Automatic Metadata Harvesting From Digital Content


Abstract: Metadata Extraction is one of the predominant research fields in information retrieval. Metadata is used to references information resources. Most metadata extraction systems are still human intensive since they require expert decision to recognize relevant metadata but this is time consuming. However automatic metadata extraction techniques are developed but mostly works with structured format. We proposed a new approach to harvesting metadata from document using NLP. As NLP stands for Natural Language Processing work on natural language that human used in day today life.
Keywords: Metadata, Extraction, NLP, Grammars
I. Introduction
Metadata is data that describes another data Metadata describes an information resource, or helps provide access to an information resource. A collection of such metadata elements may describe one or many information resources. For example, a library catalogue record is a collection of metadata elements, linked to the book or other item in the library collection through the call number. Information stored in the “META” field of an HTML Web page is metadata, associated with the information resource by being embedded within it.
The key purpose of metadata is to facilitate and improve the retrieval of information. At library, college, Metadata can be used to achieve this by identifying the different characteristics of the information resource: the author, subject, title, publisher and so on. Various metadata harvesting techniques is developed to extract the data from digital libraries.
NLP is a field of computer science, artificial intelligence and linguistics concerned with the interactions between computers and human (natural) languages. As such, NLP is related to the area of human computer interaction. Recent research has increasingly focused on unsupervised andsemi-supervisedlearning algorithms. Such algorithms are able to learn from data that has not beenhand-annotatedwith the desired answers, or using a combination of annotated andnon-annotateddata. The goal of NLP evaluation is to measure one or more qualities of an algorithm or a system, in order to determine whether (or to what extent) the system answers the goals of its designers, or meets the needs of its users.
II. Method
In this paper we proposed automatic metadata harvesting algorithm using natural language (i.e. humans used in day today works). Our technique is rule based. So it does not require any training dataset for it.
We harvest metadata based on English Grammar Terms. We identify the possible set of metadata then calculate their frequency then applying weight term based on their position or format that apply to it.
The rest of the paper is organized as follows. The next section review some related work regarding to metadata harvesting from digital content. Section gives the detailed description of proposed idea presented here. At last paper is concluded with summary.
III. Related Work
Existing Metadata harvesting techniques are either machine learning method or ruled based methods. . In machine learning method set of predefined template that contains dataset are given to machine to train machine. Then machine is used to harvest metadata from document based on that dataset. While in rule based method most of techniques set ruled that are used to harvest metadata from documents.
In machine learning approach extracted keywords are given to the machine from training documents to learn specific models then that model are applied to new documents to extract keyword from them.Many techniques used machine learning approach such as automatic document metadata extraction using support vector machine .
In rule based techniques some predefined rules are given to machine based on that machine harvest metadata from documents. Positions of word in document, specific keyword are used as category of document and etc. are examples rules that are set in various metadata harvest techniques. In some case Metadata classification is based on document types (e.g. purchase order, sales report etc.) and data context (e.g. customer name, order date etc.) [1].

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

Other statistical methods include word frequency [2], TF*IDF [3], wordco-occurrences[4]. Later on some techniques are used to harvest key phrase based on TF*PDF [5]. Other techniques use TDT (Topic Detection and Tracking) with aging theory to harvest metadata from news website [6]. Some techniques used DDC/RDF editor to define and harvest metadata from document and validate by thirds parties [7]. Several models are developed to harvest metadata from corpus. Now days most of techniques used models that all are depends on corpus.

IV. Proposed Theory
Our approach focused on harvesting a metadata from document based on English grammar. English grammar has many categories which categorized the word in statement. Grammar categories such as NOUN,VERB, ADJECTIVES, ADVERB, NOUN PHRASE, VERB PHRASE etc. each and every grammar category has a priority in statement. So our approaches to extract out the Metadata extraction based on its priority in grammar. Priority in grammar component is as follows: noun, verb, adjective, adverb, noun phrase
V. Proposed Idea
Figure-1 Proposed System Architecture
Infigure-1we give proposed system architecture. In this architecture we does not stick steps in any order.
articlepre-processingwhich remove irrelevant contents (i.e. tags,header-footerdetails etc.) from documents.
POS Taggers:
APart-Of-SpeechTagger (POS Tagger) is a piece of software that reads text in some languages and assigns parts of speech to each word (and other token), such as noun, verb, adjective, etc.
In most cases, morphological variants of words have similar semantic interpretations can be considered as equivalent for the purpose of IR applications. For this reason, a number ofso-calledstemming Algorithms, or stemmers, have been developed, which attempt to reduce a word to its stem or root form.
Calculate frequency:
Here each termed frequency is calculated i.e. how many occurrence of each term in document.
Identify Suitable Metadata:
Now metadata is extracted from word set based on their frequency, grammar and their positions.
VI. Experiments & Results
In this study we take a corpus with 100 documents. Documents contain the news article about various categories. Here we first extract the metadata manually from each & every documents. Then apply our idea to corpus. We measure our result from following parameter.
Precision = No of terms identified correctly by the system / Top N terms out of total terms generated by the system. Recall = Number of keyterms identified correctly by the system / Number of keyterms identified by the authors.F-measure=F=2* ((precision* recall)/ ( precision+ recall))
Table1: Evaluation Results

















VII. Conclusion & Future Works
This method based on grammar component Our Aim to use this algorithm to identifying metadata in bigram, trigram tetra gram. This metadata helps us to generate summary of documents.
[1] Christopher D. Manning, Prabhakar, Raghavan, Hinrich Schtze An Introduction to Information Retrieval book.
[2] H. P. Luhn. A Statistical Approach to Mechanized Encoding and Searching of Literary Information. IBM Journal of Research and Development, 1957, 1(4):309-317.
[3] G. Salton, C. S. Yang, C. T. Yu. A Theory of Term Importance in Automatic Text Analysis, Journal of the C.Zhang et al American society for Information Science, 1975, 26(1):33-44.
[4] Y. Matsuo, M. Ishizuka. Keyword Extraction from a Single Document Using WordCo-ocuurrenceStatistical Information. International Journal on Artificial Intelligence Tools, 2004, 13(1):157-169.
[5] Yan Gao Jin Liu, Peixun Ma The HOT keyphrase Extraction based on TF*PDF, IEEE conference, 2011.
[6] Canhui Wang, Min Zhang, Liyun Ru, Shaoping Ma An Automatic Online News Topic Keyphrase Extraction System,IEEE conference, 2006.
[7] Nor Adnan Yahaya, Rosiza Buang Automated Metadata Extraction from web sources, IEEE conference, 2006.
[8] Somchai Chatvienchai Automatic metadata extraction classi_cation of spreadsheet Documents based on layout similarities, IEEE conference, 2005.
[9] Dr. Jyoti Pareek, Sonal Jain KeyPhrase Extraction tool (KET) for semantic metadata annotation of Learning Materials, IEEE conference, 2009.
[10] Wan Malini Wan Isa, Jamaliah Abdul Hamid, Hamidah Ibrahim, Rusli Abdullah, Mohd. Hasan Selamat, Muhamad Tau_k Abdullah and Nurul Amelina Nasharuddin Metadata Extraction with Cue Model.
[11] Zhixin Guo, Hai Jin ARule-basedFramework of Metadata Extraction from Scienti_c Papers, IEEE conference.
[12] Ernesto Giralt Hernndez, Joan Marc Piulachs Application of the Dublin Core format for automatic metadata generation and extraction,DC-2005:Proc. International Conference. on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications.
[13] Canhui Wang, Min Zhang, Liyun Ru, Shaoping Ma An Automatic Online News Topic Keyphrase Extraction System, IEEE conference.
[14] Srinivas Vadrevu, Saravanakumar Nagarajan, Fatih Gelgi, Hasan Davulcu Automated Metadata and Instance Extraction from News Web Sites,IEEE conference.

