Advantages Of Organisational Change Commerce Essay

The crux of this report is a discussion on organization change and whether the changes are good or it does damages that are not reparable. Firstly, organisational change is an essential part of today’s globalised work life. In modern’s economy, teams and organisations face rapid change like never before. Globalisation has not only boosted the markets and opportunities for more development and profit, it also provides opportunities for organisational members to process. However, in general, change processes make demands on both employees and management, regardless of the content of the change process. Facing of the tide of globalisation, one of the dominant disputes that human resource professional’s face is what method to improve organisational competitive advantage in the hastily changing environment. Organisational change come about multiple reasons, it is undertaken to ameliorate the accomplishment of that particular organization or a portion of the organization, for instance, a process or team. For organisations to be able to prosper, it is essential for them to go through an important alteration at different sections during their growth. Significant organisational change occurs when the overall strategy of an organisation changes, for instance, in order to achieve appropriate outcomes, accumulation or take away a big portion or usual procedure, and/or desire to alter the nature on how it works. Organisational change can bring about pros and cons.

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Advantages of Organisational Change
Change can assist a business to keep up with industry trends, making it more appealing to promising consumers as well as maintaining present consumers. For instance, one way to make sure that a business does not fall behind when an opponent established and markets a successful new product is by establishing and advertising a related product of its own.
In the process of organization change, employees will be able to acquire new skills, seek new opportunities and exercise their creativity in ways that eventually favors the organization through extra ideas and increased commitment. Knowledge transfer takes place during the process when people have idiosyncratic information that is valuable to other people, and thus learning takes place during the change.
In addition, the capability to clasp change can assist employees in a business by developing new opportunities. For instance, a worker who actively applies himself/ herself to learning the new office technology can also train others who are more uncertain. This leadership role has caused the employee to position himself/ herself as a person who has the ability to guide others and is capable of assuming extra responsibilities, making her a credible candidate for approaching promotion.
Furthermore, businesses that are capable at handling or even embracing change can promote an environment that stimulates innovation. Employees will be more willing to think in a more creative manner if their ideas are acknowledge by a manager or the business owner. By stimulating employees to think in a more creative manner will enable a business grow in long run. Either a good product or a marketing idea will enables a small business to achieve it success.
Finally, an erudite or personnel change in an organization can result in employee attitudes and morale being positive. When there is a change in human resources philosophy, it enables a much relaxed work ambience, for instance, dress down day on Friday; this kind of idea will definitely make the employees overjoyed. When an inflexible manager is substitute with one who always listens to employees’ ideas and feedbacks, employees will feel that their efforts are acknowledged and that they will give in their best regarding their job functions.
Disadvantages of Organisational Change
When major change takes place, the impact of transformation of an organisation can be effective and may frequently create complicated challenges. Change can present a risk and certain level of danger. The end results can be very costly and sometimes beyond recovery in terms of time, money, human resources, or equipments. It is known that human nature oppose change, especially if it is perceived to influence one’s lives adversely.
When an organsation is undergoing organisational change, such as: re-structuring, or merging, it will result in employees going through the feelings of tension, stress, and uncertainty, which results in the impact on employees’ productivity output, achievement, and engagements toward the organisation (Ashford, et. al., 1989). In other words, the aftermath can be out of discipline. The norm prefers foreseeable future but change disrupts it, which cause confusion and potentially an erosion of assurance. An employee lose confident and their ideas are not supported and acknowledge by the higher management may increase the stress of the employees and this might lead to staff not performing well in their daily work routine.
Secondly, during organisational change, staff members might experience loss of attachment. Most of the time, change requires working with new members, such as a new leader, or a new team. Gradually, employees will feel attached and develop a sense of faithfulness to their colleagues. Having to break up this faithfulness, can often be pressurised and make people anxious. Employees feel that the environment is doubtful, low tolerance of ambiguity, less freedom and ideal time for work, thus they will are unwilling to take risk, and therefore becoming less motivated and committed to making contributions.
Thirdly, organisational changes might lead to staffs having low morale. When the staffs opposed a change that is taking place in the workplace, they become less confident and felt hopeless about their professional future with the organisation. This is specifically so when there is a deficiency of communication within the organisation regarding the change. Lowered morale can disperse throughout the whole company, which will result in issues with both recruiting and retention of the workers.
Lastly, organisation change may result in less efficiency in employees. This is due to the employees spending much time focusing on withstanding the changes taking place in the organisation, which will results them becoming less attentive in their daily work routine which is affiliate with their jobs. Being less attentive in their work will reduce the level of adeptness and achievement among staff; this can influence the organisation’s fundamental. In reality, a decreased level of adeptness is the main reason why there is an organisation change, as changes are frequently build to reform a more cogent and productive company.
Change within an organisation will enable some type of improvement within an organisation. Even though the main intention is to bring out positive effects, but these changes frequently brought about some affection and sensation to those who are affected indirectly and directly. Although change may be a certain portion of handling profession, it is often not welcomed by employees, leaders or owners of the business. Employees are afraid to leave their comfort zone or they are afraid that they are not able to adapt to a different situation. Changes can affect a business’ success in long run and have a positive impact on it, while on the other hand a change that is short term can be agonizing.
In addition, change cannot be avoided. Some types of changes that will tend to affect employees such as reducing bonus, reducing monthly salary or even take away their benefits. All this changes might result in employees being devastated, especially to those who are the sole breadwinner. It is a challenge for organisations to make adeptness and betterment within its anatomy, while at the same time managing employee’s self-esteem and support for the organization and its responsibility. In conclusion, if changes are made, especially large-scale reorganisations, it is essential to communicate and associate all of the employees to the extent in which it can ensure a successful development.

Compaction for Sustainability: Advantages and Disadvantages

In developed countries, sustainable development has become increasingly important due to increased public awareness and pressure to meet demand from population growth. Urban Form is defined by (RTPI, 2015) as “Physical characteristics that make up built-up areas, such as shape, size and density.” It can be classified into four categories: Centralisation, Decentralisation, Concentration and Sprawl(Holden, 2004). Compaction (Centralisation and concentration) has been an EU policy since 1992 hence most European cities are densely populated. The aim is to develop sustainability which is defined by the Brundtland Commission as “Meeting the needs of the present, without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs.” This can be considered from four dimensions: Economic, Social, Natural and Political (UNESCO, 2010). The essay will first focus on the advantages and disadvantages of compaction in relation to different dimensions of sustainability, then focus on alternative forms. Finally, concluding the best option and consider future challenges.

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Compaction will benefit cities economically due to the agglomeration effect where the concentration of firms allow them to benefit from the economies of scale hence reducing the cost of operation and the infrastructure cost. Also, it encourages more specialisation as higher density has higher demand which allows more division of labour (Tejvan, 2012). This means the population would have access to a wider range of services and job opportunities, hence more likely to receive a more reliable income and become economically sustainable. A compact city will make public transport more attractive as there is a higher demand and usage which allow prices to be more affordable and higher frequency services to be run. This will increase accessibility which allows access to more job opportunities and essential services (RTPI, 2015).
Socially, more people living closer together means that there is a higher chance that people are meeting with each other and communicate hence the chance of social exclusion is reduced and allow accumulation of social capital (Bramley et al., 2009).However, results from the survey suggest that medium density (Terraced Housing) is the best for social interaction. A higher density will have a negative effect. Compact living encourages mixed land use hence people would have easier access to services and job opportunities which will increase the quality of life and improve social sustainability. Finally, with reduced traffic volume as car ownership reduces, safety for pedestrians has increased especially with pedestrianisation schemes of centres making them vibrant again. Urban sprawl has been the strategy in most UK cities between the 1970s and 90s with the focus on out of town development (Williams, 2014).
As economic and business growth contradicts with environmental sustainability, therefore activities have to be regulated by the government through legislation and documents such as Planning Policy Guidance (PPG). The three main arguments of environmental sustainability are related to land use, energy use and air quality. Land use will reduce by increasing density through building on brownfield sites so the countryside is protected. In 1947, the Green Belt is introduced as part of the Town and Country Planning Act and PPG2 which allows local authorities to set areas where development is prohibited on the outskirt of towns and cities. By 2010, around 13% of land in England is Green Belt (Communities and Local Government, 2010). Another supportive reason is the air quality will improve because of compaction mainly due to reduced car ownership as people will travel less with services close to where they live and work. Energy cost and consumption are estimated to be reduced as a result of denser living.
However, there are a lot of argument and findings which suggest the benefit of compaction is over-emphasised. Because of the green belt, house prices have been unaffordable for many younger generation and lower income household. According to Halifax Bank since 1983, UK house prices has risen by 101% and 124% in London after taking into account of inflation (The Investor, 2012). The pressure to build more homes can be seen through the increase in approved planning permission to build on the green belt which rises from 2300 in 2009-10 to 12,000 in 2014-15 (Booth, 2017). The increase in house prices means that houses are segregated by income. Gentrification in the city centre can be seen in most UK cities where new houses are targeted for investors or the young affluent. People with lower income are forced to live in terrace housing outside of the city which are deprived and highly segregated by ethnic minorities which are both economically and socially unsustainable. The Green Belt also force development to occur outside it hence increasing urban sprawl(Mace et al., 2016). For example, a lot of people commute from areas such as Redhill and Horsham which are just outside the Metropolitan Green Belt. This is not good in terms of reducing land use. Finally, government focus on compaction means that rural areas are left isolated as investment focus on towns and cities(Frey, 2003). Many villages lack basic services such as post office as more people move into cities, there is not enough demand to keep them operating.
Compaction is also associated with an increase in stress level which will lead to poorer social ties in communities. The ease of access to shops and services means that time spent in the community is reduced and poorer safety perception due to distrust of neighbours and presence of more people. Hence (Bramley et al., 2009) found that residential satisfaction is low in compacted areas which is not socially sustainable.
As the land value increases in the city centre, this means the availability of green spaces is at a premium hence environmental quality will decline as most areas will be concrete. Although congestion is reduced is surrounding area, traffic volume in the centre actually increases which means air quality in the city centre is worse and increase chances of respiratory disease (Echenique et al., 2012). Melia et al (2011) suggest the idea of paradox of intensification where doubling the density does not reduce the number of trips by half. For example, Gordon (1997) cited in Melia et al (2011) found that in England that doubling densities only leads to 7% decrease in miles travel to work. This is mainly due to the population increase in the area.Studies have found that compaction might not lead to a reduction in energy use. (Heinonen et al., 2011) found that in Helsinki that CO2 emission is higher in downtown area than suburbs. They conclude that this is due to a higher standard of living in the downtown and the increase in emissions is more than the effect of compaction. These examples suggest the environmental benefits of compaction could be overstated.
An alternative urban form which can be considered is polycentric cities which are decentralised but concentrated. This is evolved from Howard’s idea of the Satellite or Garden City in the early 1900s where a centre city is surrounded by satellite cities which carry around 32,000 people each hence a medium density. These satellite cities are self-contained with services and workplace and connected with other cities by Rail links. It focuses on the symbiotic relationship with nature hence trying to achieve sustainability (Frey, 2003). It is very idealistic and only 2 garden cities were built in the UK which was not very successful as density is too low for self-sufficient economy and services.
Another form is the Transit Oriented Development (Calthorpe, 1993 cited in Frey, 2003) which based development around a centre with public transport Hub which has rail links with a major city. The centre is an area for the community with low rise apartments in centre and terraces further away. Parks will be located further away from the centre. This type of development is also known as corridor growth hence a controlled way to limit urban sprawl and Copenhagen’s Finger Plan is a good example (see Figure 1). People can live in medium densities towns which have shops and services near the hub and have easy access to the countryside hence a sustainable form. However, the high house prices in the centre is still problematic.
According to a study of 114 European Cities by Zoeteman et al (2016). It found that sustainability score of city improves up to 2 million inhabitants mainly due to economic sustainability. In cities that are larger than 250,000 people, ecological and social capital reduce. It concludes the ideal size of 100,000-250,000 inhabitants which is a medium density. Therefore, it seems that future growth strategy should focus on developing polycentric medium density cities which is well connected by Public Transport along with technological innovation to reduce environmental pollution. This is a compromise between a centralised compact city and dispersed development.
Current research shows that there is no consensus on whether compaction will benefit socially and environmentally. However, as most governments currently prioritise economic growth, the benefit of agglomeration means that compaction will likely to continue. Ideally, a polycentric network of medium density cities will achieve all forms of sustainability the best.
Booth, R. 2017. English green belt set to get 360,000 new homes. The Guardian. [Online].15 January. [Accessed 22 March 2017]. Available from:
Bramley, G., Dempsey, N., Power, S., Brown, C. and Watkins, D. 2009. Social Sustainability and Urban Form: Evidence from Five British Cities. Environment and Planning A. 41(9), pp.2125-2142.
Brundtland Commission. 1987. Our Common Future: Report of the World Commission on environment and Development. [Online]. No Place: UN. [Accessed 22 March 2017]. Available from:
Communities and Local Government. 2010. Local Planning Authority Green Belt Statistics: England 2009/10. [Online]. [Accessed 22 March 2017]. Available from:
Echenique, M.H., Hargreaves, A.J., Mitchell, G. and Namdeo, A. 2012. Growing cities sustainably: does urban form really matter? Journal of the American Planning Association. 78(2), pp.121-137.
Frey, H. 2003. Designing the city: towards a more sustainable urban form. London: Routledge.
Heinonen, J., Kyrö, R. and Junnila, S. 2011. Dense downtown living more carbon intense due to higher consumption: a case study of Helsinki. Environmental Research Letters. 6(3), p034034.
Holden, E. 2004. Ecological footprints and sustainable urban form. Journal of Housing and the Built Environment. 19(1), pp.91-109.
Knowles, R.D. 2012. Transit Oriented Development in Copenhagen, Denmark: from the Finger Plan to Ørestad. Journal of Transport Geography. 22, pp.251-261.
Mace, A., Blanc, F., Gordon, I. and Scanlon, K. 2016. A 21st Century Metropolitan Green Belt. [Online]. No place: LSE. [Accessed 22 March 2017]. Available from:
Melia, S., Parkhurst, G. and Barton, H. 2011. The paradox of intensification. Transport Policy. 18(1), pp.46-52.
RTPI. 2015. Urban form and Sustainability. [Online]. No Place: Royal Town Planning Institute. [Accessed 21 March 2017]. Available from:
Tejvan, P. 2012. Agglomeration economies. [Online]. [Accessed 22 March 2017]. Available from:
The Investor. 2012. Historical UK house prices. [Online]. [Accessed 22 March 2017]. Available from:
UNESCO. 2010. Four Dimensions of Sustainable Development. [Online]. [Accessed 22 March 2017]. Available from:
Williams, K. 2014. Urban form and infrstructure: a morphological review. [Online]. London: Government Office for Science. [Accessed 22 March 2017]. Available from:
Zoeteman, K.B., Mulder, R., Smeets, R. and Wentink, C. 2016. Towards Sustainable EU Cities: A Quantitative Benchmark Study of 114 European and 31 Dutch Cities. [Online]. Tilburg: Telos. Available from:

Advantages and Disadvantages of Post-Secondary Education

   Post-Secondary Education: Is it really beneficial?

 “One of the most damaging messages of educational romanticism is that everyone should go to the college”. – Charles Murray

In today’s world we have often heard the statement “Post-secondary education is a stepping stone towards becoming successful in one’s life”, and it is essential to becoming a more mature and prolific adult. Post-secondary education provides financial stability. I believe that graduating from a well-known esteemed university is more fulfilling than winning a lottery because, in the lottery the prize money will exhaust and the chances of winning another lottery are slim, but with proper education and skills one can make their own fortune. However, seeing the current stats on students who have just graduated from college shows that post-secondary education does not fulfil the promises made to students. Post-secondary education is becoming more disadvantage than its proposed benefits because of its affordability, mental health concerns and assurance.

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Career plays a crucial role in the life of any youth. Education and just routine education are trapping the youth today in a wheel within wheels conceptualization of set prejudicial standards. Just educating ourselves is not sufficient. The call of the day is to inculcate our inherent and latent abilities so that we not shape our personality but also give our contribution to the nation building and growth of the economy. These days many options are available before the youth to choose a vocation in accordance to their ability and aptitude. That’s why they are excelling in the fields they are selecting. Their interest and right guidance through trained faculties help them excel in whatever career they are pursuing. Life is not the matter of just living it, it is modifying and molding it to enable us to serve our country in a more efficient and effective manner, for this specialized education is more helpful than simple post-secondary education.

The price of higher education is increasing per year and that is an alarming situation for every parent. Reasonableness of post-secondary education is flawed in light of the fact that every year because of rivalry in the colleges, the costs go up. Not only is there competition between the students to succeed, but there is also competition between the universities to attract more students, which is further deteriorating the quality of the academics in those institutions. Since 1983 the rate at which the price of college education has increased is far steeper than the increase in the price of good and services. Furthermore, you will be shocked to know the salaries of graduates is on a stable graph since the year 2013. This increase in the cost is like a big rock for students who wish to achieve post-secondary education. I read an article on the internet and it states, the average cost of attending a reputed university in United States of America is near $250,000. With such high cost of attendance, it is nearly impossible for students who come from a low-income background to get into colleges without taking on debt. Recently, total student loans hit a $1 trillion threshold.

A “Pew Internet Survey” which was organized in the year 2016 in which approximately 10,000 higher education experts were interviewed and about which 77 percent said higher education was too expensive for most low-income families to afford it. I walked into the school at the age of four and by the time I graduate I will be 21 years old. I will spend my 17 years of life studying theoretical knowledge knowing that the actual jobs that we will get will be either practical or mechanical. In a recent survey graduates from college of engineering were asked a simple question that was “How many centimeters are there in an inch” out 10 graduates only three were able to give the answer to it. I believe if those students were offered more practical information than just theories, they could have easily answered the question.

 Not so long ago going for Post-secondary education meant acquisition of beneficial knowledge. Realization dawned upon universities that job market gave preference to graduates and BOOM! University diplomas progressed from straightforward signs of education to negotiating chips holding quantifiable fiscal esteem. No sooner education also became as just a private business. With rising interest came fundamentally higher cost. Today, Thousands of dollars are paid by the parents to colleges so that their children can get a job security later in life but still every year students graduate from the college with expensive degrees and no job.

 One of the reasons why students from low income background cannot afford education is that “there is no doubt that costs are going up, and debt is accumulating at an uncomfortable rate for many students” (Korfmann, 2012). As the tuition rates are so high getting a loan from the banks for education are difficult because “prospective students are often unable to provide sufficient collateral to back their borrowing” (Finnie, Ross, Mueller and Richard, 2008).

 Plus, I believe by the time we complete our post-graduate offering the valuable time of this “once given life” the requirement of that degree has already decreased. The so called “trendy course” is no longer fashionable. It can be witnessed in the past years that college degrees are serving just a nominal job after graduation. But if we look at famous billionaires like Bill Gates are Mark Zuckerberg who were college dropouts and still are successful than most of the people in this world. From them we come to know that if we acquire and master a skill set nothing can stop us from reaching the heights of success. Some more infamous billionaires are Anne Beiler co-founder of Auntie Anne’s Pretzel, she dropped out of high school. Richard Branson billionaire and founder of Virgin Mobile. If you run after money you will probably not get successful in life, but if you run after success you will definitely end up being both rich and successful.

 Mental health is a big concern while pursuing higher education. Post-secondary education requires lots of time and attention to the studies and also huge amount of efforts into one’s chosen major. A survey was conducted in 2017 out of 1,000 students 62% reported that post-secondary education gave a lot of stress. People who fall into mental illness and illegal substance use are students who are trying to get out from the stress. Moreover “studies have shown that stress, sleep loss, and depression are commonplace in the college, student population” (Popovic 2012). So, it is evident from these facts that post-secondary education can lead to high health risks. Sometimes student even end up taking counselling sessions so that they can overcome the stress caused by the college.

 Because of stress the cases for suicide ideation and practices, self-damage reports, emergency advising needs, dietary problems, past sexual injury and different things have been expanded. These sorts of issues are disservices for the understudies who need to achieve their objectives in the later life. Consequently, it, makes an enormous measure of weight to the understudy which will probably make them bomb in accomplishing advanced education.

 Another major problem related to post-secondary education is college degrees are of uncertain value, for example if one has to become a doctor, lawyer, engineer or psychologist college theoretical classes are really important for them, but if one aspires to become a lighting designer a guitarist or a plumber how will classes of theories help them? There are so many occupations which do not require a college degree. Also, if one has chosen a career that doesn’t require a college degree one must stay firm and confident in their choice and have faith in whatsoever, they plan to do for themselves. Let’s talk about famous youtubers or all the famous people on social media such as models, singers etc. many of them do not even complete their college or many don’t even try to join one because they believe they can earn money with their talent all they need is a large number of fans following which colleges don’t tell how to earn. As once said by Mark Twain: “Don’t let your boy’s schooling interfere with his education”. This is just one form to say that parents can’t make their children successful just by dumping knowledge over them.

 Now let’s talk about some graduates “Finn Lee” a graduate from reupdated university in America end up working as an uber-driver having a degree of computer science. “Finn Lee” is just one name out of thousands of graduates who every year end up working in Starbucks, MacDonald’s, KFC or as an Uber driver. What makes it worse is that they have thousands of dollars of student loan to pay to the banks. When they fail to pay the loan back to the bank it increases crime rate such as robbery or even murders. Some of them commit suicide leaving behind their loved ones in shock and grief. “The worst part is student loans, like 90% of private loans today, if you die, your cosigner (typically a parent) will still have to pay the debt” (Suicide and student loan debt, 2018).

 Higher education sometimes can have more cons than pros due to its cost, health issues, and debt loans. One of the major reasons why post-secondary education has a disadvantage because of its rise in cost per year. Despite the fact that it offers an alternate focal point it likewise contains disadvantages that can have a huge effect on one’s choice in seeking after a post-education. An individual goes to college so that they can achieve financial stability but nowadays college degrees fail to provide job security and financial stability. In post-secondary education one should always look for open doors and opportunities if left unchecked post-secondary education can have more disadvantage than its advantages.


Korfmann Andreas. The Post-Secondary Education Bubble (2012)

Finnie, Ross, Mueller, Richard E. The Effects of Family Income (2008)

Popovic, Tamara. Mental Health in Post-Secondary Education System (2012)

Robert Farrington. Let’s talk: Suicide and student loan debt. (2018)

Mike-EL Navarro (November 24, 2015)


Advantages and disadvantages of public and private companies

Public companies have the advantage over private companies in access to capital to grow the business. But private companies can react more quickly to challenges and opportunities without going through exhaustive decision making processes.
Advantages and disadvantages of public companies.
Public company is able to raise funds and capital through the sale of its securities it is important historically. To ease of raising capital public companies may issue their securities as compensation for those that provide services to the companies, such as their directors, officers and employees. The basic advantage of public facilities is that the tax paid by the people is used in developing facilities for the people who paid the taxes. Public companies are typically established fair market value in the stock exchange where it is determined by price of security and sold where security is traded.

