Gender and Age Difference in Profile Pictures Analysis

Michael Ngo
Abstract
Does Gender affect the number of profile pictures posted on Facebook? Does age affect a number of subjects in a profile picture? This study seeks to find the potential motivation and personality traits associated with an online behavioral action. The hypotheses focus on age and gender, two factors that could explain some differences or similarities in behavior. A non-experimental content analysis was used as the design with a sample size of 50 participants (25 female and 25 males). The age group was divided into two constructs: young (11-20 years old) and old (21-30 years old). The statistical test found no significance in gender affecting the number of profile pictures and age affecting the subjects in profile pictures. Further investigation and limitations will be discussed later.
Gender and Age Difference in Profile Pictures Content Analysis
Media, a term encompassing broadcasting medium such as newspaper, TV, radio, and internet use, is constantly being scrutinized for its content and its effect on users’ cognitive, emotional, and social behaviors. From the recent shootings of unarmed individuals to Trump’s attempt at changing the health policies to local school charity successes, each media source provides an outlet for students to react and change their perspectives. Moreover, media use by students could potentially provide researchers important data on their social, emotional, and cognitive states. Social networking has grown and is continuing growing throughout the past decade. Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat, Instagram, and Tumblr are some of the most popular social networking sites currently (Pempek, Yermolayeva, & Calvert, 2009). Students use social networks to express themselves through the use of pictures, status updates, posts, and chats. These online expressions could also affect the original posters’ viewers and the users’ themselves similar to the larger scale news outlet.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

Facebook, one of the most widely used network, can provide a great source of information, especially about school-aged students. Through Facebook, users can share their thoughts through posts and comments, share links and other media to groups, and upload pictures of themselves or their friends. The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential motivations, psychological factors, and personality traits behind Facebook users’ profile pictures. It is important to note that to measure a person’s motivation and personality, a researcher must compile a series of test, surveys, and physical interactions among other factors. The point of this research is to examine photo related factors and literature reviews to derive potential reasons for the users’ action.
This current study presents the results of a content analysis addressing the following research question: do gender and age affect the number of profile pictures and the number of subjects in a profile picture? In the study, there are two hypotheses: Female users will have a higher number of profile pictures than male users in their albums and younger people (age 11-20) will have higher numbers of subjects in their profile pictures than older people (ages 21-30).
Literature Review
Over the past six years, there has been an increase in the number of peer-reviewed articles on social networking sites. Many of these studies explore how psychological factors such as personality traits influence the use of social networking sites. Personality traits include neuroticism, extraversion, low self-esteem, and narcissism when using Facebook (Skues, Williams, & Wise, 2012).
Some studies claim that participants who were members of more groups on Facebook had reported higher levels of extraversion than those with lower levels of extraversion (Skues et al., 2012). Extraverted people use Facebook to maintain relationships with their peers and engage in social activities offline and online. This would explain the smaller social group membership among introverts and the larger group membership for extraverts. Extraversion could explain why some people upload more profile pictures than others. With a larger friend group, an individual is more inclined to update their photos so that their friends can see what is happening in the user’s life. Students use Facebook to stay in touch with friends and to let others know more about themselves (Pempek et al., 2011). Users may upload pictures of themselves with multiple subjects to showcase their network and friendship. Subjects may include one’s group of friends with studies showing that both the quantity and nature of photos displayed perception of closeness by viewers (Mendelson & Papacharissi, 2010). The motivation behind why users would do this could be to seek peer feedback and validation from friends. An introverted individual may not find the necessity to frequently update their profile pictures for their friends.
Neuroticism is another trait that has been found to affect how individuals use Facebook. Though there are conflicting findings. For example, a study has found that individuals with “higher neuroticism levels were less willing to share any personal information, but preferred posting on the wall compared to uploading photos” (Skues et al., 2012). Another study found that high neurotic individuals were more likely to not show their face in pictures than low neurotic individuals (Liu, Moghaddam, Preotiuc-Pietro, Samani, & Ungar, 2016). Both individuals with varying neuroticism levels were inclined to share personal information when compared to a middle cohort. With contrasting data, it is difficult to use neuroticism as a factor for explaining the differences in profile pictures by gender (Liu et al., 2016).
Self-esteem may be another trait that would serve to explain some individuals’ motivation for their profile pictures. However, there are mixed finding relating to the relationship between self-esteem and using Facebook. A study suggests that users with low self-esteem spent more time on Facebook and that Facebook may provide a medium to compensate for their low self-esteem (Thompson & Lougheed, 2012). Other studies show that Facebook has a positive impact on self-esteem as users are allowed to post what they want the public to see. Oftentimes, users would post positive characteristics and edited photos of themselves to boost their self-esteem. Lastly, other studies found that there is no important association between Facebook and self-esteem (Skues et al., 2012).
In Facebook, where disclosing information about oneself and interacting with others is the purpose, researchers found it necessary to examine narcissism and how it can play a role in a user’s profile. One study has shown that higher levels of narcissism predicted more user information and photos posted and more social interaction (Skues et al., 2012). Narcissistic individuals are more likely to check Facebook more frequently and spend more time on the site (Thompson & Lougheed, 2012). There is a potential correlation between individuals with high narcissism and the number of profile pictures. The higher the number of profile pictures may relate to the individual’s affection towards themselves.
However, even with the increase in studies, there are still missing gaps in the literature relating to the personality and motivation analysis from profile pictures especially in the different age and gender groups. The studies mentioned above examines the effect of one or two psychological variables on Facebook use and not the concurrent effects of various variables. There is only a few select study that addresses this gap. One study claims from surveys taken by their participants that Facebook users are more extroverted and have higher levels of narcissism compared to non-Facebook users. However, a close review of this study shows that the correlation is weak and needs more research examining the psychological factors simultaneously.
Since investigating the motivation and potential personality traits for gender and age differences in profile picture is a fairly new area of research, this paper serves to add to the ongoing studies and provide further analysis. This study will address the magnitude and existence of behavioral gender and age differences. Facebook was chosen as the main social networking site because Facebook users are diverse, culturally and socially, and their behavior is more natural than other traditional samples. (Tifferet & Vilnai-Yavetz, 2014). Two hypotheses were studied through profile pictures analysis for different gender and age groups.
H1 – Female users will have a higher number of profile pictures than male users in their albums.
H2 – Younger people (aged 11-20) will have a higher number of subjects in their profile pictures than older people (aged 21-30).
Method
Research Design and Procedures
A non-experimental analysis was chosen for this study. The profile picture data was collected from my list of an active Facebook friend by utilizing a random number generator online. Each random number represented a friend on my list. For example, the number four would correspond to the 4th friend on my friend’s list. A sample of 50 friends was used with 25 from females and 25 from males. The criteria for the subjects to participate in this study is to be within the age of 11-30. If a prospective participant was chosen and did not fit the age group, I would proceed to the next available person.
Measures
Whether age and gender affected Facebook users’ profile pictures was the focus of this study. Gender differences (male or female) and the number of profile pictures were the predictor variable and criterion variable, respectively, of the first hypothesis. Age differences and number of subjects in profile pictures are the main focus of the second hypothesis. Two age groups were defined, young with people ages 11-20 and older with people ages 21-30, for the predictor variable. The criterion variable, number of subjects in the profile picture, is divided into four constructs: single (themselves), couple (subject and one person), group (3 or more), and others (no people) (Hum, Chamberlin, Hambright, Portwood, Schat, & Bevan, 2011).
Statistical Analysis
I listed the scale of measurement for Gender as nominal (female or male) and Number of Profile Pictures as a ratio. Because this is a group difference question, I chose to conduct an independent t-test for Hypothesis H1. For Hypothesis H2, I listed Age (young and older) and Number of Subjects (4 categories) as nominal and chose to conduct a chi-square test.
Results
There was no significant difference between Gender and Profile Pictures (H1) and Age and Subjects in Profile Pictures (H2). Using Levene’s test, there were no similar variance between gender and profile pictures (construct, F(xx)=xx, p= 0.295). The variability in the conditions is not significantly different.
Hypothesis H1 was not statistically significant. The independent t test disproved the hypothesis and the results can be viewed in Table 1. The t-test shows that the male (M= 46.40, SD= 49.79) and female (M=39.28, SD= 36.45) did not influence the number of profile pictures a Facebook user would have, t (0.577), p> 0.05. Females do not have a higher number of profile pictures than males in this case. Thus, Hypothesis H1 was not supported. Hypothesis H2 was not statistically significant, and the results are shown in Table 2. The statistics X 2 (5)>= 2.285 and p= 0.808 (P>0.05) indicates that there was no association found between age groups and subjects in profile pictures. Hypothesis H2 was not supported.
Discussion
The research behind the use of social networking sites is still growing especially with teenagers and college student’s population. Previous studies show that personality traits can be inferred from the use of Facebook and profile pictures (Skues et al., 2012). However, there is little research on gender and age differences and potential effects on Facebook functions like profile pictures. The purpose of this study is to explore if gender affects the number of profile pictures and if age determines the likelihood of a number of subjects in a profile picture to support potential data on personality traits and motivations.
Two hypotheses were presented and statistically tested. Profiles based on gender and age were chosen and profile pictures were analyzed. Statistical results showed no significance for both gender and number of profile pictures and age and subjects in profile pictures. This meant that both gender and age group have more similarities than differences. This could be due to a separate set of social norms for online users compared to offline users. In real life, gender roles and expected behavior has been established; however, in the virtual world, there are nuances and a completely different subculture that has not been studied yet. These subcultures may disregard gender and may focus more on social structures and practices that shape behavior (Hum et al., 2011). This data may suggest that men and women have the same motivation or similar traits that dictate their actions. Further study would be required to collect more data and complete a thorough analysis, though this is a good start.
Limitations
The lack of significance can be due to limitations of the study. The sample size of the study was only 50 profiles. If there were more samples, then the data may have changed to show a significance result. In addition, because of Facebook and IRB regulations, I would need to get informed consent from participants (Hum et al., 2011). The way to avoid obtaining consent would be to use my own Friend list, making this sample population not random or representative of the Facebook population. A solution would be to conduct the study with the consent of random Facebook users.
Further Research
This study is an observational non-experimental design. The data and results could be used to explain with some potential theories about personality traits and motivation, but it does not show correlation or relationship. In order to a relationship or correlation to be determined, an experimental design is required. This study does provide a foundation for future research. A quasi-experimental design is recommended. The dependent variable would be how frequent Facebook users update their profile picture and statuses and the independent variables would be personality trait test results on Narcissism and Self-Esteem. The purpose of this study would be to determine a more direct approach between the personality trait and Facebook usage. This would explain how psychological factors can influence people to act a certain way and add on to online social and behavioral data. The sample size would be larger (n=200) and more diverse (from different regions of the world). This would provide a more representative sample of the Facebook community. The independent personality trait tests would have different operational definitions each and the dependent variable would also have different constructs. The age of Facebook users may be confined to a range (18-30) to study a specific population’s behavior.
References
Hum, N. J., Chamberlin, P. E., Hambright, B. L., Portwood, A. C., Schat, A. C., & Bevan, J. L. (2011). A picture is worth a thousand words: A content analysis of Facebook profile photographs. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(5), 1828-1833. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2011.04.003
Tifferet, S., & Vilnai-Yavetz, I. (2014). Gender differences in Facebook self-presentation: An international randomized study. Computers in Human Behavior, 35, 388-399. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2014.03.016
Mendelson, A. L. and Papacharissi, Z. A. , 2010-06-22 “Look at Us: Collective Narcissism in College Student Facebook Photo Galleries” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Suntec Singapore International Convention & Exhibition Centre, Suntec City, Singapore Online . 2014-11-27 from http://citation.allacademic.com/meta/p404764_index.html
Skues, J. L., Williams, B., & Wise, L. (2012). The effects of personality traits, self-esteem, loneliness, and narcissism on Facebook use among university students. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(6), 2414-2419. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2012.07.012
Pempek, T. A., Yermolayeva, Y. A., & Calvert, S. L. (2009). College students’ social networking experiences on Facebook. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology,30(3), 227-238. doi:10.1016/j.appdev.2008.12.010
Liu, L., Moghaddam, M.E., Preotiuc-Pietro, D., Samani, Z.R., & Ungar, L.H. (2016). Analyzing Personality through Social Media Profile Picture Choice. ICWSM.
Thompson, S. H., & Lougheed, E. (2012). Frazzled by Facebook? An Exploratory Study of Gender Differences in Social Network Communication among Undergraduate Men and Women [Abstract]. College Student Journal, 46(1), 88-98. Retrieved March 28, 2017, from http://web3.apiu.edu/researchfile/Research%20Materials/Communication/Frazzled%20by%20facebook-an%20exploratory%20study%20of%20gender%20differences%20in%20social%20network%20communication%20undergraduate%20men%20and%20women.pdf
Appendix A
Table 1
Difference Profile Pictures between Females and Males

Gender

Male

Female

t

df

Profile Pictures

46.40
(49.79)

39.29
(36.45)

0.577

48

Note.  P> 0.05.*=p≤ .05, **= p≤ .01,***=p≤ .001.  Standard Deviations appear in parentheses below means.
Appendix B
Table 2
Crosstabulation of Facebook Users’ Age and Number of Subjects in Profile Pictures

Age

Subjects in Profile Pictures

χ2

φ

Single

Couple

Group

Others

Young

9

6

0

2

2.285

.808

Old

19

9

1

4

Note. P> .05. 

The Age Of Refrigeration Environmental Sciences Essay

The “ozone depletion potential” is the ability of gases to degrade ozone if released into the atmosphere, and is compared against the value for CFC-11 (CCl3F), which was chosen to be 1. The “halocarbon global warming potential”, or greenhouse warming potential of a gas, is a calculation of how strongly the release of a certain quantity of that gas would contribute to global warming, via the greenhouse effect. Once again, it is compared against the value for CFC-11 (CCl3F), which has the value of 1.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