Automatic System Water Tap Computer Science Essay

Nowadays, most people want a life that modern life requires that they are easy, fast and environmentally friendly. As we know the use of sinks at this time is still using the old system of using mechanical taps controlled by humans. As we can see today many public toilets using a box to put the liquid soap which they need a space to put the equipment. Users also often face the problem where it is easily damaged by the negligence of other users. Users of public toilets are usually provided with a tissue to dry her hands, but with rapidly developing technology and the desire to save the use of natural resources have changed the tissue with blower where they only use the hot wind pressure which is more environmentally friendly. However, we know the use of these devices usually require a space to stand.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

1.2 Problem Statement
Usually, most of the water tap in the market usually use old system where it using manually control to turn on or turn off the system [1]. When the users using that system they must use their hand to open or close the water tap and the water tap valve easy to damage because when the users always turn strongly to open or close the tap. This system is not efficient because water wastage easy to occur because at the time between to open the tap and wash their hand the water has already been wasted [1-3]. It same when we want to close it and if we forgot to close the water tap it will make waste become more critical [2-3]. As we can see usage of sink only focus on one usage it is all about water. Looking at the development of technology today usage of sink should not be focused on water use only because user needs something their use can give many benefit when they use it. Another disadvantages for the system is when users wash their hands, their hands not very clean because they still have a direct contact to the messy water tap where it expose to the bacteria [4].
1.3 Objectives
The objectives of this project are:
To change manually system water tap become automatic system water tap.
To control three different types of output with just one selector switch.
To reduce wastage of water that always occurs at water taps.
To reduce direct contact to the device for prevent from bacteria.
1.4 Project Scope
These following scopes are listed to ensure the project is heading the right direction and achieve the objectives:
This system uses a microcontroller PIC 16F877A where the PIC programmed by C language using Proteus 7 Professional, common control v.5.82, Shell v.6.00 and mikroElektronika C compiler for Microchip PIC microcontrollers Version:
The systems have a selector switch where the selector used to choose the type of output depend on what we need.
This system is equipped with infrared motion detector where the infrared is using to detect the movement around the water tap and it is input for this system because the system will be operates when a movement has in designated areas.
By using infrared motion detector users need only place their hands under the water tap and after the detector detect the movement in designated area the output will come out.
2.1 Overview.
These chapters state all the studies and reviews from previous projects or journal and sources that help to successfully design, built and implement the entire task during this digital water tap base liquid control project. The studies include improvement and modification of design from previous project. Hardware section will tackle on mechanical, electrical and electronic parts while software section will be cover the studies on software development tools that are used.
2.2 Tap water control apparatus.
An apparatus capable of being installed onto an existing single spout of plumbing system where in the spout receives tap water from valves that adjust flow rates from separate lines of hot and cold water utilizes a control valve that attaches to the single spout. The control valve is operated by foot pedal which communicates with the control valve by cable whose path in constrained by guides and rollers [5].untitled4.JPG
Picture description:
1.Spring-biased foot
2. Cable.
3. Sink basin.
4. Flow control valve.
5. Apparatus.
6. Attaching to
Figure 2.2.1: Tap water control apparatus layout.
2.3 Automatic faucet.
An automatic faucet has a sensor infrared to start and stop discharging water automatically. Only hand can be detected accurately without detecting a washbowl (chinaware) and water stream erroneously. The sensor comprises a light emitter and a light receiver. The directional axis of a detection region (in which the light emitting region of the light emitter and the receiving region of the light receiver are overlapped with each other) intersects the discharged water steam and further the intersection angle between both is adjusted less than 70 degrees. The reflected light levels detected by the light receiver are sampled periodically to calculate an average value and a variance value on the basis of at least eight most update sampled data. Water discharge is started and stopped on the basis of the calculation average value and the variance [6].
Picture description:
1. Infrared motion detector.
2. Nozzle.
3. Inlet water.
4. Sink basin.
Figure 2.3.1: automatic faucet layout.
2.4 Hand free tap.
With the design of hands free faucet, it wills convenience the elderly or the disabilities that do not have a strong grip tap knobs and people can ease the worry of getting a slip onto ground. As well as water and energy saving are being able to manage the water resources. The idea will be archived by hands are place into infrared light beam, the solenoid valve opens and allows tap water to flow out. When it reach for about 4 seconds, water turn off and solenoid valve resets for the next user. The hand free system can be operating from the battery and an infrared detector. However other alternatives such as the main electricity and the ultrasonic sensor can be used to operate the hand free system [4].
Figure 2.4.1: Mechanical metering faucet.
2.5 Infrared motion detector
Detection involves recognition of the presence of a particular class of objects of interest in space and time. In the same space and time will be located other objects whose characteristics differ little from those of interest. Therefore, in general a, detection system must differentiate between similar objects. Differentiation between such objects is on the basis of their spatial and spectral characteristics. This differentiation is accomplished by power, space and frequency filtering. Power filtering typically is accomplished by use of a threshold stage, a device amenable to simple, general mathematical description [7].
A detection system repeatedly scans a region in space while seeking to detect the presence of an object interest target. A criterion for the effectiveness with which a particular detection system accomplishes its mission is the range at which it will detect an object of interest. Choice of a basic system structure during preliminary design, selection of design parameters during detailed design of a specific system, and evaluation of the functioning of a specific system during a test program are greatly facilitated by a mathematical model which allows a realistic prediction of detection range [7].
2.6 Servo motor selection criterion for mechatronic application
Modern mechatronic applications often involve complex motions, resulting in highly dynamic motor loads. The selection of an appropriate motor is based on the characteristics of the load, besides other technical, as well as economic, considerations. However, motor characteristics, such as rotor inertia, affect the motor load, which complicates the analysis. The selection criterion presented in this paper separates the motor characteristics from the load characteristics and its graphical representation facilitates the feasibility check of a certain drive and the comparison between different systems. In addition, it yields the range of possible transmission ratios. The method is illustrated with an industrial case study [8].
3.1 Overview.
This chapter describes understanding the objective and planning the design by performing some management method to keep this project stand on the right track. To ensure digital water tap base liquid control prototype successfully developed, some tasks have must been performed following sequence of work where it divided by four stage is project planning, design of circuit, hardware and software. For support tools such as PIC software, PIC kits and USB programmer will be used to assist on software and hardware development.
3.2 Hardware design.
Hardware design involve the designing of digital water tap base liquid control that consists of four major unit which is microcontroller unit, sensing unit, motor unit and power supply unit. The microcontroller unit functions as interface for input and output system and its peripheral extensions is the major responsible component for the functionality of an instrument. The sensing unit is used to measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an instrument. The usage of motor unit consist from two different application is pump and blower. The power supply unit, it plays major rules in distributing the power to the other unit according to the requirement of the system such as if the microcontroller requires 5V voltage, the power supply must provide 5V supply to the microcontroller.
3.2.1 PIC microcontroller.
The PIC16F877A is from the PIC16 microcontroller family, with the some advantages is a high computational performance at an economical price and the addition of high endurance and Enhanced Flash Memory. Then added features include eight additional instructions that augment indirect and indexed addressing operations and the implementation of Indexed Literal Offset Addressing mode for many of the standard PIC16 instructions. In addition to these features, the PIC16F877A introduces design enhancements that make power sensitive applications to project and can build microcontroller a logical device for many high-performances. The PIC16F877A make use of NanoWatt technology that incorporates a range of features that can significantly reduce power and voltage consumption during operation includes:
Alternate run modes.
Multiple idle modes.
On the fly mode switching.
Lower consumption in key modules.
Extended instruction set.
3.2.2 Infrared motion detector.
The usage of IR detector because they operate by using a type of electromagnetic wave that is invisible to human eyes, harmless to users, and is naturally emitted by all objects. It sense heat and can detect an intruder radiating body heat. Most infrared detectors are passive, meaning they do not send out signals but merely receive signals, such as changes in temperature [7]. Microwave and ultrasonic detectors are active that is they send out waves of energy and receive waves reflected back by objects. Any disturbance in the reflected waves caused by a moving object will make false detection.
3.2.3 Servo motor.
In order to select a motor of an appropriate size, speed and torque requirements have to be known first. Servo motors have enough speed, peak torque and rms torque capabilities, along with optimal gearing arrangement, to meet the load requirement as well as the cost objective. Equally important is selecting the type and size of the drive and power supply to meet the system requirements. Unfortunately, there is no simple straightforward procedure in servo system component selection due to complexity and variety of motor types, power transmission devices and other peripheral components available in the market [8]. The reason why servo motor is used in this project is because it’s easy to control with PIC microcontroller. 12 volt require as a source to this motor.
3.3 Software implement.
The combination between all of the hardware has to be defined and forecasted in order to predict the outcome. Conventionally designing process requires only the estimation based on theoretical understanding. With the help of assisted software, simulation can be done. From this simulation result, it gives the guideline flexibility to refine the circuit for example the outcome or the result does not satisfy the requirement.
For this project a number of software will be used such as MPLAB v8.33 and mikroC v8.2. This software not only helps to speed up the process of designing, but also avoid unnecessary mistake before the actual thing is build.
3.3.1 MPLAB software
The nature of this project, is that it users PIC as a controller, controlling the interaction between all input and output. This PIC is requires a set of language in order to work, and for this project the language that will be use is C language. The reason behind this is because C use syntax that is very much like a human term works instead other languages that are more native to machine language. For instance, the syntax “else” in C language really means else in human term, making it much more convenient to troubleshoot.
Thus, this language has to be compiled before it can be downloaded into the PIC. MPLAB will be used as a compiler for this project.
3.3.2 MikroC software.
MikroC v8.0 software is developed by MikroElektronika Company. Program the PIC microcontroller become easy when using mikroC software where it uses C language and the library from this mikroC is to understanding because some instruction has an example command with complete circuit. It gave easy understanding to beginner programmer to start their own program.
3.4 Project block diagram.
Selector switch:
– using waterproof switch to prevent short circuit.
– have three selection options.
Digital-selector konvertirano.jpg
Infrared motion detector:
– Not have many false detection because passive detector.
– It can sense heat that give benefit to sense hand movement.
– Detection in small range.MFG_EKMAxxxx12.jpg
3images (1).jpg
PIC microcontroller:
– High computational performance at an economical price.
– The instruction can build in C language.
– Can save many instruction.
– Become brain to this system because control all the
4 untitled34.JPG
Tap system:
– This system includes motor pump and blower.
– Two type motor pump:
1. Control water inlet.
2. Control quantity of output soap.
– Motor blower is uses to supply hot air to make hand dry.
Preliminary result
No more waste problem that will occur because the system itself will off if no users are using it, it also saves space and costs of the old system because the system was equipped with three types of control namely water, soap and blower by the project in response to the demands of society who want the technology.
In PSM 1 all the literature review regarding this project are been studied so at the end of PSM 1 it can be summarized that the objectives of the project will be fulfilled in the next PSM 2, which is to combine all the circuit, complete the whole program and also design and build the prototype of tap system for digital water tap base liquid control. This progress will need more commitment and efforts. In conjunction to achieve that, scope and objectives of this project will be the guideline.