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The cost of being public is huge and the benefits are questionable if you are a microcap. A public company has to meet the requirement to publicly disclose much financial information which could be useful to competitors. Public companies spend more for certified public accountants and other bureaucratic paper work required of public companies by government regulation. Public companies need a huge capital to get the capital market for purchasing equipment and plant expansions. Because of security regulations public companies requires doing more of paperwork. Public companies have an additional cost for administrative overhead and personnel needed to meet regulatory requirement. It could be quite expensive for stockholders for mailings.
Advantages and disadvantages of private companies
Private companies are less expensive as it requires very less paper work and very limited shareholders. As it is the private companies information are secured, so that’s the way they are dealing more with government agency, because private companies works sensitive with government. The business is kept confidential as it is a private company which is less interacting with media or press. Shareholders have very less liability, as they have agreed upon business stability but the business is not disturbed by the death of shareholders.
While private companies may also issue their securities as compensation for services, the recipient of those securities often have difficulty selling them on the open market. Private companies have high taxes, less dividends and the often deter small-medium sized business owners.
Ans) 2 The small private companies are directed on the attentions to contral according to the commander theory it is excercised by the people. The power to deploy the resources are pointed by the persons or a group of persons. The person who has such power can command over this resources. By using commander notion we cannot appear into the reasonable interpretation of principle and functions of accounting without using false abstraction, such as the entity or fund.
A sole proprietor is a commander. So the proprietor have control over the resources of their firm as they are emphasies by the ownership aspect. Control is an economic function whereas ownership have to work in the legal relationship. Profit is generated from the resources have ability to command over this resources by the proprietors. According to commander theory the supporters are undue and placed on the proprietor as owner rather than as manager.
But in large companies shareholder have very less command over its resources as they are part of owners, managers have very limited control over resources.
The focus of accounting for such companies affects the functions of accounting which is carried out for commanders. For the benefit of the people accounting records are maintain, financial statement are prepared and are analysed by people on and behalf of people. And financial statement reports by commander to commander. The commander of the firm undertakes accounting procedures, accept owner or entity or fund.
In the balancesheet the report of which is showing the resources which is entrusted to the commander and control but does not own. Balancesheet is prepared on behalf of commander is a statement which shows the sources from hwere the commander has rececived resources and the application of those resources. In the accounting practice commander theory is not directly effected. Proprietary and entity theories appears on the oppostie view which is the notion of economic control, and the use of procedures related to propietrary and entity view are simaltaneouly emphasised by the commander theory. In determining the nature of asset and in determining what entities become paramount by the notion of ‘control’ which is included in consolidation account.
The objective of financial objective is dependent for small enterprise which value upon to pursued decision making, practical and control. The bring the value in control and not easily measurable, and small business frequently taking action such as if the company needs more new capital for business but they will refuse to bring new stockholders. To access the financial infornmation from the external financing inevitably brings with it and arranged its over coming difficulties between those enterprise and the financiers concerned. The information of a report that of a small enterprise must required to support the debt financing.
Financing and profit distribution decisions made in small enterprise might be strongly influnced by a desire to avoid such accountibility.
Ans) Proprietary theory emphasies for the small business whereas entity theory for large business. Proprietary theory views the firm as an renewal of its owner’s but by keeping in mind as an accounting purpose the entity does not exist seperately from its owner’s. For this outlook it is supported by the various participant in the business sectors. In large companies shareholders who has very limited holdings but they are not seen as owner of the company but looks as an investors. So they believe that they are working for company and as an shareholders. For the benefit of the company they reinvest their dividends as belonging to the company.
As from the owner’s perspective financial statement are prepared for the advantage of the owner’s. And for controlling shareholders assets of the company is seen as asset of company whereas liablities of company are viewed as a liabilities. As an wealth of the company increases with increases in revenue and decreases with more expenses. The proprietary theory affects the only in each sole company for increasing profit instead of entire companies.
As per the entity theory they maintain financial statement under the joint financial statement as per the view of the business entity. For the accounting purpose legal entity are separately considered from owner. In the interest of the entity consolidated statement are intended to all parties of the entity. The person who are having ownership interest in the consolidated entity are considered separately and distinct as an controlling and non-controlling shareholders of the entity. No preference, no emphasis is given to any members of these entity group such as controlling shareholders non-controlling shareholders and consolidated entity. All profit or loss assets or liabilities equity are merged into one group of entity under the entity theory and they are united for one entity as not for separate controlling and non- controlling shareholders who are involved in the joint net income and the ownership of business group.
If a company decides to transform itself into a public company from a private company their is no magic or formula which qualifies a private company to transform into a public company but the factors which determine a public company can hire plenty of shareholders from any market which can sells its product or services. And company should keep in mind a good regional and national market is in a boom situation you can transform into the public company. The best way to know that it is beneficial or not for company whether it should transform to public company is their management team can grow your company or not and their profit margin because it affects on the accounts of the company.
Ans4) “Yes, I do agree with this statement. Proprietary view of accounting keeps in mind as an interest of all accounting concepts, procedures and rules are formulated to the owner’s. Owner’s of the company seeks to acheive their purpose and to maximise their profit or wealth. As per the proprietary view for the small business really control by their owner’s and generally are not necessary to prepare general-purpose financial statement for a business.
General purpose financial statment is only prepared when it is needed by its users for its financial statement which is opposed to get those requirement of only a exacting group such as an management, creditors, investors or regulatory bodies. And this whole prupose of financial statement is based on GAAP (Generally accepted accounting principle).
Small business does not require to prepare general purpose financial statement and they do not really make an extension of their owner’s because their profit will be maximise and will not be managed properly. On presenting accounting standards for small business entities they have their levels for satisfaction or dissatisfaction which are hurdles and burden on imposing the financial statement to the prepare’s and their standards become weaker. Small business entities cannot bear to maintain financial statement as it is costly and burdensome which casues the overall cost to continue to increase.

Air China SWOT Analysis and Strategic Advantages

Air China’s SWOT Analysis and Strategic advantages in the Chinese market
China Ltd. is one of the largest carriers in the People’s Republic of China.
They are a very well-known airline. In the airline industry, there is a lot of
rivalry among different carriers. Air China Ltd. was a recipient of the 2017
“Most Popular Chinese Airline.”  (Air
China Ltd, 2017) Air China has been increasing routes domestically and
internationally connecting China to the rest of the world. This study is to
analyze Air China Ltd.’s business and strategic position in the airline
industry. Air China strives to become a world-class airline and has created
strategies such as expanding routes due to the growing number of Chinese
travelers, joining the Star Alliance to better serve its loyal customers as
well as subsidiary divisions of smaller airlines to boost revenue. The study
will conduct a SWOT analysis, strengths such as its massive route expansion,
and the Star Alliance, and financial ratios. Weaknesses are negative reviews
from passengers, as well as racial profiling will be covered along with financial
ratios of the company. Opportunities such as growing Chinese travelers will
create an opportunity for Air China to target them and create more routes, as
well as bilateral trades with the United States. Threats such as flight delays
and unruly passengers negatively affect the airline, lastly, terrorist attacks
have been a problem causing fewer people to travel due to the sense of
security. The Chinese market is very competitive as Air China faces competition
with local Chinese carriers China Eastern Airlines and China Southern. The
airline has the better market share in its own hub airport of Beijing, but
other airports and international destinations other airlines have the higher
market share. Although it is tough, a huge carrier well known to the world will
strive to become one of the best Chinese carriers in the world.

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Traveling outside of China for Chinese citizens twenty years ago were limited to the wealthy elite, and government officials, as today the Chinese airline market is growing tremendously. According to the Civil Aviation Administration of China, there is a total of 487 million domestic and international flights made in 2016. (Pham, 2017) China has a large population of 1.4 billion, and China is expected to surpass the U.S. in the airline market by 2030. (Pham, 2017) Air China is one of the main carriers in the People’s Republic of China. Air China has successfully expanded their market to connect to the rest of the world and maximizing their profit by taking advantage of China’s growing population of travelers. This is a strategic advantage in the Chinese market, and internationally. It is crucial for Air China to maximize its opportunities and minimize its threats in the airline industry, and finally, understand the strengths and weaknesses of Air China. Understanding these factors will not only make Air China one of the best airlines in the world, it will improve their strategic management.
Air China Ltd was founded in 1988. The company was known as Air China International Corporation. In October 2002, China’s central government implemented a reform plan, which caused the airlines at that time to merge. Air China International and China Southwest Airlines merged. On September 30, 2004, the company was rebranded as Air China Limited. (Air China Ltd., 2017) Soon the airline company became a publicly traded stock in Hong Kong’s Stock Exchange as well as London’s. (Air China Ltd., 2017) Air China is in the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and its major hub is in Beijing Capital International Airport. On December 15, 2004, Air China signed an agreement to become part of the Star Alliance, one of the largest airline network in the world. Air China is “China’s only national carrier.” They are the only carrier in China designated to transport the President and high-level government officials to visit other countries. (Air China Ltd., 2017) Air China currently provides its air transportation services to 39 countries and regions, with 66 international cities, 3 regional cities, and 115 domestic cities. With the help of Star Alliance, Air China expands to 1,307 destinations in 191 countries. (Air China Ltd., 2017)
The purpose of this study is to conduct a SWOT analysis of Air China Ltd. This will determine the strategic advantages the airline has in the airline industry and provide suggestions to improve the company.
Specific Objectives
This study will go over these specific objectives.
Examine the strengths and
weaknesses of Air ChinaIdentify the
opportunities and threats of Air ChinaContributions Air China
made to improve the Chinese airline market Comparison of Air China
and its competitors in China
SWOT Analysis – (S)trengths
Air China’s massive route expansion
 Air China is an international airline, it must
open routes to get its name out to the outside world. Air China has done a
great job at expanding routes to the United States, Europe, Oceania, and many
parts of the world. As stated on the Air China website, the airline provides
services to 1,330 airports in 193 countries (Air China Ltd., 2017) The mission
of Air China is to connect China to the world. The hub is Air China is Beijing
International Airport. Air China has created routes from bigger Chinese cities
such as Shenzhen, Chengdu, and Shanghai. On December 11th, 2017 Air
China announced its first transpacific route from the Southern city of Shenzhen
to the U.S city of Seattle-Tacoma. (Air China Expands, 2017) Another flight
mentioned Air China will start service from Chengdu International airport to
London in May 2018. These are ways Air China is striving to bring more Chinese
passengers to more international countries, as well as foreigners to visit
China from the comfort of their own airport. 
(Cantle, 2018) According to La Croix and Wolff (1995), the expansion of
air transportation is extremely important and will benefit Asia’s export
economy. In the case of Air China, not only bringing passengers to
international countries, the expansion of routes will also help the transport
of goods for sale to another country. This had really changed the Chinese
airline market as goods are traded through the Chinese market with other
Airline Alliance
China is part of the well-known Star Alliance. The Star Alliance is a
partnership between the 28 airlines. The Star Alliance serves 191 countries,
with 1,300 airports served. (Star Alliance, 2018) The total combined total for
current Star Alliance member airlines is a grand total of 164.04 billion U.S
dollars, with annual passengers of 725.51 million. (Star Alliance, 2018) Air
China uses Phoenix Miles. Being a part of the Star Alliance passengers from Air
China can earn mileage points from flying their partner airlines such as United
Airlines, Air Canada. Passengers can utilize priority boarding, exclusive
lounge access and other amenities offered. (Air China, 2018) The advantage of
having the Star Alliance is to expand routes to more destinations. Some
benefits Air China can get out of this is sharing other airlines check-in and
ticketing counters, and sharing lounges, and baggage facilities. (Star
Alliance, 2018) According to Casanueva, Gallego, Castro, & Sancho (2013),
the mobilization of destinations among partner airlines within an alliance has
positive as well as significant influence on the performance of each airline
company. As stated above, having an airline alliance the airline can use their
partner airline’s resources. According to Zou, and Chen (2016) Code sharing is
another strength of alliances. Airlines can use other partners major
hub-and-spoke. With the benefit of taking advantage of hub-and-spokes airlines
can expand globally without using its own resources. Airlines feed traffic
throughout spoke cities to its hub cities, using hub-and-spoke networks
airlines are profiting through connections. An example would be Beijing to Los
Angeles, the passenger will need to transfer to Las Vegas. As United Airlines
is part of the Star Alliance, they can pick up Air China’s passenger and
transfer their bags over to the next flight and utilize that codeshare
agreement. That way both airlines benefit.           
Higher profitability ratios than the competition
Air China has higher profitability ratios than its competition China Eastern Airlines and China Southern Airlines. According to Mergent Online Air China has been improving in ROA% where it started off at 1.84% in 2014, and later increased to 3.34% in 2015. Although in 2016 it dropped by 0.24% they came a long way from 1.84% in 2014. In general ROE, and ROI has been increasing over the past 3 years. Air China is one of the largest airline companies in Mainland China, from looking at their financial ratios Air China is a profitable airline. 
Higher Asset Management than the competition
According to Mergent Online, Air China is doing well managing its assets than its competition, from examining China Eastern Airlines and China Southern Airlines their asset management is a bit low. Air China is the dominant carrier in Mainland China. An example would be their Cash & Equivalents Turnover, in the year 2014 Air China started off at 8.3, in 2015 at 12.43 then at 2016 it increased to 15.49. It increased a lot. This shows that Air China can quickly turn its cash and equivalents quickly.
SWOT Analysis – (W)eakness
Low rating scores
of the weaknesses of Air China is the low rated consumer scores. According to
SkyTrax (n,d), Air China is given a 3-star rating out of 5. The scores were
weighted from categories such as Airport services, Lounge, Onboard product, and
Cabin Crew service. From reviewing the scores on SkyTrax, the airline seems to
fail on the following categories: Staff assistance on arrival given, transfer
service assistance, washroom amenities, selection of wine and beverages, service
and service hospitality, interaction with customers, lastly language skills. A
lot of the issues were related to customer service, a passenger had posted
reviews describing their unpleasant experience inflight regarding the cabin
crew had little to no service on board, and lack of English speaking skills.
According to Chow (2014), customer expectations of the service provider is a
huge factor that will affect customer satisfaction.  Customers will often state their dissatisfaction
and share it with the public with social media such as Yelp, TripAdvisor. And
SkyTrax. Having negative reviews will affect prospective customers that may not
fly with the airline due to the poor customer service. According to Wang, Fu,
Zhou (2013), North American airlines strongly rely on passenger service as 90%
of their revenue. The Americans value customer service, airlines such as Delta,
American, Southwest are so successful today. Customer service is a must in any
business if customers are dissatisfied with their experience they will not
return. Air China will need to improve their customer service.
Racism Issue
September 2016, on a London bound flight, an in-flight magazine was given out
to passenger’s onboard showcasing information about London and its attractions,
cuisines, culture, and tips while traveling abroad. A CNBC reporter was onboard
that flight, reading a magazine and she stumbled into a very racist tip
regarding areas with large populations of ethnic minorities. (Mullen, Jiang,
2016) The statement was stated that London was a safe place to travel, but
visitors must take extra precautions when visiting areas that are filled with
minorities such as Indians, Pakistanis, and Black people. The airline suggested
visitors not to venture outside alone and suggested females be accompanied by
another person as these ethnic groups are dangerous. According to Diebelius,
Davis, and Newling (2016), the racist statement was interpreted by citizens of
London that their city was a bad place to visit, locations such as London are
very popular destinations among tourists but having a negative statement
towards minorities is unacceptable. This also puts negative tensions against
Air China because this is what they believe in. Citizens of London expressed
thoughts of hate to the Chinese carrier and did not want the carrier to fly to
London. Citizens also vouched to welcome Chinese tourists to areas where there
are a lot of diverse communities with open arms. (Diebelius et Al. 2016) The
article was then posted on the social media platform of Twitter, where a lot of
users expressed hate among the Chinese airline. Air China, apologized to the
public due to an editorial error made by its publishing company and withdrew
all its in-flight magazines. The United Kingdom is a major market area for the
Chinese, as in the year 2015, the increasing number of Chinese visitors rose by
46% to a total number of 270,000 arrivals. (Air China Under Fire, 2016)
Editorial mistakes like this can cause tensions with the United Kingdom and may
want to prevent Chinese tourists from entering their country. This is a major
weakness of Air China, as passengers that rode the airline which was from those
ethnic backgrounds may want to avoid the airline due to the fact they were
identified as “bad people”.
Low-Interest Coverage
of all airlines, Air China has the least in the category interest coverage.
China Eastern Airlines started off in 2014 at 2.41 and then gradually increased
to 956.19 in 2016. That is a substantial increase. China Southern Airlines had
the most among the three from the year 2014 at 2.47 and increasing to 1,216.18
in 2016. That is a huge increase from its competitors, as Air China will need
to work harder on its low-interest coverage.
SWOT Analysis – (O)pportunities
More Chinese travelers
According to Peck (2017), The growing
number of Chinese travelers are increasing every year. Nationals of Mainland
China went on 136.8 trips in 2017. Chinese tourists have spent about $292
billion dollars abroad. They have spent more than the Americans and Europeans
while traveling abroad. (Peck, 2017) As more Chinese travelers are willing to
travel abroad, according to Zhang, Yang, Wang. & Zhang (2013) the Chinese
airline industry experienced tremendous growth. Air Passenger traffic in China
has grown more than 17% during the past 30 years. China is now the second
largest in air transport market since 2005. It is expected within the next 20
years the rate will slowly increase. (Zhang, et al. 2013) China indeed becomes
a major economic powerhouse with large middle-class people that can travel
overseas. (Pan et al. 2016) Since the growing number of Chinese nationals are
increasing Air China will always be in business, as there are customers willing
to travel outside of their country.
China to boost more economic trade with the United States
Chinese trading industry is growing incredibly. According to Geng, Sarkis,
& Ulgiati (2016), China is the largest exporter and known as the second
largest importer in the world. China produces a lot of industrial goods used
for buildings, and mechanical and electrical goods as well as high-tech goods.
The USA is known as the world’s largest economy, which is made up by foreign
trades. The gross value of China’s foreign trade in 2001 had increased from
1.32 trillion USD to 8.23 trillion USD in the year 2012. (Geng et al, 2016)
This is an increasing trend as China exports more items over to the USA than
the import items. From the years 1993 to 2008, there was a 300% increase in
trades as shown in the table below. Today, Beijing and the U.S has made an
agreement for more American imports to China. President Xi Jinping and
President Donald Trump created a $350 billion-dollar trade. The U.S will trade
liquefied natural gas to China, which is highly demanded the improvement of
China’s environment, and U.S beef will also be allowed into China thus creating
an end to the 14-year ban of American beef. The U.S will also allow China to
sell its poultry in the U.S. (Delaney, Lu, 2017) Air China has the opportunity
as the largest and the official carrier of China to do these trades through its
cargo company Air China Cargo.
Table 1: Chinese imports and exports to the U.S
Source: Geng, et al. (2016)
SWOT Analysis – (T)hreats
Flight Delays and Unruly Passengers
airports are known for the worse delays. According to Bergman (2016), there are
numerous factors that airlines cannot control. First, the Chinese airspace is
regulated by the military, which means there is little space for aircraft to
use the runway to take off. About 30% of airspace can be used by airlines. Massimiliano,
Seddik, & Zhu (2016) analyzed the delay of Chinese airports. The percentage
was broken down as The Civil Aviation Administration of China counts estimated
for 40% of the delays were airlines related due to maintenance issues or
passenger problems, air traffic control counts for 20% as there is a lot of air
carriers arriving and leaving Chinese airports daily. Weather is another factor
which counts for another 20% due to heavy rain, snow, and fog, and lastly,
military exercises count for 10%. The 4 categories listed above, count for 90%
of delays in Chinese airports. (Massimiliano, et al, 2016) Flight delays hurt
the airline’s reputation, it will cost them time, and money. This is not
something they can get back so easily. Delays are uncontrollable as there are
different factors that happen in the airline industry.
Figure 1: Comparison chart of delays Rest of the world
Vs China