HFC-134a (1, 1, 1, 2-tetrafluroethane, CF3CH2F), a widely used refrigerant, is more environmentally suitable than many other possible refrigerants. Firstly, its ozone depletion potential (ODP) is completely nonexistent, meaning that the release of HFC-134a into the atmosphere would not damage any more of the ozone layer. This is superior to many other proposed replacements to CFC-11, which often feature greatly lowered ODP, rather than zero ODP. HFC-134a also has a reduced halocarbon global warming potential (HGWP) of 0.25, a quarter of CFC-11’s value. HFC-134a is not the lowest in this value, however.
Some other possible refrigerants, such as ammonia and iso-butane (C4H10) have incredibly low, almost non-existent HGWP values. However, both of these gases (especially ammonia) can be considered toxic to humans, and both are flammable, leaving them liable to explosion from a spark if they were to leak from a refrigeration unit. Because of this, HFC-134a is therefore a more suitable modern refrigerant for domestic use. (Website 1)
Q1ii)
CCl2=CHCl, or trichloroethylene, can be converted to HFC-134a (also called R-134a) by carrying out several reactions in sequence. In the first part of the reaction, CCl2=CHCl is reacted with hydrogen fluoride (HF) to produce CCl2F CH2Cl. In the second part of the reaction, the CCl2F CH2Cl is reacted with 2HF to form CF3 CH2Cl, and then with another HF to created the HFC-134a (CF3=CH2F). This whole reaction process is shown in full below
In order for HFC-134a’s usage to become widespread, its conversion from trichloroethene through industrial means needed not only to be feasible, but both cost and time effective as well.
Firstly, the reaction process takes place within two separate chambers. One of the chambers is where the reaction products can be separated, allowing the HFC-134a to be isolated from dangerous, or otherwise unwanted products. The other chamber deals with recycling the trichloroethylene (CCl2=CHCl) and hydrogen fluoride (HF) used within the reaction, so they can be reused within subsequent reactions. This helps to make the HFC-134a conversion process more cost effective. A fluorination catalyst is also used in the reaction process, helping to make the conversion more feasible and time efficient. The conversion process also takes place at high temperatures (up to 400oC) and at super-atmospheric pressure to further ensure that it operates both cost and time effectively. (Website 1)
Q2i)
According to the research published in the article “Regulating To Reduce Emissions Of Fluorinated Greenhouse Gases” from the Journal of fluorine chemistry, the chemical compounds which contribute the most to global warming are, in order: carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), Nitrous Oxide (N2O), the ozone depleting substances (CFCs & HCFCs), and then the fluorinated greenhouse gases, namely hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)
Carbon dioxide (CO2), the gas most contributive to global warming, is a small atmospheric molecule that is a key component of our atmosphere as it is used in the carbon cycle of plants. Of all of the contributing gases, CO2 has the lowest global warming potential (GWP). However, due to the incredibly high production and release of the gas into the atmosphere, CO2 is still the leading cause of global warming.
Methane (CH4) is another simple chemical structure, and is the main component of natural gas. Like CO2 it has a relatively low GWP, but is a major contributing factor to global warming due the large amounts of the gas released into the atmosphere.
Nitrous Oxide (N2O) is an oxide of nitrogen, more commonly called “laughing gas” that is used for both anaesthesia and for its oxidizing effects. N2O’s GWP is higher than methane and carbon dioxide, but its level of emissions is also much lower
The ozone depleting substances, namely HCFCs & CFCs, were incredibly common in the early days of domestic refrigeration, as they were non flammable, non toxic and inexpensive. They were quickly phased out from general use, however, when it was discovered that they had an extremely detrimental impact on the ozone layer. They also contribute to global warming, and though they were largely replaced by the use of other gases such as HCFs, they still contribute significantly to global warming.
Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are chemically similar to CFCs, but do not share their ozone destroying effects. As a result of this similarity and due to the inert nature of HFCs (non-flammable & non-toxic in almost all cases) they are widely used as replacements for CFCs in a variety of domestic appliances and products. However, HFCs feature considerable global warming potentials (GWPs), making them a key contributor to global warming.
Compound
Compound Emissions
(million tonnes)
Global Warming Potential (100 year vs. CO2)
GWP emissions
(million tonnes CO2e)
Percentage contribution to global warming (%)
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
30800.00
1
30800
65.4
Methane (CH4)
350.00
21
7350
15.6
Nitrous Oxide (N2O)
11.00
310
3410
7.2
Ozone Depleting Substances (CFCs &HCFCs)
0.60
8100
4860
10.3
Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)
0.14
2800
392
0.8
Perfluorocarbons (PFCs)
0.02
6500
130
0.3
Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)
0.01
23900
143
0.3
Perfluorocarbons (PFCs), hydrocarbon derivatives, are another set of environmentally damaging compounds, especially when they are saturated and within the C1-C6 range. They are useful compounds in the electronics industry, though it is an aim that their usage is kept to the absolute minimum and only when no other compound would perform the desired function in their place. Like HFCs, they have a lower level of emissions, but a high GWP
Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is a technically diverse gas, useful for a diverse range of applications, but most commonly used as a dielectric gas in situations involving high voltages because of its dielectric strength and constant, its properties for arc (spark gap)-quenching and its suitability for use in transferring heat. Its level of emissions may be the lowest of all contributing gases, but its GWP is by far the highest. (Lindley, 2005)
Emission values for these key compounds, and their percentage contributions to global warming, are shown in the table below.
Table 1: Greenhouse gas emissions in the year 2000 [Adapted from table 1 (Lindley, 2005)]
The relative dangers of certain molecules, in regards to global warming, can also be assessed via radiative forcing. Radiative forcing is the effects of the heat energy produced by solar rays being held within the atmosphere (most crucially between the lowest part of the atmosphere [troposphere] and the stratosphere) of earth, rather than escaping out into space. This effect is made worse by the over abundance of certain gases in this section of the atmosphere. Therefore, measuring the radiative forcing effects of certain gases can, in turn, help work out how much of an effect that molecule is having on global warming. A figure, showing the extent of radiative forcing effects for different gases is shown.
Figure 1 (right): estimated radiative forcing effects of key gases from 1990-2015 [Figure 1 from (Lindley, 2005)]
It is clear from the results shown that in order for the effects of global warming to be lessened, reduction in the emissions of these key contributing compounds would need to be carried out. Most crucially, the emissions of CO2 would need to be lessened, as it has the highest percentage contribution to global warming, as well as the largest radiative forcing value. The radiative forcing values for ozone depleting substances are also very large, but as these are being phased out and replaced by the fluorinated greenhouse gases (HFCs, PFCs. & SF6), they are less of a concern. (Lindley, 2005)
Q2ii)
F-Gas regulation is a proposal designed to keep the usage of hydrofluorocarbons and perfluorocarbons under stricter control, so that their emission levels do not contribute any more significantly to global warming. This will be achieved through a variety of means, including: improved containment of gases, reduced and restricted gas usage and putting requirements on how these gases are destroyed. In some cases, a ban may even be placed on a certain gas, preventing it from being used for specific functions. Furthermore businesses that use produce or sell f-gases are required to disclose what quantities of F-gas they are using, creating and supplying respectively. In addition to this, those involved with F-gases will be trained on how to safely handle the gases and prevent any unnecessary leaks, and any significant use of F-gases must be labelled as such. These measures all serve the purpose of limiting the amount of fluorinated greenhouse gases that are leaked into the atmosphere, keeping the percentage contribution of fluorinated greenhouse gases to global warming as low as possible. (Lindley, 2005)
In accordance with these regulations, industrial refrigeration systems are now to be inspected on a regular basis. Details on these new procedures is found in the table below
Table 2: Inspection schedules for refrigeration units of different capacities [Adapted from table 2 (Lindley, 2005)]
Quantity of F-Gas in Refrigeration System
Inspection Frequency
(With No Leak Detection)
Inspection frequency
(With Leak Detection)
Containing up to 30 kg (excluding airtight systems which contain less than 6kg)
Once every 12 months
Installation not required
Containing up to 300kg
Once every 6 months
Installation not required (Presence of install halves inspection frequency)
Containing more than 300kg
Once every 3 months
Installation mandatory (Presence of install halves inspection frequency)
[Note: In the event of a leak, the system must undergo reinspection 1 month after the leak has been fixed]
Also, the F-gas regulation stipulates that certain refrigeration applications must be banned completely. Details on those affected applications are shown in the table below.
Table 3: Banned refrigeration applicants under F-gas regulation [Adapted from table 3 (Lindley, 2005)]
Type of Gas
Prohibited Usage
Date of prohibition
Fluorinated greenhouse gases
Non-refillable containers
Start of F-Gas Regulations
Fluorinated greenhouse gases
Windows for domestic use
Start of F-Gas Regulations
Fluorinated greenhouse gases
Other windows
One year after the Start of F-Gas Regulations
Fluorinated greenhouse gases
Footwear
1 July 2006
Fluorinated greenhouse gases
Tyres
Start of F-Gas Regulations
Fluorinated greenhouse gases
One component foams
One year after the Start of F-Gas Regulations (except when required to meet national safety standards
Hydrofluorocarbons and perfluorocarbons
Refrigerants in non-confined direct-evaporation systems
Start of F-Gas Regulations
Perfluorocarbons
Fire protection systems and fire extinguishers
Start of F-Gas Regulations
Hydrofluorocarbons
Novelty aerosols
Two years after the Start of F-Gas Regulations
Q2iii)
F-Gas regulations put restrictions on the many uses of fluorinated gases. One such restriction is that of HFC-134a in mobile air-conditioning units, such as those used in cars. The popularity of air-conditioning in cars has been rising steadily since the early 1990’s, such that now over 80% of cars in Europe have this feature installed. While the HFC-134a system is much more efficient than the earlier CFC systems, using less than half of the 1.5kgs of gas that they used, and further research was being carried out in order to make more efficient systems, the EU has still decided to prohibit their future usage, having the use of the gas gradually phased out until 2017 when its usage is completely banned. This will have a considerable effect on the HFC134a industry as its usage in cars and other similar transport makes up a considerable part of their market. In turn, car manufacturers will have to develop new air-conditioning systems in cars, and this will drive up the cost of newer car models to counter development costs. (Lindley, 2005)
3)
Ever since the realisation of mankind’s negative impact on the environment, preventative measures have been put in place to try and reverse them, and several different pieces of legislation help to ensure that this is the case.
The Montreal protocol, which banned the usage of CFCs and HCFCs, was created to help protect the ozone layer from further harm. In this regard, the protocol can be considered a success. Levels of ozone damaging gases in the atmosphere have been steadily falling, and it is estimated that the ozone layer could have repaired itself as early as 2050 (WMO, 2006).
However, the replacement of CFCs and HCFCs with fluorinate gases to combat the destruction of the ozone layer lead to more environmental concerns, namely that these fluorinated greenhouse gases were making a significant impact on global warming. While the impact of these gases on global warming may be less than that of some other greenhouse gases (namely CO2) their effects are still considerable, and several pieces of legislation have been set up to try and decrease their usage. Firstly, the Kyoto protocol listed several fluorinated greenhouse gases, including HFCs, PFCs and SF6, along with CO2, CH4 and N2O, as gases that must have their levels of emissions decreased. The F-Gas regulation, making reference to the Kyoto protocol, set regulations on the usage of the HFCs and PFCs, helping to reduce their prevalence in society. Despite this, global warming problems continue to rise, thanks to increasing atmospheric levels of CO2. As long as CO2 is so prevalent in the atmosphere, reducing the effects of comparatively less harmful fluorinated gases through legislation can only do so much in helping to combat the rising problems of global warming (Lindley, 2005 & Website 2)
 

Healthy Lifestyle Into Old Age Health And Social Care Essay

Under the fast pace of social life and the worsening of living environment, people are suffering from semi-health and disease such as high blood pressure and cholesterol. The excessive use of medicine and medical treatment is a facile solution, which cannot cure the fundamental problem. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle into old age, however, is a fundamental solution.
This essay is aimed to outline and evaluate reasons that people can maintain a healthy lifestyle into old age. The essay firstly analyzes the unhealthy lifestyle to indicate importance of a healthy lifestyle; the essay will further outline the benefits of maintaining a healthy lifestyle into old age.
Problem in lifestyle
By maintaining a healthy lifestyle, people are able to minimize their stress and perform efficiently in their work as well as prevent a lot of diseases in every stage of life. Macqueen (1998) suggest that a healthy lifestyle should includes following elements: A nutritionally balanced diet, sufficient relaxation and sleep, regular exercise, only a moderate intake of alcohol, minimal use of non-prescription drugs including cigarettes, emotion support and social contact minimization of stress. However, a number of people still cannot see the importance of maintaining a healthy lifestyle into old age.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

BBC News has reported a sharp increase in the “lifestyle cancer”, for example skin and liver cancer in Scotland. According to the statistics, the rates of malignant melanoma have increased by 68% in men and 71% in women with a rise of 51% of liver cancer in males from 1998 to 2008. As suggested by Health Secretary, Nicola Sturgeon, it was strong evident that “lifestyle choice” would cause rises in cancer. (BBC, 2010)
According to the UK National Statistics on lifestyle and behavior, there are a high prevalence of unhealthy lifestyle such as smoking, drinking and obesity. It shows that 24% of adults (aged 16 or above) in England were classified as obese in 2006, which is a 9% of increase from 1993, with 3% of women and 1% of men were likely to suffer from morbidly obesity (NHS, 2008b). Similarly, 28% of adults aged 16 and above are reported smoking in 2008 in England. This figure is the same as that in 2007 (NHS, 2010). It is suggested there are close linkage between Smoking and dirking and heart disease. Different from smoking, which are considered as no potential health benefits to people, moderate drinking is regarded as help to protect people’ heart (Westcott, 2010). However, statistics also shows that 40% of males and 33% of females had drunk more than the daily recommended number of unite on at least one day in the week prior to interview. 23 % of men and 15% of women had drunk more than twice the recommended daily intake. (NHS, 2008a)
Benefits of maintaining a healthy lifestyle
The development of modern medical science makes people more aware of their bodies. The benefits of a healthy lifestyle are becoming increasingly apparent, which is beneficial to people of all ages, weights or social status. There are several benefits for people to maintain a healthy lifestyle into old age.
By maintaining a healthy lifestyle into old age, people are able to attain good health and reduce the risks of illness and injuries. Frequent exercises can improve their stamina, strength and flexibility. A balanced and varied diet can provide people with needed nutrients and energy without getting weights. Besides, regular exercise and balanced diet are able to reduce blood pressure, lose weight and lower the risk of diabetes development and heart disease.
A healthy lifestyle can provide many benefits that medicine cannot. It is able to facilitate the effect of medical treatment. According to the study of Kelley, et. al. (2005), aerobic exercise and resistance training can effectively lower LDL-C of patients. Furthermore, this reduction will is enhanced by weight loss and diet, but mitigated by weight gain (Kelley, et. al. 2005).
By maintaining a healthy lifestyle into old age, people are able to live a longer life. As people get aged, the physical conditions are becoming weaker and weaker. However, though a healthy lifestyle, they are able to strengthen their physical condition. It helps people live a longer life.
As stated above, a healthy lifestyle helps people maintain good health. In other words, people are able to reduce their expense on health care and doctor visit.
By maintaining a healthy lifestyle into old age, people may have better control of their life. People maintain a better body condition and physical function, which helps them work better in their career and live a better life. For example, insomnia is a problem that bothers a lot of workers. By maintaining a healthy lifestyle, people are able to gradually improve their sleep pattern. With enough rest and sleep, they feel energetic in the daytime and perform better in their career. With a better physical appearance (for example, slimmer), they look better and feel better about themselves, which enhance their self-image and self-esteem.
Conclusion
Good health is not a commodity that one can purchase from a hospital or a drug store. However, it can be obtained though maintaining a healthy lifestyle for a lifetime. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle into old age does not means one have to be trained like a professional athlete. Nor, it is something can be done overnight. The secret lies in perseverance. If one keep repeating the healthy lifestyle he has chosen, he will enjoy the benefit sooner or later.
 

Protecting Children from Harm in the Internet Age

Issues regarding children’s Internet safety remained an overarching concern for the society. But as a matter of fact, internet is already an irreplaceable part of daily life, especially for children (learning, gaming, and social networking). The Canadian government has introduced agreements to protect children. Nervertheless, some crimes are national basis. In addition, a lot of countries define ‘children’ differently, makes protecting children a harder work [Minujin et al. 2006].
Internet filtering technology has been conducted in most western countries as well as some developing countries. It is used to prevent Internet users from accessing materials that considered inappropriate or unsafe [Hamade, 2008]. Although parents and local institution are encouraged to use these software to protect their children and the community, but there is no guarantee that these software are 100% effective at regulating undesirable contents, they always likely to under- or over-block content. Therefore, besides using network level filtering, it is critical for parents, education- and government-related personnel to educate children about self-protection, risks and responsibility they may encounter while using the Internet.
1. INTRODUCTION
Internet has become one of the most important media among the others. Common uses of internet among people including children are:

Leaning
Social-networking
Entertaining

The development of technology makes Internet usage more convenient. Children are now able to access internet from their cellphone, tablet and laptop instead of desktop computers. But this made supervision much more difficult than before [López, Arnao and Puente, 2012].
While the internet is overall a great educational place for children, there are also exist areas that are not appropriate for children. Without appropriate supervision, children are likely to get contacted by contents involving: violence, porn, hate speech, etc.
Although there exist unsafe contents on the internet, but internet itself is a powerful tool. The internet gives parents and educators better opportunity to teach children according to their age and interest, giving children better way of learning while having fun.
Parents, education- and government-related personnel should work together in order to build a safer environment for children. It is everyone’s responsibility to build and maintain a healthy environment for children wherever they are, giving children a safe and nurturing childhood.
2. Children Internet Use
Both the amount of children and their ability to use internet are increasing. Some parents claim they don’t know better than their child about the internet.
According to a survey conducted by the pan-European survey published by the European Commission, children start to use the Internet at 7, and the age of internet user is decreasing, internet uses include: social-networking (89%), entertaining (84%) and schoolwork (80%) [Digital Agenda, 2010]. Therefore, building safe guideline and setting rules for children’s internet usage should start once they get contact with computer.
An important role of enabling children’s safety online is to help them understand the concepts of safety and risks, so that they will be able to make better decisions in the future based on what they have known. Internet safety education is critical in protecting children from internet threats.
Some people blocked children’s internet usage completely, claiming it as an evil thing, which will misguide the children. They should also keep in mind that internet use is one of the basic skills in daily life. In addition, children learn from their mistakes. Therefore, it is the goal to teach children the ’internet manner’ and ‘look before you leap’.
3. Potential Risks
According to research, children between ages of 8-15 are mostly likely to be afflicted by online threats. Some are risky to their safety and privacy; some may also resulted from children intentionally or unintentionally violates the law, such as torts which may lead to dangerous situations. Figure 1 shows the overview of common internet risks from Valcke et al. (2011):

Fig. 1. Overview of internet Risks
File-sharing is a useful technology that allows teachers to show useful information to the student and peers to share files with each other. But many file-sharing programs, like email, give children a way of accessing harmful contents. Example of such contents including: pornography, violence, hate, racism. According to research from Valkenburg and Soeters (2001), figure 2 shows data from children’s positive experience of using internet, and figure 3 shows negative experience.