Automatic Online Gas Booking and Detection System

Home security has changed a great deal over the last century and will continue to do so as long as technology continues to progress. In today’s age of digital technology and intelligent systems, home automation has become one of the fastest developing application-based technologies in the world. Security systems are important features of a modern Home. In order to fullfil the security concerns of the house owners, efficient, reliable & cost effective system has been designed.
The research is aimed at developing the security of Home against LPG gas leakage or Fire. In your absence,if the above incident happen, the device send message corresponding number. A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a wireless network consisting of spatially distributed autonomous devices using sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions. A WSN system incorporates a gateway that provides wireless connectivity back to the wired world and distributed nodes (see in fig).
Fig.Sensor Node
The work deals with discussion about various brilliant home automation systems and technologies. In home automation the monitoring and control operations are assisting through smart devices installed in residential buildings. Home automation systems face some main challenges; these are high cost of ownership, inflexibility, difficulty in achieving security and poor manageability. The main intention of this research is to design and implement a home automation system using IoT that is able to controlling and automating most of the house appliances through an easy possible web interface.
By using Wi-Fi technology to interconnect its distributed sensors to home automation server the Proposed system has a great flexibility. This will decrease the deployment cost and will increase the ability of upgrading, and system reconfiguration.
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) comprises both instrumentation as well as communication technologies and operates within Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band. the Wireless Sensor Networks collaboratively operate to collect and disseminate data with great security and reliability. Therefore, it plays vital role in measurement and control of environmental parameters of industrial and agriculture sectors as well. It deserves key role not only in biomedical field but also in military and security fields. The Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) system consist of devices, which sense the signal, process and transmit the signal to base station. The base station plays the jobs of not only as data logger but also of data analysis and prediction. Each of these devices is known as sensor node [2], that comprises a sensor or array of sensors, Data Acquisition System (DAS), processor, RF module and power supply unit. Moreover, the smart moves are also associated with the Global Positioning System (GPS) [2], to indicate their location in the monitored area. The movable robotic system can also provide with every smart move to vary its location and to collect data from different place.
Wireless Sensor Network is the network of devices called as wireless sensor nodes, routed cooperatively to exchange information, through wireless link. The Wireless Sensor Networks consist three types of nodes as coordinator; which organize the network and helps to maintain routing tables. Routers; routers communicate with coordinator and other routers to reduce functions of end devices and provides path for end devices to communicate data to the base station or coordinator. End Device; End devices ensures the interfaces to the physical world. It senses the parameters for which it has been designed and communicates with coordinator through desired routing protocol and forward signal to the base station.The communication protocols are more complex and designed according to suitable criteria. Following are the characteristics of Wireless Sensor Network.
ï‚· Low power consumption.
ï‚· Ability to withstand in harsh environmental conditions.
ï‚· Self configurability
ï‚· Self healing
ï‚· Scalability
Availability of different OS can be configured in real time operating system.
On literature survey, it is found that, the study of wireless sensor network is the field of interest and therefore, the researchers are undertaking the research work related to the Wireless Sensor Network(WSN). Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) [3] is fast growing field of electronics for research of applied nature. The Santosh Kumar et al developed sensor network for dying industry monitoring and control system, which is wired about PIC 16F877 and deployed to monitor various parameters[4]. The recent release of standards in the field such as IEEE 802.15.4 and Digi brought the technology out of research labs and empowered to deploy for real world applications [2]. Corke et al have developed an electronic system for applications like cattle monitoring, ground water monitoring, rainforest monitoring [5]. Chiara buratti, worked on Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technology and its evolution [6]. In order to monitor the concentration of hydrocarbons particularly, in chemical industries a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) based system is developed by Kane et al [7] and interpreted the results, which could support the optimization of production. Zigbee based mine safety monitoring system is developed by Rajkumar Boodu [8].
This paper presents the designing of Wireless Sensor Node designed to detect and monitor the leakage of the industrial gases. For this purpose the system is wired about PIC 18F4550 microcontroller, which has promising salient features. After comparison of various RF modules, the Zigbee module is selected and employed to transreceive the data. Zigbee technology is new technology in RF communication, which work with low power and in free Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band.
The main applications of a LPG Gas Leakage Detector would be :
ï‚· To protect ourselves from any gas leakage in cars, industries, homes, hospitals etc.
ï‚· To safeguard ourselves from gas leakage in heating gas fired appliances like boilers, domestic water heaters.
ï‚· To be used in large industries which use gas as their production.
ï‚· To provide safety from gas leakage in cooking gas fired appliances like ovens, stoves etc.
GSM module is used to send a message .The name of GSM module SIM_300 with RS232.Buzzer, power supply and audio interface are used. This can be connected to PC by using a USB to Serial Adaptor. Real terms are used to send & receive data.
The interface between microcontroller and GSM module can also be done directly with the help of wires.
With the help of step down transformer of 230V AC primary to 0-12V, 500mA secondary power supply is taken from main supply. Full-wave rectifier and a capacitor filter provide the output voltage and then fed to 5-volt regulator (LM7805) whose output is used as power supply for IC’s and microcontroller.
The LPC2141/2/4/6/8 microcontrollers are based on a 32/16 bit ARM7TDMI-S CPU with real-time emulation and embedded trace support, that combines the microcontroller with embedded high speed flash memory ranging from 32 kB to 512 kB. A 128-bit wide memory interface and a unique accelerator architecture enable 32-bit code execution at the maximum clock rate. For critical code size applications, the alternative 16-bit Thumb mode reduces code by more than 30 % with minimal performance penalty.
Due to their tiny size and low power consumption, LPC2141/2/4/6/8 are ideal for applications where miniaturization is a key requirement, such as access control and point-of-sale. A blend of serial communications interfaces ranging from a USB 2.0 Full Speed device, multiple UARTs, SPI, SSP to I2Cs, and on-chip SRAM of 8 kB up to 40 kB, make these devices very well suited for communication gateways and protocol converters, soft modems, voice recognition and low end imaging, providing both large buffer size and high processing power. Various 32-bit timers, single or dual 10-bit ADC(s),10-bit DAC, PWM channels and 45 fast GPIO lines with up to nine edge or level sensitive external interrupt pins make these microcontrollers particularly suitable for industrial control and medical systems.
The system detects the LPG gas concentration in the air if it exceeds a safety level and then responds by using GSM to send an SMS to the consumer. The LED and Buzzer are activated to alert the consumer in case of gas leakage and the system displays the message on LCD
LPG Gas Leakage is a major problem in many industries and households.Hence our Project will definitely prove to be for households and industries in preventing future gas leakages.
This research work has many advantages which are as follows:
ï‚· The Research Work is easy to use and it gives remote indication to the user.
ï‚· The Sensor used in this Research Work has excellent sensitivity combined with a quick fast response time.
ï‚· The system is highly reliable, tamper-proof and secure.
ï‚· In the long run the maintenance cost is very less when compared to the present systems.
ï‚· It is possible to get instantaneous results and with high accuracy.
This home security feature is expected to draw much attention in the next decades. People are getting more and more concerned about how to protect themselves and their houses in case of emergencies. These emergencies include not only LPG gas leakage, but also fire attack.
This device provides a means for being able to securely monitor a house with the help of sensors integrated with a micro-controller and a GSM unit. SMS provides an economical and convenient way to alert users of a possible fire accident.
The use of mobile handsets as a client device to receive warning messages implies that the user need not have to carry an additional piece of equipment as most people already have a mobile phone with them most of the time.
[1] “Analog and digital circuits for electronic control systems applications” by jerry luecke – ELSEVIER publications – 2005 – ISBN 0-7506-7810-0.
[2] “Advanced microelectronics Microcontrollers in Practice”By I. Susnea and M. Mitescu – Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York – ISBN-10 3-540-25301-7.
[3] “Advanced PIC Microcontroller Projects in C ” by s Dogan Ibrahim – ELSEVIER publications – 2005 ISBN-13: 978-0-7506-8611-2.
[4] “PIC Microcontrollers An Introduction to Microelectronics” by Martin Bates -Second Edition- sELSEVIER publications – 2004 – ISBN 0 7506 6267 0 .
1.Ms.Pawar Pallavi Tatyasaheb,Student IV SEM, M.E, VLSI AND EMBEDDED SYSTEM, SCOE, Pune, India Mr. B.E. Shinde,Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics and telecommunication, SCOE, Pune, India “SMART HOME APPLIENCES USING IOT” Vol-2 Issue-1 2016. SCOE, Sudumbare, M.E (VLSI & Embedded Systems)(2015-20