uncontrollable factor by the airline is unruly passengers. As the flight takes
off, there can be a bunch of factors that case diversions. Passengers may throw
fits on the aircraft, threatening other passengers on board and flight crew.
According to IATA, in 2016 there was one incident for every 1,425 flights.
Alcohol and drugs can also be the cause of these problems. According to the article
“Stronger Laws for Unruly Passengers” (2014), Unruly passengers are known as a
very small minority, and they can cause serious consequences that can put other
passengers and the flight crew in danger. When a problem occurs in flight, if
the crew feels the passenger is endangering everyone on board, a decision must
be made and divert the plane back to its origin, or to the closest airport.
China is known for its boisterous tourists, a common problem for Chinese and
international airlines. Air China has experienced these problems with unruly
passengers in the past. Flight diversions will cost the airline a lot of money.
Issuing customers vouchers or coupons to use at airport restaurants, hotel
housing, changing flight schedules, and refueling.  Table 2 refers to the amount of unruly
passenger on board that affected the flights. As the title shows, according to
IATA (2016), 9,837 incidents were reported. The year that had the most was in
2015, while 2016 it dropped by one.
Figure 2: Reports of unruly passengers
Source: IATA (2016)
Terrorist Attacks
is one of the most concerning threats to all airlines in the industry. It is
very difficult for airlines to prevent these threats. Terrorist has ways to by
pass-through TSA screenings as well using fake identity’s. The enhancement of
security at airports has been improving since the well-known terrorist attack
on September 11th, 2001. This has shocked the entire world as a
group of terrorists planned to hijack aircraft and suicide bombers for one
purpose to destroy America. Air China had not experienced any terrorist attacks
on board, but an airline in China named Tianjin Airlines experienced a
hijacking in 2012. (Qiu, Liu, 2012) According to Hall (2002), the aftermath of
terrorist attacks affects the public, this affects their decision if they would
like to board a plane to travel or not. The psychologic effect is caused by streaming
of media, as fewer people would travel out of their country with the fear of
terrorist hijacking aircrafts and wreaking havoc. According to Oxly (2017),
airline revenue can take a loss of 2.5 billion due to terrorist attacks. The
airline industry cannot control these factors, they are not able to control the
decision made by people. An important issue airline can work on is gathering
intelligence through no-fly lists where passengers are blacklisted due to prior
or past events that occurred in flight or at airports, as well as working
together with TSA and customs officers to prevent shady passengers from
entering the aircraft.  
Contributions to the Chinese airline market
of the major contributions Air China made to the Chinese airline market was
creating smaller subsidiary airlines to connect throughout the rest of China to
counter its competition. Subsidiary airlines such Air China Cargo, Air Macau,
Shenzhen Airlines, Dalian Airlines, and Beijing Airlines as well as owning
shares with Cathay Pacific Airways and Shandong Airlines. (Air China, 2018) The
goal of Air China is to cover more ground, which most of its business is from
its domestic flights. Air China not only covered more ground in domestically,
it has expanded to 193 countries with affordable tickets than their
competitors. According to Fong (2005) Airfares have fallen since 2003,
state-owned airlines such as Air China are able to discount fares as up to 40%
without consent through the Chinese government. Air China tries to be competitive
in their airline industry, as said earlier with the expansion of its subsidiary
routes they can cover more ground in China, as well as relying on the Star
Alliance to get more recognition through its code-share flights. Beijing
Capital International airport is well-known as the second world’s busiest
airport, Air China has that advantage in its favor due to the fact Beijing is
its major hub where most of its flights take place. Strategic planning and
pricing is a must for Air China.
Air China vs Other Chinese Carriers
China is the largest carrier in the People’s Republic of China. There are a lot
of airlines in Mainland China but will only focus on two of its major
competitors in China. China Eastern Airlines, in Shanghai and China Southern
Airlines in Guangzhou. These are the top 3 carriers in Mainland China. Beijing,
Shanghai, and Guangzhou are huge cities with a large population of people, and
the cities have experienced economic growth. The chart below shows the market
percentage each airline has in their hub city. Air China has the advantage in
their hub at Beijing Capital. Other airlines are reaching 34.2%, Air China may
need to step up to prevent other airlines from catching up to them. On the
competition, China Eastern Airlines hub is in Shanghai which covers Shanghai
Hongqiao and Shanghai Pudong, Air China is weak at 5.6%, and in the territory
of China Southern in Guangzhou Baiyun international airport, Air China is weak
at 6.8%. Other airlines have higher percentages in Shanghai vs Beijing and Guangzhou.
Air China will need to step up and work on their customer service skills
mentioned in the weakness section.
Figure 4: Market Share of
each airline within their hubs
Source: Bloomberg, (2017)
the next table below compares Air China, China Southern, China Eastern and
other airlines in international markets outside of China. Air China prevails in
the U.S, European market compared to its counterparts. China Eastern does
better in the Japanese market and China Southern does extremely well in the
Australian market. As shown below, the category “other airlines” in every
market except Australia have higher market shares than the 3 leading Chinese
airlines. According Airlines in China (2017) domestic flight accounted 91.2%,
while international flights accounted for only 8.8% for Chinese airlines in the
year 2016. A forecast was made for 2021 a forecast of 858.9 million passengers
with an increase of 76.8%. China will continue to increase because of the
growing number of passengers. Air China needs to work on perfecting its
customer service, and market to more foreign destinations. The future for
Chinese airlines will be strong.
Figure 5: Chinese airline market shares on
international routes

Key Findings
to the intense competition in the airline industry, it is extremely important
to analyze the strategic advantages of airlines when competing against
competitors. From performing the SWOT analysis on Air China, we are able to
access the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for the airline.
According to the strengths of Air China, the massive route expansion has
benefited the Chinese citizens connecting to more cities, as well as connection
to other countries. The Chinese economy is growing, and more Chinese nationals
can afford to travel, as more routes are opened there are more doors to Chinese
travelers. The Star Alliance is also the largest airline alliance in the world
with 28 airlines.
Air China is part of this massive airline alliance, passengers of Air China are
able to fly on partner airlines and accumulate mileage and take advantage of
priority check-in, boarding, lounge services, etc. Being an international
airline, in certain countries where the airline has routes too, Air China can
take advantage of partner airline’s check-in counters, lounges, and baggage
facilities. The main benefit is to cut costs and utilize the hub-and-spoke
system to gain more feedthrough airport transits from other airlines.
are some weaknesses Air China will need to improve on such as customer service,
by improving employee relations to customers, Air China will do much better
than its competition. The airline industry is highly competitive, Air China
needs to take advantage of its opportunities to minimize its threats to
succeed. In order to become an even better airline, Air China needs to create
and utilize its strategic advantages, to become the most profitable, successful
airline in the world.
The contributions of this study were to analyze and discuss the strengths, weaknesses of Air China, and to identify the opportunities and threats for the firm. By performing the SWOT analysis the airline can understand its strength and weaknesses, and opportunities and threats outside of the company. By understanding these factors, the airline can improve its company effectively and financially by maximizing its profits and provide the best service. The key findings of this study will be beneficial to Air China, which will help improve its strategic advantage, to help minimize its weakness and threats to become the best airline in the world.
Air China may not have the best reviews and customer satisfaction on SkyTrax and Tripadvisor, they will need to work on their customer service. Passengers are complaining about the lack of hospitality they are receiving from the cabin crew and their lack of English speaking skills. As this is a problem when traveling, some suggestions would be creating mandatory training classes for everybody, ground staff, cabin crew, and the employees that deal with the passengers. Occasionally, a training course should be implemented to refresh customer service skills. Being a flight attendant, it is important to know the English language, as it is a universal language of the world when traveling to international countries. English courses should be implemented for ground staff and cabin crew about airport operations and inflight.
When referring to the competition of the Chinese airlines, Air China faces two major competitors. China Eastern Airlines and China Southern Airlines. As shown in table 4, Air China is prevailing in its major hub at Beijing Capital International airport, China Eastern, and China Southern remains victorious at their own hubs, as well as other airlines are catching up. In table 6, shows the market share of Air China, China Eastern, and China Southern in areas outside of China. Air China must come back with a strong strategic plan to counter its rivals. Air China has intense competition between the 2 main carriers of China as well as other carriers in the market. A competitive profile matrix should be done to analyze the major strengths and weaknesses of the competition, and what Air China can do to take over the cities in China where the competition is victorious. Lowering airfares can help, as well as improving their customer service inflight for passengers, and improving technology on board such as Wi-Fi, movies, and aircraft design are one of the factors to success. Customer service is extremely important in the airline industry. If nothing is done about improving the customer experience of their passengers, everything will go downhill. Air China has the potential to do well in the airline industry as it is the largest carrier of the People’s Republic of China, the airline will continue to open new routes as well as ways to satisfy its passengers. 
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Genetic Manipulation: Advantages and Disadvantages

Science on the other hand, fills my brain with questions and answers the knowledge that I crave. The theory of evolution does not dismiss there is a God. It is a theory trying to explain the beginning of life, how we evolved. The Old Testament professes to do the same thing, however, the stories are symbolic in their meaning. I am a Roman Catholic, and our dear Pope John Paul II acknowledged evolution as more than a hypotheses. Only the divine soul is untouched by evolution (Jurmain et al. 2010:44).