Fig. 2. Positive Impacts about children’s Internet Use

Fig. 3. Negative Impacts about children’s Internet Use
While children are searching movie clips, some sexually explicit files or sites advocate usage of alcohol, tobacco or illegal drugs may appear. In this case, some online filter or parent-control software can be used.
The most common contact risks to think of is a child turn up missing or being hurt after meeting someone online. This always resulted by young children especially girls allured by criminals online.
There are many ways internet users can lose their privacy, and leading themselves to danger. If children carelessly exposed family address, phone number, or name to a stranger, serious danger may occur to family members as well. Besides, nowadays there are a lot of companies collecting potential customers’ information as registering for contests or filling address for prize, children should also be aware of giving out information this way, causing mental and property damage.
It is not only our privacy we need to consider. Parents should also be aware their children putting other people’s information (e.g. friend, other family members, etc.) online. Making jokes as claiming a missing child by putting a friend’s information online can cause a lot of trouble to the family and police.
People get angry sometimes, same for children. A lot of people take internet as a way to vent the anger. Children will have higher chance to be exposed to hate speech and violent sentence when get involved. The best defense for children is to avoid getting into online arguments until they are mature enough to filter out bad information, control the anger and speak out their minds.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

The lack of uniform definition as what is appropriate for children or what is the definition of children are different in most countries based on their culture. Most developed countries take 18 years old as the boundary to differentiate adults from children. But people get marry early in some country so they arrive their adulthood much earlier. In this case, the lack of uniform online legislation may allow children to access inappropriate material from other countries.
4. Present Concerns and Solutions
Along with the growth of children’s internet use, a large number of Web 2.0 applications like Facebook came out, which makes it now more critical to protect children from unsafe online environment.
There are three aspects need to be worked with: government regulation, technologies, parents supervision.
4.1 Government Policies regarding Children’s Online Safety
According to Liu (2006), Ontario police established the earliest investigation group about child pornography. The investigators realized shortly, child pornography exists not only in certain places, it became an issue of the world. Online investigation needs a lot of time, money and human resources, especially skilled investigators. So the local police station founded an Internet Safety Committee, formed by police representatives, governors from election, members from the local Education Committee, etc., and their goal is to provide the safest online environment as they can for children.
To accomplish the goal, the committee established the following detailed rules: educate students about the importance of internet safety; teach the parents how to protect their children from internet risks. The committee worked with one school and added specific course about Internet Safety for students with different age. An insurance company donated a disk with video about Internet Risks to the committee made the education process ran smoother than before.
According to the research before experiment, 62% of elementary students were using internet in the spare time, and 23.7% of the student have visited online chatting rooms. For students in grade 9 and grade 10, 88.6% of them have spent spare time online, 66.19% students have chatted online within the last 6 months. The most disturbing result is that there were 90.5% of students thought it is alright to meet people that they met online, and 22% had already met their net friend.
The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) of United States had revised Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA) on July 1, 2013. COPPA give US-parents greater control over their children’s privacy. It detailed what a website operator must follow, when and how to seek permission and verification from a parent to guardian, and what responsibility an operator has to protect children’s privacy and safety online, including restrictions on doing business with children under 13.
4.2 Internet Filtering Technology
A lot of countries have chosen to establish national internet regulation with varying degrees of success, but sometimes will have unintended consequences. Number of countries who use filtering technologies to block the access of certain content has increased dramatically.
Normally, the following threes filtering technologies are used to block the access of websites via network infrastructure: IP blocking, DNS filtering, and URL blocking using a proxy. Filters can also be implemented by using software on local computers, in other words, client-side filters. This type of filter can be managed by anyone with administrator-level privileges on the computer.
It can be argued that net-work based filtering causes filtering errors: over-blocking and under-blocking. For example, when searching health-related information, some useful information may be filtered out by having same searching keywords with porn-related material. And most of the filtering software will prefer over-blocking instead of allowing any leaking information that their customers don’t want. As a result, over-blocking encourages users to bypass the filtering technology entirely. When new information is updated online, under-blocking may occur. The filtering software may fail to recognise the new information because it has not yet updated on the client side when blacklisting are used instead of whitelisting.
With the rapid development of science and technology, people expect higher efficiency for their software. It has been reported that most inline filters (parent-control software) as well as online content filtering are slow when processing. According to Akbaş (2008), content filtering can be accelerated by examining only web content. In this case, offline filtering and proxy works synergistic, so filtering process and data transfer works independently to accelerate the filtering process. Therefore, decision can be made by examining only part of the web content.
While children’s internet use at school or home is usually supervised and filtered, many children are now able to access internet through other devices and in different locations with no supervision and internet filter. This means, children are likely to access inappropriate material on the internet. It is therefore, important to educate children how to behave online, and discuss issues that may encounter when accessing Internet.
4.3 Parents and Educators’ Action
When the government trying to enact laws to protect children as complete as possible, parents and other community members in the society also have the responsibility to guide children, provide a safe and entertained online environment for them.
Except using filtering technologies, parents and educators should teach children how to safeguard themselves, since the most effective way of preventing problems arising from internet use is to empower children. Guardians and educators can teach them about legal boundaries, moral and ethical norms regarding their culture. Empowering children can prevent them from being victims as well.
It is undeniable that children adapt new technologies better than adults. This made a good relation with children much important, since young people usually will have a trusted relationship with peers or adults, so the influencers should be aware of the risks themselves and give reliable advices. In addition, parents, guardians, educators and trusted influencers should play an active role in teaching children about the risks they may face from sexually explicit materials online and how to avoid internet predators and scammers. Children should also be educated about being careful of sharing personal information on the internet.
As children growing up day by day, parents’ guardian role becomes challenging. While parents are being responsible for their children’s safety, they have to respect children’s rights to privacy themselves. Parents might give up at this them, but it is urgent to encourage parents to talk and discuss with children about their online activity.
(what the parents can do are: communicate with children as much as they can; make sure the children understand the importance of not exposing private information to strangers; make sure they don’t meet net friend; if found anything that children did were not appropriate online, stop them, and educate them; put the computer at where you can see easily; use parents control software;)
5. Conclusions
Internet control is not impossible. Along working with children in their families and schools, there are a lot of actions that government can do to build public awareness to help children be benefit from the internet in a safe environment. For example, involve all members in the society to build public awareness about internet safety; encourage law enforcement and the educational department to develop best practices in proving safe online environment and dealing with crimes.
The internet renovates so rapidly that the government regulation and technologies might not keep up. More effective and durable measures are those close to children: family, school, and community, guiding children to make good decisions, so that they will grow to become the next generation of responsible and trusted influencers.
REFERENCES
http://refworks.scholarsportal.info.proxy.bib.uottawa.ca/refworks2/default.aspx?r=file::get_file&file_name=yyin051-RefList.html&content_type=text/html&file_token=WWFvJ8ccM8n3WWpZKOfcZRsWMbn0Mo5vMb5yMoefNE90J8e0GApnVtW[ZhkcUCd[GtA1T8c4E. Akbaş. 2008. Next Generation Filtering: Offline Filtering Enhanced Proxy Architecture for Web Content Filtering. In Computer and Information Sciences, 2008. ISCIS ’08. 23rd International Symposium on. 1-4. DOI:http://dx.doi.org.proxy.bib.uottawa.ca/10.1109/ISCIS.2008.4717892
S. N. Hamade. 2008. Internet filtering and censorship. Information Technology: New Generations, 2008. ITNG 2008. Fifth International Conference on ( 2008) , 1081-1086. DOI:http://dx/doi.org/10.1109/ITNG.2008.50
Zhongwen Liu. 2006. On internet safety for canadian children. Journal of Liaoning Police Academy 39, 5 (September. 2006)DOI:http://dx/doi.org/1008-5378(2006)05-0049-02
E. M. López, R. N. M. Arnao, and S. M. Puente. 2012. Children and adolescent risk environment characterization to use information technologies and communications (ICT): Case merida, venezuela. Latin America Transactions, IEEE (Revista IEEE America Latina) 10, 3 ( 2012), 1791-1797. DOI:http://dx/doi.org/10.1109/TLA.2012.6222586
Alberto Minujin, Enrique Delamonica, Alejandra Davidziuk, and D. E. Gonzalez. 2006. The definition of child poverty: A discussion of concepts and measurements. Environment and Urbanization 18, 481 ( 2006)DOI:http://dx/doi.org/10.1177/0956247806069627
M. Valcke, B. De Wever, H. Van Keer, and T. Schellens. 2011. Long-term study of safe internet use of young children. Computers & Education 57, 1 (August. 2011), 1292-1305. DOI:http://dx/doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.01.010.
P. Valkenburg and K. Soeters. 2001. Children’s positive and negative experiences with the internet an exploratory survey. Communication Research 28, 5 (October. 2001), 652-675. DOI:http://dx/doi.org/10.1177/009365001028005004
Page 1 of 7  

British Jingoism and Popular Media in the Age of New Imperialism, 1870-1914

A rise in ‘Empire-critical’ authorship at the end of the nineteenth century is well known to historians. Loosely derived from Adam Smith’s anti-mercantilism and the international pacifism of Richard Cobden, ‘New-Liberal’ Radicals formed loose ideological criticisms that were usually not anti-imperialist per se, but attacked certain aspects of Empire. Despite this, the generic polemic of such writings pronounced colonial possessions as unprofitable and not in the national interest, alternatively supporting ideas of free trade and non-interventionism. With the emergence of a ‘New Imperialism’ in the 1870s, radical writers found that the direction of the British Empire was not congruent with their international ideology, and treated New Imperialism as a wholly new phenomenon, ignoring the commonalities of past imperialism. Strictly speaking, Empire sentiment was nothing new, however it was only then, in the fin-de-siècle, that the oration of pro-imperial attitudes was heard by far-left critics.[1] Indeed, the voice of Empire did grow as the century progressed. The emergence of jingoism presented a new, more vocal imperialism, to the bewilderment of Radicals and moderate Liberals alike. Jingoism was largely used as a broad term to describe the ‘state of mind’ of imperialism in this period; a state of mind which was considered, above all else, to be irrational. As a result, Jingoism was not thought of as a philosophy, but instead a ‘national psychology’ that was formed by instinct, rather than based on conscious thought. To Radicals, this psychology was an arrogance, a worship of force, or more degradingly labelled as simple hooliganism.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

The Socio-psychological analysis of Jingoism is perhaps most prevalent in J. M. Robertson’s Patriotism and Empire (1900) and J. A. Hobson’s The Psychology of Jingoism (1901). Both were notable members of the socialist ‘Lib-Lab’ society, the Rainbow Circle. This group was one which bridged the gap between New Liberalism and an emerging socialism into an intellectual cross-section, which found the Conservative capitalists’ imperialism to be a natural antagonist to their progressive thinking.[2] Regardless, its seems as intellectuals the only thing that appalled them more than wrong-thought, was no thought at all. Firstly, Robertson talks of a sacred patriotism, invoked by a tribal enmity of the ‘other’ group. He draws from the contemporary novel A Child of the Jago by Arthur Morrison to demonstrate the connection between the fictional, fraternal Jago clan of a pseudo-Victorian slum, and the patriotic Jingo.[3] “In what respect is the patriotism of the Jago less rational or less respectable than the patriotism of the Jingo?” His answer predictably determines the Jingo and the Jago of little difference in their psychology and primitive nature: “The inspiration of the patriotic Jingo… is just the inspiration of the blackguard Jago– just as far away from reason, from self-criticism, from the spirit of righteousness. The maxim, ‘our country right or wrong’”.[4] Hobson’s Psychology of Jingoism is perhaps the most direct attack on imperialism’s ‘state of mind’. It is evident from the first chapter, titled ‘The Diagnosis’, that he believes Jingoism is something of a mental sickness. At his most crude, Hobson describes the sensationalism of Jingoism as a phenomenon which ­taps into the “most violent appeals of hate and the animal lust for blood, which passes through quick contagion through the crowded life of cities”. Similarly, Herbert Spencer in 1902 summarised the past fifty years as the ‘re-barbarisation of Europe’ whereby through the press, war songs and schooling “a recrudescence of barbaric ambition, ideas and sentiments and an unceasing culture of blood-thirst.”[5]

Much like Robertson, both these observations are of a savage natured people within a civilised country, fuelled by a ‘neurotic imagination’ of war and aggressive foreign policy. The zoomorphism of working class jingoes was relatively uncommon outside of Radical opponents. The Irish M. P., F. H. O’Donnell, in a rousing speech on Home Rule made abundantly clear why he believed his countrymen supported the Liberal party:

They were quite sufficiently justified in supporting Liberalism against Toryism, on the good old principle that any stick was good enough to beat a dog with, and there was no stick bad enough to beat the mad, vicious dog Jingo, for Jingo was a dog the basest of the canine kind; it was the very foulest carrion; it was Jingoism which sent its fangs into the Afghan and African, but shrunk from an encounter with the grizzly bear, and now the same beast of cowardice and slaughter was now howling for the blood of the Irish people.[6]

Individually Hobson calls this ‘imagination’ of the Jingo “the passion of the spectator, the inciter, the backer, not of the fighter.” Collectively, he simply terms Jingoism as the ‘passion of the mob’. However, his criticism does not lie with the mob of working class men, who he finds to be more irrational than immoral, nor even with the educated, who are either dismissed as simply dishonest, or belonging to a system that is so ‘curiously defective’.[7]

The blame is attributed to a duality of individual capitalists and societal ‘instruments of instruction’. These ‘instruments’ can be as minor as the shortening of transport time, or the greater promulgation of news stories; both of these resulted in a more widespread ideological adoption of popular movements. He looks chiefly at how big-town life had become destructive to individuality, whereby the ‘mechanical routine’ and conditions at home and work created a brainless working population. He genericises this connection to seemingly encompass all the western developed world, proclaiming that “In every nation which was proceeded far in modern industrialisation the prevalence of neurotic diseases attests the general nervous strain to which the population is subjective”.[8] For Hobson, industrialisation was an instrument of the capitalist system, and creates an environment by which suggestion and persuasion can easily penetrate the weakened mind of the town worker. It’s no surprise that Hobson’s later work on Imperialism inspired the likes of Lenin and other notable Marxists.  Despite this, as previously stated, New Liberalists were not anti-imperialists, but instead they believed that the morality of international politics was under threat. Understandably then, war was the greatest abhorrence to Hobson, the Rainbow Circle and the Radical Liberals. It was a very real fear for these men, that an aggressive ‘Jingoist’ stance would become commonplace in foreign policy. As F. W. Hirst writes in the preface to Liberalism and the Empire:

Sentiments like these — call them patriotism, Jingoism, Chauvinism, or what you will – form a strong and persistent force, valuable when checked, dangerous when stimulated… If the Chauvinist and Jingo parties become predominant in the various nations of Europe, security and progress will become constantly more difficult, commerce will decline, our manufacturing supremacy will disappear, and ‘inevitable’ wars, with their inevitable accompaniments of suffering and poverty, will become the staple food of politics.[9]

Though their estimation of Jingoist support was inflated, the basis of this fear was not inconceivable. Earlier in 1878, liberal supporters had already proved they could meet the mob of Jingoes with their own display of working-class rowdyism in what the City Jackdaw satirically described as a clash of “Jingoes versus Jingoes”.[10] This so-called ‘Liberal Jingoism’ later made its mark in official politics, forcing the Liberal leader Campbell-Bannerman – though he was likely anti-war in private – to believe that Jingoism was too prevalent and that a ‘quieter’ stance on imperialism was best for him and his moderate colleges.[11] Whilst the ‘Jingo party’ of Britain was undoubtedly considered to be the Tories, members of the thoroughly divided Liberal party were not opposed to supporting aggressive imperialism. After a meeting with Cecil Rhodes and Randolph Churchill, Sir William Harcourt came away with an admiration for Rhodes, and conceded that Jingoism could be tolerable if done ‘on the cheap’.[12]