Monitoring System For Automatic Plant Irrigator

Irrigation is of the method to watering the plant and to improve the quality of crops. Automatic irrigation is a modern method that used for watering vegetables, fruits and farm crops. This project paper will describe “automatic plant irrigator” designed by using microcontroller. The main purpose of this project is to design an automatic watering device by sensing the soil conditions. In addition, the project also aims to design a soil moisture sensor that can be easily integrated with a microcontroller. To achieve this objective, some research and studies has been done in some previous similar project. Based on the review, the methodology that used in this project are divide into two, which is hardware and software parts. Both development are involving design, experimentation, simulation and construction to get an expected result which meets the project objective. Data analysis for this project will proceed after the completion of the hardware and the software procedure. This is for the purpose to ensure the project can achieve the objective and also to ensure the reliability of the system.
Detailed proposal of project:
Cadangan maklumat projek secara terperinci:
(a) Introduction
When it comes to agricultural activities, irrigation in one of the vital process. Irrigation system is an essential important element for plant growth. It also one of major effect in any plant cultivation as it may affect on the growth of plant. Irrigation in agriculture term is defined as an artificial application of watering of the arable land or soil.
Water is most important to our life and we cannot survive without it. Water also is essential ingredient of plant. Most of gardener usually uses manual technique to watering their plant. This technique system is inefficient. Sometime, the possibility to over watering is high when use this technique.
In order to overcome this problem, Automatic plant irrigator is used. Automatic plant irrigator or better known as an automatic plant watering system is a system that is introduced not only provide a programmable watering system but also a continuous monitoring system. The main goal of this project is to design an automatic plant irrigator where the system is equipped with a reliable soil water level or moisture sensor. This system is applicable for small or medium agricultural-industry. This system will be divided into three main units which are sensing element, control element and final control element. Sensor such as soil moisture detector are use to control the watering system
(b) Problem statement
Pernyataan Masalah
Nowadays, automatic plant irrigator system is commonly applied in agriculture such as domestic gardening. In this industry, automatic plant irrigator system usually used to supply water to maintain soil moisture so plants can grow well.
Unfortunately, there are still gardeners or farmers who maintained use manually watering technique because not all of them afford to buy the system. Over-watering possibility would occur if this manual process is still practiced. It will caused the plants drown if supply too much water for them. Sometime this manual technique also make the process water late reaches or does not reach the roots of plants and this will cause the plant get dried. Lack of water can be harmful to the plant or even can render it withered. The effect of this lack of water can also slow down the process of plant growth and will also affect the light weight of the plants. In the conventional system, farmers also need monitor the irrigation timetable, as each plant has a different time in terms of watering time.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

