperatures and heatwaves, lower rainfall, intense storm events and flash flooding (Maunsell Australia Pty, 2009).

As already mentioned, adaptation measures affect each other (Neil Adger, Arnell and Tompkins, 2005). Hence it is essential to find measures which do not undermine other measures or intensify other climate change impacts. Idyllic are measures, which even foster each other in their effect. Furthermore, in the case of the CoM, there is a risk of a focus on the high-risk impacts, such as sea level rise, heatwaves and storm surge. Even in this case, it is important to find well-balanced measures, which do not aggravate the situation regarding other low or medium risk impacts (Neil Adger, Arnell and Tompkins, 2005).

Local government bodies have a very important role in the adaptation action (Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, 2017) –

They can have a direct impact on the shape of the built form and infrastructure used by more than 50% of the population.

Are responsible for managing prominent assets.

Have an honoured understanding of their communities through direct services they provide.

Have established connections with several local sponsors who could become influencers of climate change adaptation.

They can get a direct command from their communities to prepare for severe actions that brutally impact them and their environment.

Melbourne is a part of global community of connected cities, businesses and individuals who lead the way in climate adaptation.

The table below explains the various key challenges faced by the CoM and the adaptation measures taken to combat them and also gives an insight into the incremental adaptation and transformational adaptation measures. (Refer table 3)

 

Table 3 – Table showing the climate change risks and actions taken by the council with also an understanding of incremental adaptation (IA) and transformational adaptation (TA) measures

3.      HOW CAN THESE MEASURES BE IMPLEMENTED?

Table 4 – Table showing how the adaptation measures for the key challenge Heatwaves and extreme daily temperatures and how they can be implemented in the CoM

Table 5 – Table showing how the adaptation measures for the key challenge Intense Rainfall and how they can be implemented in the CoM

Table 6 – Table showing how the adaptation measures for the key challenge storm surges and how they can be implemented in the CoM

 

4.      OUTCOMES OF THE ADAPTATION MEASURES –

Table 7 – Positive and negative outcomes of the adaptation measures

CONCLUSION –

  This report has been prepared to outline the various climatic changes predicted by modelling the area and identifies the risks and vulnerabilities affecting the CoM. The CoM is the central hub including the CBD and also encompasses a large geographical area and supports residential areas, different business firms and tourism activities. It also unwraps the tension between the role of the council, the limited number of resources and lack of say regarding significant areas such as water and energy. The above adaptation measures bring about an incisive change for the residents of CoM. There is a must need of alliance with the other councils, governments and organizations. Climate change is a risk and thus steps have to be taken immediately by the councils and the governments to reduce the impacts of climate change.

REFERENCES –

Melbourne.vic.gov.au. (n.d.). [online] Available at: https://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/SiteCollectionDocuments/flood-emergency-plan.pdf [Accessed 5 Jun. 2019].

Melbourne.vic.gov.au. (2005). [online] Available at: https://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/SiteCollectionDocuments/10-year-financial-plan.pdf [Accessed 5 Jun. 2019].

Climate Change Adaptation Strategy. (2017). [ebook] Melbourne, VIC: melbourne.vic.gov.au. Available at: https://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/sitecollectiondocuments/climate-change-adaptation-strategy-refresh-2017.pdf.

Climatechangeinaustralia.gov.au. (2019). Climate projections. [online] Available at: https://www.climatechangeinaustralia.gov.au/en/climate-projections/ [Accessed 2 Jun. 2019].

Climatechangeinaustralia.gov.au. (2019). Climate projections. [online] Available at: https://www.climatechangeinaustralia.gov.au/en/climate-projections/ [Accessed 2 Jun. 2019].

Füssel, H. (2007). Vulnerability: A generally applicable conceptual framework for climate change research. [ebook] Potsdam, Germany. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/222425979_Vulnerability_A_generally_applicable_conceptual_framework_for_climate_change_research.

Maunsell Australia Pty (2009). Climate Change Adaptation Strategy. [ebook] Melbourne: Australia Government. Available at: https://www.melbourne.vic.gov.au/SiteCollectionDocuments/climate-change-adaptation-strategy.pdf.

Moss, R., Brenkert, A. and Malone, E. (2001). VULNERABILITY TO CLIMATE CHANGE – A Quantitative approach. [ebook] Virginia: U S Department of Energy. Available at: https://link.springer.com/article/10.10072Fs11769-008-0119-0.

