Agile Methodoloy Is Adaptive and Not Predictive

Agile methodoloy is adaptive and not predictive

Table of Contents

1. Abstract

2. Introduction and values of Agile

3. Principles of Agile Development

4. Agile Methodologies

5. Scrum

6. Adaptability

7. Conclusion

8. References

9. References Continued

 Technology and computers have become a fundamental part of life in the twenty-first Century, and as such there is an ever increasing need for efficient software development.  Early software development methods were often tedious and took long periods of time to complete with little room for changes. In the early two-thousands, the software engineering community came together to express their dissatisfaction with the current software development process, as it cumbersome and required excessive documentation. These software engineers wanted a new methodology that was better equipped to reduce overheads, that would afford them the opportunity to quickly respond to both internal and external customers ever changing requirements while improving product delivery time.

 A new software development approach was born, Agile.  The word agile by definition means to be able to move and think quickly and easily, and this new software development approach does just that! Agile is an umbrella term used to describe the  values, principles, and methods outlined in the Agile manifesto.

 The values of Agile are illustrated as follows: “We are uncovering better ways of developing software by doing it and helping others do it. Through this work we have come to value: Individuals and interactions over processes and tools. Working software over comprehensive documentation. Customer collaboration over contract negotiation. Responding to change over following a plan .That is, while there is value in the items on the right, we value the items on the left more. “  – (Agile Manifesto, 2001).  

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 The new agile manifesto was ground breaking, as it focused on designing quality products that gave customers a competitive advantage  – It left other software development techniques such as the waterfall cycle in the dark. The waterfall model of software development was broke up into five distinct stages that must be completed before moving onto the next. Similar to an escalator in a sense,  the waterfall model didn’t leave much room for change or backward movement. With the completion of each stage, a document had to be signed and approved by management before processing to the next stage – this made the whole process slow, and very difficult to accommodate change/adoption with the process. With the advent of the Agile model, software developers were glad to see the introduction of a new system which relied less on documentation and management, and more on the software developers , customers, and code. 

 The twelve principles of Agile development are a mindset or culture which aims to facilitate rapid change of user requirements and incremental delivery of a customized product which gives customers a competitive advantage.  The twelve principles of Agile Development are as follows:

 Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery  of valuable software. – (Agile Manifesto, 2001). 

Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Agile processes harness change for the customer’s competitive advantage. – (Agile Manifesto, 2001). 

Deliver working software frequently, from a couple of weeks to a couple of months, with a preference to the shorter timescale. – (Agile Manifesto, 2001). 

Business people and developers must work together daily throughout the project. – (Agile Manifesto, 2001).

Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment and support they need, and trust them to get the job done. – (Agile Manifesto, 2001). 

The most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and within a development team is face-to-face conversation. – (Agile Manifesto, 2001). 

Working software is the primary measure of progress. – (Agile Manifesto, 2001). 

Agile processes promote sustainable development. The sponsors, developers, and users should be able to maintain a constant pace indefinitely. – (Agile Manifesto, 2001). 

Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility – (Agile Manifesto, 2001). 

Simplicity–the art of maximizing the amount of work not done–is essential – (Agile Manifesto, 2001). 

The best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self-organizing teams – (Agile Manifesto, 2001). 

At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behaviour accordingly– (Agile Manifesto, 2001). 

  There are several Agile methodologies that all adhere to the values and principles of the agile manifesto.  One of the most commonly used adaptive methods of Agile development  are Scrum and Extreme Programming, but for the purposes of this paper I will examine Scrums adaptability.

 Scrum is a framework that focuses on the iterative management of a project. Scrum often delivers the highest business value in the shortest time, making Scrum highly adaptable.   The core competencies of Scrum can be broken down into pillars, teams, events, and artefacts, all of which make scrum inevitably adaptable.

The three pillars of Scrum are:

Transparency:

 Transparency is essential  in any business process, and enables everyone to better comprehend  what is currently happening in each sprint cycle between cross functional teams. Transparency is achieved through informal cross cultural communication between teams on a daily basis, and also with the setting of sprint goals and objectives. This transparency and consistent communication is one of the factors that make agile development, and scrum truly adaptable. When teams are constantly communicating, they are better able to understand what is required from each other, and the customer. 

Inspection

 The inspection cycle gives development teams the opportunity to measure progress against the product backlog, sprint goals, and objectives during daily scrum meetings and at the end of sprint cycles. These meetings are vital as teams can show the product to customers, and get valuable feedback to further clarify the customers’ requirements, all while maintaining the customers competitive advantage.

Adaptation

Adaptation refers to the Scrum teams ability to adapt  after the outcome of an inspection or a completed sprint. This is a very important variable that attributes to Scrums adaptability, as it poses the questions of what did you do well, what will you do well next, and what may stand in your way. These questions are fundamental in improving internal and external customers overall satisfaction levels.

 Scrum Process  

 A Scrum team comprises of three individuals called the Product Owner, Development Team, and Scrum Master.  The Product Owner, Customer, identifies the product and a specific list of features and requirements required during needs analysis. This prioritized list is referred to as the product backlog. Another document called a Burndown chart is created, and this graph illustrates how much work is remaining on the project versus time. The Product Owner is responsible for ensuring the product backlog is kept up to date, and is aware of all the latest trends and advancements in the software’s current marketplace.

 The Scrum team, developers, then meet with the product owner and take manageable pieces of the product backlog, and implement it into a software increment called a sprint backlog.  The sprint backlog task should be finished by the end of each sprint cycle, which is usually between two and four weeks. By the end of this sprint cycle the product owner will receive a ready and tested piece of software, then the Scrum team moves onto the next deliverable within the Product backlog.

 The Scrum team and Scrum Master meet every day for about fifteen minutes in what’s known as a Scrum. The Scrum Master will guide this meeting to review progress and keep up to date with the ever changing needs of the Product Owner.  These daily meetings guarantee that everyone knows what’s going on and afford the team the opportunity to re-plan at a moment’s notice if necessary.  The Scrum Master is responsible for safeguarding the scrums progress by tracking the backlog of work to be done, and facilitating  effective communication between the Product Owner, Scrum and management. The Scrum Master also shelters the development team from unnecessary distractions, which may hinder progress. It is through the Scrum Masters diligent management of all parties that enable the Scrum to become adaptable.

 At the end of each sprint cycle a review is conducted. The Development team and Scrum Master receive feedback from the product owner regarding the previous sprint cycle, and software deliverable.  These sprint reviews are an excellent way of validating exactly what the customer really wants, and provides the Scrum team with the opportunity to adapt to users requirements after showcasing the product in an informal meeting.  The Scrum Master and Development Team will also hold a retrospective meeting concentrating on what worked well in the previous sprint cycle, and identify the items that could be improved upon. These meetings are designed to specifically help the scrum team to improve, the essence of Agile is constant improvement.

Below is a Diagram of the Scrum

 “The need for adaptability has never been greater than it is now. The ability for people, teams and organizations to adapt to changes in their environments, stay relevant and avoid obsolescence is the defining characteristic between success and failure, growth and stagnation, business and bankruptcy” – (Jeff Boss, 2015)

 According to Jeff Boss, 2015, change is inevitable, and we must adapt if we are to survive.  The word agile is synonymous with adaptability.  Agile is driving change throughout organisations, from the Human Resources department to Information Technology. Another key thing to remember is the initial costs of establishing a tech company are very little nowadays, with this in mind it is important that tech companies can adapt quickly to their customers’ needs to achieve a competitive advantage over rivals.

 People are at the heart of every organisation. As seen with Scrum,  teams are empowered to identify, define, and work on their own opportunities, and shortcomings through daily meetings. Above all these daily meetings are invaluable as it provides team members with the opportunity to adapt. The ability to adapt is what makes Agile so versatile.

 The agile methodology of Scrum sparks innovation and creativity, and is made possible by  the Scrum Masters motivational skills.  The Scrum Master lets the development team to their own devices when it comes to coding, quite often the Scrum Master will tell the developers to innovate but will not say how. This freedom presents development teams with the opportunity to stay current with the best programming practices and languages.  Agile and Scrum focus on people and empowers people to succeed by giving them freedom to be adaptable and intuitive with their work.

 Agile is a relatively simple concept which involves scaffolding or the incremental development of software. Agile developers are accepting of the fact that user requirements are going to change, and involves continuous improvements as the products develops.  At its very core Agile is an adaptive development mindset that delivers customer focused value.

 Agile methodologies are becoming increasingly more popular over traditional based software development methodologies, such as the waterfall approach.  Traditional software methods are not well equipped to deal with the constant change of user requirements and are typically more linear when it comes to the completion of phases. With traditional software methods, phases must be completed in sequential order before moving onto the next.  This regimental approach to software development doesn’t facilitate change or collaboration with customers or stakeholders, and is another reason why agile methodologies out trumps traditional based approaches.

 With Agile methodologies such as scrum, the customer is directly involved with the project from the get go and can set deliverables. Customers input is welcomed and they can make decisions and changes at the end of sprint cycles, as supposed to waterfall cycle where changes would require the entire system to be redesigned.  

 The time to market is minimized with Agile, as the customer receives a basic working piece of software that can be built on. In contrast the waterfall model, deliverables are only made available at the end of the project.

 

Agile Manifesto. (2001) [Online].