An automatic plant irrigation monitoring system is the good solution to overcome this problem. This irrigation system is not only provides a good hydration system for plant but also provides the controller that allows the user to set their irrigation system operation. Users also can set the level of moisture that is allowed according to the specification in the soil so their crops will always have a maintained moisture level.
(c) Objective (s) of the Project
Objektif Projek
To compare the sensitivity of two type of sensor probe that was made of stainless steel and copper
To design reliable soil moisture sensor
To design automatic plant irrigator monitoring system
(c) Project Scope
Skop Projek
This project will be focus to design low cost automatic plant irrigation. The project involves the evolution of manually watering techniques to automatic watering techniques. The controlling of the automatic watering system in an agricultural. To complete this project in such systematic and organized manners, some scope and limitation should be set accordingly.
Sensor used to control the watering system is soil moisture sensor. There are several software will be used, the software is livewire that been used to simulated the circuit. The second software that will be used in this project Visual Basic 6 that been used to implement the graphical user interface for PIC as the system controller.
The communication between Visual Basic and automatic plant irrigator system will be determined by using an address to give or receive digital or analog signal.
(e) Literature Review
Keterangan latar belakang projek kajian literature
Soil moisture sensor
Sensor is a device which used to measure a physical quantity and convert this information into a signal that can be read by the observer or a tool. [1]
The Sensor converts one form of energy into another form because the sensor is a transducer. For this reason, the sensor is categorized according to the type of energy transfer that they detected. Soil moisture measurement provides very useful information to agriculture, such as agriculture farm, soil stability, soil moisture and construction activities. [2]
The probe selection for sensor is very important. This is because the material that used in the probe. Sensor sensitivity is depending on the material that used to construct the probe and also depends on how the sensor operates. Typically, soil moisture sensor is based on the resistance value of the soil. Water is a type of electric conductance. So generally, if the resistance is low, the soil is dry and vice versa. [3].
Gypsum block is a product of the low cost soil moisture monitoring. Their low cost and ease of interpretation make this block is particularly suitable for seasonal crops. There are two electrodes embedded in the gypsum block. When gypsum wet, it will conduct electric easily and when gypsum dry, it is a poor conductor. A pair of electrode within the block will measure the change in the resistance. It is possible directly using a pair of electrode measure the resistivity in the soil but the measurement will influence by changes in soil conductivity brought about by salt and other ingredients. The ion gypsum provided a buffer against the effects of salt and nutrients. It is very effective for prevention of salt ions from reaching the electrode and to ensure the sensor is only responding to moisture level. [4]
Microcontroller is a computer on- a- chip. It is a type of intelligence processor that can be programmed for collecting data from input. Microcontroller frequently uses in automatically control devices such as remote control system, toys and hardware. [5]
PIC is used as the main brain system in a moisture monitoring system. Technically, PIC is used to converts analog signals to digital signal that can be read by computer that provided the view of monitoring system. In the measurement of soil moisture, the soil moisture sensor potential to measure the difference (voltage) across the probe and transmit the measure to the PIC. PIC will convert the reading into the soil moisture level. This is achieved by setting the conversion unit into the PIC programmed.[6]
Irrigation System
The main purpose of “Automatic irrigation management system” is proposed to offer the following benefits: first, it is able to provide the amount of water needed by plants in the field. Second, it can eliminate the time and scheduling system for watering plants. Third, it also managed to contain the pressures caused by over-watering plants. In conclusion, this system is to promote the save and production water. [7]
With the increasing needs for agriculture, human start to realize that agriculture activity are needs plentiful source of water just like how they need water to survive. As time goes by, the increase in population and the area of settlement grows wider. So, human has created a device that allows them to get water even they are far from the water source. The earliest system known as aqueducts. [8]
Soil Moisture Monitoring Software
The software is designed to monitor system operation. This is to record the measurement of soil moisture so that can be used as a reference for plant watering strategies to produce better yields. The data recording is very important since different patterns in the irrigation schedule do affect the crops growth. [9]
The concept of monitoring system is also beneficial to operators to help them monitor for any abnormalities in the system during operation. The software also provides a graphical display system operation. The display helps the operator to determine the level of soil moisture and watering system conditions during operation. This will ensure the system is healthy and operate normally. [10]
Soil water percentage experiment
Before starting the experiment, the method of calculation needs to be determined first. For this project, the water percentage will be calculated by referring to the mass of dry soil. This method will apply three general equations which are normally used to determine the water percentage using the oven dry method.
(d) Methodology
Kaedah projek
For sensing unit, the design stage is started with the soil moisture sensor circuit design. In this project, the voltage divider circuit is used. After the soil moisture circuit has been confirmed, the next step is determining the material that is used as a sensor probe. Here are two types of probes were used which is stainless steel and copper. Experiment and analysis will be conducted on both of the probe. Result from both of the probe will be taken and compared to determine which probe more suitable as a sensor probe.
The selection of reliability sensor is depend on the high electric conductivity and also has a high corrosion resistance. The sensor probe is build of two rods which are separated for 2 cm. The two rods are separated so that when the probe is inserted into the soil there will be a potential difference across them. These potential difference is varies with the soil resistivity.
The microcontroller used in this project is the Duemilanove Arduino. The Arduino is equipped with the Atmega328 PIC with a built in USB interface which provides an easy serial connection between the controller and computer to provide the GUI display. The Arduino is programmed to obtain the voltage reading from the sensing unit and display it.
Action unit in the project is automatic plant irrigator system. This unit consists of two small units which is water pumps and dripping system. Water pumps supplying 240V power supply and its operation is controlled by a relay. That is triggered by the arduino.
(g) References
Application of sensor manual, Principles and Basic, 1999
R.Frank, Research on the soil moisture sensor, 2000
C.C. Shock, R. Flock, E. Feibert, C.A. Shock, A. Pereira, L. Jensen, Irrigation Monitoring with Soil Water Tension. Oregan State University, 2005
Model KS-D1 owner’s manual, DELMHORST INSTRUMENT CO.
Application of Microcontroller manual, Principle and the BASIC Stamp, 1999
. Juang, J.-N.; Ekong, D.U.; Carlson, C.; Longsdorf, W.; Miller, M.; , “A Computer-Based Soil Moisture Monitoring and Hydrating System,” System Theory, 2007. SSST ’07. Thirty-Ninth Southeastern Symposium on , vol., no., pp.142-144, 4-6 March 2007
Julie S.Chang. Western Washington University. 10-22-2006
C. Brouwer, K. Prins, M. Kay, M. Heibloem. Irrigation Water Management: Irrigation Methods, Rome, Italy: Publications Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1988
C. O. Akinbile, M. S. Yusff, Growth, Yield and Water use Pattern of Chilli Pepper under Different Irrigation Scheduling and Management, Asian Journal of Agricultural Research, 5(2), pp 154 – 163, 2011.
Y. Zhao, J. Zhang, J. Guan, W. Yin, “Study on precision water-saving irrigation automatic control system by plant physiology,” Industrial Electronics and Applications, 2009. ICIEA 2009. 4th IEEE Conference on , vol., no., pp.1296-1300, 25-27 May 2009
Please indicate your estimated budget for this project
Sila nyatakan anggaran bajet bagi cadangan projek ini
Budget details
Butiran belanjawan
Amount requested by applicant
Jumlah yang dipohon
oleh pemohon
Comment by panel
E (i)
Project Materials & Supplies
Bekalan dan Bahan Projek
Copper rods
E (ii)
Maintenance and Minor Repair Services
Baik pulih kecil dan ubahsuai
E (iii)
Professional Services
Perkhidmatan Ikhtisas
E (vi)
Accessories and
Aksesori dan Peralatan
Declaration by candidate / Akuan Calon
(Please tick ( √ )): / (Sila tanda ( √ )):
I hereby confess that:
Saya dengan ini mengaku bahawa:
All information stated here are accurate, Supervisor and panel has right to reject or to cancel this proposal without prior notice if there is any inaccurate information given.
Semua maklumat yang diisi adalah benar, Penyelia dan panel berhak menolak permohonan atau membatalkan tawaran cadangan ini pada bila-bila masa sekiranya keterangan yang dikemukakan adalah tidak benar.
Application of this Project Proposal is presented for a FYP 1 seminar.
Permohonan cadangan projek projek ini dikemukakan untuk Seminar PSM 1.
Date : Candidate’s Signature :
Tarikh : Tandatangan Calon : ___________________________
Recommended by FYP Supervisor
Perakuan Penyelia PSM
Please tick ( √ )
Sila tandakan ( √ )
A. Highly Recommended
Sangat Disokong
B. Recommended
C. Not Recommended (Please specify reason)
Tidak Disokong (Sila Nyatakan Sebab)
Name: Signature:
Nama: Tandatangan:
Appendix A: Flow Chart of Project Activities
Proposing a project title:
Development of monitoring system for Automatic Plant Irrigator
Literature Review
Soil Moisture Sensor
3. Irrigation System
Design the system
System block diagram
Soil Moisture Sensor Circuit
3. Programming PIC
System Construction
Run simulation for sensor circuit using LiveWire Pro
System hardware and software construction
System testing and analysis
Final report writing and submission
Appendix B: Project Schedule of Project Activities (Gantt chart)
Project Planning
List major activities involved in the proposed project. Indicate duration of each activity to the related month(s).
Project Activities
Finding out the project title and proposal submission
Search for relevance information with the project
Designing and testing of the sensing unit
Designing and testing of the action unit
Integrating the sensing and the action unit
Run testing and analysis
Final report writing
Appendix C: TURNITIN Report must be attached

Automatic Water Level Controller (AWLC)

UKEssays. (November 2018). Automatic Water Level Controller (AWLC). Retrieved from
Copy to Clipboard
Reference Copied to Clipboard.