This brings us to the ‘Jingo-Imperialist’ businessmen, statesmen and capitalists who Radicals accused of orchestrating the ‘mass psychosis’ of Jingoism in Britain. Hobson, previous to writing Psychology of Jingoism, worked for the Manchester Guardian away in South Africa and provided much of the pre-war correspondence for the paper.[13] Meeting with several prominent figures in the crisis such as Hertzog, Milner, Reitz and Rhodes to name a few, he believed that the capitalists of South Africa were deliberately gearing up for war, and recounts how Lord Alfred Milner thought it was necessary to “break the dominion of Africanderdom”.[14]  From his eighteen-month trip, the resultant claim in Psychology dictates that businessmen acquired South African newspapers to control the public mind back in Britain. The Cape Argus, Johannesburg Star and the Cape Times are three of up to a dozen South African newspapers which were thought to control the nature of the correspondence flowing back to England through telegraphs. Backed by Sir Alfred Milner in the South of Africa, and Joseph Chamberlain in the Colonial Office back home, Rhodes and the De Beers could protect their business interests at the cost of a national war.[15] Thus, businessmen were at the root of Jingoism for Hobson. This sentiment was very common among Radicals, in their belief that with commercial interest came a passion of nation and race. They still held on the scientific principle of free trade, which the predominant class had abandoned in favour of the axiom: ‘trade follows the flag’.[16] Robertson, like many, opposed Chamberlain’s policy of Imperial preference by adopting the popular view that consumers would pay more for their goods in ‘the name of empire’.[17] A. G. Gardiner, who crudely sketched Kipling as “a precocious boy with a camera”, believed him to be an popular agent of Chamberlain’s policy, who “turned contemptuously to the ‘little street-bred people’, and commanded them to ‘pay, pay, pay’. It was their paltry share in the glorious enterprise of conquest and Empire.”[18] For the Boer State Secretary Reitz, capitalism (incarnated in Cecil Rhodes) and Jingoism were inextricably linked. “Capitalism, with its great material influence, but barren of any one single exalted idea or principle on the one hand, and Jingoism, sterile, empty, soulless, but with a rich stock-in-trade of bombastic ideas and principles, prompted by the most selfish aspirations…”[19] Both were deemed to be synonymous with each other and interconnected in a deliberate way, and so consequentially this alliance had currently manifested itself in and around of the suitable conditions of South African economic climate, which could be so easily controlled by the Randlords. Reitz saw nothing between his idea of ‘capitalistic Jingoism’ and Afrikander people but war; a war which had been born from a ‘conspiracy’ of capitalists and Jingoes.[20]  Anti-capitalism may have been commonplace amongst Radical Liberals, but the idea that South African businessmen could exercise control over press back home was less common, and is an idea that is somewhat tenuous and hard to fully verify. On a simplistic level, the accusation proves true that newspapers were connected the mining of capital. Rhodes and the Corner House Group, who dominated the gold mining industry, were the majority shareholders of the Argus Company – the owner of the Cape Times. The Corner House appointed editors such as Moneypenny who they knew harboured imperialist sentiment, but would also finance the hefty cost of using the cables. However, it is equally likely that Jingoist news was produced in reaction to the perceived sentiment in Britain, rather than being a product of the ‘Randlords’. Editors were surprised at the upsurge of support for the Jameson Raid, and responded in support of “gallant Jameson and his lion-hearted lads”. An editor of the Johannesburg Times was even dismissed for describing the raid as a “glorious procession for the Anglo-Saxon race”.[21] It is unclear if this was at all a ‘capitalist conspiracy’, however the effect of pro-imperial news stories was certainly profound on South Africa. ‘Jingo-news’ of the English language press continued into the period of union, and as the African Nationalist Hertzog became prime minister, newspapers became instrumental in the retention of the national flag in 1927. In 1918 Hertzog resigned that “but for the Jingo newspapers, they would hear less of striving after empire and more of South Africa and African interests”.[22]

Without doubt, the press played a central role in the rise of Jingoist sentiment at home and abroad, particularly during the Boer War, often dubbed the first ‘media war’. Naturally then, it would be negligent to ignore the role of anti-jingoist media in Britain. The likes of C. P. Scott at the Manchester Guardian reacted negatively to the shift in politics and the press which now favoured populism, and instead championed their ‘educational’ ideal of journalism. Mass society simply terrified Scott and Hobson. Liberals had always seen the ‘public’ and ‘people’ in more exclusive terms than we do now. Based on the earlier views of Edmund Burke, the public equated to roughly four-hundred thousand Britons, which meant the working class would be excluded from any liberal ideal of representing the people. In this way, the notion of discussion and respectability was linked to class for the liberal press, and so the Guardian looked to educate a limited, ‘cultivated’ readership despite the countrywide growth in newspaper circulation.[23] The reprinting of political speeches provided a forum to supporters of both parties and upheld the Victorian practice of non-partisan ‘newsgathering’. Liberal speakers were generally preferred in the Guardian, namely the dedicated Gladstonian Liberal John Morley who avidly spoke of Jingoes and the Jingo press of both parties at the end of the century.[24] The reported political speeches represented the Guardian as moderately anti-jingo rather than engaging in partisanship.[25] However, this tradition was gradually abandoned In the context of the Boer War, where Jingoism became indelibly tied to Conservative policy. The Manchester Guardian sought to persuade readers of the pro-Boer stance in order to preserve the ideal of morality and ‘factual discussion’ which the war and Jingoism respectively threatened. This challenged the loyalty of readers to their country and brought on claims from the pro-war press of circulating ‘unpatriotic’ dissent.[26] Scott however, believed he still represented the professional classes, and that the Guardian’s flagging readership numbers was due to the availability of the Daily Mail in Manchester as the ‘busy man’s paper’, rather than the Guardian’s opposition to the war and apparent ‘anti-patriotism’.[27] It is not wholly untrue that some radicals rejected patriotism. Another member of the Rainbow Circle, J. G. Godard, saw any virtue attached to patriotism as “a misconception… and the vicious conduct which it actually induces is thus positively regarded as virtuous.” In other words (and to invert a common phrase), the means does not justify the end for Godard.[28] Spencer believed that by emancipating oneself from excessive patriotism, a collective humanity could pave the way towards a ‘higher life’, but he similarly criticised a lack of patriotism, by which countries left themselves weakened against more aggressive nations.[29]  Instead, it seems that Scott adopted an alternate form of patriotism instead of abandoning it altogether. He was concerned with capturing patriotism from the hegemony of the conservative party. To him, Conservative Jingoism was shallow and required mass delusion, whereas ‘true’ patriotism included morality and honour. He argued that ‘pro-Boers’ were the real patriots, and consequentially needed to identify ‘bad’ news and challenge the conduct of war.[30] Scott’s patriotism belongs to that a wider ‘alternative’ patriotism of liberalism that centred on cosmopolitanism and ‘humanity’. Unlike Jingoism, it rejected pride in military prowess, imperial power and commercial supremacy– summarised by opponents as the “self-conceit of John Bull”. This liberal patriotism sought to accept foreigners and what they found to be ‘good’ in other countries. Adopting the ‘good’ of another country was highly commended as part of a cosmopolitan commitment. This chiefly derives from J. S. Mill’s ‘patriotisme éclairé’ which looked to accept ‘foreigners’ in favour of a moral obligation towards a greater ‘humanity’.[31]

The Radicals of the 1890s were deeply driven to discredit followers of Jingoism. A parody of Tennyson’s Hands All Round, supposedly written by Andrew Lang, mocked Jingoism in an exaggeration of their perceived ‘lower-class’ ebriosity. It was likely inspired by the parody of By Jingo in the Spectator which played on the act of sending a native Indian Expeditionary Force to Malta, in preparation for entry into the Russo-Turkish War.[32] The adapted lines read: We don’t want to fight: but, by Jingo if we do, We won’t go to the front ourselves, but we’ll send the mild Hindoo.”[33] Inspired by this, the parody Drinks All Round quite nicely encompasses the Radical idea of the Jingo, and all the features of Jingoism that were so abhorrent to its opponents:

A health to Jingo first, and then     A health to shell, a health to shot!The man who hates not other men     I deem no perfect patriot.To all who hold all England mad.     We drink: to all who’s tax her food!We pledge the man who hates the Rad.![34]     We drink to Bartle Frere and Froude!Drinks all round!Here’s to Jingo, king and crowned!     To the great cause of Jingo drink, my boys,And the great name of Jingo, round and round!

To all the companies that long     To rob, as folk robbed years ago;To all that wield the double thong,     From Queensland round to Borneo!To all that under Indian skies,     Call Aryan man a “blasted nigger;”To all rapacious enterprise;     To rigour everywhere, and vigour!Drinks all round!Here’s to Jingo, king and crowned!     To the great name of Jingo drink, my boys,And every filibuster, round and round!

Too all our statesmen, while they see     An outlet new for British trade,Where British fabrics still may be     With British size all overweighed!Wherever gin and guns are sold     We’ve scooped the artless nigger in.Where men give ivory and gold,     We give them measles, tracts and gin!Drinks all round!Here’s to Jingo, king and crowned!     To the great name of Jingo drink, my boys,And to Adulteration, round and round.[35]

With the consideration that the supporters of aggressive war policy rarely identified themselves with the word Jingo, perhaps the core question of this chapter is to ask if Jingoism was as much a negative label, or somewhat a ‘weapon of debasement’ for Radicals to use against the fervent imperialist, the right-leaning working class, or even supporters of Tory foreign policy after Britain’s instigation of the Boer War. Of course, without the foundation of a real Jingo movement the criticism and parody songs would not exist at all. But, as we have seen, Liberalism had overestimated the scale of Jingoism as a real threat to British politics. Regardless of this, there appears to be a conceited effort by Radicals to paint the proponents of aggressive foreign policy as drunken and, at times, animalistic Jingoes, whose creed could be simply broken down into an illogical hate of the ‘other’. In summary, this calculated slander would declare the Jingoism movement as an unjustifiable patriotism, whist validating the morality-based patriotism adopted by many Liberals. However, it can’t be taken for granted that the Radicals themselves had a unique and factual insight into Jingoism and the South African Crisis, and instead had adopted traditional liberal ideals which disregarded a true realisation of popular politics and propagated the educational role of the press over the wider readership of the London dailies.[36] After the deeply damaging divide in the Liberal party over Home Rule in the mid 1880s, Jingoism was synonymous with the ongoing fear that liberalism was increasingly on the decline, and that popular conservatism would squeeze their opponents into obscurity.

[1] B. Porter, Critics of Empire: British Radicals and the Imperial Challenge, Second Ed., (London, 2008) pp. 5-15

[2] M. Rathbone, “The Rainbow Circle and the New Liberalism”, Journal of Liberal History, 38, (2003) pp. 24-8

[3] J. M. Robertson, Patriotism and Empire, (London, 1900) pp. 30-7

[4] Robertson, Patriotism and Empire, p. 37

[5] H. Spencer, “Re-Barbarization” in Facts and Comments, (London, 1902) pp. 172–88.

[6] “Extraordinary Speech by Mr. F. H. O’Donnell, M. P.”, Manchester Guardian, 18 Mar 1880, p. 8

[7] J. A. Hobson, The Psychology of Jingoism, (London, 1901) pp. 8-9; pp. 20-1; pp. 95-103

[8] Hobson, The Psychology of Jingoism, pp. 5-7

[9] F. W. Hirst, G. Murray & J. L. Hammond, Liberalism and Empire, (London, 1900) p. xiii

[10] “Jingoes Versus Jingoes”, City Jackdaw, Vol. 3 (130), 20 May 1878, p. 205

[11] Porter, Critics of Empire, p. 576

[12] A. G. Gardiner, The Life of Sir William Harcourt, Vol. II: 1865-1946, (London, 1923) p. 199

[13] M. Hampton, “The Press, Patriotism and Public Discussion: C. P. Scott, the Manchester Guardian and the Boer War, 1899-1902”, The Historical Journal, 44 (1), (2001) p. 182

[14] J. A. Hobson, Confessions of an Economic Heretic, (London, 1938) p. 61; see also, The War in South Africa: Its Causes and Effects (1900) and Capitalism and Imperialism in South Africa (1900)

[15] Hobson, The Psychology of Jingoism, pp. 112-9; p. 129-34

[16] Robertson, Patriotism and Empire, pp. 174-5

[17] Ibid. p. 188

[18] A. G. Gardiner, Prophets, Priests and Kings, (London, 1908) p. 297; Ibid. p.295

[19] F. W. Reitz, A Century of Wrong, (London, 1900) p. 42

[20] W. T. Stead, Preface to F. W. Reitz, A Century of Wrong (London, 1900), p. xviii

[21] J. Lambert, “’The Thinking is Done in London’: South Africa’s English Speaking Press and Imperialism” in C. Kaul (ed.), Media and the British Empire, (2006) p. 43

[22] Lambert, “South Africa’s English Language Press and Imperialism”, p. 45- 8

[23] S. J. Potter, “Jingoism, Public Opinion and the New Imperialism: Newspapers and Imperial Rivalries at the Fin-de-Siècle”, Media History, 20 (1), (2014) pp. 13-4; Hampton, “Press, Patriotism and Public Discussion”, p. 179

[24] “Mr John Morley on the Transvaal Question”, Manchester Guardian, 7 Oct 1899, p. 11

[25] “Public Meeting Speeches on the War”, Manchester Guardian, 24 Oct 1901, p. 9

[26] Hampton, “Press, Patriotism and Public Discussion”, pp. 189-90

[27] Ibid. p. 196

[28] J. G. Goddard, Patriotism and Ethics, (London, 1900), quoted in X. A. P., “The Dangers of Patriotism”, The Advocate for Peace, Vol 34, No. 12, (December, 1901), pp. 241-2

[29] H. Spencer, “Chapter IX: The Bias of Patriotism” in The Study of Sociology, (London, 1978) pp. 204-6

[30] Hampton, “Press, Patriotism and Public Discussion”, p. 184; pp. 189-92

[31] G. Varouxakis, “’Patriotism’, ‘Cosmopolitanism’ and ‘Humanity’ in Victorian Political Thought”, European Journal of Political Theory, Vol. 5 (1), (2006) p. 101-2; see also, F. Harrison, “The True Cosmopolis” in F. Harrison, Memories and Thoughts: Men – Books – Cities – Art, (London, 1906)

[32] J. L. Vaughan, “The Indian Expeditionary Force”, The Contemporary Review, 1866-1900, Vol. 32, (1878) pp. 665-674.

[33] Spectator, 1 June 1978, p. 3

[34] abbr. Radical

[35] “Collections and Recollections, By One Who Has Kept a Diary: XXXV”, Manchester Guardian, 11 Sep 1897,

p. 7

[36] Potter, “Jingoism, Public Opinion, and the New Imperialism”, p. 25
 

Influence of Age on Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaption

Introduction

Global climate change is projected to bring about an increase in temperatures, extreme weathers and sea level rise. It can affect various impacts on human health through a variety of ways as a consequence of frequent and intensive heat weaves, increased droughts and flood risks and effects by disasters (Haines et al., 2006). These effects will disproportionally affect vulnerable populations such as children and the elderly (Sheffield and Landrigan, 2010). Children are acknowledged as particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and disasters because they can be victims of natural events, which they are in need of the protections by adults (Tanner, 2010). In addition, the elderly are considered as one of the most vulnerable groups since weather-related conditions can cause them to have cardiovascular and cerebrovascular, resulting in increasing their mortality rate more compared to other age groups (Haines et al., 2006).

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

This paper will evaluate vulnerable populations’ vulnerability levels and factors; children in developing countries in Southeast Asia and the elderly in developed countries in the United States (U.S.), and their needs of adaptation to climate change. The first section of this paper will examine their vulnerability level and drivers of their vulnerability, and climate change adaptation methods for them, defining vulnerability with relevant literature review. The second and the third section will argue how children in Southeast Asia and the elderly in the U.S. are extremely vulnerable to climate change, explaining the background and effective adaptation methods for them, respectively. Then conclusions will be presented.

Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change: Children and Elderly people

The word of ‘Vulnerability’ has been conceptualised in various ways by scholars depending on the field of study, resulting in that there is no universal definition (Paul, 2013). In climate change research field, ‘Vulnerability’ has been regarded as concepts like resilience, adaptability, fragility and risk (Liverman, 1990). Füssel (2007) added concepts such as exposure, sensitivity, coping capacity, criticality, and robustness to Liverman’s definition. Since an uncertainty of the definition of vulnerability can lead to misunderstanding and unclarity to understanding who can be vulnerable to climate change and the results of climate change, it is essential to define vulnerability. Therefore, in this essay, ‘Vulnerability’ can be defined as the characteristics and conditions of a person, community, system or assets that are susceptible to climate change and other hazards (Unicef, 2011).

Under this definition, children, who can be defined under the age of 18 years old in this essay, are widely recognised that they are extremely vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. This is because children can experience 3 types of vulnerabilities; psychological vulnerability, physical vulnerability and educational vulnerability (Peek, 2008). Also, Mitchell and Borchard (2014) claim that the most obvious reason why they are more vulnerable than adults to climate change is physiological. Their physiological vulnerability and physical vulnerability such as metabolic capacities are lower than that of adults. When they are exposed to impacts of climate change during their infancy, those impacts cause children to be harmed or damaged, resulting in that they might suffer from the disease over a lifetime and over generations (Akachi et al., 2009). Therefore, they are in great danger of being injured or killed in disasters caused by climate change. In fact, Save the Children (2009) anticipates that 175 million children would be affected every year by various kinds of natural disasters caused by climate change. Also, they are estimated to carry a burden of 88% of the disease brought about by climate change (Philisborn and Chan, 2018). The impact of climate change on children is immense if the mental illness such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety, is taken into consideration, which can be called psychological vulnerability (Dyregrov, et al., 2018). In terms of educational vulnerability, they might miss school because of the destruction of the schools or supporting their household works after the disasters, which in turn influencing their academic performance and delaying their academic progress (Peek, 2008). As explained above, children are particularly vulnerable, and climate change adaptations, especially for children, are needed. They are not just vulnerable to climate change. They can play an key role in adaptation strategies to climate change. Yet, children’s participation and implementation of climate change adaptation have been limited although there can be seen high benefits of children-centred climate change adaptation approaches (Mitchell and Borchard, 2014). There can be seen child-centred programmes and disaster risk reduction activities to learn about disaster and climate change at school and communities. However, there seems to be a gap between children’s actual capacities of climate change adaptation and policymaker’s understanding children’s skills, resulting in a lack of children’s participation and decision-making of climate change adaptation.