From https://agilemanifesto.org/ [ accessed 07 January 2019]

Principles of Agile. (2001) [Online]

From https://agilemanifesto.org/principles.html [ accessed 07 January 2019]

Title: Agile Software Development with Scrum

Authors: Ken Schwaver and Mike Beedle

Edition:  October 2001

ISBN: 9780130676344

Publisher: Pearson

Putting the Service-Profit Chain to Work. ( May-June 2008) [Online]

James L. Heskett, Thomas O.Jones, Gary W. Loveman, W. Earl Sasser, Jr , Leonard A.  Schelsinger.

From https://hbr.org/2008/07/putting-the-service-profit-chain-to-work

[ accessed 11th Jan 2019]

Adaptability: The New Competitive Advantage  ( May – June 2011) [Online]

Martin Reeves, Mike Deimler

From https://hbr.org/2011/07/adaptability-the-new-competitive-advantage

 [ accessed 11th January 2019]

Title:   Software Engineering

Authors: Ian Sommerville

Edition: 10th Edition, April 2015

Publisher: Pearson

ISBN: 0133943038

 

 

 

 

An Adaptive Bilateral Negotiation Strategy

ABSTRACT

Automated negotiation deals with multiple autonomous agents, where the agents adapt their behaviour depending on the characteristics of other agents and scenarios and reach an agreement. In this paper, we propose the agent named Lightspeed, which can make active negotiations against many different opponents. Our agent employs the time-dependent strategy to compute target utility and also keep track of the opponent’s bid to propose an optimal offer based on their most preferred proposal.                        

1.     INTRODUCTION

The negotiation is based on SOAP(Stacked alternating offers protocol) between two agents (i.e. Bilateral negotiation). According to the protocol, each participant gets the chance to accept, reject or counter offer the bid the other agent is proposing. Agents should accept the offer before the deadline to reach an agreement, or else the negotiation fails [1].

Comparatively to BOA (bidding strategy, opponent model and acceptance strategy) architecture, lightspeed agent makes use of simple opponent modelling by considering the previous offers proposed by the opponent. But to make the proposals, it follows the time-dependent strategy.

2.     AGENT DESIGN

Lightspeed agent deals with preference uncertainty that is the agent will have partial information about the bid space. So to estimate the utility we can override the estimateUtilitySpace function which uses simple counting heuristics to approximate the utility function. This function returns the AbstractUtilitySpace object which is created using the domain and the bid ranking. The ranking of the bid is from low to high utility.

2.1     Bidding Strategy

After the init method is called the receive message method is initiated internally by GENIUS. The functionality of this method is depicted in Algorithm 1. Whenever the opponent is making an offer, it is compared with threshold utility, if the utility is above threshold utility then store the bid in Tree-Map data structure. Then the action is chosen to accept, reject or counter offer the bid based on the algorithm

Algorithm 1 Receive offer from the opponent

1: Input: Opponent’s offer

2: Output: Inject the opponent bid to bid tree

3: Begin

4: if the sender is making an offer

5: OpponentBid ← get the bid from the opponent’s offer

6: if utility of OpponentBid >= thresholdUtility

7: bidSpaceMap ← search for an opponent’s utility bucket in the tree

8: if bidSpaceMap contains utility

9: sb ← update the opponent’s bid

10: else create the new utility bucket and store the bid in bidSpaceMap tree

11: else ignore the opponent’s bid

12: End

2.2     Acceptance strategy

If the utility of the bid proposed by the opponent is higher than the lightspeed’s accepted utility (i.e., target utility) at the time of concession lightspeed agrees the utility and the negotiation ends. The algorithm 2 depicts the acceptance condition.

Algorithm 2 Acceptance of the bid

1: Input: the last received bid of the opponent

2: output: Accept or reject the bid

3: Begin

4: if utility of opponentBid >= acceptUtility

5: return Accept

6: else return reject //And counter-offer bid

7: End

2.3     Time-dependent strategy

Lightspeed agent depends on time-dependent tactics to counter offer the bid which calculates a target utility at each turn according to the current time t. The decision function provides the bid depending on the time with the utility closest to [2-3].

u(t) = Pmin + (Pmax − Pmin) · (1 − F(t)),

where 

F(t) = k + (1 − k) · t1/e

The value of Pmin relates threshold utility, and Pmax relates to maximum bid which is obtained from the negotiation settings. The constants k = 0 determines the first proposal, and the decay rate e is chosen randomly for conceding. For 0 > 1 the agent concedes quickly. It is called Conceder [4]. The algorithm 3 shows the calculation to generate the target utility and to construct the best bid.

Algorithm 3 Construct the bid

1: Input: maxUtility, thresholdUtility, decayRate

2: output: my best bid

3: Begin

4: k ← 0, e ← decayRate

5: while the bid is not null do

6: timeElapsed ← get the time from timeLine

7: f_t ← k +(1 – k)* t1/e

8:  u_t ← thresholdUtility + (maxUtility – thresholdUtility)*(1 – f_t)

9:  acceptUtility ← round of u_t

10:  if bidSpaceMap tree contains targetUtility

11: subtree ← get the sorted most occurred utility leaf node

12:  sb ← counteroffer the random bid from the subtree

13: return the bid from sb

14: else generate the randomBid which has the utility greater than equal to target utility

15: End

The challenge is to make the negotiation successful by knowing about the opponent and propose an offer based on the opponent bid. The good opponent model improves the quality of negotiation by reaching win-win agreements [7-8], reduce the cost by disagreement. The bidding strategy differs by keeping track of the opponent’s bid and offer the best bid from similarly preferred opponent’s bid [5-6]. Inspired by the frequency model [9], the opponent bid and its round off utility are stored in the tree in the sorted order. From the table 1, we can conclude that utility 0.7 has the frequency two, so when the target utility is above 0.69 the utility of counteroffered bid will be 0.7 which is most prefered by the opponent. Now consider the agents are dealing with party domain, Lightspeed agent stores utility of opponent bid which is greater than the threshold value (i.e., 0.65). When the agent’s target utility (i.e., 0.82) is noted in utility keys at the time of concession the Lightspeed counteroffer a random bid from the bid tree whose utility is greater than or equal to 0.82. This functionality is defined in algorithm 3.

Table 1. Results of competition with the frequency of offered bid.

Target-util

utility-keys

List info

counter offer Bid

0.82

[0.66, 0.7, 0.82]

[Bid List size: 1, Bid List size: 2, Bid List size: 1]

[Food: Catering, Drinks: Beer Only, Location: Party Room, Invitations: Plain, Music: MP3, Cleanup: Water and Soap]

At the same time, when the target utility is not listed in utility keys, then counter offer the random bid whose utility should be greater than or equal to the target utility. From table 2, the target utility is 0.83, but it is not listed in the bid tree list of utility keys. So the generated random bid has the utility 0.86 which is more than the target value. So like AgentK, Lightspeed also proposes bid randomly which is above the target utility [10].

Table 2. Results of competition with random bid utility greater than target utility.

target-util

utility-keys

Random bid utility

counter offer Bid

0.83

[0.66, 0.82]

0.86

[Food: Catering, Drinks: Handmade Cocktails, Location: Party Room, Invitations: Custom, Printed, Music: MP3, Cleanup: Specialized Materials]

3.     EXPERIMENTS AND ANALYSIS

In this section, we analyze the performance of the lightspeed agent with different domains, preference uncertainty and distance measure with the Nash bargaining solution. Figure 1 shows the results of the experimenting agent by plotting average individual utility against different domains. From the experiments, it is noticed that the utility decreases when there is an increase in domain size.

Figure 1. Results between agents with various domain sizes.

While experimenting with various preference uncertainty, the results from figure 2 show that with low uncertainty (i.e., three-fourths of the bid space is known) of lower domain size the utility is 1. But with higher uncertainty (i.e., only one-fourth of the bid space is known) and higher domain size, the average utility becomes much less when compared to others. Table 3 summarizes the result. So the agent gets higher utility when it deals with lower uncertainty.

Table 3. Results of different domain size with various uncertainty.

Domain

Low_uncertainity

Medium_uncertainity

High_uncertainity

Politics

0.817918

0.7710178

0.753179

Wind_farm

0.706477

0.79346

0.751493

New_sporthal

1

0.97816

0.932877

Figure 2. Results of agents performance against low, high and medium uncertainty.

From figure 3 we can conclude that Lightspeed agent is thriving with a lower distance of agreement with Nash bargaining solution in smaller size domain, but gradually the distance increases when there is an increase in domain size and the success rate also falls under the larger domain. When the lightspeed agent is compared with Agent 8, the distance is higher for our agent because Agent 8 may have a stronger opponent modelling strategy with better heuristics.

Figure 3. Results of domain distance against successful agreements.

4.     CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK

In this paper, we have proposed the lightspeed that is an automated negotiating agent based on SOAP protocol. The negotiation is between two agents if both agents accept the bid they reach an agreement. Lightspeed agent follows the time-dependent strategy to estimate the target utility and propose the bid based on the proposed opponent’s bid whose utility is higher than the threshold utility if that target utility is not listed in utility bucket then offer the bid randomly with utility greater than or equal to target utility. It also accepts the opponent bid when the opponent bid’s utility is greater than the lightspeed agents accept utility.