Neil Adger, W., Arnell, N. and Tompkins, E. (2005). Successful adaptation to climate change across scales. Global Environmental Change, 15(2), pp.77-86.

Neil Adger, W., Arnell, N. and Tompkins, E. (2005). Successful adaptation to climate change across scales. Global Environmental Change.

Pittock, A. (2006). Climate change – Turning up the heat. 2nd ed. London ; Sterling, VA : Earthscan ; Collingwood, VIC : CSIRO.

Rissik, D. and Reis, N. (2013). Climate Change – The Adaptation Good Practice. [ebook] Melbourne: Australian Department of Industry, Innovation, Climate Change, Science, Research and Tertiary Education. Available at: https://www.nccarf.edu.au/localgov/sites/nccarf.edu.au.localgov/files/casestudies/pdf/Case%20Study_City%20of%20Melbourne%20Climate%20Change%20Adaptation%20Strategy%20and%20Action%20Plan.pdf.

Resilientmelbourne.com.au. (n.d.). Strategy Actions – Resilient Melbourne. [online] Available at: https://resilientmelbourne.com.au/strategy-actions/ [Accessed 4 Jun. 2019].

Wales, N., Khanjanasthiti, I., Savage, S. and Earl, G. (2012). Climate Change Resilience of Melbourne. [ebook] The Climate Institute. Available at: http://www.climateinstitute.org.au/verve/_resources/BondUniversity_CaseStudy_MelbournesClimateChangeResilience.pdf.

 

Standardisation vs Adaptation for Product Strategy in a Global Market

This essay aims to critically discuss the dilemma between standardisation and adaptation for product strategy when attempting to globalise a product or service. The globalisation of a company may bring very important opportunities as it would allow them to operate in multiple countries which may result in financial benefits through developing it’s turnover and economies of scale by developing activities (Kotler, 2008). However, when considering the globalisation of a company, there are many factors that need to be taken into consideration. Although many products and services can be standardised to infiltrate foreign market, this transition, more often than not, requires adjustments to the production process and the marketing mix (Hollensen, 2017). This essay will compare the standardised and adaptive strategies that companies use for elements of the marketing mix.

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Decisions with regards to products is one of the first elements a marketing manager decides on when creating a global marketing mix (Hollensen, 2017). According to Kotler (1997), there are 3 levels of a product that need to be identified, considered and developed when attempting to sell the product to an international market: core product, actual product and augmented product. It appears to be much easier to standardise the core product benefits (features, performance) unlike the augmented product (the services) which would often have to adapt to the culture and individual customers (Hollensen 2017). This raises the argument about whether or not a standardised product strategy or an adaptive product strategy works best in the attempt of globalisation.

There are many benefits to standardising a product or service when attempting globalisation. Economies of scale in product production can allow larger production runs, resulting in lower manufacturing costs by using one standardised product (Citeman, 2008) . An example of a company doing this successfully would be Samsonite as they have standardised their physical features for international product use. The physical attributes of the suitcases gave the company a chance to standardise it as consumer preferences are homogeneous with regards to travel luggage.

Another great example of product standardisation is when companies use the country-of-origin effect. This is when consumer attitudes, perceptions and purchasing decisions are influenced by the country in which a product originates and can be the sole reason a consumer purchases a product (Nagashima, 1970). It has become a key factor in gaining a competitive advantage when entering the global market (Da Silva, 1999). An example of successful standardised, ‘made-in’ strategies would be German cars, for example Volkswagen, as they are perceived to be the most durable and reliable. A further example would be French cosmetics and fragrances, for example, Givenchy and Yves Saint Laurent as they are generally perceived to be of high quality, simply because of their origin (Aichner, 2013).

A globally standardised product also raises a lot of concerns when entering into new markets. One being the cultural differences. Hofstedes 6 Dimensions of Culture explores how consumers in different cultures perceive and interpret their world and how marketers can use this for product strategy when expanding into global markets. Starbucks failed massively when they attempted to infiltrate the Israeli market whilst keeping their products standardised (Times of Israel, 2018). Israeli’s are known to have a strong coffee culture and are very specific when it comes to tastes and aroma. Starbucks products are generally much sweeter than Israeli’s prefer (Turkish Style Ground Coffee, 2018). They failed because of this and also due to their relaxed environment of coffee shops as Israel is a high uncertainty avoidance country as people are usually busy and do not have time for the social aspect of a Starbucks coffee shop (Insights, 2018).