 

On the other hand, older adults, who can be defined as aged 65 over, are more vulnerable to a range of health impacts related to extreme weather events, especially heat waves, icy conditions and cold season than other age groups (Carte et al., 2016). The reason for this can be comprised of physiological, psychological, and social and economic components (McCracken and Phillips, 2016). With regard to physiological vulnerability, since the elderly are more sensitive to high temperatures because of the decline of their self-regulating mechanism. For example, in 2003, due to an extreme heat wave, France had around 15000 death and most of them were elderly people (Vandentorren et al., 2006). Psychological vulnerability is originally from the decline of mental functioning due to ageing such as Alzheimer, which in turn that they would not be able to cope with the immensity of climate change impacts. Social and economic vulnerability also influence older people in terms of where they live, their lack of education level and poverty (McCracken and Phillips, 2016). Whilst other age groups might experience these circumstances, elderly people prone to face them more due to their aged physiological and psychological functions. In light of their high vulnerability, some adaptations for the elderly are introduced. For instance, creating ‘age-friendly’ environments, which encourages the elderly to be socially active and enables them to be less susceptible to climate change impacts (Raju and Bammidi, 2016). However, there seems various approaches are needed to reach the elderly because of their various backgrounds and characteristics (Rhoades et al., 2017).

 

Children and Vulnerability and Climate Change Adaptation in Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia, especially, Indonesia, Philippines and Thailand, is one of the most vulnerable areas to the impact of climate change. Children in those countries are particularly vulnerable because they can tend to be in poor income family, resulting in being excluded from essential services such as health care, water and social protection (Lawler and Patel, 2012). Geography could be a factor to impede children from accessing basic services. Children in poor urban areas have difficulties in obtaining health facilities since they live in the area gathered by informal squatters. On the other hand, children in rural areas prone to be influenced by crop shocks as they are reliant on agriculture and natural resources for their livelihood (Unicef, 2011). Therefore, in Indonesia, flooding can be a serious issue rather than a drought for urban children because of a poor drainage system in the city centre. In contrast, a drought can affect rural children since they may depend on wells and hand pumps for water (Lawler and Patel, 2012). In terms of educational vulnerability, in Indonesia, 20% of rural children who joined the survey answered that they had to quit school because of a lack of money which is caused by a crop failure related to flooding or drought. Yet, only 1% of urban children claimed that impact (Unicef, 2011).

Children show that they have a keen awareness of the risks facing their lives, recognising a combination of hazards. According to the research by Lawler and Patel (2012), children who joined the study in the Philippines reported that they are sensitive enough to have already realised heavier rainy seasons, an increase of flooding, crop failures and increase of food prices because of climate change. In addition, Back et al. (2009) show that children can be strong proponents to help their families, schools and communities adapt to climate change. For example, in Philippine, after they obtain information about climate change and disaster reduction at school or through media, children can have a distinct understanding of climate change adaptation and disaster risk. As a result, children can be more familiar with climate change impacts than adults. Based on the obtained knowledge in this way, children who had studied at school in a high-risk landslide zone were able to succeed in relocating their school in a safer location lobbying their school headmasters and communities (Mitchell et al., 2009). Also, children in community groups in Philippine, could identify some benefits of restoring mangroves and adapt to sea level rise mixing local knowledge and school textbooks and training sessions (Tanner, 2010). These case studies are successful examples of children-led approaches to adaptation. Hence, children can play a positive role to process climate change adaptation policy. However, it is crucial for them to have networks and corporate with locals and leaders who could listen to and support them.

Although children can lead to effective methods of climate change adaptation in some cases in spite of their vulnerabilities, it would be impossible for children to do so without education which can be said a crucial driver to enable them to take action for climate resilient sustainable development (Mitchell and Borchard, 2014; Anderson, 2010). Due to education, children can increase their knowledge, skills and understanding of successful climate change adaptation require. The Hyogo Framework for Action 2005-2015 (UNISDR, 2007) suggests that focusing on education and knowledge is a priority for climate adaptation and disaster reduction. Yet, this suggestion seems to be limited to penetrate into every school in Southeast Asia. Mitchell and Borchard (2014) claim that it is because that issues relevant to climate change can be ‘niche’ issues, it prevents them from incorporating into the national curriculum. Also, it can be said the suggestion by UNISDR is not a legally binding, resulting in that it depends on countries’ choice if they would follow this suggestion. Therefore, some countries think that their educational program does not have enough space to put in a climate change program. Moreoever, Unicef (2011) points out a lack of political will which means that the speed of governments’ implementation and development of robust technological and financial systems to advance policies and initiatives has been slow. If the government does not take action on incorporating climate change programs into their education programs because of these reasons on above, it would be difficult for children to be resilient to climate change and would take time to improve the capacities of climate change adaptation. Therefore, it can be crucial to make it legally binding. Indeed, in developing countries, even if it is legally binding, it may be suspicious about the effectiveness of its enforcement. Nevertheless, it could be a more effective program by involving NGOs and community members. For example, 2 global child-centred NGOs; Plan International and Save the children have actively engaged in building up of children and communities’ adaptation capacities (Mitchell and Borchard, 2014). Also, it can be said essential to set different programmes for children depending on their age. Regarding children as a homogenous group even within aged under 18 groups is a risk because of their different level of vulnerability (IPCC, 2012).

The Elderly and Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change in the United States

Adults aged 65 and older made up about 15% of the U.S. population in 2017 and has been expected to increase to 20% (World Bank, 2019). In the U.S., in particular, extreme heat events (EHE) or heatwaves are the main factors to increase mortality rate, bringing about more deaths of the elderly than other weather-related situations (Luber and McGeehin, 2008; Ebi and Meehl, 2007). Looking at the factors of the elderly exposure to EHE and heatwaves in the U.S., there can be seen 2 main drivers; socioeconomic characteristics and urbanisation. Gamble et al. (2012) point out older people in lower income are reluctant to purchase or utilise air conditioners because of operating costs, resulting in increasing more opportunities for them to exposure extreme heat waves. The rapid urbanisation has created an urban heat island and a demanding dramatic increase in electricity. In New York City in 2006, this demand led to brownouts to even public transport that older people tend to depend on (Luber and McGeehin, 2008). Focusing on their adaptive capacity, their living situation can be a key determinant, which is different from that of children. Older people are more prone to live alone. In fact, in 2016, more than one-fourth of aged 65 and over live alone (Andrew et al., 2018). This situation may cause older people to face frauds and scams relevant to repairs and refurbishment of houses.

Considering their vulnerability to heat waves, education and community capabilities are essential strategies of climate change adaptation for older people. Al-Rousan et al. (2014) found out that two-thirds of participants had no emergency plans, never joined any disaster preparedness programmes and were unaware of available resources. As mentioned above, since the U.S. has a large number of older people living alone, education can contribute to informing them of relevant information and making them acknowledge their vulnerability level. Also, it can provide opportunities with them to get together with other people because they tend to be isolated from society. Those who face social isolation, in particular with mental illness, might miss receiving emergency information, which in turn bring about more deaths (Gamble et al., 2012). The older belong to the community and strengthen communities’ capabilities can reduce their vulnerability to climate change. As a way of example, developing early warning systems in communities could decrease the elderly’s mortality rate and heat-related illness (Ebi et al., 2007). The elderly can also learn how to reduce the health impacts on themselves owing to belong to the communities. Moreover, they would play a valuable role in sharing their past climatic histories with other members in communities. Therefore, these 2 adaptation strategies would be crucial especially for the elderly.

Conclusion

The impacts of climate change on people has become more and more serious all over the world. Children and the elderly are extremely vulnerable to climate change because of various vulnerabilities; psychological, physical, physiological and educational vulnerability. Also, children, who are defined under 18 years old, and older people, who are defined aged 65 and over should not be treated as homogeneous groups because their vulnerable levels and adaptation capacities can be different. Children in Southeast Asia are more sensitive to natural hazards and can play a key role to support families and communities to adapt to climate change if they are given climate change programmes. Therefore, the government should set environmental programmes as mandatory modules for them to increase their vulnerability levels and avoid young victims. In the U.S., where ageing society is a serious problem, the elderly tend to be more vulnerable because of living situations and urbanisation. To protect them from not only heat waves but also other various natural disasters, education and developing climate resilience methods by involving them in communities can be the most effective climate change adaptation strategies. However, their background and characteristics are diverse enough to need more research to develop adaptation strategies that can decrease their vulnerability to climate stressors.

References

Akachi, Y., Goodman, D. L., & Parker, D. (2009). Global climate change and child health: a review of pathways, impacts and measures to improve the evidence base. UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre.

Al-Rousan, T. M., Rubenstein, L. M., & Wallace, R. B. (2014). Preparedness for natural disasters among older US adults: A nationwide survey. American Journal of Public Health, 104, 506–511. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301559

Anderson, A. (2010). Combating climate change through quality education. Washington, DC: Brookings Global Economy and Development.

Andrew, W. Roberts, Stella U. Ogunwole, Laura Blakeslee, and Megan A. Rabe (2018). The Population 65 Years and Older in the United States: 2016. U.S. Census Bureau

Back, E., Cameron, C., & Tanner, T. (2009). Children and Disaster Risk Reduction: Taking stock and moving forward. Children in a Changing Climate Research, UNICEF, p20.

Dyregrov, A., Yule, W., & Olff, M. (2018). Children and natural disasters. European journal of psychotraumatology, 9(Suppl 2), 1500823. doi:10.1080/20008198.2018.1500823

Ebi, K. L., Meehl, G. A., Bachelet, D., Twilley, R. R., & Boesch, D. F. (2007). Regional Impacts of climate change. SCIENCE.

Füssel, H. M. (2007). Vulnerability: A generally applicable conceptual framework for climate change research. Global environmental change, 17(2), 155-167.

Gamble, J. L., Hurley, B. J., Schultz, P. A., Jaglom, W. S., Krishnan, N., & Harris, M. (2012). Climate change and older Americans: state of the science. Environmental Health Perspectives, 121(1), 15-22.

Haines, A., Kovats, R. S., Campbell-Lendrum, D., & Corvalán, C. (2006). Climate change and human health: impacts, vulnerability and public health. Public health, 120(7), 585-596.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)– Field, C.B., Barros, V., Stocker, T.F., Qin, D., Dokken, D.J., Ebi, K.L.,… Midgley, P.M. (Eds.). (2012). Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation: A special report of Working Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lawler, J. and Patel, M. (2012). Exploring children’s vulnerability to climate change and their role in advancing climate change adaptation in East Asia and the Pacific. Environmental Development, 3, 123-136.

Liverman, D. M., (1990). Vulnerability to global environmental change. In: Kasperson, R.E., Dow, K., Golding, D., Kasperson, J.X. (Eds.), Understanding Global Environmental Change: The Contributions of Risk Analysis and Management. Clark University, Worcester, MA, pp. 27–44 (Chapter 26).

Luber, G. and McGeehin, M. (2008). Climate change and extreme heat events. American journal of preventive medicine, 35(5), 429-435.

Mitchell, P., and Borchard, C. (2014). Mainstreaming children’s vulnerabilities and capacities into community-based adaptation to enhance impact. Climate and Development, 6(4), 372-381.

McCracken, K. and Phillips, D. R. (2016). Climate change and the health of older people in Southeast Asia. In Climate change and human health scenario in South and Southeast Asia (pp. 29-52). Springer, Cham.

Mitchell, T., Tanner, T., and Haynes, K. (2009). Children as agents of change for Disaster Risk Reduction: Lessons from El Salvador and the Philippines.

Paul, S. K. (2013). Vulnerability concepts and its application in various fields: a review on geographical perspective. Journal of Life and Earth Science, 8, 63-81.

Peek, L. (2008). Children and disasters: Understanding vulnerability, developing capacities, and promoting resilience—An introduction. Children Youth and Environments, 18(1), 1-29.

Rhoades, J. L., Gruber, J. S., and Horton, B. (2017). Developing an in-depth understanding of elderly adult’s vulnerability to climate change. The Gerontologist, 58(3), 567-577.

Save the Children. (2009). Feeling the heat: Child survival in a changing climate. London: International Save the Children Alliance.

Sheffield, P. E., & Landrigan, P. J. (2010). Global climate change and children’s health: threats and strategies for prevention. Environmental health perspectives, 119(3), 291-298.

Tanner, T. (2010). Shifting the narrative: Child‐led responses to climate change and disasters in El Salvador and the Philippines. Children & Society, 24(4), 339-351.

UNISDR. (2007). Hyogo Framework for Action: Building the Resilience of Communities and Nations to Disasters, 2005-2015. [pdf]. Kobe. UNISDR. Available at: https://www.unisdr.org/2005/wcdr/intergover/official-doc/L-docs/Hyogo-framework-for-action-english.pdf [Accessed 25 April 2019].

Unicef. (2011). Children’s Vulnerability to Climate Change and Disaster Impacts in East Asia and the Pacific. [pdf]. Bangkok. Unicef. Available at: https://www.unicef.org/environment/files/Climate_Change_Regional_Report_14_Nov_final.pdf [Accessed 25 April 2019].

Vandentorren, S., Bretin, P., Zeghnoun, A., Mandereau-Bruno, L., Croisier, A., Cochet, C., … & Ledrans, M. (2006). August 2003 heat wave in France: risk factors for death of elderly people living at home. The European Journal of Public Health, 16(6), 583-591.

World Bank (2019) Population ages 65 and above (% of total). Washington, D.C.: World Bank Group. Available at:

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.65UP.TO.ZS?locations=US&view=chart [Accessed 25 April 2019].

 

Impact of the Digital Age on Society Today

Discuss the impact of the digital age on the social, economic and political life of society today.
The Information Age (also known as the Computer Age, Digital Age, or New Media Age) is a period in human history characterized by the shift from traditional industry that the industrial revolution brought through industrialization, to an economy based on information computerization. The onset of the Information Age is associated with the Digital Revolution, just as the Industrial Revolution marked the onset of the Industrial Age.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