Our agents have some deficiencies, so the solutions to improve the performance of lightspeed agent is discussed in this section. The threshold utility is hardcoded in our program. So this can be improved by first setting the threshold utility to some best utility and gradually decrease over time will help the agents to make agreements in less duration. The utility bucket to store the bid and with its utility is hardcoded to 100. There arises the memory issue when it crosses 100, and if the list of the utility is small, it doesn’t require 100 buckets. So assigning the buckets optimally by incrementing the bucket size when it is needed is the best approach to avoid memory issue. Then the decay rate for conceding is generated randomly at first and uses the same rate till the end. So this can be improved by starting with Boulware strategy, and over time this can be changed into conceder strategy which makes opponent learn our agent’s behaviour. At last, while counter-offering the bid from the tree which contains the history bid of the opponent, we are proposing the same bid repeatedly according to that target utility. So we can keep track of frequently offered issue values and submit the bid with that values can improve our agent.

5.     REFERENCES

[1]     R. Aydo ˘gan, D. Festen, K.V. Hindriks, C.M. Jonker, Alternating offers protocols for multilateral negotiation, in Modern Approaches to Agent-Based Complex Automated Negotiation, ed. by K. Fujita, Q. Bai, T. Ito, M. Zhang, R. Hadfi, F. Ren, R. Aydo ˘gan

[2]     WellmanMP,Wurman PR, Kevin O, Roshan B, de Lin S, Reeves D,WalshWE (2001) Designing the market game for a trading agent competition. IEEE Internet Comput 5(2):43–51

[3]      Rogers AD, Dash RK, Ramchurn SD, Perukrishnen V, Jennings Nicholas R (2007) Coordinating team players within a noisy iterated prisoner’s dilemma tournament. Theor Comput Sci 377(1–3):243–259

[4]      Towards a Quantitative Concession-Based Classification Method of Negotiation Strategies Tim Baarslag, Koen Hindriks, and Catholijn Jonker Man Machine Interaction Group Delft University of Technology {T.Baarslag,K.V.Hindriks,C.M.Jonker}@tudelft.nl

[5]      Baarslag T, Hindriks KV, Jonker CM (2013) A tit for tat negotiation strategy for real-time bilateral negotiations. In: Ito T, Zhang M, Robu V, Matsuo T (eds) Complex automated negotiations: theories, models, and software competitions. Studies in computational intelligence, vol 435. Springer, Berlin, pp 229–233

[6]      Williams CR, Robu V, Gerding EH, Jennings NR (2012) Iamhaggler: a negotiation agent for complex environments. In: Ito T, Zhang M, Robu V, Fatima S, Matsuo T (eds) New trends in agent-based complex automated negotiations. Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer, Berlin, pp 151–158

[7]      Jazayeriy, H., Azmi-Murad, M., Sulaiman, N., & Udizir, N. I. (2011). The learning of an opponent’s approximate preferences in bilateral automated negotiation. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Electronic Commerce Research, 6(3), 65–84.

[8]      Lin, R., Kraus, S., Wilkenfeld, J., & Barry, J. (2006). An automated agent for bilateral negotiation with bounded rational agents with incomplete information. In Proceedings of the 2006 conference on ECAI 2006: 17th European conference on artificial intelligence (pp. 270–274). The Netherlands: Amsterdam.

[9]      Hao, J. & Leung, H.-F. (2012). ABiNeS: An adaptive bilateral negotiating strategy over multiple items. In Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE/WIC/ACM international joint conferences on web intelligence and intelligent agent technology WI-IAT’12 (Vol. 2, pp. 95–102).Washington, DC: IEEE Computer Society.

[10]   Kawaguchi S, Fujita K, Ito T (2012) AgentK: compromising strategy based on estimated maximum utility for automated negotiating agents. In: Ito T, Zhang M, Robu V, Fatima S, Matsuo T (eds) New trends in agent-based complex automated negotiations, Studies in computational intelligence, vol 383. Springer, Berlin, pp 137–144

Beamforming Algorithm for Adaptive or Smart Antenna

*Satgur Singh, **Er. Mandeep kaur

 
Abstract — The Demand of Mobile Communication systems is increasing day by day. New concepts and methods are necessary which required the need for new Technologies to satisfy the demand of this world of network. Smart Antenna system is one of those, which reduces the co-channel interference and maximize the user capacity of communication system, By shaping and locating the beam of the antenna on the mobile or the target thus decreasing interference to other users. The Main purpose of smart antenna system is the selection of smart algorithms for adaptive array. By using beam forming algorithms the weight of antenna arrays can be adjusted to form certain amount of adaptive beam to track corresponding users automatically and to minimize interference arising from other users by introducing nulls in their directions. Thus interferences can be suppressed and the desired signals can be extracted. Many algorithms are introduced due to advancement in technology. Every algorithms has different convergence characteristics and complexity of algorithm, according to our need we use particular algorithm in communication system.
Keywords — Smart Antenna, LMS (Least mean square), RLS (Recursive least square), NLMS (Normalized Least Mean Square), Sample Matrix Inversion (SMI), Constant Modulus Algorithm (CMA), VSSNLMS (Variable step size NLMS).
I. INTRODUCTION:
Conventional base station antennas in existing communication systems are either Omni directional or sectorised. There is waste of resources since the majority of transmitted signal power radiates in directions other than the desired user directions and signal power radiated through the Cell area will be interference by any other user than the desired one. Signal power radiated throughout the cell area will increase interference and reduce SNR. Although sector antenna decreases the interference by dividing entire cell into sector, But some levels of interface still exist.

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To overcome the above problem of the communication system the Smart antenna introduced. Smart Antenna system combines an antenna array with a digital signal-processing capability to transmit and receive in an adaptive manner. Such a configuration technically enhances the capacity of a wireless link through a combination of diversity gain, array gain and interference reduction. Increased capacity translates to higher data rates for a given number of users or more users for a given data rate per user.
In other manner, the system which can automatically change the directionality of its radiation patterns in response to its signal environment. By this manner, increase the performance characteristics (such as capacity) of a wireless system. All elements of the

Fig 1: Block Diagram of Smart Antenna System
adaptive antenna array have to be combined in order to adapt to the current channel and user. A Smart antenna is therefore a phased or adaptive array that adjusts to the environment that is, for the adaptive array, the beam pattern changes as the desired user and the interference move and for the phased array the beam is steered or different beams is selected as the desired user moves. This weight adaptation is the “smart” part of the smart antenna system. It is possible to investigate a wide range of beam forming algorithms without the need to modify the system hardware for every algorithm. For this, now we are focusing on improving the performance of the beam forming algorithms rather than on designing new hardware, which is very expensive and time consumption. There are many algorithms for beamforming concept ,Every algorithm has its own merits and demerits ,according to our need we use that algorithm which satisfies our need,which are given below:-
II) BEAMFORMING TECHNIQUES:-
A) Least Mean Square Algorithm:
This algorithm was first developed by Widrow and Hoff in 1960. Shahera HOSSAIN et al.(2008)[ ] proposed that LMS is a gradient based technique where in a quadratic performance surface is assumed. The performance surface that is cost function can be established by finding the Mean Square Error (MSE). The cost function is a quadratic function of the weight vector w. The minimum of the performance surface is reached when the MSE tends to its minimum value & this is made possible by finding out the gradient of MSE with respect to weight vectors & equating it to zero. The Weights of adaptive antenna are adjusted in the negative direction of the gradient to minimize the error. In LMS, the weights are updated using,
w(k+1) = w(k)+ μ e*(k)x(k)
whereas e(k) =d(k) – wH (k)x(k)
μ=Step size that determines the speed of convergence of LMS algorithm.
The weights here will be computed using LMS algorithm based on Minimum Squared Error (MSE).
y(n)=wH (n)x(n)
e(n) =d(n) −y(n)
w (k+1) = w(k)+ μ e*(k)x(k)…
step size μ is a positive real-valued constant which controls the size of the incremental correction applied to the weight vector as we proceed from one iteration cycle to the next.
The performance of the algorithm depends on the step size parameter, which controls the convergence speed. The LMS algorithm is initiated with an arbitrary value W(0) for the weight vector at n= [1], [6], [23], [25].
For the weight vector is seen to converge and stay stable for
0max
Whereas λmax is the maximum eigen value of the matrix R.
The Response of the LMS algorithm is determined by three principal factors step-size parameter, number of weights, and Eigen value of the correlation matrix of the input data vector. The LMS Algorithm has many drawbacks which are solved by other algorithm.
B) Sample Matrix Inversion (SMI) Algorithm:
T.B. LAVATE et al.(2010) [5]proposed that LMS algorithm is slow in convergence & not suitable for mobile communication & this drawback of LMS is eliminated by sample matrix inversion (SMI) method. The sample matrix is a time average estimate of the array co-relation matrix using K time samples. If the random process is ergodic in the co-relation the time average estimate will equal the actual co-relation matrix .If we use a K-length block of data & we define the matrix Xk(k) as the kth block of x vectors ranging over K data snapshots, the time average estimate of array co-relation matrix is,
R=XK(k) XKH (k)/K
And the time average estimate of the co-relation vector is,
r= d*(k) XK(k)/K……
The SMI weights for kth block of length K as
WSMI = R-1r
WSMI = [ XK(k) XKH H (k)]-1 d*(k) XK(k)
From equation (4) it is seen that the weights of the antenna array will be updated for each incoming block of data.
C) NLMS (Normalized Least Mean Square) Algoritm:
Shahera HOSSAIN et al.(2008)[4] proposed ,the Normalized least-mean-square (NLMS) algorithm, which is also known as the projection algorithm, is a useful method for adapting the coefficients of a finite-impulse response (FIR) filter for a number of signal processing and control applications. It can persist over a wide range of step-sizes. Theoretically, LMS method is the most basic method for calculating the weight vectors. However, in practice, an improved LMS method, the Normalized-LMS (NLMS) is used to achieve stable calculation and faster convergence. The NLMS algorithm can be formulated as a natural modification of the LMS algorithm based on stochastic gradient algorithm
Gradient noise amplification problem occurs in the standard form of LMS algorithm. This is because the product vector xne*nin Equation (11) at iteration, n applied to the weight vector wnis directly proportional to the input vector xn. This can be solved by normalized the product vector at iteration
n 1 with the square Euclidean norm of the input vector xnat iteration n. The final weight vector can be updated by,
W(n+1)= w(n)+ μ/||x(n)2.x(n) e*(n)
Where the NLMS algorithm reduces the step size μ to make the large changes in the update weight vectors.This prevents the update weight vectors from diverging and makes the algorithm more stable and faster converging than when a fixed step size is used. Equation ( ) represents the normalized version of LMS (NLMS), because step size is divided by the norm of the input signal to avoid gradient noise amplification due to x(n) [ ]
Sometimes x(k) which is the Input signal becomes very small which may cause W(K + 1) to be unbounded. However, to avoid this situation; σ which is a constant value is added to the denominator which made the NLMS algorithm be described as
W(n+1)= w(n)+ μ/||σ + x(n)2||.x(n) e*(n)
we can conclude that NLMS has a better performance than LMS algorithm.
D) Constant Modulus Algorithm
Susmita Das [8]proposed that the configuration of CMA adaptive beamforming is the same as that of the Sample Matrix Inversion system except that it requires no reference signal. It is a gradient-based algorithm that works on the theory that the existence of interference causes changes in the amplitude of the transmitted signal, which otherwise has a constant envelope (modulus). The minimum shift key (MSK) signal, for example,is a signal that has the property of a constant modulus .The weight is updated by the equation
W(n+1)=W(n)+ µx(n)e(n)*
where µ is the step-size parameter(n) is the input vector,and
e(n)=y(n)(R2-|Y(n)|2
where R2=E.[X(n)]4/[X(n)]2 ………….
D) RLS ALGORITHM
In Recursive least square (RLS) algorithm, the weights are updated by the following equation.
W(n)=W(n −1)+K(n)ζ* (n) n=1,2,……
Where, K(n) is referred to as the gain vector and ζ (n) is a priori estimation error which is given by the equation:
ζ (n)=d(n)-w(n-1)x(n)The RLS algorithm does not require any matrix inversion computations as the inverse correlation matrix is computed directly. It requires reference signal and correlation matrix information.
E) VSSNLMS(Variable step size NLMS) Algorithm:
Ali Hakam et al.(2014) proposed that the main aim of the developed Variable Step Size (VSS) NLMS algorithm is to replace the fixed step size μ that is used in NLMS by a variable one. This is to avoid a trade-off issue between convergence rate and steady-state MSE. In this algorithm a large step size is used in the initial stages to speed the rate of convergence and a smaller step size is used near to the steady state of the Mean Square Error (MSE) to obtain an optimum value. To achieve this, μ is multiplied by P(k) which is randomly chosen from the uniform distribution [0 1]
and each time of the N iteration times. Then to control the variable step value, it is multiplied by a curve function that is
as follows:

ζ(k) = (6/N)2[(K-(N/6)]2+0.001 1≤k≤N/6
.001 N/6Where N is the input signal number.
By Multiplying equation (9) by the random numbers P(k) and the normalized step size
parameter µ, the variable step size develops to:
µ(K) = P(K) ζ(K) µ
Substituting the variable step size (10) to the conventional fixed step size NLMS algorithm (8), the proposed algorithm is shown as:
W(k+1)=W(K)+µ(K)e(K)x(k)/σ+ ||x(K)||
TABLE
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT ALGORITHMS

LMS

Easily implemented method for on-line estimation of time-varying system parameters.
The performance of the algorithm depends on the step size parameter, which controls the convergence speed and the variation of the learning curve.The LMS algorithm do not involve any matrix operations.

LMS algorithm is least demanding in computational complexity.
Simplicity and ease of computation
It does not require off-line gradient
estimations or repetition of data.

The rate of convergence is slow for a small value of μ but this gives a good estimation
of the gradient vector since a large amount of data is
taken into account. The algorithm requires knowledge
of the transmitted signal sending periodically some known pilot sequences that is known to the receiver

RLS

It requires reference signal and correlation matrix
Information
The RLS
algorithm also converges much more quickly than the LMS
algorithm

RLS algorithm does not require any matrix inversion
computations as the inverse correlation matrix is computed
directly

the
computational
complexity
hasbeen increased.

CMA

works on the theory that the existence of
interference causes changes in the amplitude of the
transmitted signal, which otherwise has a constant envelope
(modulus)

usefulness of CMA when channel conditions are rapidly changing.

disadvantage of the CMA is slow convergence
time. The slow converges limits the usefulness of the
algorithm in
the dynamic
environment

NLMS

known as the projection
algorithm, is a useful method for adapting the
coefficients of a finite-impulse response (FIR) filter for
a number of signal processing and control applications.
It can persist over a wide range of step-sizes.

Normalized LMS(NLMS) is used to achieve stable calculation and faster convergence.
prevents the update weight vectors from diverging
and makes the algorithm more stable and faster
converging than when a fixed step size is used.

NLMS algorithm
requires a minimum of one additional multiply, divide,
and addition over the LMS algorithm to implement for
shift – input data.

IV) APPLICATIONS:
Use of adaptive antenna in existing systems will reduce power consumption and interference while enhancing spectral density in wireless system which is the need of wireless communication systems.
V) CONCLUSION:
Smart Antenna systems are antennas with intelligence and the radiation pattern can be varied without any mechanically changed. The principle reason for the growing interest in smart antenna systems is the capacity increase and low power consumption. Smart antennas will increase the SIR by simultaneously increasing the useful received signal level and lowering the interference level.
VI) REFERENCES:
[1] Ali Hakam, Raed Shubair, Shihab Jimaa, and Ehab Salahat,”Robust Interference Suppression Using a New LMS Based Adaptive Beamforming Algorithm” in 17th IEEE Mediterranean ElectrotechnicalConference,Beirut,Lebanon,13-16 April 2014.
[2] H. Takekawa,T. Shimamura and S. Jimaa, “An efficient and effective variable step size NLMS algorithm,” in 42nd Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers, October, 2008.
[3] Leandro Vieira dos Santos, Jacqueline Silva Pereira,”Least Mean Square Algorithm Analysis for a High Capacity Mobile Long Term Evolution Network” IEEE 2013.
[4] Shahera HOSSAIN, Mohammad Tariqul ISLAM and Seiichi SERIKAWA,” Adaptive Beamforming Algorithms for Smart Antenna Systems”,International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems 2008,Oct. 14-17, 2008 in COEX, Seoul, Korea.
[5] T.B. Lavate, V.K. Kokate, G.S. Mani,” Non blind and blind adaptive array smart antenna beam forming algorithams for w-cdma mobile communication systems “,Second International Conference on Computer Engineering and Applications,2008.
[6] Vishal V Sawant,Mahesh Chavan,”Performance of Beamforming for Smart antenna using Traditional LMS algorithm for various parameters”,Proceedings of the 2013 International Conference on Electronics, Signal Processing and Communication Systems.
[7] Haitao Liu, Steven Gao, and Tian-Hong Loh,”Small Director Array for Low-Profile Smart Antennas Achieving Higher Gain”,IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 61, no. 1, January 2013.
[8] Susmita Das, IEEE Member,”Smart Antenna Design for Wireless Communication using Adaptive Beam-forming Approach”
[9] Anurag Shivam Prasad, Sandeep Vasudevan , Selvalakshmi R,” Analysis of Adaptive Algorithms for Digital Beamforming in Smart Antennas”IEEE-International Conference on Recent Trends in Information Technology, ICRTIT MIT, Anna University, Chennai. June 3-5, 2011
 

Adaptive Redesign for Jose Marti Park

Due to climate change, global natural disasters are becoming more frequent and intense, sea levels rise, extreme weather and floods occur frequently, and become natural disasters, causing massive loss of life and damage to private property and public infrastructure. (Blackmore et al., 2008) In September 2018, the hurricane of Florence hit the east coast of the United States. Strong winds, heavy rains, and severe floods have caused serious damage to the southeast coast of the United States. (Reuters, 2018) In October of the same year, Hurricane “Michael” landed in Florida. The squally winds and heavy rains caused enormous damage to the states in the southeastern United States, killing at least 18 people and affecting more than 700,000 families. Economic losses amount to tens of billions of dollars. (Berman et al., 2018) And after the hurricane, it often caused serious flooding problems for coastal cities such as Miami, posing a huge threat to people’s lives. Today, however, the frequent flooding problems caused by climate change, rising sea levels and extreme weather make people increasingly skeptical about the long-term effectiveness and reliability of static infrastructure. With the popularity and acceptance of the concepts of resilience and damage control, a flexible horizontal approach tends to replace flooding protection infrastructure. (Rossano, 2015) People gradually realize that cities must continually improve their resilience to flooding in order to reduce the risks, improve the ecological environment and promote human health and well-being. (Rossano, 2015) This article will take Jose Marti Park as an example to explore future solutions for coastal parks to cope with and adapt to frequent flooding problems and find specific implementation measures to achieve the transition from the rigid antagonism of “hard” engineering to the elastic adaptation of “soft” engineering. This manifesto outlines River First, Room for the River, Live with Flooding, Multiple Use, and Multi-level comprehensive flood control to help Miami satisfy the current and future demands of various residents while making the city more sustainable, resilient and attractive.