“Automatic Water Level Controller (AWLC).” 11 2018. UKEssays. 07 2024 .
Copy to Clipboard
Reference Copied to Clipboard.

“Automatic Water Level Controller (AWLC).” UKEssays., November 2018. Web. 7 July 2024. .
Copy to Clipboard
Reference Copied to Clipboard.

UKEssays. November 2018. Automatic Water Level Controller (AWLC). [online]. Available from: [Accessed 7 July 2024].
Copy to Clipboard
Reference Copied to Clipboard.

UKEssays. Automatic Water Level Controller (AWLC) [Internet]. November 2018. [Accessed 7 July 2024]; Available from:
Copy to Clipboard
Reference Copied to Clipboard.

{{cite web|last=Answers |first=All |url= |title=Automatic Water Level Controller (AWLC) | |date=November 2018 |accessdate=7 July 2024 |location=Nottingham, UK}}
Copy to Clipboard
Reference Copied to Clipboard.

All Answers ltd, ‘Automatic Water Level Controller (AWLC)’ (, July 2024) accessed 7 July 2024
Copy to Clipboard
Reference Copied to Clipboard.

Automatic Irrigation Robot with Automatic Water Sprinkler System


The project is designed to increase an automated irrigation gadget which switches the pump motor ON/OFF on sensing the moisture content material of the soil. In the sector of agriculture, use of proper technique of irrigation is vital. The benefit of the usage of this technique is to lessen human intervention and still ensure proper irrigation. The assignment uses an 8051 collection microcontroller which is programmed to get hold of the enter sign of various moisture circumstance of the soil through the sensing arrangement. This is executed by way of the use of an op-amp as comparator which acts as interface between the sensing arrangement and the microcontroller. Once the controller gets this sign, it generates an output that drives a relay for running the water pump. An LCD show is also interfaced to the microcontroller to display repute of the soil and water pump. The sensing arrangement is made through the use of two stiff steel rods inserted into the field at a distance. Connections from the metal rods are interfaced to the manipulate unit.  In the fast paced world people require everything to be automatic. Our existence fashion demands everything to be faraway controlled. Apart from few things man has made his life computerized. In the world of increase electronics, lifestyles of people ought to be less complicated. Hence to make life easier and convenient, we have made “AUTOMATIC IRRIGATION ROBOT WITH AUTOMATIC WATER SPRINKLER SYSTEM”. A version of controlling irrigation centers to assist hundreds of thousands of people.


This model uses sensing arrangement era with microcontroller to make a smart switching device. The continuous increasing call for of meals calls for the rapid development in food manufacturing generation. In a country like India, where in the economic system is particularly based totally on agriculture and the climatic conditions are isotropic, nevertheless we aren’t able to make full use of agricultural assets. The principal purpose is the shortage of rains & shortage of land reservoir water. Irrigation has usually been an ancient exercise which has evolved through so many ranges through the years. Our ancestral farmers in a bid to irrigate their farm looked for numerous methodologies. Manual irrigation the use of buckets and watering cans, flood irrigation, drip irrigation, sprinkler irrigation have been and are still being used today. The current machine has numerous boundaries; leaching off of soil vitamins, erosion due to flooding, lack of water from plant surfaces via evaporation, water wastage that may result to water scarcity in drought areas and manufacturing of bad plants. This problem can be rectified if we use microcontroller based automatic irrigation device in which the irrigation will take place most effective whilst there could be acute requirement of water. The project is designed to develop an automatic irrigation machine which switches the pump motor ON/OFF on sensing the moisture content material of the soil. In the field of agriculture, use of proper approach of irrigation is essential. The gain of the use of this method is to reduce human intervention and never ensure proper irrigation. The assignment makes use of an 8051 collection microcontroller which is programmed to receive the input signal of varying moisture circumstance of the soil via the sensing association. This is executed through using an op-amp as comparator which acts as interface among the sensing association and the microcontroller. Once the controller gets this signal, it generates an output that drives a relay for working the water pump. An LCD show is likewise interfaced to the microcontroller to show popularity of the soil and water pump. The sensing arrangement is made with the aid of using  stiff metal rods inserted into the sector at a distance. Connections from the metal rods are interfaced to the manipulate unit. In the quick paced global humans require the whole lot to be automatic. Our existence style needs everything to be faraway controlled. Apart from few matters man has made his life automatic. In the sector of develop electronics, life of humans have to be simpler. Hence to make life easier and convenient, we have made “AUTOMATIC IRRIGATION SYSTEM”. A model of controlling irrigation facilities to assist tens of millions of people. This model makes use of sensing arrangement generation with microcontroller to make a clever switching tool. The non-stop increasing demand of meals requires the fast development in food production generation. In a country like India, in which the financial system is mainly based totally on agriculture and the climatic conditions are isotropic, still we aren’t capable of make full use of agricultural resources. The fundamental purpose is the dearth of rains & shortage of land reservoir water. Irrigation has constantly been an historic practice which has advanced through so many stages over the years. Our ancestral farmers in a bid to irrigate their farm looked for numerous methodologies. Manual irrigation the use of buckets and watering cans, flood irrigation, drip irrigation, sprinkler irrigation have been and are nevertheless being used today. The current system has numerous boundaries; leaching off of soil nutrients, erosion because of flooding, loss of water from plant surfaces via evaporation, water wastage that may result to water shortage in drought regions and manufacturing of dangerous crops. This hassle may be rectified if we use microcontroller based automatic irrigation machine wherein the irrigation will take area most effective whilst there might be acute requirement of water. Automation of irrigation gadget refers back to the operation of the machine with out a or minimum guide interventions. Irrigation automation is justified in which a large irrigated area is divided into Small segments known as irrigation blocks and segments are irrigated in collection to fit the release to be had from the water supply. In this regard, the works that we’ve got surveyed describe the unique forms of computerized irrigation techniques, how they in reality have served the purpose and the primary difference among our venture and those literatures that we’ve contemplated. On this detail, the prevailing works “Applied engineering in agriculture, “Data acquisition gadget and irrigation controller  and “Automation in Micro-Irrigation, employs subsurface drip irrigation the use of  drip tapes and are time based structures wherein irrigation time clock controllers, or timers, are an fundamental part of an automated irrigation machine. A timer is an important device to use water inside the necessary quantity at the proper time. Timers can lead to below or over-irrigation if they’re not efficaciously programmed or the water quantity is calculated incorrectly. Time of operation is calculated in line with volume of water required and the common waft charge of water a timer starts offevolved and stops the irrigation system. It routinely schedules irrigation at random events via the usage of timers in which within the automation for the device and presentations have been not applied. The papers titled ” Feedback Control for Surface Irrigation Management  and “Control and Automation in Citrus Micro-irrigation Systems, employs open loop structures in which the operator makes the decision on the quantity of water to be applied and the timing of the irrigation event. The controller is programmed correspondingly and the water is implemented consistent with the favored schedule. Open loop manipulate systems use both the irrigation duration or a particular implemented extent for control purposes. Open loop controllers normally include a clock this is used to begin irrigation. Termination of the irrigation can be primarily based on a pre-set time or can be based on a designated quantity of water passing thru a drift meter. In an open loop system, the operator makes the choice on the amount of water a good way to be applied and while the irrigation occasion will occur. This records is programmed into the controller and the water is applied according to the desired time table. Open loop manipulate systems use either the irrigation length or a special applied volume for control purposes. The disadvantage of open loop structures is their inability to reply routinely to converting situations in the environment. In addition, they will require frequent resetting to obtain high degrees of irrigation performance.