During the information age, the phenomenon is that the digital industry creates a knowledge-based society surrounded by a high-tech global economy that spans over its influence on how the manufacturing throughput and the service sector operate in an efficient and convenient way. In a commercialized society, the information industry is able to allow individuals to explore their personalized needs, therefore simplifying the procedure of making decisions for transactions and significantly lowering costs for both the producers and buyers. This is accepted overwhelmingly by participants throughout the entire economic activities for efficacy purposes, and new economic incentives would then be indigenously encouraged, such as the knowledge economy.[1]
The Information Age formed by capitalizing on the computer microminiaturization advances, with a transition spanning from the advent of the personal computer in the late 1970s, to the Internet’s reaching a critical mass in the early 1990s, and the adoption of such technology by the public in the two decades after 1990. This evolution of technology in daily life, as well as of educational life style, the Information Age has allowed rapid global communications and networking to shape modern society.
The impact of digital age on the social life of the society today is connected with one’s position in the society, his social class and also his social background, nowadays, there are so many changes in the social aspect of our lives. A very good example of this is festival, changes in tradition and also in the mood of dressing, all this became possible because of the impact of digital age we have today. If we look around us today, it’s hard to find a person that has not added anything new to his traditional attires , what I mean here is, for instance, for the Hausa’s and also the Fulani’s, there were not know for wearing jeans and tops, but now it has become a common thing based on socialization. Before, many do not believe in going to school especially the Fulani’s, they only believe in rearing cattle’s while the women among them are to stay at home, but now, everyone wants to be in school, illiteracy is darkness, people don’t believe in staying at home doing nothing anymore, for at least even when they lack the opportunity or don’t have the means of going school or seeking for job opportunity, they will prepare engaging themselves in a small business just for them to earn something for a living. There are so many changes due to the impact digital age on the social life of our societies today.
The digital age as made the means of communication easier for the world because you can send a message to someone in new york from Nigeria.
The digital age as affected the politics of the am economy because you are able to find out the party that as the higher polls making it possibel for the other compeiton to know where they stand at the point of the election.
It as aided the politician to be able to have a wider amount of suppoter or vote in the campaign because they can easily broadcast their speechs on the web making people like them more .
Over the last 10 years, we’ve seen social media galvanize thousands over politics, create as many industries as it has destroyed, and offer an abundance of visual and audio entertainment.But has all this incredible change actually changed us, or just the world we live in?
Below are some areas in which social media has had lasting, and arguably permanent effects on the ways in which we live. The question is, are these changes all for the better?
Child Literacy
It stands to reason that children who read and write more are better at reading and writing. And writing blog posts, status updates, text messages, instant messages, and the like all motivate children to read and write. Last month, The National Literacy Trust released the results of a survey of over 3000 children. Theyobserved a correlation between children’s engagement with social media and their literacy. Simply put, social media has helped children become more literate. Indeed, Eurostat recently published a report drawing a correlation between education and online activity, which found that online activity increased with the level of formal activity (socio-economic factors are, of course, potentially at play here as well).
Ambient Intimacy
Lisa Reichelt, a user experience consultant in Londoncoined the very pleasant term “ambient intimacy.” It describes the way in which social media allows you to “… keep in touch with people with a level of regularity and intimacy that you wouldn’t usually have access to, because time and space conspire to make it impossible.”
Consider the many communications technologies through history — the telephone, Morse code, semaphore, carrier pigeons, smoke signals — they are all fairly inconvenient and labor intensive. Lisa has hit on the idea that communication has become so convenient that it’s actually become ambient around us. It surrounds us wherever we want it, not necessarily whenit wants us. We dip into it whenever we like.
Knowledge Was Power
From his Meditationes Sacrae, published in 1597,Francis Bacon was paraphrased as saying “knowledge is power.” Fundamentally, the more you understand about life, the more chance you have at success. But these days, Wikipedia and Google have democratized information to the point where anyone is able toacquirethe knowledge they may want.
As a case in point, I had never even heard of Meditationes Sacrae until I looked up the term “knowledge is power” on Wikipedia.In Bacon’s time, the only people that had access to books and the literacy to unlock the wisdom within were the wealthy with the time and inclination to learn.
Of course, books weren’t the only source of knowledge. Consider blacksmiths, dressmakers, cobblers or sailors who passed their skills and techniques from mother to daughter, from father to son. Back then, the friction that held people back from learning was low literacy, a lack of access to books and very little time. Now, that friction is almost non-existent. That is because of both the ability of computers to replicate information for distribution, and the the way that Google, Wikipedia and blogs have empowered people to share what they know. Now,the only real friction that exists is our own desire for knowledge. It’s there for you — if you want it.
The Reinvention of Politics
A recent report by PEW found signs that social networks may be encouraging younger people to get involved in politics. You only need look at Twitter’s recent impact on the Iran elections, the Orange Revolution in Ukraine, and even the election of Barack Obama to see that more and more people are getting involved in politics and are feeling they can make a difference.
One of the most popular blogs on the web, The Huffington Post, is mainly political. Politics has a fast pace, and that lends itself well to social media. UK Prime Minister, Gordon Brown said in June last year that because of the Internet, “foreign policy can no longer be the province of just a few elites.” Twitter even postponed an upgrade because of the important role it was playing in the Iran elections.
These are all signs of both social media’s growing influence in politics, and the growing interest in politics from users of social media.
The down side for poltic in the digital age is that most information can be gotten from th internet aboout any party making it a disadvantage in the campaign if he or she as a bad record either a fake degree or something a voter would not like about whom he wanted to vote for .Tecchnology has changed the way we live, work, shop and play. We can bank, shop and donate securely from anywhere we can access the Internet. We can to communicate across oceans and continents in seconds. We can work from anywhere, increasing efficiency and productivity. Yet, Nigeria education has yet to embrace the power of technology to customize education and give students the ability to gain knowledge anywhere, anytime.
Digital learning can change that. Digital learning is any type of learning that gives students some element of control over time, place, path and/or pace. It allows students to learn in their own way, on their own timetable, wherever they are, whenever they can.
Students are using digital learning everywhere – except school. They are gaming, texting and posting on the Internet. Imagine if we channel those digital skills into learning? Student achievement would skyrocket.
But still the digital age as a negative effect on the education system,as part of the English class, students wrote and edited their stories on screen and I was amazed how motivated they were and how much time and effort they put into their work.
Since the early to mid 90s I have used computers and the internet on a daily basis and as I sit typing this chapter into my fifth-generation Macintosh (while checking emails, paying some bills, downloading research papers and Skyping friends) I realise the value of the new technologies and how useful they are.
We live in a global village with instant communication via television, computers, the internet, mobile phones and social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and Skype. While parents are often described as out-of-date and old-fashioned when it comes to new technology, children are celebrated as digital natives.
Impact on jobs and income distribution
The Information Age has impacted the workforce in several ways. First, it has created a situation in which workers who perform tasks which are easily automated are being forced to find work which involves tasks that are not easily automated. Second, workers are being forced to compete in a global job market. Lastly, workers are being replaced by computers that can do the job more effectively and faster. This poses problems for workers in industrial societies, which are still to be solved. However, solutions that involve lowering the working time usually find high resistance.
Jobs traditionally associated with the middle class (assembly line workers, data processors, foremen and supervisors) are beginning to disappear, either through outsourcing or automation. Individuals who lose their jobs must either move up, joining a group of “mind workers” (engineers, doctors, attorneys, teachers, scientists, professors, executives, journalists, consultants), or settle for low-skill, low-wage service jobs.
The “mind workers” are able to compete successfully in the world market and command high wages. Conversely, production workers and service workers in industrialized nations are unable to compete with workers in developing countries and either lose their jobs through outsourcing or are forced to accept wage cuts.[6] In addition, the internet makes it possible for workers in developing countries to provide in-person services and compete directly with their counterparts in other nations.
This has had several major consequences, including increased opportunity in developing countries and the globalization of the workforce.
Workers in developing countries have a competitive advantage which translates into increased opportunities and higher wages.[7] The full impact on the workforce in developing countries is complex and has downsides. (see discussion in section on globalization).
In the past, the economic fate of workers was tied to the fate of national economies. For example, workers in the United States were once well paid in comparison to the workers in other countries. With the advent of the Information Age and improvements in communication, this is no longer the case. Because workers are forced to compete in a global job market, wages are less dependent on the success or failure of individual economies.[6]
In conclusion, digital age had so much impact on the social, economic and political life of the societies today because it has brought so much changes in our daily aspects of life and also helps us to improve and reshape our environment with the aid of practical, experimental and scientific knowledge or technology.
Impact on social life
The digital age as made communication easier and faster for indivdual and firm of all countries but this the social network in the world as made it harder for indivdual to have face to face conversations
eferences
Amichai-Hamburger, Y., & Barak, A. (2009). Internet and well-being. In Y.Amichai-Hamburger (Ed.), Technology and psychological well-being.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Anderson, C. A. (2002). Violent video games and aggressive thought, feelingsand behaviors. In S. Calvert, A. Jordan, & R. Cocking (Eds.),
Children in thedigital age
(pp. 101–120). Westport, CT.: Praeger.Anderson, C.A., & Bushman, B.J. (2002). The effects of media violence onsociety.
Science
,
295
, 2377-2378.Antoci, A., Sabatini, F., & Sodini, M. (2009).
Will growth and technology destroysocial interaction?
The inverted U-shape hypothesis
. Munich Personal RePEcArchivehttp://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/18229Accessed 15
th
January 2010.Bandura, A. (1977).
Social learning theory.
Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.Barylick, C. (n.d.). Technology and social isolation. Retrieved fromhttp://irchelp.org/irchelp/misc/tech.htmlAccessed 12th January 2010.Bauerlein, M. (2008).
The dumbest generation: How the digital age stupefiesyoung Americans and jeopardizes our future
. New York, NY: Penguin.BBC (2009)
Online networking ‘harms health’.
London: BBC News Website.http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/7898510.stmAccessed 12th January 2010.
 

Impact of Latest Little Ice Age on Human Population

Nowadays, the presence of Ice Ages which refer to the periodic long-term reduction in temperature of Earth’s surface and atmosphere, is well-known among people. However, most of them never heard of how another kind of geographical phenomenon, Little Ice Age (LIA), occurring from the fourteenth to the nineteenth centuries, influenced our culture, technology and our world today. Can you imagine how our lifestyle would be influenced? Can you imagine how the world would be totally different if it had never suffered from the LIA? This essay will discuss about what the LIA brought to our ancient ancestors and how it affected the world today.
Let’s see what is meant by LIA. Distinct from the ice age, which refers to the long-term alternations between glacial periods and interglacial periods lasting for millions of years, the little ice age is another geographical terminology used to describe a pre-modern time period starting roughly from the 14th century, lasting until 19th century. During the LIA, the Earth was chilled by a sudden cooling and the average temperature of the Earth’s surface and atmosphere decreased by 2 degree centigrade than before.
This enormous change was usually considered as the effect of solar activity variation (Lesley M. Smith,1997) and the relative position of Earth while rotating around the sun (John A. Eddy,1976). Some new researches also suggest other causes for the LIA, such as increased volcanic activity (Jonathan Cowie, 2007), or altered ocean current flows (Broecker WS, 2000).
Due to the relatively higher latitude of land in the north hemisphere, the LIA had a predominant influence on the Eurasia continent rather than others. Meanwhile, most of human civilizations were gathering on the Old Continent. Reasonably the unexpected visit of this drastic change on climate affected human activities in such a complex way that is not easy to tell. However, we do can find some clues and records remained in the history, which can help us figure out the complicated process of change gradually.
In order to analysis the impact of the LIA easily, we can try to make a clear image of human cultures by summarizing the status of every civilizations including empires, realms, kingdoms and independent regions existing during this period.
At the beginning of 14th century, the Mongol Horde just invaded European countries and at the same time, China in the eastern world had been, for the first time, under foreign rule of Mongolian for already several decades. The Hundred Year’s War was just about to start and Italy was leading Europe to step into the period of Renaissance. A new dynasty called Ming arose after Chinese people stood up to fight against the cruel foreign rulers and in the next three hundred years, the prolonged war fire on the land of China finally came into a short time of peace. In fact, a storm was approaching silently, like the volcano hidden under the sea, it would erupt at any moment…Black Death killed a third of population in Europe. Russian and Norse begun to explore new lands…

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

In the fifteenth century, as Constantinople, the pivot on the way to the East, fell to the emerging Ottoman Turks, Western Europeans had to find a new trade route. The forthcoming Age of Sail allows Spanish and Portuguese explorers led to the first European sightings of the New Land (America and other virgin islands) and the sea passage along Cape of Good Hope to India.
Then in the sixteenth century, thanks to the Queen Victoria, Britain became a super power on which” the sun never set”, and began to expand its territory all over the world. The Era of Colonization came with spread of culture, disease, thoughts, technology…
A peak of chilling little ice age came in the beginning of seventeenth century. The production of crops kept in a low level due to the persistent low temperature. Ming Dynasty collapsed under a series of peasants uprisings.
Revolutions for independence or freedom of thought dominated the eighteenth century. And then Industrial Revolution accelerated the world into thrive.
Now we have already got a rough image about the corresponding history. But still, how is these historical events linked with the LIA?
Here is an example illustrating the LIA’s impact on agricultures.
Since the beginning of fourteenth century, the cold weather and heavy storms swept Europe. Crops and livestock were enormously destroyed. Crises arose as political struggles and class warfare weakened those previously prosperous countries. Millions of people starved to death. Cannibalism was even recorded during the Great Famine, which lasted for at least a decade. According to Lamb (1966)’s report, the growing season varied by 15% to 20% between the warmest and coldest times of the millennium. This is fairly enough to adversely influence any type of food production. Without modern technology, such as protection of warm house, seeds especially those highly adapted to warm conditions, could hardly survive this change. In order to adapt increasingly unpredictable climates, farmers begun to experiment with new agricultural techniques and equipment (J. Cohen, 2012). This led to the Agriculture Revolution in Europe.
In addition, the LIA also caused significant effect on economy, especially in Europe. Because of the Great Famine, heavy storms and growing glaciers, a large area of farmland was destroyed, which led to decreased tax revenue collected (Lamb,1995). Maritime activities were also limited by expanding glaciers, which caused a huge impact to the fishery and oversea trading (Lamb,1995).Miners lost their jobs due to the advancing glaciers as well. (Bryson, 1977.)
However, not all of those influences were bad. One of the four greatest fisheries in the world, the fishery along the Newfoundland coast, was founded by fishermen who were looking for new fish stocks in result of the movement of colder water (Lamb, 1995).
The LIA also brought great politic change to both western and oriental world.
In China, the LIA made most of the participation shift towards south. This caused frequent droughts all over the provinces of China. The most severe one of them lasted for at least seventy years. Along with several massive earthquakes happening at the same time, this huge but declining agricultural country was finally defeated by corrupted bureaucracy and the Manchurian invaders from the northeast, who took advantage of the power vacuum and crossed the Great Wall, later on established the Qing Dynasty (Kezhen Zhu, 1972)
In west Europe, “as the 18th century drew to a close, two decades of poor cereal harvests, drought, cattle disease and skyrocketing bread prices had kindled unrest among peasants and the urban poor in France.” (J. Cohen, 2012) Many people who managed to express their disaffection yet failed eventually decided to rise up and fight the government which imposed heavy taxes. Therefore, the brewing storm broke in 1789, while the French Revolution incurred. Many historians believe that that was somehow connected to the LIA.
Although a large amount of evidences indicate that the LIA actually influenced ancient civilizations in various ways, there are still arguments disapproving this opinion.
The theory which explains human history as an outcome of effects from geographical factors, or “human habits and characteristics of a particular culture are shaped by geographical conditions” as the dictionary explains, is called geographical determinism. Criticisms point out that the theory exaggerates the effect of natural environment on the development of human society. It is obviously incorrect to substitute natural law for social law. The geographical environment is one of necessary external conditions for human society to develop, admittedly, it affects considerably society as well. Nevertheless, it is absolutely not the determinant of development of human society. In fact, its effect may decrease as the human society goes forward.
Other criticisms focus on the explanation that historical events are considered as inevitable trend or irresistible outcome of some natural factors. For example, they think that it’s unreasonable to impute the collapse of Ming Dynasty of China to the little ice age alone. The corrosion of government and bureaucracy along with the policy of seclusion which caused the stagnation of technology development, are also critical reasons for the declination of China (Calebjael, 2014).
In conclusion, history is a long and complicated story written by every person, every movement, everything which has ever existed in the past time. Geographical factors, such as the presence of little ice age, will inevitably play an essential role in the history, especially in the ancient time. Today, our developments on technology allow us to do whatever we want to do, in spite of the nature. However, it takes price. Our achievement today mostly depends on what the nature gave to our ancestors. We should learn with respect what our ancestors encountered and how they dealt with them, what lesson they did take and what we should do in the future. The little ice age influenced human beings’ society from aspects including agriculture, economics, politics and cultures, etc. and therefore determined the life today to some extent. Our thoughts should be never limited in the little ice age. There are so many other geographical factors and historical events awaiting for us to explore. The attempt of discovering our history never ends.
Reference List:
Albion C. 2014. Impact of The Little Ice Age in Europe. Accessed on 28 June, 2015. Available from http://www.theapricity.com/forum/showthread.php?36426-Impact-of-The-Little-Ice-Age-in-Europe
Brian M. Fagan 2000. The Little Ice Age: How Climate Made History, 1300-1850. Publisher: Basic Books
Imbrie J.; Imbrie K.P (1979). Ice ages: solving the mystery. Short Hills NJ: Enslow Publishers. ISBN 978-0-89490-015-0. Accessed on 20 April 2015.
Jennie Cohen 2012. Little Ice Age, Big Consequences. Accessed on 15 March, 2015. Available from http://www.history.com/news/little-ice-age-big-consequences
Jonathan Cowie 2007.Climate change: biological and human aspects. Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Kelly Morgan, 2010 The economic impact of the little ice age. Accessed on 20 April 2015. Available from http://researchrepository.ucd.ie/handle/10197/2649
K. Kris Hirst,2010 The Little Ice Age and Polynyas. Accessed on 20 April 2015. Available from http://archaeology.about.com/od/arctic/fl/The-Little-Ice-Age-How-Human-Cultures-Respond-to-Climate-Change_2.htm
Peter J. Robinson 2005. The Little Ice Age, Ca. 1300 – 1870. Accessed on 16 March, 2015. Available from http://www.eh-resources.org/timeline/timeline_lia.html
Scott A. Mandia, 2010 The Little Ice Age in Europe. Accessed on 20 April, 2015. Available from http://www2.sunysuffolk.edu/mandias/lia/little_ice_age.html
 

Characteristics of Victorian Age Literature

Historical Background of Victorian Age
In the year 1837, Queen Victoria ascended the throne of Great Britain and Ireland and succeeded William the IV. She served for a period of 64 years, till her death in 1901 and it is one of the longest reigns in the history of England. The period was marked by many important social and historical changes that altered the nation in many ways. The population nearly doubled, the British Empire expanded exponentially and technological and industrial progress helped Britain become the most powerful country in the world.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