 

Jose Marti Park

Jose Marti Park is located at 351 SW Fourth St., adjacent to the Miami River, in the shadow of the I-95. It’s only a few minutes from the hustle and bustle of downtown Miami. (Miami, n.d.) Jose Marti Park locates above sea level and regularly threatened by flooding problems. (Van Alen, n.d.) Leisure facilities in the park include indoor and outdoor basketball courts, indoor gymnasiums, entertainment buildings, picnic tables and etc. (Janet, 2019)

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Because of the topography, the lack of drainage and the impermeable pavement, the park is vulnerable to flooding and heavy rain from the Miami River during the flooding season, which poses a severe challenge to the surrounding low-level coastal communities and the entire south Florida region. (Janet, 2019) Additionally, due to the urban expansion, the shortage supply of the land resource, many buildings invade the waterfront space, destroying the ecological environment of the waterfront, and hindering the development of landscape planning and design of urban waterfront areas. (Janet, 2019) In the development and design of the park, the straightening of the river bank, the concrete reinforcement, and the heavy use of hard pavement in the park hindered the self-repair function of the river and park, destroyed the natural ecological process, and the water seepage function of the land decreased. As a result of that, the frequency and intensity of flood disasters greatly increase. (Van Alen, n.d.)

From the rigid antagonism of “hard” engineering to the elastic adaptation of “soft” engineering

For centuries, the rigid antagonism of “hard” projects has been the main solution to control drainage and flooding. (Rossano, 2015) For example, in some flooding control projects, the levees of heavy-duty construction of reinforced concrete are used to cut and straighten rivers in order to quickly drain river water. However, the floodplain and the natural riverbed disappeared and the rich habitats on both river sides were destroyed. The destructive power of the flood was strengthened, the pressure of the downstream floods increased, and the hydrophilic interface of the city was destroyed. (Brown et al., 2009) Another example is the urban drainage project. In order to solve the waterlogging and satisfy the requirements of instantaneous drainage, the gray pipeline project is relied on, however, the project is huge, the maintenance cost is high and the sustainability is poor. And a large amount of precious rainwater is drained, and rainwater resources are not fully utilized, groundwater is not replenished. (Brown et al., 2009) Due to the dependence on this concentrated underground drainage system, the regulatory functions of rivers, lakes, wetlands and green spaces in the city are gradually lost (Muller, 2007).

In response to climate change, the existing flooding control and drainage abilities of cities need to improve, but should not be merely building more bigger DAMS and complicated water pipe system, but need to think about how to develop a more flexible and efficient “soft” engineering and adapt to changes, finally create sustainable urban ecological environment. (Rossano, 2015) And the public spaces and parks in cities can play an active role, which means urban can combine parkland green space, improve urban environmental quality and build stormwater management infrastructure. During flooding, part of the rainwater can be transferred to the park green space that could absorb rainwater, and a landscape infrastructure park integrated with functions such as rainwater storage, pollution barrier, recycling, and traditional recreational sports would be formed. While bringing into full play the social and ecological benefits of the park, it also brings into full play the benefits of its stormwater storage infrastructure. (Muller, 2007)

River first

Resilience is not just about how to prevent interference, but how to adapt to change. Similarly, sustainability is not to reduce the dynamic nature of a system and thus reduce the efficiency of the system in order to maintain the equilibrium state of a system but to focus on the ability of system regulation and adaptability. (Lee et al., 2018) From defense to adaptation, from flood control to friendship with flooding, from stability and predictability to “risk management” with the tolerance of uncertainty; By cooperating with the natural forces, the landscape approach is applied to transform the flood dredging process into an aesthetic and experiential process. (Rossano, 2015) The design of the Lower Don Land in Toronto is a specific practice to realize water elasticity in high-density urban areas according to the hydrological characteristics of the site. The scheme shows a flexible urban form with high economic efficiency and adaptability to rain and flood from afraid and escape to harmonious coexistence (Stoss, 2019)

Like many port cities that have experienced industrial development, the existing site of about 113 hectares of Lower Don Land in Toronto is strongly devoid of natural elements. The original 500 hectares of wetlands at the intersection of the Don River and Lake Ontario were converted from shoals to beaches, and eventually, the wetlands disappeared completely, becoming mudflats of the Toronto industrial port area. Meanwhile, due to the lack of flooding discharge area, the area adjacent to the Don river is vulnerable to floods. (WATERFRONTToronto, n.d) In order to restore the ecological function of the intersection area of river and lake, Lower Don Land will be built into a new lakeside community with diversified ecological functions, colorful social life with a distinct personality. The designers proposed a “river-first” guideline. The biggest highlights of this scheme is to shape city’s form and construct the landscape infrastructure network, including various public open space, habitats for wildlife, public transport…, based on the dynamic process of water level and the trend of the flood channel and river tributaries, as the generation, development and evolution of the city framework. On this basis, a series of mixed blocks composed of different building types, such as business, culture and office, different densities and different types of public spaces, are formed to enrich the living environment and leisure experience of Lower Don Land.(Stoss, 2019) The planning shows us a whole set of urban development strategies with adaptability and elasticity, which are integrated with the river and human, nature and design. In addition to solving the problems of sediment accumulation and flood caused by artificial and deliberate control of estuary water direction, it provides us with a visual feast of functional and beautiful life landscape composed of the seasonal and permanent landscape. The landscape generated by the dynamic process of the river spans all kinds of spatial scales from the neighborhood to the block to the whole city and promotes various voids in the overall landscape framework of the city. Designers try to replace the rigid forms and structures of modernism with the more flexible urban forms generated by natural processes and become a better way to organize urban voids (WATERFRONTToronto, 2010).

Room for the river

The Netherlands is located in the lowland delta of northwestern Europe. It is a typical lowland country. About 50% of the country is below sea level, and about 1/4 of the existing land is reclaimed. It has been threatened by floods for a long time. (Lee, Chun, & Song, 2018 ) Its traditional means of flooding control and land development are mainly dikes, ditches, drainage, and subsequent reclamation. In a certain historical period, this traditional management method is very effective. However, with the development of high-density cities and the continuous rise of sea level, the space for rivers is significantly limited, and the risk of flooding control is increasingly aggravated by the traditional flooding control means, thus endangering the ecological health of rivers. Therefore, the Netherlands advocates the recovery and protection of habitats from natural disasters, the use of green corridors, and the enhanced use of riverside space. (Rijke et al., 2012) Since 2006, the Dutch government has launched a national strategic project called “Make room for the river”, which aims to improve the flood control capability of the Netherlands by expanding the drainage capacity of the river itself and reducing the water level of the river, so as to solve the flood control of the region around the river in the Netherlands, and provide sufficient ecological habitats, landscape beautification and environmental improvement for the organisms in the river ecosystem. (De Bruijn et al., 2015)

In the Nijmegen area, the renovation of the Waal is considered to be the most complex project in the “Room for the river” program. (Royal, 2019) The designer creates a slender island between the Var River, the historical center of the city and the north bank of the Waal River by excavating a flood circulation channel, and several newly constructed bridges improve connectivity in the area. The island and the circulation channel together form a riverside park. This initiative not only reduces the risk of flooding but also provides leisure, ecological and aesthetic value. (Letty, 2015) The park consists of three functional layers: creation, growth, and water movement. The “creating” layer represents hard landscape elements that are dug or filled during the construction phase. The second layer, “growing,” is the possible future development of the landscape (natural and artificial). The third layer, “water movement”, is a situation in which the water level fluctuates in all seasons. Combining the dynamic landscape experience of the river with the dynamics of the river is a big idea for the designer. For example, some of the roads in the park will be submerged at high water levels, and the passage can only be achieved by step stones. (Waterfront Centre, n.d.)