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The fact that some fossils are not preserved does not disprove evolution. Many species might not have left fossils. Some organisms just do not fossilize well. The geological record is not perfect. The fossils are not laid out perfectly waiting to be discovered by paleontologists. Chances are it is highly unlikely that an organisms remains will become fossilized, rather than decomposed. For the remains that do become fossilized, their preservation is unlikely due to erosion, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions , etc;
Evolution continues to be rejected by some religious conservatives and fundamentalists. A lot of them believe that evolutionary biology ignores that God exists. They state that it does not account for how the world was really created according to the scriptures in the Bible. There have been numerous efforts to block teaching of evolution in U.S. public schools since 1968. The US Supreme Court overturned the first case in Arkansas stating that there could be no law barring the teaching of evolution on the grounds that it breached the separation of church and state as stated in the U.S. Constitution.
Fourteen years later the federal courts rejected a statute to teach both “creation science” and “evolution” in the public schools. The courts stated that “creation science” was not actually a science.
To try and “get around” the law of separation of church and state, evolution opponents began to propose the teaching of “intelligent design”. They stated that it was non religious, and a scientific alternative to evolution. Intelligent design claims that the living world was too intricate to have been made by the workings of natural selection. That some living things were too complex to have been developed by evolution and could have only have been created by an intelligent designer. But, they did not identify this intelligent designer. This presentation again was blocked by a federal district judge who found “intelligent design” was not a science (Jurmain et al. 2010:44).
What can be done to correct this controversy, or should it be corrected? Why?
Although I don’t agree with the Christian fundamentalists opinion, my answer is, no.
Why? It is called the First Amendment.
Describe and evaluate some of the positive and negative consequences of genetic manipulation
Genetic engineering entails the manipulation of DNA. The tools in this process are very important for the restriction of so called enzymes, which are produce by various species of bacteria. A particular sequence of a chain of nucleotide bases, can be recognized by restriction enzymes. The nucleotide bases that make up the DNA molecule; cut the DNA at that location. Parts of DNA formed in this way are joined using enzymes called ligases(joining of two enzyme molecules to form a covalent bond, accompanied by the hydrolysis of ATP(adenosine triphosphate))
Positive side of genetic manipulation
Genetic therapy entails supplying a particular function to a gene, and in turn to cells that are lacking that function. The intention is to correct a genetic disorder or an acquired disease. One type of gene therapy used today is, somatic cell therapy. It is similar to an organ transplant. One or more specific tissues are targeted for treatment by therapeutic genes from the lab or the tissue is removed and replaced with the treated cells and given back to the patient. Researchers have had success with somatic cell gene therapy for the treatment of blood, lung, liver disorders and cancer.
Another positive side to genetic manipulation also involves the health industry. The manufacturing of recombinant factor VIII, a blood clotting agent missing in patients with hemophilia A. Practically all of the hemophiliacs who were treated with factor VIII before the mid 1980’s contracted AIDS or hepatitis C from viral contaminants in the blood that were used to make the product. Now donor blood is screened for the presence of HIV and the hepatitis C virus. The process now includes inactivating the viruses if they prove to be present. The possibility of a virus contamination is eliminated completely by the use of “recombinant factor VIII”.
Negative side of genetic manipulation
Explanation of Cloning: A technique that is a process of several stages.

An egg is taken from a donor animal
The nucleus is then removed from the egg.
The nucleus containing the DNA is taken from the tissue cell of the animal being cloned.
The nucleus is inserted into the donor egg cell.
The fused egg is then placed in the uterus of a surrogate mother.
When that mother eventually gives birth, if all goes well, the baby is genetically identical to the animal that provided the tissue cells that contained the DNA.

I understand the potential benefits that genetic engineering has for the future of this world, however, the thought of it getting into the “wrong” hands terrifies me. My main area of concern is cloning. From the beginning, back in 1997 when I heard on the news about the sheep, Dolly, being cloned in Scotland, my heart sank. There is even talk of people ordering what type of children they want, as if they were ordering from a dinner menu. I knew eventually that people would be cloned. There is evidence they have already. People are desperately waiting for transplants. Why are we not using the clones vital organs? This is something would like answered.
Would you agree with your textbook authors when they say: Indeed it would not be an exaggeration to say that this is the most exciting time in the history of evolutionary biology since Darwin published “On the Origins of Species?”
Would you agree or disagree with this statement? Why? Please provide some detailed examples?
Yes, I would agree. In my younger days, I worked as a chemotherapy technician in Children’s Hospital, Boston. I worked closely with one little girl who was born without a stomach, preparing parenteral nutrition for her daily basis. Children also dying at a very young age of diabetes. But due to the amazing research done in genetics, and recombinant DNA technology, children have a much better chance of reaching adulthood and leading normal lives.
Regarding the field of anthropology, the sequencing of human genes in the Human Genome Project. The progress being made in comparative genomics is terribly exciting. Personally, I can’t wait to hear the DNA comparison results of the Neanderthal, modern human, and nonhuman primate.
What is natural selection?
The theory of Natural selection is actually the “key to evolution.” It is based on the following processes that include:

Biological variation within all species
Individuals within a species that have favorable traits are more likely to survive in their environment and produce offspring.
The environment of the species determines whether or not a trait is satisfactory or not.
Traits are inherited and over a period of time, favorable traits will be passed on generation to generation and become more common in the population.
Isolation of a species may lead to the formation of a new species due to inhabiting a different environment and will in turn adapt to that environment.
Natural selection only operates on an individual within a population, but it is the population that evolves.

Why is genetic variation necessary for the process of natural selection to operate?
Genetic variation plays a significant role at the microevolutionary level, producing evolutionary change. Directional evolutionary trends can only be sustained by natural selection. Individuals who carry a particular allele or a combination of alleles will produce more offspring than other individuals with different alleles. The frequency of the new allele in a population will increase slowly from generation to generation. This process is compounded over hundreds of generations for multiple loci, the result being a major evolutionary change(Jurmain et al. 2010:107).
What are the sources of genetic variation?
Mutations: When there is a change in the DNA molecule that means there is one type of mutation and that multiple genes occur in two or more forms called alleles. If an allele to another allele, or if the gene is altered in some way, a mutation has just occurred. Alleles are, in fact, a direct result of a mutation. The substitution of simply one DNA base for another, a point mutation, can cause a change in an allele. However, to be important to the evolutionary process, the point mutation has to occur in the sex cells. This is so the mutation can be passed on from generation to generation.
No changes in phenotype due to mutations
No evidence of a change on the phenotype of an organism due to mutation. Mutation occurred maybe in a stretch of DNA with no function, or perhaps the mutation occurred in a protein-coding region, but ended up not affecting the amino acid sequencing of the protein.
Small change in phenotype due to mutations would for example be a single mutation like a cats ear slightly curling back.
Big change in phenotype due to mutations
This would create some major phenotypic changes. DDT resistance in insects are usually caused by single mutations. A single mutation can also have very strong negative effects on an organism. Mutations that would cause the death of an organism are called lethal’s.
Gene flow Migration is used here to refer to the movement of people. This occurs when the exchange of genes between different groups of migrants interbreeding. It can also occur when an individual(s) move temporarily and produce some offspring in an entirely new population. This way they have left their “genetic contribution”.
An example of gene flow: Happens a great deal in war. When male soldiers are stationed in remote parts of the world and impregnate the native women of that country and then the male returns to his native land. The impregnated native women in the remote country represents the “gene flow”.
Genetic drift is known as the random factor in evolution. The population size is its entire function. Drift only occurs because a population is small. If an allele is rare in a very small population of less than 400 people, there is a very great chance that it will not be passed down to the offspring. Eventually, the allele may disappear entirely. In this instance genetic variability has been reduced drastically. Genetic drift can cause big losses of genetic variation for small populations.
An example of genetic drift: The B allele was evidently not passed down to generations of Blackfoot people. There is evidence that present populations are deficient in genotypes that contain the B allele (BB, BO and AB). When the populations became greatly reduced in size, some genes may not have been passed on to the next generation. This phenomenon is referred to as a “genetic bottleneck.” As a result, genetic variability may have been severely reduced in succeeding generations.
Founder effect is a type of genetic drift and is seen in human and non human populations.
An example of the founder effect is the Baptist German religious “sect” that settled in Pennsylvania in the early 1700’s. These families didn’t marry outside their own religious sect. There has been evidence of some dramatic changes in their gene frequencies. For example; the type A blood in the “sect” resulted in 60 percent. United States is 42%. It is 45 percent for the “sect” in West Germany. They also have fewer people with certain recessive traits, such as “hitchhiker’s thumb” and attached ear lobes, compared to the U.S. population as a whole. The founder effect helps explain the high frequency of dwarfism and polydactylism (extra fingers) in the Amish of Lancaster Pennsylvania. The colony began when at least one of the individuals carried these traits.
Recombination is a source of genetic variation that introduces new gene combinations into populations.
For example: Siblings are never genetically identical to either of their parents or to each other (unless they are identical twins.)This is because when organisms reproduce sexually, some genetic “shuffling” occurs. This brings together a new combination of genes.
How is natural selection related to environmental factors?
All the evolutionary factors of mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, and recombination, interact to form genetic variation. Genes are then distributed within the populations. There isn’t any long term direction to any of the above factors, but for adaptation and the evolutionary process to occur, the gene pool of the population needs to change in a certain direction.Some alleles need to consistently become more commonplace, while other become less common. Natural selection can cause a change in direction in allele frequency relative to specific environmental factors. If there is to be a change in the environment, then the selection pressures will also change, and a shift in allele frequencies is called “adaptation”. Now if there are long term environmental changes in the same direction, then allele frequencies would also shift very gradually over time.
Example:Hemoglobin S (Hbs) which is an abnormal form of hemoglobin that is formed from a point mutation gene, produces part of the molecule of the hemoglobin. If an individual inherits this allele from both parents, he or she will have sickle cell anemia. HbS is a mutation that occurs in all populations occasionally, but the allele in generally rare. HBs, however, is more common in central Africa where it reaches 20% of the population. With the devastating effects of the HbS homozygotes, one would think that natural selection would have acted on eliminating it. But that is not the case. Natural selection has actually increased the frequency of HbS. This is because of the disease malaria. People with one HbS and one HbA allele (heterozygotes with the sickle cell trait) have red blood cells that contain hemoglobin S. Hemoglobin S is not a suitable environment for the malarial parasite. So having HbS is beneficial, because it protects that person from malaria. In this instance, malaria is the selective agent. and favors the heterozygous phenotype. In this part of the world, individuals with sickle cell anemia trait have a higher reproductive success than those with normal hemoglobin, because they are more apt to die of malaria (Jurmain et al. 2010:105).
Discuss genealogy of the Blue Fugates of Kentucky.
Describe Mendelian principle of inheritance as well as a phenotypic effect of an enzyme deficiency.
Mendel discovered through his experiments with plants, that the inheritance of traits was not due to blending as he originally thought. He found that specific units (genes) of inheritance were passed down from generation to generation. No matter what trait Mendel selected for the second generation of the plants, it would show a ratio of 3 to 1. This meant that there were 3 dominant genes to every 1 recessive gene. Mendel realized that this 3:1 ratio occurred in later generations as well. He had found the key to understanding “inheritance.”
Mendel came to three very important conclusions from his experiments

The inheritance of each trait is determined by units(genes) that are passed on to descendents and are unchanged.
An individual would inherit a gene from each parent for each trait.
A trait just may not show up in an offspring but could be passed on to their offspring.