Chief Characteristics of Victorian Period
While the country saw economic progress, poverty and exploitation were also equally a part of it. The gap between the rich and the poor increased significantly and the drive for material and commercial success was seen to propagate a kind of a moral decay in the society itself. The changing landscape of the country was another concern. While the earlier phase of Romanticism saw a celebration of the country side and the rich landscape of the flora and fauna, the Victorian era saw a changing of the landscape to one of burgeoning industries and factories. While the poor were exploited for their labor, the period witnessed the rise of the bourgeoisie or the middle class due to increasing trade between Britain and its colonies and the Reform Bill of 1832 strengthen their hold. There was also a shift from the Romantic ideals of the previous age towards a more realistic acceptance and depiction of society.
One of the most important factors that defined the age was its stress on morality. Strict societal codes were enforced and certain activities were openly looked down upon. These codes were even harsher for women. A feminine code of conduct was levied on them which described every aspect of their being from the proper apparels to how to converse, everything had rules. The role of women was mostly that of being angels of the house and restricted to domestic confines. Professionally very few options were available to them as a woman could either become a governess or a teacher in rich households. Hence they were financially dependent on their husbands and fathers and it led to a commercialization of the institution of marriage.
Victorian Novels
Victorian Era is seen as the link between Romanticism of the 18th century and the realism of the 20th century. The novel as a genre rose to entertain the rising middle class and to depict the contemporary life in a changing society. Although the novel had been in development since the 18th century with the works of Daniel Defoe, Henry Fielding, Laurence Sterne, Samuel Richardson and the others, it was in this period that the novel got mass acceptance and readership. The growth of cities, a ready domestic market and one in the oversea colonies and an increase in printing and publishing houses facilitated the growth of the novel as a form. In the year 1870, an Education Act was passed which made education an easy access to the masses furthermore increasing literacy rates among the population. Certain jobs required a certain level of reading ability and simple novels catered to this by becoming a device to practice reading. Also the time of the daily commute to work for men and the time alone at home for women could be filled by reading which now became a leisure activity. As a response to the latter, the demand for fiction, rose substantially.
The novels of the age mostly had a moral strain in them with a belief in the innate goodness of human nature. The characters were well rounded and the protagonist usually belonged to a middle class society who struggled to create a niche for himself in the industrial and mercantile world. The stress was on realism and an attempt to describe the daily struggles of ordinary men that the middle class reader could associate with. The moral tangents were perhaps an attempt to rescue the moral degradation prevalent in the society then and supplied the audience with hope and positivity. These moral angles allowed for inclusion of larger debates in fiction like the ones surrounding “the woman question”, marriage, progress, education, the Industrial Revolution. New roles for women were created because of the resultant economic market and their voice which was earlier not given cadence was now being spotted and recognized and novels became the means where the domestic confinement of women was questioned. Novels reflecting the larger questions surrounding women, like those of their roles and duties. In the latter half of the century, Married Women’s Property Acts was passed, the women suffrage became an important point of debate, and poverty and other economic reasons challenged the traditional roles of women. The novel as a form became the medium where such concerns were raised.
Charles Dickens: A Popular Victorian Author
In the same year that Queen Victoria ascended the throne, Charles Dickens published the first parts of his novel Oliver Twist, a story of an orphan and his struggle with poverty in the early part of the century. As the Industrial Revolution surged on, the class difference between the traditional aristocracy and the middle class was gradually getting reduced and with the passing of the Reform Act, the middle class got the right to vote and be politically engaged in the affairs of the nation. While the aristocracy criticized the work that the bourgeoisie had to do in the factories and the industries, to maintain the supremacy that they had the privilege of, the middle class in response promoted work as virtue. The result of this led to a further marginalization of those struck by poverty and were part of neither groups. The Poor Law that was passed made public assistance available to the economically downtrodden only through workhouses where they had to live and work. The conditions of these workhouses were deliberately made to be unbearable so as to avoid the poor from becoming totally dependent on assistance from outside. Families were split, food was inedible, and the circumstances were made inhospitable to urge the poor to work and fight a way through poverty. However, these ultimately became a web difficult to transgress and people chose living in the streets rather than seeking help from a workhouse. Dickens was aware of these concerns as a journalist and his own life and autobiographical experiences entered the novel through Oliver Twist. His novel enters the world of the workhouses, the dens of thieves and the streets and highlights that while there was economic prosperity on one side, there was poverty on the other and while morality, virtue were championed, hypocrisy was equally a part of society. His social commentary entered the world of his fiction.
In 1836, before Oliver Twist, his serials of Pickwick Papers were published which led him to instant recognition and popularity. It started the famous Victorian mode of serial novels which dominated the age till the end of the century. It not only made the reader anxious for the next serial to come and spread the popularity of the book itself, but also gave the writer a chance to alter his work according to the mood and expectation of his audience. His works enjoyed continuous popularity and acceptance and Dickens as a writer became famous for his wit, satire, social commentary and his in depth characters.
Bleak House, A Christmas Carroll, David Copperfield, Great Expectations are some of his other great works.
William Makepeace Thackeray: English Victorian Writer
Thackeray was born in Calcutta, India and was also an important writer but one who expressed his age very differently from Dickens and other writers. He is most noted for his satirical work Vanity Fair that portrays the many myriads of English society. Although he was seen as equally talented as Dickens, but his views were deemed old-fashioned which hindered his popularity. He did not readily accept the changing values of the age. His work is seen almost as a reactionary voice. Vanity Fair for example has the subtitle ‘A novel without a Hero’ and in a period where other writers usually embarked on a portrayal of the coming of age of a hero, Thackeray himself very deliberately opposes it. While the protagonist of Dickens’ David Copperfield invites the reader to identify with him, Thackeray’s Becky Sharp is the conniving, cynical and clever. Even his novel Pendennis, is a complete opposite of the novel David Copperfield, although both were published the same year. Thackeray did not identify with the middle class because hence his novels lack a middle class hero. When novels were catering to reassure middle class self-worth, Thackeray denied to give that assurance. Even, Dobbin, a middle class character in Vanity Fair, is not completely granted hero status and a tone of criticism lingers on the character throughout the work.
In The History of Henry Esmond, Thackeray deals with questions of not only of the concerns of society at large but also of individual identity. While most writers supported the idea of innate goodness in the individual human self, Thackeray differed. For example the character of Henry Esmond is also not a completely positive character and the negatives of his self, is perhaps Thackeray’s critique of Victorian emphasis on the individual. An individualism that focused on personal virtue and morality is seen as Thackeray to at the risk of selfishness bordering on narcissism and self-absorption. His discontent with his age became more vocal in later works like Phillip and The New Comes. While the former is injected with autobiographical accounts and is goes back to the satirical tone of Vanity Fair, the latter is a harsh critique of the material greed of the age and a critique of the contemporary culture of the age.
As a result of his strong opinions of his society and its issues, and a critical rejection of the dominant concerns found in works of other writers of the same age, Thackeray stands in isolation as an outsider to this circle due his skepticism of the changing Victorian society. His stand did not change with time and lends to a social criticism and commentary of a very different sort in his works. Catherine, A Shabby Genteel Story, The Book of Snobs are some of his other works.
Women Novelists of the Victorian Era
The era saw a proliferation of women writers. The novel as a genre was initially seen as feminine literature and as the literacy rate among women increased, a new need for women writers catering to this segment was answered by these writers.
Mrs. Gaskell
Elizabeth Gaskell, popularly called Mrs. Gaskell wrote short stories and novels that dealt with presenting a social picture of her society in the 1850s. While it was a time when doubts about material progress reaching the actual lives of the ordinary man were starting to be raised, Gaskell mostly gave an optimistic view of the time. Gaskell’s North and South for example, seeks to present an answer to division and difference by presenting a form of a social reconciliation. There is an attempt at reconciliation of many divergent streams in the novel.
Mary Barton was her first novel, published in 1848 with a subtitle, ‘A Tale of Manchester Life’ and sticks to the Victorian concern of presenting the daily life of the middle class. Cranford came next in the form of a serial and was edited by Dickens for the magazine called Household Words. It was received positively and Gaskell gained immediate popularity for it. It centered on women characters like Mary Smith, Miss Deborah and the others. However the book was also critiqued for its lack of a significant story line. She was also famous for her gothic style in some of her works and this made Gaskell slightly different from other novelist of her time. Ruth, Sylvia’s Lovers, Wives and Daughters were other significant works by her.
George Eliot
Perhaps the one most famous women writers, George Eliot still maintains a canonical status. Her real name was Mary Ann Evans or Marian Evans and she adopted the pseudonym George Eliot to escape the stereotype attached with women writers and successfully entered the domain of ‘serious’ writing. She had a controversial personal life and there too was not hesitant to break the norms of societal feminine boundaries. Adam Bede was her first novel, published 1859, set in a rural landscape and deals with a love rectangle. It received critical appreciation for its psychological descriptions of the characters and a realistic description of rural life.
Mill on the Floss, 1860, revolves around the life of Tom and Maggie Tulliver and traces their life as they grow up near the River Floss. Historical, political references to those of the Napoleonic Wars and the Reform Bill of 1832 inform the novel and lend it a more intellectual and serious strain. Autobiographical elements also form a part of the novel as George Eliot fuses herself partly with Maggie, the protagonist of the book. After Silas Marner (1861), Romola (1863), Felix Holt the Radical, (1866) came Eliot’s most popular novel Middlemarch in the year 1871. The novel revolves around the life of complex characters and the Reform Bill of 1832. Subtitled ‘A Study of Provincial Life’ the plot is based in the fictitious town of Midlands. The greatness of the novel was because of the vast portraiture of country and urban life that it depicts, its complex plots and characters, and its stark realistic projection of the time its set in. The role of education, the women question, politics, social commentary, idealism are other complicated strands of the novel.
Bronte Sisters
Charlotte, Emily and Anne Bronte were the three famous novelist daughters of Patrick Bronte, a well-educated man and a writer himself; and Maria Bronte. The family together went through a series of tragedies where Maria Bronte died very early and none of the three sisters could reach the age of 40. Charlotte died at the age of just 39, Emily at 30 and Anne at 29. All three were educated by their father at home and all of them were fond of storytelling since childhood. Charlotte Bronte is famous for her novel Jane Eyre, published in 1847. The titular protagonist of the book, Jane Eyre, and her struggles in life and love for Mr. Rochester along with the process of her mental and spiritual growth are traced. The novel is believed to have a feminist tone to it and the famous ‘woman in the attic’ character of Bertha Mason raises several gender and feminist issues. Emily Bronte, the second of the trio, became famous for her novel Wuthering Heights, published in the year 1847 and the only book written by her. Like George Eliot, Emily wrote under the pseudonym of Ellis Bell but after her death Charlotte published the novel with her sister’s real name. The novel is the love story of Heathcliff and Catherine Earnshaw. Anne Bronte, the last of the three, wrote two novels: Agnes Grey (1847) and The Tenant of Wildfell Hall (1848). The former was an autobiographical work and the latter is about a woman named  Helen Graham who transgresses marital and social boundaries to assert her freedom. It is seen a substantial piece of feminist writing.
All three sisters hence larger societal questions through mostly women characters and the plot focusses on their life with themes of love and passion. They hence enjoyed a large female readership and have achieved status as classics of literature.
Late Victorian Novelists
Thomas Hardy was the most important writer in the later part of the Victorian Era. He was influenced by both the romanticism of the earlier era and the social commentary of Dickens. He is famous for the conception of the fictional town of Wessex. Far from the Madding Crowd published in 1874, The Mayor of Casterbridge in 1886, Tess of the d’Urbervilles in 1891, and Jude the Obscure in 1895 are his famous novels but Hardy was also known for his poetry. The late part of the period also saw the rise of the ‘sensational’ novels by writers like Wilkie Collins and they too were based on the life of the middle class. The Woman in White (1860) and The Moonstone (1868) are Collins famous sensational novels. Anthony Trollope, another writer in the second half of the era, was himself from a middle class background and wrote the Phineas Finn (1869) and The Way we Live (1874). It was the time when Lewis Carroll wrote his famous Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland published in 1865 and stood very different from other because of the child fiction genre it became a classic of the Carroll’s different dreamy world that stood in direct contrast with the realistic tone of novels that was at its peak. George Gissing, George Moore, Samuel Butler, Henry James, Robert Louis Stevenson were other novels of the era. Rudyard Kipling and his short stories based in India pointed to the larger historical process of colonialism happening at the time. It was in 1877 that Queen Victoria became the Empress of India. Then also came George Bernard Shaw and Oscar Wilde, another two most famous writers of the time.
Overview of Victorian Period
The age hence was important for the rise of the novel as a genre and form which itself saw transformation within the period. From romanticism to realism, politics to passion, optimism to pessimism, the novel could successfully deal with the changing mood of the society. Class, gender, individualism, society all were given space in the novel. The period was known to have witnessed the massive change of Britain from an agrarian to industrial landscape. All concerns informed the novel and the novel was made into perhaps the most important genre of the age and the ones that would follow.
Modern Period
After Queen Victoria’s death in 1901 came the period which saw writers like Joseph Conrad, H.G Wells, D.H Lawrence, E.M Forster and others. The most important event in the early part of the 20th century was the First World War that took place from 1914 to 1918. It was a crucial event that changed the way of the world, impacted the psyche of the people and also the way literature was written. The pessimism and doubts that were a part of the writings of the earlier period may perhaps have anticipated the War. Hence Joseph Conrad, instead of talking of the society and its change now focused on dislocated individuals, a question of where one belongs in a seemingly cruel world. Colonialism are important part of his works wherein he presents a stark reality of exploitation and greed. Lord Jim, Nostromo, Heart of Darkness, are some of his major works. H.G Wells was a prolific writer and wrote around a hundred novels. The Time Machine, Ann Veronica, The History of Mr. Polly, The War of the Worlds, are some his important novels and Tono- Bungay is seen as his most brilliant work. Lawrence, was a controversial writer because of the open sexual references in his work. His work was different because of the sensual language and emotional feelings that made them. Therefore the novel then moved from the realism of the world outside more towards a description of the reality of the individual within. Sons and Lovers, The Rainbow, Women in Love are important works by him. E.M Forster, lastly wrote his famous Howard’s End that deals with the Schegel and the Wilcox family and the society in 1910, brilliantly and delicately described which would then be transformed permanently by the First World War.
The Georgian Poets and World War I
During the reign of George V, was published five anthologies of poetry by Edward Marsh in the year 1912 to 1922. Many important writers like of the time like Edward Thomas, Robert Graves, D.H Lawrence, Walter de la Mare contributed to these anthologies. The main concern was to depict the real issues surrounding the world around the World War.
Modernism
Modernism as a movement was a response to the horrors of World War-I and to the rising industrial societies and growth of cities in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. It challenged the harmony and the rationality of the Enlightenment and sought to reinvent art and literature of the age. To do so, it broke away from the works of the past and conventions that were earlier held at a pedestal. The view that traditional conceptions of beauty and on the whole the meaning of art itself did not fit the age lead to another movement called “Dadaism” that consciously set to redefine art itself. The movement was seen as “anti-art” that aimed to upturn its order. Chaos then as the basic antithesis to order was abundantly used by artists. Started by Tristan Tzara (1896- 1963) as a reaction against the senseless violence of the First World War and to reflect the anarchy that it spread in the social system as well as in the lives of ordinary people. What was also opposed was the conception of what was worthy of being the object of art. The classical subjects were replaced by the mundane as the urinal that Marcel Duchamp placed as an object of art in his gallery. Also in his ‘LHOOQ’ Duchamp’s Mona Lisa with a moustache was a direct means to shake the viewer and the age out from his complacency that lead to the war itself. It was the direct expression of disillusionment with the war and that art too had lost its meaning like the literature of the classical time. The breaking down of any previously set rules and a violent portrayal of freedom of expression to shock and awe was the channel of the time that saw the violence of the World War firsthand. The artists and writers of the Dada movement were mostly war veterans and expressed through their work the psychological devastation of the war. The call for re-invention was echoed in the movement and stood for what modernism broadly aimed at.
Thematic and Technical Features of Modern Literature
The conception that reality could be easily be comprehended was replaced by modernism with a more subjective argument. Reality became not what was directly seen but what was behind the apparent surfaces and it took a crude look at the ugly, the stark behind the glossy surfaces. It was to raise these questions that distortion became a crucial trope in the visual arts of the era. Comte’s Positivism could no longer be used to describe reality. The distorted images force the onlooker to step out of his comfort zone and to question his conception of reality. It highlights the dialectical relationship between the object of expression and the language that expresses it. This was echoed in the Literature of the time where sentences are fragmented and deliberately left incomplete as in Waiting for Godot. Dialogues are seldom completed and there is an inability to find the correct words to describe the state of the self. This breakdown of language after the World War calls out for a need to reinvent language to fit the post war world.
Hitler’s use of almost an enigmatic, opera type use of words (he admired Wagner) that achieved his mass appeal, did also lead to the war. It was perhaps then necessary to breakdown language to reinvent it. The distortion and the fragments not only hint at the former but to a unity that needs to be rediscovered. The half-sentence make the reader seek to complete them and participate in the call for a search of a new unity and identity which is Pound’s injunction to “Make it New”. The onlooker/reader is removed from his role as a mere passive observer to an active one who contributes to the meaning of the art he views/reads. Hence the incompleteness was not aimed at a completely pessimistic answer that leads to a loss of hope, but to different source of comfort similar to what T.S Eliot finds in the world of ‘shanti shanti shanti’ at the end of ‘Wasteland’.
Overview of Modern Age Literature
James Joyce set his novels and short stories in a small city of Dublin. Dubliners published in 1914 is a part of the modernist literature along with The Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and Ulysses. Stephen Daedalus is a central character both in the Portrait and Ulysses. The latter however was banned.
The next important writer was Virginia Woolf who was associated with the Bloomsbury Group which was a group of intellectuals and writers that met at her house which included E.M Forster and Leopold Woolf. Woolf attempted to present the changed world through a changed style of writing. In 1915 came her first novel called The Voyage Out and then came Night and Day in 1919. There was a realistic serious tone to both these books. Modernist strain in her writing began with her next novel call Jacob’s Room which was published in 1922 along with Ulysses. The rest of the novels like Mrs. Dalloway, To the Lighthouse, The Waves, and Orlando had the same modernist tone.
Stream of Consciousness
Picasso’s cubism became an important part of modernism’s subjective view of reality and a need to move away from traditional forms of art. It was this subjectivity that lead to the ‘stream of consciousness’ technique of narration, as used by Virginia Woolf in Mrs. Dalloway. The focus on the interiority of the self and its perception of the objects it conceives was way to grasp the changed notion of reality. The ‘Pre-Speech’ level of consciousness (as Henry James called it) of the character where the narrative deals with what is freely sensed or felt by the characters rather than what is directly uttered changed the way that narratives functioned. The expression of the self was also to highlight the crisis of the self within itself. The existential view of life and its cyclical futile form was what entrapped it rendering it unable to transcend futility of existence. This pessimistic view was a residue of the war which saw man as Sisyphus with his worthless search for meaning, identity and unity in an age that cannot satiate his search. In ‘The Myth of Sisyphus’ Albert Camus dwells on this futility of the modern experience.
Poetic Drama
The term ‘poetic drama’ was made popular during the middle of the 20th century. The term was made famous due to the works of T.S Eliot who used his work as a reaction to the drama of G. B Shaw and Galsworthy who were immensely influenced by Henrik Ibsen who wrote A Doll’s House and Ghosts. In the ‘The Quintessence of Ibsenism’ written by G.B Shaw, he accepted the former’s influence on him. T.S Eliot apart from being a poet was also a critic and wrote many important works like ‘Possibility of Poetic Drama’ and ‘Poetry and Drama’ in which he expressed his belief that poetry and drama are linked inseparably. W.B. Yeats, W. H. Auden and other poets also tried writing poetic drama.
IMPORTANT LITERARY TERMS
Dramatic Monologue
A persona poem or what is popularly termed as a dramatic monologue in poetry, uses the theatrical device of a monologue where a character or person on stage speaks alone. Often done to highlight the character or author’s internal thoughts and vocalize them to an implied audience, it was used in poetry in the 20th century. Romantic poetry was seen as the root of the same. It is usually one person’s speech to oneself or the audience / reader wherein he talks about a subjective view on a situation, topic, or any other character. Robert Browning was the poet who perfected the use of dramatic monologue in his poems like “My Last Duchess”, “Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister”. His use of the device influenced Eliot and other modernist writers.
Paradox
As the term signifies, a paradox occurs when there is self-contradiction in a sentence. Even ideas can have a paradox in them. It is done often for stylistic reasons and to express a complicated thought or feeling. Hamlet’s line “I must be cruel only to be kind.” (Act 3, Scene iv line 178) in Shakespeare’s play with the same title is an example of paradox where two contradictory emotions of kindness and cruelty are brought together.
Antithesis
It basically denotes the coming together of complete opposites in a sentence. It is a rhetorical device often used by orators. For example, Goethe’s quote “Love is an ideal thing, marriage a real thing” is an example of the same.
Symbol
Derived from the greek word Symbolom, a symbol is a word or object that stands for another word or object. For example a fox is a symbol for cleverness and dove is the universal symbol for peace.
Problem Play
Used mostly with reference to drama, a problem play usually deals with an attempt to focus the public opinion about a social concern. It engages therefore with a ‘problem’ in the most feasible manner and may either seek to solve it or complicate it further. It was made famous by Henrik Ibsen, a Norwegian Playwright and even used by G.B Shaw in his plays.
Essay
Usually a piece of prose writing that is aimed at being a thoughtful piece of writing with strong intellectual debates and undertones. It is derived from the word exagium that in Latin means a ‘trial by weight’. The form is believed to have emerged in the Renaissance and Francis Bacon in 1597 published his “Essays”.
Novel
A novel is a piece of literature that can be fictional or real and is written in prose. It is very different from drama and poetry by the extent of its length. There are many sub genres that can be a part of the novel itself. In fact a single novel is often is result of play of these various strands of literature. The root of the word “Novel” or “Novella” signifies something “new” as it was a later conception in the history of literature. It came after poetry and drama. It was the 18th and the 19th century that form became a major literary field with writers like Daniel Defoe, the author of Robinson Crusoe; Fielding, who wrote Tom Jones and Samuel Richardson, Charles Dickens and others. After the romantic phase there was a revival of the gothic fiction in works like Ann Radcliff’s Mysteries of Udolfo and Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein. Gothic was one such genre of the novel form. Realist novels, Sensational novels, domestic novels are just some of the others. On the whole the novel can be seen as a fictional narrative in prose, generally longer than a short story. Unlike the epic, which is now seen as a dead genre, the novel is still enjoying its high status in the literary market as perhaps, it has evolved with the continuously evolving world.
Free Verse
Free verse is a type of structure which does not have a fixed meter or regular rhythm. Even the line length varies from one sentence to another. The cadence is dependent solely on the wish of the writer but sometimes alternates between stressed and unstressed syllables. It was derived from the word ‘freo’ a middle-english word that meant ‘free’. Many great writers and poets experimented with the free verse style including Milton in his Samson Agonistes.
Short Story
 A short story is also a form of fiction writing but is different from the novel because of the length due to which it gets its name. It can be a highly serious work of literature, a didactic one with a moral, a part of children’s fiction and is also open to experimentation. For example, Rudyard Kipling wrote many short stories. The word ‘short’ comes from the word ‘sceort’ which means the same. Defoe also wrote short stories because of the popularity of serial novels at his time. It is however Edgar Allen Poe, who is considered to be a seminal figure responsible for the popularity of short stories as a genre. Joyce wrote them in his work titled Dubliners and Kafka wrote Metamorphosis using the same.
 