Live with Flooding

Levees are the most common form of flooding-control infrastructure, and many coastal cities have built huge levees at great expense to protect a large number of housing projects in the flooding areas behind them. Due to frequent extreme weather and sea level rise, flooding disasters are becoming continuously serious. Once the dam breaks, residents, cities and grain fields behind the dam will suffer great damage and risk. (Rossano, 2015) As Rossano(2015) argues, “Flooding control infrastructure plays an ambiguous role here, both as protection and as a trap, because it often encourages risk-taking in the shadow of dike protection.” The myth of absolute protection gradually disappears with every breach of the dam, and people’s concept of contemporary flooding control has changed from eliminating the flooding to control the flooding and then to adapt to the flood and live with the flooding. (Rossano, 2015)

Yanweizhou Park is located in Yanweizhou, Jinhua, in eastern China. Three rivers with a width of more than 100 meters are distributed in this high-density population area. Due to the difficulty of access to cultural facilities including the Opera House and the green spaces adjacent to Yanweizhou, which means the cultural facilities and green space have not been fully utilized. And the remaining 50 acres (20 hectares) of riverside wetlands were destroyed by the sand mining site. (Tidelion, n.d) The landscape architect designed a hydroelastic terraced river embankment that covered the flood-adapted native vegetation and will be open to the public during non-flooding periods. In flooding periods, the floods brought fertile silt and deposited on terraces, enriching the growth conditions of native tall grasses in riverside habitats. Therefore, no irrigation or fertilization is required at any time of the year. (Oppla, 2018) The terrace dam will also repair and filter out the rain on the road surface. (Turenscape, 2015)

Additionally, the inland area is fully permeable to create a water resilience landscape through the extensive use of gravel from the site’s reuse materials. Gravel is used in pedestrian areas and permeable concrete pavement is used for vehicle access and parking lots. The inland inner pool is designed to encourage river water to penetrate through the gravel layer. This improves the water quality mechanically and biologically that is available to swim in the river. (Oppla, 2018) A pedestrian bridge crosses two rivers, connects the parks on the banks of the southern and northern urban areas, and connects the city with the newly built Yanweizhou Park. And the connection will not break during the flooding period. (Turenscape, 2015)

Multi-purpose mixed use

Flexible landscape pathways can help communities cope with phased or sustained floods and adapt them to new lifestyles. These systems can be used as natural channels and buffer zones, parks and open spaces to ensure safe passage of water; as a detention pond, to store excess rainwater for future use, to help communities manage water resources more effectively, and at the same time, to take into account social functions, a public domain of environmental functions and infrastructure functions. (Palazzo, 2019)

Fitzgibbon Chase community, located in Brisbane, Australia, is an ecological and energy-saving fully intelligent community. (Economic Development Queensland, 2017) As the model of water sensitive urban design (WSUD) in Australia, the residential area adopts all natural drainage, and the biggest highlight is the community park that serves as the rain flooding regulating, storage and drainage. This park locates in the middle of the community and looks like a familiar normal community park where people usually fly kites, run and socialize. But the difference is that the elevation inside the park is lower than the surrounding roads, and the recreational facilities are located on higher ground. (Urban land development authority, 2012) One of the park’s features is a wetland that serves as a rain-flooding passage, which was carefully determined by the designer according to the speed, frequency, and duration of the flooding. After a downpour, the community’s rainwater will be collected here. At this time, the park, like an infrastructure, can perform functions such as flood drainage and groundwater replenishment, becoming a veritable urban stormwater management infrastructure. (Urban land development authority, 2012) The following photos completely record the comparison of the two floods in October 2010 and January 2011, intuitively showing how a multi-functional community park drains the flood and performs the functions of urban basic facilities while meeting the residents’ daily recreational functions. (Urban land development authority, 2012)

Multi-level comprehensive flood control

Cities need a comprehensive strategy to deal with disasters such as climate change, rather than a single response model because single-function intervention models often have unintended and catastrophic consequences. The strategy of living in harmony with nature and building a multi-level comprehensive defense system will bring more synergies to the city. (Palazzo, 2019) In addition, because the multi-layer protection system contains multiple functional elements if any of these elements are lost due to the disaster, it will not affect the overall operation of the city. (Palazzo, 2019)

The integrated flood plan for Hoboken, a historic town across the river from Manhattan, developed by the OMA team, is a concrete attempt at such a multi-tiered system. (OMA, n.d.) They adopted “Resist,Delay,Store,Discharge” of 4 kinds of flexible rain flood management, create a soft adaptive landscape system to deal with the influence of the tides and heavy rains caused flooding. (Karissa Rosenfield, 2013) The design team designed a sloping park in the small bay north of Hobken, combined with low sloping to protect the important infrastructure in the area from the impact of the tide; and added green infrastructure in Washington Street, the main street along the town center such as water-permeable ground, rain gardens and landscape drains that are used to delay the flow of low tides and surface runoffs to maximize rainwater infiltration; and to use light rail lines around the city as traffic and rainwater storage and filtration integrates into a comprehensive landscape infrastructure and ultimately drains the purified excess rainwater back to the Hudson River. (Karissa Rosenfield, 2013)

The best defense is an adaptation, just as nature adapts itself. System-based adaptive multi-level, multi-benefit integrated design strategies are far more important to the development of cities and regions than single-purpose projects. (OMA, n.d.) Through this layered strategy, the flood control capacity of the region is strengthened and consolidated, which is the most economical, effective and feasible solution while bringing social and ecological benefits. (Karissa Rosenfield, 2013)

Conclusion

In order to cope with climate change, the existing urban flood control and drainage ability needs to improve, but should not be merely building more bigger dams and water pipes, but need to think about how to adapt to change, how to use more flexible and more efficient “soft” engineering adaptability to management flooding problems, at the same time to create sustainable urban ecological environment. In adaptive design, flooding is no longer a disaster for residents to defend against, but a part of the landscape in the park, realizing the transformation from absolute defense to the adaptation to flooding. (Rossano, 2015) City public space and parks can play a positive role, will build the park green space, improve urban environmental quality and the rain flood management infrastructure construction: during the flooding period, part of the rainwater can be transferred to the park green space where could be able to absorb rainwater, which means this space will be a multi-functional landscape infrastructure park, including rainwater collection and storage, pollution barrier, recycling, as well as the traditional recreational sports and so on. By this way, the park will be given full play to the benefits of rainwater and flood storage infrastructure while given full play to the park’s social and ecological benefits. Through interdisciplinary exchanges, the flooding problem can be solved at multiple scales, the water storage capacity of the land can be improved, the groundwater can be supplemented, and the multi-purpose utilization of the land can be realized. (Palazzo, 2019)

This manifesto analyzes the practical cases of park design combined with water resilience construction in various countries. By expanding the concept of landscape, the basic functions of leisure and entertainment are guaranteed, while the functions of infrastructure are endowed. A new multi-purpose, mixed-use mode of urban rain flood regulation needs to establish links between parks and the surrounding urban areas and effectively integrate the landscape ecological function, social service function and the rain flooding control infrastructure, and achieve the ecological function and infrastructure functions compatible and complementary, which provides a new way to solve the crisis of environment and resource pollution faced by human survival and development.

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WATERFRONTToronto, 2010., Lower Don Lands Framework Plan, viewed 15th May 2019,

 

Benefits of Preservation of Buidlings through Adaptive Reuse and Sustainable Architecture

Abstract
How can the preservation of buildings through adaptive reuse and sustainable architecture benefit society and the planet while maintaining the importance of social well-being compared to the demolishment and reconstruction method used in the past? Adaptive reuse is giving outlived buildings a new purpose and function while maintaining parts of their original features. For example, an old factory may turn into a museum and an abandoned church may be redesigned into a restaurant. While some believe that tearing down buildings is progressive because allows room for something new, adaptive reuse enables the preservation of the past while still planning for the future. This issue of tearing down buildings occurred when society began to change after the abundance of large masonry buildings in the Industrial Revolution of the nineteenth century and the great commercial buildings of the twentieth century. The movement to preserve architecture and protect historic structures began in in the mid-1960s in America. The idea of adaptive reuse and preservation has continued to be ingrained in society in the generations after and has reached beyond commercial properties. However, since the cost for repurposing and restoration is often more expensive than demolishing and rebuilding, designers must take into consideration the cost for creating a new functional space. Another component to consider with rehabilitation and reuse is sustainability. Sustainable architecture limits the environmental impact when designing and constructing buildings and strives to achieve energy efficiency. Natural ventilation, orientation of sunlight, and use of biomass are taken into consideration when designing sustainable architecture. Furthermore, it incorporates materials that are studied specifically to engage with the environment and its characteristics. Since the main objects for this form of architecture is to recycle, these buildings are constructed with materials that are easily retrieved and reused. This making deposing of the materials eco-friendly because it does not cause any pollution. Unsustainable ways of living and development, environmental degradation, and deposits of sewage are a few examples why the planet is degrading and is in need for sustainable urban development in order to improve lives of urban populations and the planet. While sustainability involves reducing energy use and waste, it also defines how people inhabit the space. Social well-being is taken into consideration and involves people’s satisfaction, security, and comfort that corresponds to that specific environment that the building is located in. Sustainable libraries, such as Christchurch Library and Service Centre located in New Zealand and others, are case studies of the research topic on sustainability because of the choice of low-impact materials, energy efficiency, and on-site waste management. This project’s mission consisted of providing a library building for the community in Christchurch. It contains social benefits because the formal and informal meeting rooms, a display space, a café, and offices for the community constable allow for occupants to interact with one another. Furthermore, this building’s main component is its environmental sustainability and energy use. It contains passive low-energy design through the building north orientation and large roof overhangs that optimize solar penetrations and aquifer water in the building’s main supply. The materials of Christchurch consist of sustainably sourced timber and timber veneers, recycled content materials, and polystyrene sheet insulation and pipe lagging that are CFC and HCFC free. Also, this research provides another example of how preservation work together in the Harvard University Operations Services headquarters. This example proves that although there may be challenges with preservation and sustainability, there are ways to overcome it and be innovative with new design methods. Overall, this research addresses the issues corresponding with adaptive reuse and sustainable architecture and highlights the importance of them in society today.
Sustainability Begins with Preservation
Since historical buildings have intrinsic values and serve as reminders of a city or town’s culture and past, adaptive reuse and sustainable architecture are alternatives to demolishing and reconstructing these architecture treasures while also benefiting the environment and maintaining the importance of social well-being. With adaptive reuse, it allows the ability for outlived buildings to be born again with a new purpose and function while still maintaining parts of their original feature. Although people believe tearing down buildings provides opportunities for reconstruction something new, adaptive reuse enables the preservation of the past while still moving forward in innovation. Demolishing buildings made the strongest appearance in society after the Industrial Revolution and the great commercial buildings of the twentieth century because of the abundance of large masonry buildings. In response to this issue, the movement to preserve architecture and protect historic structures began in the mid-1960s in America. While adaptive reuse can restore historical values, it is unharmful to the environment. The growing percentage of carbon dioxide emissions can be directly or indirectly caused by construction and building operations. Therefore, the production of more energy-efficient buildings and sustainable architecture is strongly desired. Adaptive reuse entails less energy and is relevant to climate change adaptation agenda because of its ability to recycle resources. Although there are many benefits to adaptive reuse and sustainable architecture, the cost for repurposing and restoration is often more expensive than tearing down and rebuilding. Therefore, this approach in designing new functional spaces in existing buildings might be a challenge to achieve financially.