Although the standardisation of a product may work in some circumstances when developing a global strategy, it is not often an approach that companies use due to micro and macro environmental factors. Product adaptation may not be the most cost effective, but it has shown to affect product performance positively (Calantone et al., 2004). When companies are able to take into consideration macro environmental factors and the different constraints that it includes such as language, climate, race, topography, religion, education, laws, cultures and societies  (Czinka and Ronakainen, 1998) it allows them to fully cater to their consumer by fully understanding their needs as an international market, taking their differences into account (Chung, 2009). Product adaptation allow companies to gain respect for the localisation of their products and being able to ‘tailor-make’ and product to suit the requirements of that specific culture. An example of a brand adapting it’s product successfully to suit it’s environment would be McDonald’s in India. They took their relatively standardised product (beef burgers) and were able to adapt it to suit the Indian culture by introducing tikki and chicken burgers with Indian spices, as the cow is considered a sacred animal (Roy, 2017).

Unlike standardised products, costs for product adaptation are relatively higher due to having to modify the product strategy for each individual target market. Economies of scale also does not benefit as product design and packaging would vary from market to market. An example of a company having to adapt it’s packaging to fit individual target markets and consumer preferences would be Nesquik. They very strategically adapt their product to fit the physical environmental of their target market by marketing their chocolate powder as ‘hot chocolate’ in colder countries and ‘chocolate milkshake’ in warmer countries (Sweet Press, 2013).

One example of product adaptation being unsuccessful, was when the Walt Disney Company named their new park ‘Euro Disney’ in Paris as the word ‘euro’ is a term that the French citizens associate with business and work, not pleasure as the park is intended. A strategic rename of the park to ‘Disneyland Paris’ immediately connected the park with ‘Disneyworld’ which was already perceived as he most ‘wonderful place on earth’ (Kissane, 2016).

There are a number of global companies who were able to standardise their promotion strategy through straight product extension. They were able to introduce a standardised product along with an identical promotional strategy, globally – one product with one message worldwide. One benefit in doing this, is that it can save of market research and product development. An example of this would be Cathay Pacific Airways, who kept their advertising materials identical with exception of the adaptation of English text to Japanese.

There is a constant argument about whether or not the globalisation of brands is creating a homogeneous world (BBC, 2014) which in turn leads to an increase in standardisation of the elements of the marketing mix. An example of a brand successfully adapting a global approach in their product strategy would be Coca Cola. They are arguably the most standardised company in the world (Small Business, 2018) and have the continual reinforcement of the same message throughout the world resulting in massive cost savings (BBC, 2018).

However, a localised approach to promotion and advertising strategies enables the standardised approach to be criticised for not considering the economic, cultural and social aspects of a foreign environment (Okazaki, Taylor and Doh, 2007)

Adapting the promotional strategy of a product means to leave it unchanged whilst simply fine tuning the promotional activity through understanding the cultural differences between markets and their consumers (Hollensen, 2017). A benefit of promotion adaptation would be that it is cost effective as rather than adapting a product, companies can simply adapt the promotional message. An example of this would be Ikea and how it adapts it’s catalogues to suit different cultures around the world. For example, referring to Hofstede’s Cultural Dimension Model, when targeting masculine societies where power distance is quite high such as Saudi Arabia and Israel, they need to appeal to the ‘dominant male’ family members. Women were removed from scenes because they are not the decision maker therefore would not be browsing for home furniture. (Daily Mail, 2017) They are able to use the same products, with just adapting the overall promotional message in relation to that society.

When a company operates in multiple countries, a common issue that they face is how to coordinate prices between said countries. Price standardisation is one way in

To conclude, although there is an argument that globalisation is creating a more homogeneous society, there is also a rise of individualism in countries like the United States. In turn, this means that consumers will become increasingly demanding with regards to specific product features forcing global companies to adapt their product strategy to fit cultural and environmental differences between countries.

Lipman (1988) argues against the standardisation marketing theory as using the same product strategy globally can risk in customer hesitation and enable to company to lose sight of its consumer needs. Producers should strive to create an ideal balance between both standardisation and adaptation strategies as standardisation will keep production costs low, but adaption will ensure that consumers are being satisfied in each country they trade in. 