Mendel’s observations have been summarized in to two principles:
The principle of segregation and the principle of independent assortment.
According to the principle of segregation two members of alleles separate from each other in the formation of sex cells (gametes) Half of the gametes carry one of the allele and the other half of the gametes carry the other allele.
Principle of independent assortment-Genes for different traits are assorted independently from one another in the formation of sex cells.
I feel the principle of segregation applies in the case of the blue Fugates of Kentucky. It was determined that the Fugates inherited an autosomal recessive trait. Both Martin Fugate(heterozygote) and his bride Elizabeth Fugate(heterozygote) had one recessive allele each of this disorder. Since both Martin and Elizabeth were both carriers, there was a 25% chance of their offspring being affected. There is usually a predictable phenotypic ratio of 3:1.
The family would marry people who lived close by and this intermarrying continued. The community was isolated, without roads. When the railroad was completed 30 to 40 years later, roads were built and they started venturing out and marrying outside their “community.” The strain of the inherited “blue” gene began to disappear. The recessive gene was not likely to find a mate with the same recessive gene. A baby named, Benjy Stacy was born blue, 100 years later. He had the recessive gene from both his mother and fathers side. His blue color, however was only temporary. It was “assumed” that Benjy had just inherited one gene of the condition, and being a baby had a smaller amount of the enzyme diaphorase, and it built to normal levels as he got older (Jurmain et al. 2010:86-89) and Fugate family literature.
Why do we see this rare, phenotypic deficiency?
It was first seen in Alaskan Eskimos and Indians. It is a human genetic disease. The gene is located at chromosome 22. In normal people, there is a dominant, allele that is responsible for the production of the enzyme diaphoreses. Normally hemoglobin is converted into methemoglobin(a brownish compound of oxygen and hemoglobin) at a very slow rate. Diaphorase in normal blood, changes the methemoglobin back to hemoglobin. The homozygous children of the Fugate family, lacked the enzyme diaphorase. therefore this conversion could not take place. Therefore, all of their hemoglobin in their body was considered useless. Instead they had a mutant allele that produced an inert enzyme that was unable to reduce the hemoglobin.
What is the nature of the evidence supporting punctuated equilibrium?
The theory was advanced by two American paleontologists Eldredge and Gould. They agreed that the fossil record was incomplete, but that it could not be incomplete enough to account for the near absence of the gradualistic change from the fossil record. They said that species originate too quickly for the normal geological processes to record the event; a single bedding (a thin layer of sedimentary rock)often compresses more than tens of thousands of years into a thin slice. Speciation usually occurs when small populations cut off from the interbreeding with groups, evolving rapidly in isolation. With fewer people in an isolated population, the favorable mutations spread more readily. A small, isolated, evolving population may become extinct and may not leave a trace of a fossil record. Eldredge and Gould said that if it does remove itself from its isolation, and spread over a much wider area, its likely to be seen in the fossil record as making a punctuational appearance, fully formed.
The nature of the evidence supporting punctuated equilibrium was from the paleontologist, Cheetham. He gathered a large sample of bryzoan fossils from the Caribbean and surrounding regions. He painstakingly classified them into 17 species using 46 microscopic characteristics of their skeletons. Measured their length, dimensions of pores, and all the orifices on the fossils. He then arranged them into a family tree. He analyzed them and split a single species into several species. The abruptness in the tree, appeared more clear to him and stronger than ever. He concluded that through 15 million years of the geological record, these particular species persisted unchanged for 2-6 million years. Then in less than 160 thousand years, split off in to a new species. This new species would coexist continuously with its ancestor species. This was his punctuated result. But this was not proof
The morphological differences being used to split the fossil species? What if it really did not mark a separate species, but was just another version of the species? A model of speciation was needed to recognize a new species and support any evidence of punctuated equilibrium.
Several biological tests were performed and then he performed a test in genetics. Using a test of protein electrophoresis, he extracted enzymes and analyzed each of the eight morphologically defined species. In every case, the specimen from each species had very similar enzymes. This indicated they belonged to the same genetically related species. Cheetham had passed the fossil species test. His conclusion was that morphology still seems to say how evolution occurred( 1995:1421).
Would you agree or disagree with this? Why?
Many paleontologists still say that many of these studies have their weaknesses. There is overwhelming evidence that speciation is sometimes gradual and sometimes punctuated. It is very complicated, and until there is more proof, I think I would prefer to stick to the middle ground.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Nutrigenomics

The word “Nutrigenomics” is a combination of nutrition and genomics. Nutrition is about the relationship between food and health; genomics is the study of entire genetic makeup of an organism and how they are expressed and regulated. Therefore, nutrigenomics is a field which concerned about the relationship between diet and gene expression by describing the approach to nutrition and human health that studies the implication of genetic differences in human response to food and how food alter the gene expression, biochemistry, metabolism and promotion of health (Elliot R, 2002). In other words, nutrigenomics is the study and application of gene and nutrition interaction. Besides, nutrigenomics also provides a basis for understanding the biological activity of food components (Rawson N, 2008). In addition, nutrigenomics has also been described by the influence of genetic variation on nutrition by correlate the gene expression with a nutrient’s absorption, metabolism and how it is eliminated from our body. In nutrigenomics, nutrients are seen as signals that are detected by a sensory system in the cell that tells the body cells about its environment (diet). Once the nutrient interacts with such system, it alters the gene, metabolite production and protein expression in depending on the level of nutrient it detected (Afman and Muller M, 2006). Hence, different diets will elicit different patterns of gene, protein expression and metabolite production. Such patterns of effects have been referred to as dietary signatures, where they are examined to investigate how homeostasis is influenced (Afman and Muller M, 2006).

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There are many ways on how nutrigenomics is useful to improve quality of life. Firstly, nutrigenomics define the causality relationship between specific nutrients and diet on human health by determining the mechanism of the effect of the nutrients or diet to human body. Besides, nutrigenomics helps to facilitate prevention through dietary modification when the diet-related diseases are detected in early stage. Nutrigenomics also allows the examination on how nutrients affect the genes present in the human genome. With all these reasons, nutrigenomics promotes and improves the understanding of people on how nutrition influence metabolic pathways and alter the homeostatic control in our body. Moreover, nutrigenomics is also able to demonstrate the impact of bioactive food compounds and its effect on human health, which should lead to the development of functional foods that will keep people healthy based to their individual needs. Then, this will further prevent development of chronic diet-related disease such as cardiovascular diseases, obesity and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, nutrigenomics also involve in finding markers of the early phase of diet-related diseases. At this phase, intervention with nutrition approach can restore patient’s health. Once a marker has been found and measured in an individual, the stage of susceptibility of the person to develop the diet-related diseases can be quantified and personalized dietary recommendation can be then given to that particular individual and further improve his or her quality of life.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the lifestyle diseases and it is the most common cause of death all over the world. In Malaysia, about 30% of deaths are caused by CVD (WHO, 2009). There are many factors that can lead to CVD. For example, elevated low density lipoprotein (LDL) level, low level of high density lipoprotein (HDL) and high level of total cholesterol. Diet has a significant effect on CVD. However, long term health benefits can be obtained from dietary proteins and bioactive non-nutrients, called phytochemicals, which could be either integrated into the diet or be part of the food itself. One of the foods that can be used to reduce the risk of getting CVD is soybean. Soybean contain soy protein and it contains phytoestrogens which bind to estrogen receptors in the body. Besides, soybean also contains high level of Isoflavones. There are three major isoflavones in soybeans which are genistein, daidzein and glycetein. Isoflavones have a non-steroidal structure. However, they possess a phenolic ring that enables them to bind the estrogen receptor and act either as estrogen agonists or antagonists (Makela et al., 1995).
One of the ways to prevent or reduce the risk of getting CVD is by lowering the LDL cholesterol level in our blood. The LDL is the major cholesterol-carrying lipoprotein in plasma and it is the causal agent of CVD and coronary heart disease. The major determinants of LDL cholesterol levels in the blood are depend on the number and activity of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). These LDLRs are mostly found on the surface of the hepatic cells. The LDLR controls the uptake of LDL from the circulation and its intracellular degradation by a process known as the LDLR pathway (Anne K Sautar, 2010). According to Manzoni et al, 2003, the peptides formed by the digestion of soy protein up-regulate hepatic LDLR in the mechanism for the cholesterol lowering effects of soy protein. Based on several clinical studies and researches, Sirtori et al (1995) suggested that soy protein can up-regulates LDLR in human. By consuming soy protein with isoflavones, LDLR will be stimulated and increase the uptake of LDL from the circulation and reduce the LDL level in the blood. This will further decrease the risk of getting cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, the number of LDLRs is regulated by a negative-feedback loop. An increase in hepatocyte cholesterol level will suppress the transcription of LDLR genes and retain LDL in the plasma. In contrast, a decline in hepatic cholesterol will stimulates the transcription of LDLR genes and then removes the LDL from the plasma (Elizabeth G, 2003). In addition, Baum et al, 1998, suggested that isoflavones may increase the efficiency to eliminate LDL from the blood by increasing LDLR densities in the liver. Besides, Anderson et al (1995) also suggested that level of total cholesterol and LDL can be lowered by consuming soy protein with isoflavones. A review of 38 controlled studies on soy and CVD concluded that soybean is definitely effective in improving the cholesterol profile. Interestingly, there are some studies shown that with low concentrations of genistein could up-regulate LDL receptor activity and increase LDL receptor gene expression (Kanuck and Ellsworth, 1995). However, there is also some evidence that isoflavones are the active compound in soy in responsible for lowering the LDL in blood and may offer protection against CVD. Therefore, the mechanisms by which soy modulates blood cholesterol and lipoprotein levels in order to prevent or lower the risk of CVD need further research.
There are many advantages of nutrigenomics. One of the advantages is nutrigenomics helps to improve our quality of life by promotes an increase of understanding on how nutrition affects metabolism, homeostatic control and introducing the prevention of chronic diet-related diseases to the people. Nutrigenomics also helps in preventing or delaying the onset of diet and lifestyle related disease such as obesity, cancer, CVD and diabetes mellitus. Apart from chemical drug treatment and therapy, nutrigenomics also acts as supporting element to fasten recover and prevent further damage caused by disease. For example, an individual that are diagnosed to have CVD, with the knowledge of nutrigenomics, they can change their dietary intake to lower their low density lipoprotein level and increase their high density lipoprotein level in their body to prevent and minimized the impact of CVD to their body. In addition, nutrigenomics also helps a country to save cost in a long-term prospect. This is because with the development of nutrigenomics, it can leads to prevention of diseases and thus reduces the cost of treatment, along with decrease in the country’s burden of disease, which then decrease the cost of the government that allocates for health therapy and health services to the community.
When there are advantages, there will be disadvantages. One of the disadvantages of nutrigenomics is costly and time-consuming. Nutrigenomics researches need long-term intervention trials to determine the causal relationship between nutrition and ways of prevention, as well as the outcome of disease which is time-consuming and costly. The methods for measuring dietary intake are much more imprecise when compared to genetic or biochemical measurement. Another disadvantage of nutrigenomics is ethnical implication. Since nutrigenomics include genetic test by the usage of samples from identified populations, ethical and legal implication may appear. The management of genetic information, consent, confidentiality, non-medical uses of information by employers and insurers are some of the ethnical issues that may arise. Furthermore, nutrigenomics might misused by some companies. Recently, the interest of public in this field is increasing. As a result, in United States, some companies are taking this advantage by providing nutrigenomics services to public. These companies may mislead the consumer by making health-related predictions that are medically unproven or asking their customer to buy costly supplement that they claimed to be developed according to an individual’s unique DNA. Moreover, nutrigenomics tests and researches require a large study population of patients and controls to investigate combinations of genetic variants and impact of nutrients in relation to a disease. Thus, it is difficult to visualize the combined data and analyzed, and in an integrated manner, how multiple gene and multiple nutrients interact simultaneously.
In conclusion, nutrigenomics has great potential to benefit medical science in the future. However, it is still only in its infant state and there are many uncertainties about its further development.

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Renewable Energies

During the last two decades one of the main concerns of many people and governments is the supply of energy for different purposes such as producing electricity. Two main issues lead them to think about this problem deeply. First of all the environmental problems such as carbon dioxide emission and also the shortage of fossil fuels for generating electricity. Therefore many countries decided to find alternatives which are accessible or easy to access and they cannot harm the environment. Some of alternatives are wind, Tidal, nuclear and solar energy. By looking generally to alternatives it can be realized that each one has its own advantages and disadvantages. Currently two main sources which are really important among governments and they have invested on them is solar and nuclear power for producing electricity. Nuclear power can be defined as one kind of energy which can produce through some chemical reactions between the atoms of the element. Nowadays scientists have found some methods to use the energy which is release from the reactions among atoms. The other kind of energy source is solar energy which is releasing from the rays of sun. Governments have decided to use these kinds of renewable energy sources to overcome the problem of energy shortage. Some countries have developed in these two kinds of energy source industries. However in each area some people are for and some of them are against this kind of producing energies.