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 During the Industrial Revolution, people began to move past crafting by hand and towards using machines to produce in mass quantities in factories due to the introduction of iron making and other industries.[1] Although these new advancements in the eighteenth century shaped the world today, it brought negative effects to the environment due to the toxic fossil fuels and mass production that was introduced at the time. As a result, businesses and citizens today are fighting to reduce carbon emissions by using renewable energy sources and applying corporate sustainability goals. The Industrial Revolution also resulted in an abundance of masonry buildings. Although these building were advantageous at the time, they began to deteriorate over time. Thus, it brought up the question of whether we should demolish or try to preserve historic buildings. This has been a difficult question to answer for many years because there are a lot of different factors that need to be taken into consideration. For example, one must decide if the property should be used as it was originally or given a new purpose that has materials, spaces, and spatial relationships thought out carefully.1 Also, the existing condition of the building is to be analyzed and determined on whether its damages are severe or not, and whether the repair will match the old design or not.1 This was an issue when an abundance of masonry buildings were constructed in the Industrial Revolution and in the great commercial building boom. This time period consisted of buildings, such as sprawling brick factories or elegant stone skyscrapers, that were advantageous and had definitive purposes for their time. However, due to the decrease of railroads after the interstate highway system in 1950s and the expansion of the internet in conducting businesses in 1990s, these historical buildings were deteriorating. While others believed in tearing down to start over, architects and activists, like Philip Johnson and Jane Jacobs, supported the preservation of buildings. The demolishment of buildings like the old Beaux-Arts Penn Station, designed by McKim Mead in 1901, sparked the movement to enforce the preservation of architecture. This legally protected historic buildings and structures in America during the mid 1960s and slowly progressed to each city.2 Ever since the idea of adaptive reuse was introduced, it has progressively been ingrained in society to change how people approach outdated buildings today. Additionally, preservation and changing use has moved beyond commercial properties and towards residential architecture.
It may be easier to demolish buildings, but preservation has many more advantages. The community benefits culturally because historic buildings provide a tangible presence of history and past eras and ties to people’s memories because it is a re-representation of the past. Memories are unique to each individual and are constantly shifting and changing throughout life, so historic buildings provide different experiences for each person and allows for personal connections to a site. Additionally, rehabilitation of buildings allows the community to educationally benefit by teaching local heritage and history on site. Not only does this result in cultural respect, but it is economically advantageous because it attracts visitors who are seeking heritage tourism opportunities.3 Lastly, preservation obviously benefits the environment because the building is being reused rather than disposed of in a landfill. Heritage conservation helps to reduce reliance on new materials, environmentally unfriendly building materials, and energy intensive production of new building materials. In addition, many features of historic structure such as awnings, overhangs, and shutters are designed to take advantage of natural light to enhance energy efficiency.
 While adaptive reuse retains buildings’ heritage significance and pays homage to history, it is another approach to sustainable architecture that is also environmentally friendly. Sustainable architecture strives to achieve energy efficiency by limiting the environmental impact when designing and constructing buildings. The report by the Australian Government’s Department of Environment and Heritage states that “reuse of building materials commonly saves about 95% of embodied energy that would otherwise be wasted.” The preservation energy is achieved by designing with the consideration of natural ventilation, orientation of sunlight, and use of biomass. Therefore, the orientation of the building, location of its windows and the size of the rooms or spaces must be suited for energy efficiency. Additionally, well-insulated buildings do not require as much heat generation or dissipating power, so it is capable of ventilating and expelling polluted indoor air. Installing solar panels to the roof is another technique for reducing energy because the angled roofs facing towards the sun allow photovoltaic panels to capture energy and hot water generated through solar water heaters is more cost effective. Furthermore, sustainable architecture incorporates materials that are studied specifically to engage with the environment. The main objective for this strategy is to recycle because it is environmentally friendly; thus, sustainable buildings are constructed with materials that are easily retrieved and reused. Materials, such as reclaimed lumber, benefits the environment because it reduces the energy consumption associated with manufacturing new materials. Along with lumber, bamboo is suitable material for sustainable buildings because it can be harvested after just six years for commercial use unlike timber.  Waste materials like wheat straw and sorghum are functional for pressing into panels, while cork oak, and the outer layer of bark, can be utilized while the tree itself remains preserved. Adaptive reuse architecture encourages the preservation of buildings. However, if a building must be demolished, reusable wood or other materials may be reclaimed and renewed for new buildings.  This makes deposing of the materials eco-friendly because it does not cause any pollution. All these aspects of sustainability are very important because unsustainable ways of living and development results in environmental degradation. The planet is degrading and is in need for sustainable urban development in order to improve lives of society and the environment.
 While sustainable and adaptive reuse architecture involves preservation and reduction of energy usage, it also defines how people inhabit a space. Social benefit associated with sustainable design corresponds to the improvement of quality of life, health, and well-being. To accomplish social benefits in a sustainable building, it requires research on health, comfort and satisfaction of people in the specific site the building is located. Many building environments have negative impacts such as discomfort, stress and fatigue that may be caused by poor indoor air quality, thermal conditioning, and lighting. Improper interior design of materials, furnishings, and color also contributes to the negative aspects of social well-being. Sustainable design offers a solution to reducing these problems and improves health and performance. Research proves that increased personal control over indoor conditions, access to daylight and views, and connection to nature are all sustainable building features that result in positive states of well-being and health. Reduced health risks from pollutants due to decrease in building energy usage, noise, traffic, and other disturbances in the community allows for social benefits in occupants’ health, safety and well-being as well.
 Case studies of libraries explore sustainable methods that increases the quality of life and social well-being.4 The first case study is the Christchurch Library and Service Centre located in New Zealand is a great example of a sustainable building because of the choice of low-impact materials, energy efficiency, and on-site waste management. When New Zealand was suffering from the devastating earthquakes in 2010 and 2011, the governmental organizations worked to restore the physical environment and the spirit of the building. This new library was engineered to withstand earthquakes that could potentially occur, so that allows for financial and emotional protection for several years. Its social benefits in the interior is to provide a building that would be sympathetic to the to the residential character of the community while maintaining a civic presence. The building’s functions as a community library, an education center, and local council service center. It allows for social interactions in formal and informal meeting rooms, a display space, a café, and offices for the community constable. Furthermore, this building’s main component is its environmental sustainability and energy use. It contains passive low-energy design through the building north orientation and large roof overhangs that optimize solar penetrations. Since aquifer water in the building’s main supply pipes is used, it is the energy source for heat pump-based heating and cooling system. Also, the chilled-beam air conditioning in high-load rooms are linked to presence sensors and contains contact switches on manual windows that enables the system to switch off when not required. The materials of Christchurch consist of sustainably sourced timber and timber veneers, recycled content materials, and polystyrene sheet insulation and pipe lagging that are CFC and HCFC free. Another sustainable library is the Louisville Free Public Library in Kentucky.5 The designs of this library are meant to protect existing trees and highlight their characteristics. It reflects its surroundings because the site pavements were carved from trees. This allows visitors to feel connected to the natural history of the site when exploring this building. Trees are preserved on all sides of the buildings and provide a variety of different experiences both indoors and outdoors. For example. The trees at the south of the building provide shade in the parking lot and for the building outside, and filtering sunlight in the public gathering space inside. The indoor space has the impression of a healthy north forest because it contains vibrant colors in vegetation. Not only does the Louisville Free Public Library in Kentucky contain biophilic design principles, but its sustainable methods provide social benefits because the backdrop of nature provides a calming environment at the study spaces. Lastly, the Green Square Library in Sydney Australia revitalizes one of the oldest industrial places in the city. The library is located under a public plaza in an urban area that is designed to collect stormwater runoff that is used in the library. It is waterproof and safe because it is engineered for security underground. Also, it is adjacent to the train station, so the location makes it part of the heart of the town centre. Since climate change is causes issues with resources and how society lives and works, the city of Sydney release Sustainable Sydney 2030.6 This is an attempt to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and reduce water and waste demands throughout the city. Therefore, the Green Square Library sustainably contains an air-delivery system that is applied on the perimeter shelving. This optimizes energy and the space is illuminated with daylight due to the circular skylights. This library’s quality offers optimal quality of life and social interactions for visitors due to the level of light from skylights, garden, six-story glass tower, music and reading rooms, and technology lab with views above the plaza.7 This plaza is framed by trees and the lawn is occupied for mainly reading and pop-up events. Overall, all three libraries are designed in sustainable methods that not only benefits the environment but creates a place that attracts visitors and ensures comfort.
Although sustainability and preservation provide many advantages, there are challenges before and during construction.8 Cost of green buildings is one of the most common problems because of the high quality of materials and expensive construction methods used. Although sustainability reduces energy consumption and is providently advantageous long-term, it is unfortunate that the construction stage is pricey. The cost accommodates for the scarcity of eco-friendly materials of buildings, so the challenge of finding these materials is another disadvantage to sustainability. This is mainly an issue for smaller cities because suppliers are more scares unlike large cities. Also, these materials most likely require special ordering. While other materials are available in stores, sustainable materials are mostly purchased on online websites and that increases the cost due to shipping and handling fees. However, since the green market for buildings is increasingly becoming more competitive due to the rise in demand, sustainability costs are expected to decrease in the near future. Another disadvantage is the time is takes to complete a sustainable building. Compared to traditional buildings, green buildings take longer because recycled materials take a long time to try to source. This adds time to the construction stage and may cause issues with the contractor and client. Apart from extensive time and material cost of sustainable buildings, getting loans and finding a mortgage company may be difficult because these buildings are not constructed in a traditional way. As for preservation, challenged may arise environmentally, financially, and availability. Environment issues can cause problems due to building condition and location. The Municipal Heritage Conservation Framework states that “while poor relative location may ease the threat of redevelopment, poor proximity to markets, competitors and pedestrian volumes will make it more difficult for customer-oriented businesses to survive.”9 Older sites usually suffer due to limited parking area and no vehicle accessibility. This makes it difficult for visitors to access it, and that impacts the economic value of the building. Thus, the location of the historic building determines if preservation will be successful or not. Another challenge in preservation is limited availability of resources. Since there isn’t a large quantity of materials and shortage in workers who reproduce composite materials, challenges may occur. As a result of the lack of conservation skills to repair historic buildings, it was discovered that more than half of maintenance of historic architecture are done by inexperienced people. Therefore, it causes a lot of problems in construction.