References

Aichner, T. (2013). Country-of-origin marketing: A list of typical strategies with examples. Journal of Brand Management, [online] 21(1), pp.81-93. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/263325911_Country-of-origin_marketing_A_list_of_typical_strategies_with_examples [Accessed 1 Dec. 2018].

Calantone, R., Tamer Cavusgil, S., Schmidt, J. and Shin, G. (2004). Internationalization and the Dynamics of Product Adaptation-An Empirical Investigation. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 21(3), pp.185-198.

Chung, H. (2009). Structure of marketing decision making and international marketing standardisation strategies. European Journal of Marketing, 43(5/6), pp.794-825.

Czinkota, M. and Ronkainen, I. (1998). International Marketing. 5th ed. Fort Worth : Dryden Press.

Da Silva, R. (1999). Country of Origin and Destination Effects in Buyer Decision Making. Manchester Business School, Working paper No 392.

Hofstede Insights. (2018). Country Comparison – Hofstede Insights. [online] Available at: https://www.hofstede-insights.com/country-comparison/israel/ [Accessed 1 Dec. 2018].

Hollensen, S. (2017). Global marketing. 7th ed. Harlow [etc.]: Pearson.

Kissane, D. (2016). Branding Lessons from Disneyland Paris | DOZ. [online] DOZ. Available at: https://www.doz.com/marketing-resources/disney-paris-name-change [Accessed 3 Dec. 2018].

Kotler, P. and Armstrong, G. (2008). Principles of marketing. 5th ed. Financial Times/Prentice Hall.

Nagashima, A. (1970). A comparison of japanese and U.S. attitudes toward foreign products. The International Executive, 12(3), pp.7-8.

Rao, S. (2018). Product Standardization. [online] Citeman.com. Available at: https://www.citeman.com/3426-product-standardization.html [Accessed 1 Dec. 2018].

Roy, E. (2017). Learn to adapt your products from these 4 success stories – Trade Ready. [online] Trade Ready. Available at: http://www.tradeready.ca/2017/topics/import-export-trade-management/learn-adapt-your-products-4-success-stories [Accessed 3 Dec. 2018].

Steinberg, J. (2014). The grande coffee plan that failed. [online] Timesofisrael.com. Available at: https://www.timesofisrael.com/the-grande-coffee-plan-that-failed/ [Accessed 1 Dec. 2018].

Sweet Press. (2018). Nesquik, 50 years in Spain. [online] Available at: https://www.sweetpress.com/en/nesquik-50-anos-en-espana/ [Accessed 2 Dec. 2018].

Turkish Style Coffee. (2018). Israeli coffee culture | Mud coffee | Kosher coffee brands. [online] Available at: http://www.turkishstylegroundcoffee.com/israeli-coffee/ [Accessed 1 Dec. 2018].

 

Adaptation to Climate Change

ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE; AN ISSUE THAT MUST NOT BE OVERLOOKED
There are many compelling questions one can ask about how climate science experts and economic experts interpret the change in climate and man’s contribution to it. To argue that our earth is not warming is futile; nonetheless, the risk of trying to prevent it is very high. It is only useful if we try to adapt.
In the field of climate change, scientists denounce non-science experts claiming that these are technical questions for those who understand the theories and concepts. The controversy over whether global warming exists or not, is undoubtedly, a scientific question. However, deciding whether we should intervene, and if so, what actions to embrace is clearly not a scientific question. It is an economic question, which puts us firmly in the realm of economic experts.
For any continuing event, there are five theory responses: maximizing, inverting, preventing, adapting and ignoring. Supposing we do not want to maximize or ignore global warming, the three applicable options are reversing, prevention (known as “mitigation” in the climate change idiom) or adaptation.
Right up until the present day, the favoured option has been prevention. For a period of twenty-five years, public servants have debated only this response. Margaret Thatcher’s speech to the UN assembly (in 1989) throws light on the beginning of this approach. Later came Al Gore and Kyoto with the Stern Review adding to the list. Currently, David Cameron and Edward Miliband debate about whether or not climate change is a “national security threat” and which party is best placed to prevent this threat.