Issues in Age and Entering the Workforce

Problems Confronted by Mature Workers Re-entering the Workforce and Young Adult Workers Looking to Enter the Workforce after College

Post University
Problems confronted by mature workers re-entering the workforce and young adult workers looking to enter the workforce after college
Whether just starting out in the workforce or returning to the workforce after being retired, finding a job in today’s market comes with some challenges. In today’s economy it is difficult to find individuals who are not struggling to find employment or sustain the position they currently hold (Brown, 2012). The recession and massive layoffs have more than just hit the lower and middle class workers; an abundance of educated professionals and experienced retired professional are struggling to find stable employment (Brown, 2012). This paper will discuss why mature retired workers returning to the workforce and young recent college graduates are struggling to find employment, and why social standing and a post-secondary education does not always count when it comes to job security. The effects of a recession and a poor job market can be felt by the most experienced professionals, as well as by recent college graduates looking for opportunities to enter the workforce (Brown, 2012). Regardless of the motivation behind each of these groups search for gainful employment, they face various forms of resistance while trying to find and secure employment.
Retirees Returning To the Workforce
Since our country’s economic breakdown, there have not been enough jobs created for our population of workers, and even fewer positions are available for those of advanced age (Brown, 2012). Demographic and current trends suggest that the U.S. will be witnessing mature workers dynamically involved in the workforce, either due to financial need or their preference and ability to do so (Heidkamp & Heldrich, 2012). In fact retirement is beginning to no longer be a permanent event. Older individuals departing from the labor force is becoming more gradual, and countless workers are changing jobs before actually leaving the workforce completely, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (Brandon, 2011). Many of these workers do not see themselves as older workers, while unfortunately society believes differently and this is where a majority of the problems faced by older workers begin (Brown, 2012). Many mature workers need assistance navigating a complicated labor market, identifying available career opportunities, and determining their education and training needs in order to improve their chance of employability and impact to the workplace (Heidkamp & Heldrich, 2012).

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

Many factors cause mature workers to re-enter the workforce, such as dis-satisfaction with retirement life, inadequate retirement savings, and aspiration to improve their quality of life (Brown, 2012). According to Pew Charitable Trusts (2012) , regardless of these reasons many mature workers are subjected to prolonged periods of unemployment, which makes it challenging for them to become reemployed (Heidkamp & Heldrich, 2012). Recent studies have also mirrored this sentiment and have reported findings that affirm that barely half of mature workers who lost their jobs and were actively seeking employment were successful (Li, 2010). Many employers are reluctant to hire mature workers due to their negative perceptions, which include the following:

Mature workers are expensive to employ due to their wages, health insurance cost, and the cost associated with to training.
Mature workers are less productive due to their age and produce lower quality work.
Mature workers are unable to adapt to change at work (Walker, 2007).

Due to this type of thinking many mature workers are facing increased occurrences of age discrimination both before they are hired and while they are employed (Heidkamp & Heldrich, 2012). Even though the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 (ADEA) protects mature workers from age based employment discrimination, and pertains to both employees and job applicants; age discrimination claims still accounts for approximately one-quarter of the complaints filed with the Equal Opportunity Employment Commission (EEOC) (Heidkamp & Heldrich, 2012). According to a survey conducted by AARP, “one-third to one-half of baby boomers had experienced age bias in a job search” (Heidkamp & Heldrich, 2012).
As a result of the misconceptions and challenges facing mature workers, one of the first tasks that career counselors must do is assist their client in “identifying and [eliminating] some of their own beliefs about themselves;” in order to counter any negative thoughts that were created by their discriminatory experiences (Brown, 2012, p 136). Counselors need to help them come to terms with the following facts:

As people age their personalities do tend to become fixed, but flexibility in your youth usually tends to continue on as you age.
Mature workers are just as productive as younger workers, and at time even more productive.
Being overqualified for a position is very likely for mature worker and may cause angst, but depending on the reason they are working (ie. to supplement their existing income), it may not be an issue because the job may allow them to have a flexible schedule.
Regardless of the age of a supervisor their characteristics are the only things that determine their relationship with employees.
Mature workers learn just as well as younger workers.
A decline in strength is not a direct result of old age, but lack of exercise.
Although a decline in sight and hearing is a part of the aging process, many advancements in device technology that aide these areas make these concerns no longer an issue (Brown, 2012).

Even though finding employment at a mature age can be challenging, it is not altogether impossible. It takes the development of new skills, such as interviewing techniques, but mature workers may also require additional education and/or training that will help improve their employability in the workforce (Brown, 2012).
Young Recent College Graduates
We like to believe that a young adult as prepared to launch easily into the workforce and their careers, but the reality is that this transition in today’s economy is fraught with many difficulties (Brown, 2012). Young workers of today are no longer given the opportunity of job security; employment instability seems to be the new reality in our society (Kahn, 2010). Regardless of the extensive misperceptions by employers that young workers lack a work ethic, unlike mature workers, the truth is that many young workers in today’s economy are forceed to work several jobs and work longer hours in order to afford the rising cost of basic living expenses (Draut, 2006).
One of the main factors affecting recent young graduates entering the workforce is that they are coming out of school lacking workplace skills, which causes employers to be apprehensive about hiring recent graduates (Draut, 2006). Many employers believe that these young men and women are ill prepared for the workforce, and the societal shift in workforce values has employers expecting young applicants to come equipped with a fundamental set of basic understandings and the aptitude to apply their skills in their new place of work (Draut, 2006). These set of skills and understandings, also known as experience, is what is hindering this population from being hired. Employers have asserted their belief that recent grads lack professionalism and/or work ethic (Kahn, 2010). The data being circulated are showing that many recent grads today are having trouble keep up in the workplace, if they are even lucky enough to find employment (Grasgreen 2014). Employers surveyed consider recent graduates lack of readiness to be their most important issue that is keep them from being hired, 62 percent also believe that unprepared for the workforce can damage the “day-to-day productivity of their businesses” (Pianin, 2014).
Many recent graduates are finding it difficult to secure an employment, and those that are fortunate to find employment are often finding themselves underemployed and restricted to low-wage positions (Abel, Deitz, & Su, 2014). These facts have begins to make graduates questions if their college degree is even worth anything anymore (Abel, Deitz, & Su, 2014). According to the Gallup Daily Tracking Poll (Gallup. 2010a) “nearly one-fifth of employed [graduates] are underemployed” and not using any of the skills they have obtained from their post-secondary education (Brown, 2012, p 292).
Overall many of the issue facing young recent college graduates revolve around their lack of experience, preparedness, skills, and training (Pianin, 2014). According to an analysis done by Time, many employers are not motivated to hire recent grads due to their inability to navigate the office setting, and their lack of communication and interpersonal skills (Pianin, 2014). Recent grads just seem to unprepared for corporate culture and lack the experience to be effective employees, but these belief either true or a misconception is causing jobs to go unfilled and applicants forced to take what is available to them regardless of their educational background (Kahn, 2010). Many young recent graduates believe that these misconceptions are causing them to be looked over for employment, and in actuality they believed that they are being due to their age (Amour, 2003). It is the job of career counselors to assist young applicants in overcoming these misconceptions through employability training, internships, and occupational information that will help prepare them for what the workforce have become in a difficult economy (Brown, 2012).
Conclusion
Mature and young applicants face various misconceptions that are hindering their ability to secure gainful employment (Brown, 2012). Form the mature workers being categorized as over qualified, inflexible, less productive, and medically unreliable (Brown, 2012). While young workers are seen as being unprepared, lacking communication and interpersonal skills, lacking experience, and a solid work ethic (Draut, 2006). Both of these populations are believe to be unprepared for how the corporate culture works leaving both populations either unemployed or underemployed in today’s economy (Brown, 2012). Both groups are also experiencing instances of discrimination due to their mature age or their lack of maturity/experience, and both are believe to lack the skills necessary to be valuable employees regardless of their educational background, experience, or lack of experience (Amour, 2003). Employers and researchers seem to believe that there are individual out there that are in the middle of these two extremes that can fill these positions, yet positions are going unfilled (Abel, Deitz, & Su, 2014). This is where employee development and organizational development can be utilized to help both of these groups transform from a so-so employee to a skilled a valuable employee who helps increase organization growth (Brown, 2012.
References
Abel, J. R., Dietz, R., & Su, Y. (2014). Are recent college graduates finding good jobs?
Federal Reserve Bank of New York, 20(1). Retrieved from: http://www.newyorkfed.org/research/current_issues/ci20-1.pdf
Amour, S. (2003). Young workers say their age holds them back. USA Today. Retrieved from: http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/money/workplace/2003-10-07-reverseage_x.htm
Brandon, E. (2011). Why your retirement may not be permanent: Consider these increasingly popular alternative paths to retirement. U.S.News. Retrieved from: http://money.usnews.com/money/retirement/articles/2011/08/22/why-your-retirement-may-not-be-permanent
Brown, D. (2012). Career information, career counseling, and career development (10th ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. Pearson Education, Inc.
Draut, T. (2006). Strapped: Why America’s 20- and 30-somethings can’t get ahead. New York, NY. Doubleday Publishing.
Grasgreen, A. (2014). Ready or not: Are college graduates prepared for the workforce? Only university administrators seem to think so. Slate.com. Retrieved from: http://www.slate.com/articles/life/inside_higher_ed/2014/02/gallup_higher_education_poll_college_graduates_aren_t_prepared_for_the_workforce.html
Heidkamp, M. & Heldrich, J, (2012). Older workers, rising skill requirements, and the need for a re-envisioning of the public workforce system. CAEL Publishing. Retrieved from: http://www.cael.org/pdfs/TMT_Reenvision_Public_Workforce_System
Kahn, Lisa B. (April 2010). The Long-Term Labor Market Consequences of Graduating from College in a Bad Economy. Labour Economics, 17(2): p 303-16
Li, X. (2010). Extending the working lives of older workers: The impact of social security policies and labor market (Doctoral Dissertation). Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. Retrieved from: http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/rgs_dissertations/2010/RAND_RGSD265.pdf
Pianin, E. (2014). The surprising reason college grads can’t get a job. CNBC. Retrieved from: http://www.cnbc.com/id/101373230
Walker, D. M. (2007). Older workers: Some best practices and strategies for engaging and retaining older workers (GAO-07-433T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Accountability Office. Retrieved from: http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d07433t.pdf