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One of the common methods of producing electricity in recent years was using fossil fuel energy for spinning the turbines to produce electricity; however scientists found a method of capturing sunlight energy and heating to transfer this energy into turbine to spin them and produce a sustainable energy form without any environmental impact. Generally the main process of this method is using some kinds of mirrors in different shapes which are mostly having u shape or they are like a dish. Through this mirrors in these plants they concentrate the sun rays and convert it into heat energy for boiling water. After boiling water the steam which is produced due to heating energy from the effect of sun light the conventional turbines will spine and through complicated systems produce electricity.
One of the main and biggest projects related to solar power is in California in the united stated. This project has been held between the areas Kramer junction and Harper lake in California. This solar plant can produce 150 megawatts of electricity. It can cover 1500 acres in the desert. In this project more than 900,000 mirrors have been used to capture sun light. Through this project the amount of carbon dioxide emission can decrease significantly in comparison to fossil fuels carbon dioxide emission. Because 3800 tons of carbon dioxide used to produce by fossil fuels.
One of the European countries which are really concern about energy efficiency is Spain. The government has invested significantly due to the future and problems related to energy sources such as shortage and pollution of other sources. They have found this kind of energy adequate as an alternative. Trujillo solar project which is started on the year 2006 and finished on 2007 has some advantages in terms of electricity generation for many homes and also decreasing carbon dioxide emission. The total output of this project which might be introduced is 20 megawatts. The method which is used to generate electricity from sunlight in this project is photovoltaics. This project has been designed and developed by power light corporation. In this project they can cover about 100 hectars.The name of the project is Magascona. The calculations from the company can illustrate that the mentioned power plant can supply electricity for 20,000 homes. Moreover it can prevent from carbon dioxide emission annually by about 42,000 tons.
A kind of renewable kinds of energy which is really controversial its future and its efficiency is nuclear power. In general nuclear energy is a kind of energy which is release from the atom of some elements through some reactions. This kind of energy sometimes can produce by doing some controllable processes to use this energy and convert the nuclear power to electricity. This method of producing electricity has its own advantages and disadvantages. Although some people are concern about its disadvantages but it might be a good alternative as response to the shortage of energy in future. Also there are different comparison between using nuclear power and fossil fuels for generating electricity. The general concept of generating of electricity from nuclear power can be explained through this way. In the first stage the Uranium element which is radioactive element should be extract from the mines. After that Uranium should be fed to the nuclear power plant as a main fuel for reactors. In power plants by using controllable reactions which can be called fission reaction an intense amount of heat will produce. The purpose of this intense amount of energy is to vaporise the water and use the resulted steam for spinning the turbines. The electricity which is produced by turbines will feed the electricity into electricity greed. In the last stage they will use this electricity for various purposes such as industry and homes.
Although this method of producing electricity could be an alternative for the future. but there are many arguments for and against investment on nuclear power plants. Currently there are different countries that are invested on this industry such as France and USA. It might be claimed that France is the pioneer of producing electricity from nuclear power by having about 59 nuclear power plants. Generally the amount of electricity which is generated in this country is about 540.6 Tera watt hour and it is a huge amount of electricity. Currently France is the largest exporter of electricity from nuclear power. However the amount of investment in nuclear power plant is quite allotrope of the main nuclear power plants which was carried out in 1991 and 1993 was CIVAUX .This power plant has two phases. The first phase was built in 1991 and the other one built two years later. Both phases completed in 1999 and the government invested about 4.1 billion dollars on this project. There are a significant issue in this project. At the time of testing this nuclear power plant before putting the electricity into the grid the engineers found out a leak from primary coolant, therefore they decided to shut down the reactor and repair the problem. Because, as some people might know, if any problem occurs during any reaction in these nuclear plants sometimes some disasters might occur, such as explosions. Unfortunately the amount of electricity which was produced in proportion to the time and investment on this project was not worth very much. The CIVAUX project work out 1,349 kwe and it was much lower amount among the other foreign projects.By comparison this project and the amount of energy which is produce by fossil fuels was not a successful project.By comparison this nuclear project to the one fossil fuel project for producing energy they have almost the same amount of electricity production.
Civaux 1-2

The advantages and disadvantages of Strategic Management Accounting

In recent years, the strategic management process has become more complex and costly. Growing competitiveness in many markets and along many combinations of dimension is increasing of analysis facing managers.
The term strategic management is used to refer to the entire scope of strategic-decision making activity in an organization. We can define Strategic Management Techniques in many ways.
Strategic management is the process of managing the pursuit of organizational mission while managing the relationship of the organization to its environment.
Strategic management is defined as the set of decisions and actions resulting in the formulation and implementation of strategies designed to achieve the objectives of the organization.
Now Strategic Management Accounting has been defined as “a form of management accounting in which emphasis is placed on information which relates to factors external to the firm, as well as non-financial information and internally generated information.”
In 1981, Ken Smmonds defined it as the collection of management accounting information about a business and its competitors for use in developing and monitoring the business strategy. The emphasis was placed upon relative levels and trends in real costs and prices, volume, market share, cash flow and stewardship of the resources available to the business. (Inman, 1999)
We have different Strategic Management Accounting Techniques such as Key Performance Indicators, balanced score cards, value chain analysis etc. (Carrefour, Key indicators, 2010)
Over the last 40 years, the company has grown to turn into one of the globe’s leading distribution company. The globe’s second-largest retailing company and is also largest in Europe. Carregour group at present operates four main types of store formats: Supermarkets, hard discount, hypermarkets and convenience stores. The Company currently has more than 15,500 stores which are either franchises or company operated. In UAE, Carrefour has large presence and has the business similar to its international business domain described above.

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Business Strategy:
Carrefour is a retail endeavor, having its own manufacturing and distribution chain in Middle East which is innovated by EMKE Group. The business strategy of the company is to provide things of daily necessity to common people at reasonable price and earn profit for increased market share. The profit is supposed to be magnifies and retailing units as a result of low buying price in bulk purchase of material. The company has its own manufacturing unit for number of products to reduce the purchasing cost. (Author, Our group, 2010)
Mission & Objectives:
The ultimate goal of the company is to have highest profit in hypermarket and other business segment. The company wants to manage its supply chain efficiently by implementing ERP. Other objectives include increased sales, ERP implementation, cost reduction and TQM implementation. (Author, Key indicators, 2010)
Type of Manufacturing:
The company has its own manufacturing stream and distribution stream, providing a good choice to carry out this research. The company did not manufactures all of the products it sells but around 70% of the products Carrefour sells comes from its own manufacturing plants. The company has hi-tech plants which are able to produce more than one variety of products at a time.
Carrefour’s measurement of Strategic objectives:
The company to achieve its strategic objectives uses the balanced scorecard (BSC) method to check its current level of performance and to bridge between present and desired level of performance. Balanced scorecard is a tactical performance management instrument – a semi-level structured account supported by confirmed plan methods and computerization apparatus that can be utilized by managers to maintain track of the implementation of activities by personnel within their monitor and control the cost arising from these actions.
It is possibly the best known of numerous such frameworks (for instance, it is mainly accepted performance management agenda reported).
The company implemented the balance scorecard model given in the figure below. Plan of a Balanced Scorecard eventually is about the recognition of a little number of non-financial & financial measures and adding targets to these items, so that at time when they are evaluate it is probable to establish whether present performance ‘meets prospect. The idea in the rear of this is that by alerting executives to regions where performance diverges from prospect, they can be buoyant to focus their concentration on these areas.
Areas where Strategic Management accounting is useful:
Increasing the performance of the employees and the company:
Performance measures are primarily used to evaluate organizational, as well as employee performance. A PMS develops key performance indicators (KPIs), or metrics, depending on the nature and activities of the organization. KPIs are used as strategy and incentives to assist the coordination of business unit and manager’s objectives, with those of the general corporation objectives, that is, they support goal congruency.
By these metrics, the firm communicates how it desires the workers to act, and how these activities will be evaluated and judged.
Carrefour uses the framework below:
The key performance indicators of the company include:
Number of registered own brands.
Number of quality line product
% of product supplied by the suppliers.
Energy consumption
Water consumption
Customer base
The company uses these indicators for the overall performance improvement and for performance of the employees, the indicators are:
Feedback from colleagues
Work hours
Quality of service (Gregory, 1995)
Supply chain:
The supply chain in the company is evaluated on the basis of Value chain. The value chain is a methodical way to examining the growth of competitive benefit. It was invented by M. E. Porter in his book named Competitive Advantage (published in 1980). The chain comprises of a series of actions that build and create value.
Value Chain Analysis generally describes the actions that take place in commerce and narrates them to a study of the competitive potency of the company.
Value Chain Analysis is single way of recognizing which activities are finest undertaken by a company and which are finest provided by another business. According to that, the finest category of Carrefour’s supply chain is Information Networks. Here as the task is distributed to individual units (like transportation, distribution etc) and innovation can be diffused at any stage. Talking about supply chain, the Carrefour is currently using “allocating gaming policy” to hand out the products. Under this strategy, when the supply is low, the suppliers place fewer products on allocation. This signify that that supplier will not provide the order of the downstream fully but will decrease the volume to be supplied downstream in order to make certain that all the downstream nodes get at least some part of demand. In this way, Value chain analysis helps Carrefour to make a best in industry supply chain. (Gregory, 1995)
Areas where Strategic Management accounting is not successful
The company tried in past to use SMA for inventory management but the results were not fruitful. The key failure was because of short term nature of inventory management which is not been provided by strategic management accounting. Thus to ensure emergency and constant supply of stocks, the company also maintains warehouses at its allocation centers. The company currently utilizes “build to stack” approach in its inventory management policy.
Replacement of SMA in inventory
To ensure a centralized approach in inventory, Carrefour hypermarket has EPR implemented but is not federal yet. The ERP needs to be implemented in complete set of outlets and warehouses of the company.
The responsibility to ensure inventory lies in hands of warehouse manager who has to ensure a particular fixed quantity of stock at anytime of the year. The information needed in ERP is to be supplied by various managers at distribution centers, manufacturing units etc.
Master plan scheduling:
Again because of short term nature of scheduling, Carrefour is not able to schedule its activities with the help of Strategic Management Accounting. Scheduling is thus done by correct coordination between varieties of departments. As mentioned previously, the company maintains around 7 days inventory in its warehouses to provide flexibility next to the always changing demand of people. If the material in the warehouses is lesser than that of 6 days, a buying order form manufacturing plant is placed. In the same way, if the inventory in the outlets is lesser than that of 3 business days capacity, again inventory is enthused for warehouse to the outlets. (Gregory, 1995)
Strategic Managemetn Accounting in Various Departments
The company did not have a probable forecasting model for maintaining the inventory. It needs a better method for this purpose. The present method for supply planning goes with the need of the customers. Production is governed by the customer needs and Bullwhip effect (covered later in the report). In order to support the production in accordance with customer needs, the company utilizes Kano model as a strategic management accounting tool. A short explanation is given below.
Kano model shown at this point is the most fundamental conceptualization of client requirement. “The red line shows innovation” while the blue shows expected and spoken requirement and green line signifies expected and unspoken requirements.
Kano model relies on a supposition that a clients buys when he or she Need something, however is it not totally right, an organization must flood the client needs. This can be implicit as a “Voice of the customer” concept.
Value chain analysis:
At every step, proper documentation is done and coordination is maintained which is a part of value chain analysis to ensure that overall supply chain works properly.
A balance score card method is used here. The key ingredients of the balance score card method are as follows:
Cost Control
Senior leadership manages operating expenses and costs through cyclic budgets/ plan. A budget/ plan is a essential management accounting instrument because it assists top management and subdivision heads set spending thresholds and limits.
correct financial reporting
SCA or Strategic cost accounting assists top management report complete and accurate accounting data summaries. Sufficient cost accounting schemes ease monetary reporting work as corporate controllers can rapidly relocate cost accounting figures into financial accounting instruments like ledgers.
Variance analysis
Variance study is a necessary profit management instrument. Variances, often called contingency, are differences among actual costs and budget amounts. A positive discrepancy indicates that budget total exceed real costs. Higher management pays concentration to negative discrepancy because these indicate insufficient cost control operations in operating activities.
In marketing department, SMA is generally used to forecast the demand. In marketing department, Carrefour is currently employing allocating gaming policy (as mentioned previously too) to distribute its products. In this strategy, in case when the supply goes down, the suppliers place fewer products on allocation. This signify that the supplier will not provide the order of the downstream fully but will decrease the volume to be supplied downstream in order to make certain that all the downstream nodes get at least some part of demand. For example if 1,00,000 Carrefour products are meant for distributed to 4 equally vital downstream nodes band there is difficulty in reliable supply, then the company will supply only 12,500 products to the downstream nodes, irrespective of its capacity and even when it can provide more to assure that each node get a little and stock is not unfilled.
It is also find that is the irregularity in demand is too often, some costumers (downstream nodes of supply chain) order more than the actual need to compensate future disorder in supplies. In this way, the company manages its product strategically.
The company preserves an effectual transportation system from manufacturing unit to distribution centers and then additional from distribution centers to retail outlets. Currently hired motor vehicles are used to diminish the cost of purchasing of vehicles.
Demerits of Strategic Management Accounting
There are some of the disadvantages of Strategic Management Accounting Techniques also. Some of them are:
Lack of Standardization
Monetary accountants follow accounting measures and principles sketched by generally established accounting principles like US GAAP. Management accountants, counting strategic executives, do not have a mix of procedures & policies to follow.
Focus on Quantitative Information
Data based or Quantitative information is information calculated in hard statistics, such as dollars and ponds. A strategic accountant centers a lot of concentration on quantitative data. Information studies by these accountants are very cogent. The difficulty with this is that concentrating only at lucid information, other relevant information is unnoticed.
Strategic accountants generate methods for calculating performance and are prearranged a lot of space for subjectivity and unfairness. This causes a disadvantage to companies because strategic accountants attach their own individual feelings and beliefs into making decisions.
Strategic management process involves the entire range of decisions. Typically, strategic issues have six identifiable dimensions:
Strategic issues engage the allocation of large quantity of company resources
Strategic matter require highest level-management decisions
Strategic issues are probable to have noteworthy impact on the strategic-term success of the company
Strategic issues typically have chief multi business or multifunctional penalty
Strategic issues are often future oriented
Strategic issues require considering aspects in the firm’s outside environment.
Usefulness of Strategic management in the company
Meeting the downstream demand by the organization is extremely necessary and most of the organizations (and thus Carrefour) thus lay great weight over their production unit and taking it to best level to attain marked productivity standards. It is involved in strategic guidelines of the company to attain or exceed the requirement in the market. In order to absolute this requirement, business should be spotless in its production and its inventory management. This also need suitable administration of its volume, productivity and cost resources, so as to achieve suitable quality standards. (Inman, 1999)
Relation between demand and Supply side
The demand of the products to be sold is directly dependent on the supply side (for fulfillment). There is a linear relation existing between demand and supply side with negative slope. When the demand increases, the manufacturing side capacity or say the supply decreases and opposite in vice versa case.
One area in which Carrefour is missing is the supply of consumer demand to its customer with appropriate timing. It is the dimension in which system is meeting its prevalent failure. This is highly exaggerated from elasticity that the system possess, and to have correctly timed outcome, Carrefour should have highly appropriate structuring that would be clever to be adequate to all the needs of the customers associated form the company. As a conclusive reason for the failure, we can say that there is lack of co-ordination and management within all the sections operating in the system.
Production in governed by the Kano model in order to meet the requirement of the customers. The company manages a number of plants for producing the variety offered by the company.
Capacity management:
As mentioned earlier too, to guarantee emergency and constant supply of stacks, the company preserves warehouses at all its distribution centers. The stock maintained in the warehouses depends on the forecasting model of the retailing company. The company depends on two sets of customer (temporary and permanent), the stock necessary for permanent clients is still conventional but that for the temporary set of clientele is not. Thus Carrefour invests blissfully on warehousing extra stocks as it is required to maintain extra quantity to answer the surprises expected form temporary customers.
Why it is crucial?
In a retailing industry like Lulu, a major cost is warehousing or organizing the inventory as mentioned above. If the company fails to understand the actual need of the marketplace in advance, it can counter two kinds of problems: one is the likely unavailability of supply at the stores which affects the quality of the offered service by the company and secondly if Lulu tries to preserves larger amount of stocks, it has to disburse in terms of charge of warehousing. Both the situations are undesirable by the company. (Gregory, 1995)
Comments on Role of SMA in achieving Mission and objectives of the company:
As we saw that the company wants to become the number one retail market company in the world, the activates like Key performance indicators to maintain the performance of employees and the company, Balance scorecard for financial management and related models like Kano model etc helped company to perform its operations in better and cost effective manner. Thus we can say that SMA is helping the company in achieving Mission and objectives