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There are good scientific reasons to believe that prevention (or even inverting) is a realistic option. Since the `90s there have been tremendous breakthroughs with our ability to reduce chlorofluorocarbons. Despite this, there are those who believe that the past twenty-five years have brainwashed us into believing that our potential and ability to prevent global warming by reducing Carbon emissions is much less compared to some Sulphur emissions and other pollutants.
These years of framing tremendous exorbitant prevention schemes only took some few degrees centigrade off global warming, in comparison with the rise of three to four degrees. This puts the minimum price of such vanity at 5 per cent of Gross Domestic Product each year, with some models recommending that the definite cost is realistically more than 20 per cent.
Scientific inclined people reply by saying we must increase our attempt to prevent global warming from advancing. However, China and India and America will disagree and in economically desolate Britain there are no chances requesting for more.
Considering prevention were realistic, policy analysis recommends it would be dreadful an idea to consider. At the moment, according to government criteria in the UK, there is difficulty in trying to get access to a global warming mitigation scheme that matches cost with benefits.
As an example, the rediscovery of the strategy for the renewal of energy having a twenty-year cost of fifty-seven billion pounds to seventy billion pounds but only benefits around four billion pounds to five billion pounds. The problem is so worse that couple of years back the guidance for the ministerial sign-off of policy impact assessments amended the strategy so that ministers no longer proclaim that their assertion that benefits will exceed costs. At the present moment, they sign to acknowledge they solely assume that benefits “justify” costs.
The few analysis that found more positive net profits, such as the Climate Change Act of 2008, reckoned a global consensus that has not been implemented. On that note, it is absurd to recommend that the UK’s doing ten times more to prevent warming proceedings could perhaps be an outstanding scheme, even though it will be possible to work. The economics of preventing global warming has simply not been up to the task.
Prior to the famous Stern Review, economic experts observing the sector thought that adapting to the change in climate patterns should be the pivotal strategy. What “adaptation” will suggest in a practical way is that we cut the risk of spending too much money, and the program will be less complicated. There are some UK Green schemes that influence the public to use extravagant energy and make them pay out incompetent immense sum of capital to cater for insulation. These Green systems also tax their traveling in ways that force them to execute reduced trade and craft which does not only hamper the growth, but also make adaptation very hard and unyielding. In the year 2012 the UK authority acquired forty-five billion pounds from fuel taxes, which corresponds to 2.9% GDP. While UK authorities evaluate green schemes will increase medium-scaled vocation invoice by thirty-eight per cent over the next sixteen years. On the contrary, the most outstanding project is by instigating GDP to allow the folks to be more prone to behaving in ways that are friendly to their habitat
Moreover, the public should not misuse their wealth, on mitigation attempts while fragmenting capital for adaptation. If the UK authorities do not have enough funds and they should opt between money for energy and money for flooding protection, it must be considered a walkover.
There is the need to investigate several ways to adapt to the warming of our globe with likely brutal climate. These strategies should change the methods of supporting our rivers by building flood defence systems, developing of crops that can be tolerant to drought and using water sources that are scarce in a more efficient manner. Adaptation would not be inexpensive or straightforward. However, it will be more attainable than prevention and will cost so much less.
Additionally, adaptation is highly safer than prevention on two significant techniques. Firstly, we do expect that global warming will not occur as we presume. Ten years earlier, scientists studying climate patterns have scuffled to explain that the temperature has not sprung in view of the late 80’s. They persist it does not make any discrepancy to their indelible tale about whether warming advancement exists, and what their consequential effects are. Moreover, perchance, it could be right. Nevertheless it makes a change to policy assessment. 
If, in 1997, it was clear that abstaining from mitigation of climate patterns could not cause any rise in temperatures, there should have been a concern to adjust the way we assess our schemes. Virtually no scheme which has no effect within three to five years is a good one to start, by virtue of how we discount our future.
Secondly, adaptation is much safer considering we only know nearly insufficient facts about prevention strategies and may suffer a great loss if they do not function, or they might develop delinquent long duration response. When we adapt only when there is a need, there is a reduction in waste of time and capital that is crucial to sustainable development. 
At the point of finality, adaptations make us prosperous and have richer tastes. It seems plausible that we can devise means that can stop global warming from getting out of hand. However, we have wasted twenty-five years in trying to prevent warming of our globe, and have merely scraped the plain. In that initiative, we have lost untold large sums of money and are planning to waste even more. We do not have to disbelief the real existence of climate change to reject the notion that adaptation is a not a good tactic. Our method of prevention has perished, adaptation is the key.

WORD COUNT: 1235
BISMARK NTIM-PEASAH KOFI

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