Figure1: The block diagram of the Automatic Irrigation System

 Figure 1 shows The block diagram of the automatic irrigation system consists of the following components . Step down transformer converts 230V from AC mains into 12V AC by using a centre tap transformer. Transformer selection is based on the fact that regulator ICs require around 11v as input considering dropout voltage, in order to obtain 12v power supply. Transformer steps down ac voltage from 230v ac to 12v ac. It is then given to bridge rectifier. Bridge rectifier converts ac voltage into pulsating dc. It is then given to regulator ICs which output constant dc voltage.

3.Project Scope

Figure 1 work break down structure

 Figure 1 shows the work break down structure for our prototype.

The papers titled, ” Drip irrigation scheduling of tomato and “Design of a Micro-Irrigation System Based on the Control Volume Method, employ volume based systems. The pre-set amount of water can be applied in the field segments by using automatic volume controlled metering valves. It’s depicted that the volume control systems are more advantageous than time control systems. The amount of water these systems supply is fixed irrespective of continuous electricity availability but still time controlled systems are more popular as they are less expensive. Here volume meters are connected, which emits a pulse after delivering a specific amount of water and the controller measures these pulses to keep a check on the supply. The papers titled, “Irrigation and water use efficiency, “Presentation of an Irrigation Management Model for a Multi-cropping and Pattern Setting and “Productivity of irrigation technologies, present a spreadsheet model, that not only provides water budgeting and forecasting.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

A multi-plot fields, however additionally optimizes the acreage of every plot making sure that each one the vegetation can be irrigated day by day to fulfill contemporary demands using all the available water and time at some stage in an extended simulation and the prioritization of plots to be irrigated based on uncooked deficit and net revenue. The papers titled,” Pressurised Irrigation structures and Innovative adaptions and “Analysis of application uniformity and stress variation of microtube emitter of trickle irrigation machine describe and signify the different pressurised irrigation technology and behavior comparative analysis in their productiveness, application uniformity and strain versions of microtube emitters used in trickle irrigation structures. The proposed machine is hired the usage of microcontroller. In this regard, the books, “The 8051 micro controller”, “Design with micro controllers , “Hand-Book of micro controllers “Embedded micro controller systems and “The 8051 micro controller, give an outline of the 8051 microcontroller. They have even helped us to advantage valuable programming understanding and practical examples of commands given illustrate how those commands function. Complex hardware and software program software examples are also provided. On this element, the ebook,” Introduction to LCD programming tutorial gives a top level view of the LCD and briefs out the LCD programming strategies. The e-book, “Electronic instrumentation  briefs out the description of the various components required to layout the proposed machine. Our challenge offers with an underground irrigation machine. The predominant drawback of water evaporation taking place at the floor stage irrigation which become discussed above is conquer by means of this approach. In this method numerous sensing arrangements are positioned in the floor stage to determine the moisture percent in the soil. This will optimize the water consumption similarly and will make maximum use of all agricultural aid. The gift proposal is a version to modernize the agriculture industries on a small scale with most useful expenditure. Using this machine, you’ll be able to store manpower, water to improve production and in the end earnings.


I am going to work on dc motors programming with Arduino and its working

I am going to work on Bluetooth module .

I am going to work on microcontroller.

I am working on mathematical analysis for dc motors and tolerance analysis for dc motors.

I am working on programming and studying about the working of microcontroller.

Fitting of Wires to dc motors and Arduino and battery fitting.


4. Project Methodology and Requirements

This project on “Automatic Irrigation System” is intended to create an automated irrigation mechanism which turns the pumping motor ON and OFF on detecting the dampness content of the earth. In the domain of farming, utilization of appropriate means of irrigation is significant. The continuous extraction of water from earth is reducing the water level due to which lot of land is coming slowly in the zones of un-irrigated land. The benefit of employing this technique is to decrease human interference and still make certain appropriate irrigation. The circuit comprises of sensing arrangement parts built using op-amp IC LM358. Op-amps are configured here as a comparator. Two stiff copper wires are inserted in the soil to sense whether the soil is wet or dry. The Microcontroller is used to control the whole system by monitoring the sensing arrangement and when sensing arrangement senses the dry condition then the microcontroller will send command to relay driver IC the contacts of which are used to switch on the motor and it will switch off the motor, if the sensing arrangement senses the soil to be wet. The microcontroller does the above job as it receives the signal from the sensing arrangement through the output of the comparator, and these signals operate under the control of software which is stored in the Microcontroller. The condition of the pump i.e., ON/OFF is displayed on a 16X2 LCD. The power supply consists of a step down transformer, which steps down the voltage to 12V AC. This is converted to DC using a Bridge rectifier. The ripples are removed using a capacitive filter and it is then regulated to +5V using a voltage regulator which is required for the operation of the microcontroller and other components. The figure below shows the block diagram of Microcontroller based irrigation system that proves to be a real time feedback control system which monitors and controls all the activities of the irrigation system efficiently.


AT89S52 is an 8-bit microcontroller and belongs to Atmel’s 8051 family. AT89S52 has 8KB of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM) and 256 bytes of RAM. AT89S52 has an endurance of 1000 Write/Erase cycles which means that it can be erased and programmed to a maximum of 1000 times.

Figure 2 Microcontroller

Bridge Rectifier

Bridge Rectifier converts ac voltage into dc voltage. 4 diodes are connected in bridge. Its input is from transformer and output is given to the voltage regulator IC’s. 3.4 Comparator Soil sensing arrangement is used to measure the volumetric water content of soil. It consists of two prongs, which must be inserted in the soil, an LM358, which acts as a comparator and a pot to change the sensitivity of the sensing arrangement.

Submersible Pump

A pump is a tool used to move fluids, which include beverages, gases or slurries. A pump displaces a quantity by using physical or mechanical action, this pump requires 12V DC of electricity supply. A submersible pump (or electric submersible pump (ESP)) is a device which has a hermetically sealed motor near-coupled to the pump frame. The entire meeting is submerged within the fluid to be pumped. The primary advantage of this sort of pump is that it prevents pump cavitation’s, a trouble related to a high elevation distinction among pump and the fluid surface. Submersible pumps push fluid to the floor in preference to jet pumps having to tug fluids. Submersibles are extra green than jet pumps.

Figure 3 Submersible pump

Voltage Regulator

The LM7805 is a three-terminal positive regulator that is available in the TO-220/D-PAK package and with 5V as fixed output voltage. It employs internal current limiting, thermal shutdown and safe operating area protection, making it essentially indestructible. If adequate heat sinking is provided, it can deliver over 1A output Current. Although designed primarily as fixed voltage regulators, these devices can be used with external components to obtain adjustable voltages and currents.

Figure 4 Voltage Regulator


LEDs are semiconductor gadgets which might be created from silicon. When cutting-edge passes thru the LED, it emits photons as a by-product. Normal mild bulbs produce mild by means of heating a steel filament till its white warm. LEDs own many advantages over conventional mild resources which include decrease strength consumption, longer lifetime, improved robustness, smaller length and quicker switching.

Figure 5 LED Lights


A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat panel display, electronic visual display, or video display that uses the light modulating properties of liquid crystals. Liquid crystals do not emit light directly. LCDs are available to display arbitrary images, such as present words, digits, and 7-segment displays as in a digital clock.

Figure 6 LCD Display

Relay Switch

A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism mechanically, but other operating principles are also used. Relays were used extensively in telephone exchanges and early computers to perform logical operation.