Advantages and Disadvantages of Personal Therapy for Counsellors

“All these personal counselling / therapy requirements for counsellors in training encourage selfish introspection. Counsellors are there to help others, and if they need counselling themselves, they should not be in the job.” Discuss with reference to your own experience and beliefs and to counselling literature.

In this essay, I will be exploring if the requirement for trainees to be in personal therapy encourages selfish introspection, the requirements of local courses and theories, requirements of registering organisations and will also include my own experiences, beliefs and understanding of the requirement.

Personally I feel indignant at this statement as it questions the suitability of counsellors and shows a lack of knowledge, understanding and awareness of the positive impact of trainee’s personal therapy on the therapeutic process.

To the best of my knowledge personal therapy benefits not just the trainee but the client as it contributes in the formation of the therapeutic relationship. However, I also believe that personal therapy may have some adverse effects on the trainee dependent on the individual’s personality, culture and life experience and I wish to explore this further.

Many opinions exist within differing theories/courses. Many theories of counselling psychology stress the importance of self-awareness to be fundamental. In particular, humanistic approaches – person centred and existential therapies. Carl Rogers the founder of humanistic psychology emphasizes the personal worth & uniqueness of the individual, that each individual has the capacity to distinguish their own external locus of evaluation to strengthen their internal locus of evaluation to establish their organismic self; reaching their full potential to self-actualize – becoming a fully functioning person. Mearns, D. and Thorne, B. (2007, pp.19-25)

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In order to facilitate this personality change, the counsellor must provide six necessary conditions for effective therapy which include three core conditions. These conditions cannot be established without the counsellor having achieved to a degree their organismic self in their own personal therapy. Rogers, C. (1967, pp.132-155) In order to change, one needs to fully accept themselves, by accepting ourselves, we are then truly in a position to accept and help others.

The BACP is the largest professional body in the UK. 2018, Ethical guidelines section 18:  We will maintain our own physical and psychological health at a level that enables us to work effectively with our clients

BACP therefore, suggests self awareness is critical to avoid doing harm. In 2005 BACP changed their requirement from 40 hours’ personal therapy for accreditation so that all theoretical approaches, including those not required to have personal therapy were included, instead making self awareness a criterion. The BACP did not remove the criteria for personal therapy for accreditation if it is a requirement of the courses for trainees. Hewes, B. (2010)

The Human Givens institute, claim that the BACPs decision no longer require counsellors to undergo personal therapy proves that personal therapy is not necessary to produce an effective counsellor. They claim that too many protected egos and financial investment are at risk to completely eliminate personal therapy. Human Givens believe that trainee counsellors do not need to have personal therapy in order for them to be more effective practitioners. Human Givens claim therapy is only needed when in distress and the main qualities needed to become a good counsellor is intelligence and life experience. Although, I could not find any evidence to support this claim. Scott, C. (2006)

Crysalis courses do not require personal therapy not stating why yet, their website lists the advantages, this seems contradicting. ()

Inter-Psyche require trainees to undertake 60 hours of personal therapy, emphasizing the importance of self-awareness, becoming aware of areas that require further exploration in order to work effectively.  ()

Existential approaches require personal therapy one hour weekly throughout the training process – () WPF guidelines require trainees to be in individual therapy at least once a week and the Foundation for Psychotherapy and Counselling require trainees to have been in therapy for 6 months prior to contact with clients. ()

Little research has been undertaken to determine the outcome of trainee personal therapy comparably, as research is generally narrative. However, a meta-synthesis of qualitative research combined findings on mandatory therapy and discovered there are many benefits to personal and professional development but that it also had negative effects such as stress/anguish and a negative impact on personal relationships. Bennett-Levy, J (2018) However, I have found no clear result for either argument.

Freud, S (1964, pp.216-253) the founder of personal therapy cited “personal therapy is the deepest and most non-negotiable part of clinical education” recognising the importance of the awareness of self in order to work effectively with a client.

Initially, I was unsure if personal therapy was necessary. However, I soon understood that I could not be a professional me and a personal me. I opted to enter therapy during the certificate course. I had acknowledged from triads that my childhood had had a profound effect upon me and I wanted to begin to lessen the possible negative effects on the diploma as I feared distraction from learning. I slowly began to address the past and negative patterns. One pattern was that I would submerge myself in others to focus all of my energy outwards. A defence mechanism to prevent myself acknowledging painful memories. I have now confronted this pain and I am comfortable with it. If I was uncomfortable with my pain, I could have transferred this discomfort and not dealt with the client’s issues. Crouch, A. (2007, pp.93-94)

The benefits of personal counselling for a trainee are plentiful, the experience of active listening and UPR first-hand allow us a greater understanding in offering the conditions fully and allows us to experience being the client. The higher internal awareness establishes who we can and cannot work with, by highlighting prejudices and minimising cultural assumptions, it discerns projective identification, over identification & organised attachment so that I can accurately recognise if its mine or the clients. Crouch, A. (2007, p.170)

Self awareness also prevents unconsciously deluding with clients and not challenging them. To avoid parallel processes and recognise potential transference & counter transference but also to learn about my own transference difficulties. By acknowledging my vulnerabilities, it will promote self empathy and increase emphatic responses therefore, helping personal and professional development. The relationship with the self will positively impact all of my work with a client. Mearns, D. and Thorne, B (2007, pp. 45-62)

There are many different opportunities to work on self-awareness other than personal therapy, Johari Window, EQ, reflective Journal and PD groups all help obtain self awareness allowing us to live outside of our façade and prevent over identification. Rowan, J (1998, pp. 1-12)

On a negative side, by exploring my inner world, I then doubted my own version of events. I sought corroboration from my siblings, which, for them, arose painful buried memories. As the eldest of four children, I felt responsible for their emotions, I believed I should make them feel better. This highlighted a core belief of mine that, could potentially hinder future therapeutic relationships of being a helper rather than a supporter. However, now that I am aware, I can now explore and understand it further.

I can also understand the essay statement, some may believe that by being in therapy it makes you defective and shows incompetence. It may also, be a transferential need for the counsellor to be seen as a perfect person and therefore themselves too. The avoidance of self introspection can sometimes be viewed as unselfish due to Christian tradition where its considered unhealthy to reflect overly on one’s self which could prevent active participation. Mearns, D. and Thorne, B (2007, pp. 45-47)

The negatives for personal therapy are also plentiful. Mandatory therapy does force students into therapy regardless of their position to address the self in order to qualify. A student may not actively participate in its purpose due to fear of the unknown or the stress that may arise. If one is in a nearly constant state of incongruence, an individual may hide their true feelings by distorting reality instead believing that they are their persona. Due to this they will not benefit from its purpose and it will also be financially demanding which, in itself is a large dedication for those economically disadvantaged. Trainees may not have the time to meet the requirement or feel pressured into continuing with an unsuitable counsellor. Self reflection may impact negatively on relationships and it can also be emotionally draining which may effect training. Overall, it can have a negative impact on training due to personal therapy becoming a painful experience. Macaskills, N.D (1998, pp. 199-226)

I do believe it selfish to be working with clients without self awareness, if for example a counsellor has an external locus of evaluation they wont be able to work effectively with a client possibly, due to fear of causing upset.

In conclusion, I believe personal therapy is of benefit to all trainees. Trainees need to have had personal therapy to gain self awareness and be fully functioning practitioners. Although, personal therapy does not guarantee self awareness; if the trainee is not in the correct psychological capacity to address the self. One needs to be aware of their own inner world in order to congruently sit with others in theirs, as stated by Mearns, D and Thorne, B. Without self awareness, our own experiencing may hinder the process.

By recognising who we can and cannot work with due to prejudices it allows us to work ethically, otherwise we compromise empathy. It is essential for counsellors to understand their cultures and worldviews before helping others. Effective counsellors need to be able to recognise diversity and cultural differences, in order to offer the core conditions fully to the client. Aldridge, S. and Rigby, S. (2001, pp. 65-83)

I believe if your aim for personal therapy is self awareness and growth, it is with the intention to ensure you are in the best position to work effectively. I have no doubt that it is essential to have personal counselling to self develop and to continue to do so as the process of self actualisation is never ending. Rowan, J. (1998, pp. 1-12) Therefore, I conclude that trainees requiring personal therapy does not encourage selfish introspection, it encourages self awareness in order to effectively work as a good counsellor.




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Bennett-Levy, J. (2018) Meta synthesis. [Internet] Why therapists should walk the talk: The theoretical and empirical case for personal practice in therapist training and professional development, Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry> [Accessed 17/10/18].

Chrysalis Courses: Why Does Personal Therapy Benefit Trainee Counsellors? [Internet]> [Accessed 18/10/18].

Crouch, A. (2007) Inside Counselling: Becoming and Being a Professional Counsellor. London: Sage Publications.

Freud, S. (1964) Analysis Terminable and Interminable. In P. Reiff (ed) New York: Collier (original work published 1937).

Hewes, B. (2010) Therapy Today [Internet]> [Accessed 10/10/18].

Inter-Psyche [Internet]> [Accessed 10/10/18].

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Mearns, D & Thorne, B. (2007) Person Centred Counselling in Action, third edition. London: Sage Publications.

Rogers, C. R (1967) On Becoming a Person: A Therapists View of Psychotherapy. London: Constable.

Rowan, J. (1998) The Reality Game, second edition: A Guide to Humanistic Counselling and Psychotherapy. London, Routledge.

Scott, C. (2006) Human Givens Website: [Internet] Self and Society – A forum for contemporary psychology, Volume 33 – No.5:> [Accessed 10/10/18].