https://www.buildinggreen.com/feature/historic-preservation-and-green-building-lasting-relationship
 Although there are downfalls for sustainability and preservation, there are many benefits that outweigh the cons in the long run. With the information gathered in preservation and sustainability, it is concluded that the two coincide together superbly. A case study that supports this is the renovation of the Harvard University Operations Services headquarters. The renovation improves the building envelope by providing insulating the load-bearing brick walls. Since the building has monolithic masonry load-bearing walls, it was suggested by many building-science professionals that insulation would cause many problems because the addition of insulation to a wall would reduce its drying potential. The insulation causes reduction to its drying potential by decreasing movement of air and heat through and around the wall. Since it is a degrading historic building, the protection of drainage plane was low quality. Marc Rosenbaum, the project designer, and scientist John Straube suggested to the project team to insulate from the inside by spraying with open-cell urethane foam. They kept in mind the reduced drying potential issue, so Straube created a preventive alternative that involves maintaining the brick on the outside with detailing of flashing, windows and parapets. Additionally, the team installed foam insulation on the building along the low-slope and energy-efficient replacement windows. Since the windows have been replaced in the early 1990s, there were not many historic adaptive reuse concerns. Other sustainable approaches in this project was using LEED Gold certification that has about thirty to thirty-five percent energy savings over ASHRAE standards. This example proves that although there may be challenges with preservation and sustainability, there are ways to overcome it and be innovative with new design methods. Also, this is a successful example of preservation in a sustainable method. In John Ruskin’s “The Seven Lamps of Architecture”, he states that “It is the centralization and protectress of this sacred influence, that architecture is to be regarded by us with the most serious thought. We may live with her, and we may worship without her, but we cannot remember without her.” This personification of historic buildings implies how important they are because they exist to allow people to remember the past and to touch on peoples’ memories. Similarly, sustainability is important today more than ever because it keeps landscapes healthy and that benefits society socially, culturally, and economically.
 
https://www.asla.org/sustainablelandscapes/quarry.html
Similar to adaptive reuse and sustainability benefit the environment, it relates to landscape architecture. In James Corner’s “Introduction: Recovering Landscape as a Critical Cultural Practice,” he states that “landscape architecture is not simply a reflection of culture but more an active instrument in shaping of culture.”12 This conveys that landscape architecture is not just the culture, but is how the culture is formed. A case study that shows how adaptive reuse, sustainability and landscape architecture can all be used together in design is the Quarry Garden in Shanghai, China. This 10-acre Quarry Garden is located at the middle of Shanghai Chen Mountain Botanical Garden and was originally an abandoned rock quarry that was renovated into an ecological public garden. Quarries used to be essential to China’s industrial economy, but now there are many abandoned quarries since they are not used for mineral resources anymore. Many of these quarries are just filled with water and turned into dangerous lakes and other have turned into landfills that are not safe to have next to nearby residents due to pollution. There are many opportunities to recover landscapes like quarries to make them desirable for tourists and socially beneficial. In Shanghai, Beijing Tsinghua Urban Planning & Design Institute (THUPDI) landscape architects saw potential in this quarry to be something that offers scenic views and bring people together to educate them about history and culture. The renovation of Quarry Garden changed the rocky area by creating an entrance into a self-regulating ecological community. This was achieved by reshaping the land and adding plants around the edges of the landscape. Additional, pathways were added around the exposed hills and rock walls to provide access to the central focus of the landscape, the deep pool, in sustainable methods. This landscape reflects culture and forms culture because it pays homage to Chinese traditions. It emphasizes the history of the destruction of mining in China by educating visitors about this history and how this was a result of negative environmental impacts. This former dangerous place is now a safe and scenic place that can be explored through the stairs built on the existing hills and rock structures. The transformation of the rock into a multi-functional wall and terraces was the work of many landscape architects and structure engineers. This became very successful because it received about three million visitors in just the first year after opening, and now about ten thousand people visit the garden every day.
 Adaptive reuse encourage society to reduce waste, conserve energy and extend the life of valuable historical buildings while considering the social well-being of occupants. Adaptive reuse allows outlived buildings to have a new purpose and function while maintaining parts of their original features. The mid-1960s movement to preserve architecture and protect historic structures changed how people respond to outdated buildings. Sustainable architecture is another approach to adaptive reuse that limits environmental impact through the consideration of energy efficient solar panel, low-impact materials, and orientation of buildings and windows for natural light. How the building is constructed is essential for sustainable architecture, but so is understanding how the design impacts the quality of life, health and social well-being of occupants. Sustainable libraries are examples on a solution on how to design a sustainable building while also keeping in mind how the people are occupying it. Society has gradually degraded the planet overtime due to unsustainable ways of living and has thrown away valuable historic treasures due to demolishment of outdated buildings. Sustainable and adaptive reuse architecture provide a solution that not only conserve the past but help prevent further degradation of the planet and society in the future.
 
Works Cited

“Adaptive Reuse.” Adaptive Reuse, Commonwealth of Australia, 2004, https://www.environment.gov.au/system/files/resources/3845f27a-ad2c-4d40-8827-18c643c7adcd/files/adaptive-reuse.pdf.
Buildings and Climate Change, United Nations Environment Programme, 2009, http://www.greeningtheblue.org/sites/default/files/Buildings and climate change_0.pdf.case study- DPR Construction in San Francisco https://sites.psu.edu/arch311w/2015/12/13/adaptive-reuse-is-better-than-new-construction/
“Case Study: Community Library.” Case Study: Community Library | Ministry for the Environment, https://www.mfe.govt.nz/publications/sustainability/value-case-\sustainable-building-feb06/html/page6b.html.
Craven, Jackie. “Transforming Old Buildings for New Uses.” ThoughtCo, ThoughtCo, 29 Aug. 2019, https://www.thoughtco.com/adaptive-reuse-repurposing-old-buildings-178242.
Heerwagen, Judith H. Investing In People: The Social Benefits of Sustainable Design. J.H. Heerwagen & Associates, Inc., https://www.cce.ufl.edu/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/Heerwagen.pdf.
“Sustainability in Architecture: Environmental and Social Impacts of Built…” Build Abroad, 15 Aug. 2017, https://buildabroad.org/2017/08/15/sustainability-in-architecture/.
Torem, Emily. “Adaptive Reuse: Why Adaptive Reuse Is Key to Sustainable Design: Moss Design.” Moss Architecture, 19 July 2018, http://moss-design.com/adaptive-reuse-architecture/.

[1] https://www.nps.gov/tps/standards/four-treatments/treatment-preservation.htm
2 https://www.thoughtco.com/adaptive-reuse-repurposing-old-buildings-178242
3 https://historichawaii.org/resource-center-2/why/
4 https://www.urbanlibraries.org/blog/generative-and-resilient-sustainability-beyond-the-walls-of-the-library
5 https://www.jrarchitects.com/civic-municipal-architecture-louisville-free-public-library-south-central-regional-      branch.html
6 https://www.witpress.com/Secure/elibrary/papers/SC14/SC14007FU1.pdf
7 https://www.arup.com/projects/green-square-library
8 https://www.ukessays.com/dissertation/examples/construction/green-building.php
9https://pdf.sciencedirectassets.com
10 https://www.buildinggreen.com/feature/historic-preservation-and-green-building-lasting-relationship
11 Ruskin, John. The Seven Lamps of Architecture. London: Dent, 1969. Print.
12 Corner, James. “Introduction: Recovering Landscape as a Critical Cultural Practice” in Recovering Landscape: Essays in Contemporary Landscape Architecture. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1999.