Figure 7 Relay Switch

  Hardware Requirements

Micro controller unit (AT89S52)

Sensing arrangement

Voltage Regulator

LCD display

Software Requirement

Programming for Arduino

MP lab


The soil moisture sensors that are not anything but copper strands are inserted within the soil. The soil sensing association measures the conductivity of the soil. Wet soil can be extra conductive than dry soil. The soil sensing arrangement module has a comparator in it. The voltage from the prongs and the predefined voltage are compared and the output of the comparator is high only when the soil situation is dry. This output from the soil sensing arrangement is given to the analogue input pin of the microcontroller. The microcontroller

5.Project Plan and Schedule

Figure 8 Gantt Chart

Figure 7  shows the gantt chart for the prototype.

Figure 9 Activity Sheet

Figure 8 shows the activity sheet for the prototype.

Mechanism of the system begins with switching on of the energy supply followed via resetting the microcontroller then the copper wires (which act as sensing arrangement) which will be linked to comparator will sense the dampness of the soil. The output of the comparator will control the operation of the device. If the output of the comparator is good judgment low then the motor might be grew to become on and the repute of the motor as on and that of the soil as dry might be displayed on the 1st and second line of the LCD respectively. Else if the output of the comparator is logic high then the motor may be turned off and the repute of the motor as off and that of the soil as moist might be displayed at the 1st and 2nd line of the LCD respectively.

When the soil is dry, the soil resistance between the high quality supply and the non-inverting enter is excessive resulting in high quality supply to the non-inverting enter much less than the inverting input making comparator output as logic low. This command is given to microcontroller. In this condition the microcontroller outputs logic high that switches on a relay riding transistor because of which the relay is switched on and the pump motor is in ON circumstance. Thus water go with the flow is began

Then, at the same time as the soil is going sufficiently moist, the soil resistance decreases making available a voltage to the non-inverting input higher than inverting enter, so that the output of comparator is good judgment excessive which is fed to microcontroller. In this circumstance microcontroller outputs good judgment low to a transistor which conducts by making the relay OFF and the pump motor stops The machine gives numerous blessings and it can perform with less manpower. The machine materials water best while the humidity within the soil goes beneath the reference. Due to the direct transfer of water to the roots water conservation takes vicinity and additionally enables to preserve the moisture to soil ratio at the foundation region regular to some extent. Thus the system is green and well matched to converting surroundings. The concept in destiny can be superior by way of adopting DTMF technology. This assignment is basically depending on the output of the sensing association. Whenever there’s need of excess water in the desired field then it’ll now not be possible by means of the use of sensing association generation.

For this we will need to undertake the DTMF generation. By the use of this we are able to be capable of irrigate the desired discipline in preferred amount.

Below the individual objectives are explained

1        DC MOTORS

Figure 10 DC Motor

A machine that converts dc power into mechanical energy is known as dc motor. Its operation is based on the principle that when a current carrying conductor is placed in a magnetic field, the conductor experiences a mechanical force. The direction of the force is given by Fleming’s left hand rule.




Figure 11 Mathematical Analytics (AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland, 2007)

Figure 4 shows the mathematical analysis for dc motors working with this analysis we can achieve how much weight it can bear and how much electricity is needed.

Bluetooth module

Figure 12 Bluetooth module

Fig 11 shows the Bluetooth module which is used for the movement of prototype. I am going to the programming for the Bluetooth module and I will study about the working programming.



Figure 13 Microcontroller

AT89S52 is an 8-bit microcontroller and belongs to Atmel’s 8051 family. AT89S52 has 8KB of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM) and 256 bytes of RAM. AT89S52 has an endurance of 1000 Write/Erase cycles which means that it can be erased and programmed to a maximum of 1000 times.


AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland. (2007). Mathematical Model of DC Motor for Analysis of Commutation Processes. Retrieved from Gł file:


Development of Automatic Wheelchair


The automatic wheel chair for disable person is automatically controllable wheelchair will be designed to have help themselves with assistance of the operator’scommand with its accessibility. This will be going to reduce the physically challenged person’s effort & force to operate the reer wheel of the wheel chair as sated that this is a wheel chair which is automatic one. Furthermore, it conjointly provides a chance for physically or mentallydisable persons to manoeuvre from a place to a different place with an ease of human comfort. The chair is additionally supplied with obstacle detection system which is ultrasonic sensor that will reduce the prospect of crash whereas on the voyage or in the house or we can say whatsoever obstacle will come suddenly in between the path of the wheelchair. Sensible chair has gained various interests within the recent times as compared to the ancient years. These devices square measure helpful particularly in transportation or we can say easily commutable from one place to a different place. The machines may be utilized in prime of life homes everywhere the maturity persons have problem in their movements or he/she cannot make his/her movement on his/her own. So, this wheelchair would be very fruitful to the person who is challenged physically. This wheelchair serve as a bonus for those that have lost their quality, no matter with hands, legs or get paralysed. Differ kinds of sensible chair were developed within the ancient time however the latest generations of wheelchairs square measure being developed and used that opting the employment of latest technology and hence leaves a bit to tinker on the point of the user UN agency uses the wheel chair. The project conjointly aims to create a best and an analogous wheel chair which might have a form of intelligence and thence helps the user iion his/her movement.

Differently disabled individuals face several hardships in life, having to be hooked in to a 3rd person to manoeuvre from place to put. The electric chair is an implementation and experimental platform of a cheap intelligent chair for the disabled. To produce them with a helping hand, several researchers are drudging aimed at an extended time. The discovery of automatic wheel chair could be a nice boon to them, however these kind of things limitsits motion. This development of automatic wheelchair suppose to providing them with eco-friendly and value real answer within options of an electrical Wheel Chair. (Rohit Singh, 2013) (MIT intelligent wheelchair project, 2010) (study on smart wheelchair system)

The automatic wheel chair for physically disable folks is characteristically categorized into 2 categories: – 

1. The front wheel supercharged chair: it’s an influence chair for indoor functions. This can be a four wheel drive chair and is most versatile among the ton.

2. The reer wheel supercharged chair: it’s an influence chair expedited for outdoors. Being rear wheeled, this sort of chair are applicable for rugged roads.

2. Introduction

2.1 Historical Background of the Wheelchair

Wheel chairs contain evolved very little over the past thousand years. Most of the hardware design changes have implemented within recent decades as shown in the below presented outline of wheelchair history in the world. From 6th Century A.D., Earliest recording of a wheelchair; a Chinese engraved picturing a man in a such kind of chair with 3 wheels, In 16th Century A.D., Wheelchairs were well-developed in Europe and nearby countries and commonly found in drawings, posters and literature of the ancient people. In the time of American Civil War, the 1st look of wheelchairs in the USA. The chairs were of too heavy weight, big and bulky wooden construction with two big drive wheels and two small caster wheels. However, in 1869 The first wheelchair model was issued in the United States. and in 1903, An EWC(electric wheelchair)  operating on a 12-volt lead battery and a 3/8 hp (horsepower) motor was used to give handicapped people rides. At that time it was not used for handicapped mobility or physically disable person but it did pave the way for prospect developments.

however in 1909, Compact wheelchairs were developed using metal tubing instead of the traditional bulky wood components. World War I – The first electric wheelchairs were used for the physically paralysed people. A battery and motor were applied to existing wheelchairs with a simple one-speed on/off switch.

1937 – The patent for a wheelchair with a folding X-brace frame was issued to two engineers named Everest and Jennings. Though previous chairs had been foldable top-to-bottom, the side-to-side folding position of the cross frame allowed the drive wheels to remain in place. This basic concept is still the standard for manual wheelchairs today. while in 1940, The first patent was issued for an electric wheelchair abd also in 1950, researcher Sam Duke received a patent for a releasable add-on power drive applied to a manual wheelchair (the unit was actually permanently fitted to the chair with Ubolts).

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

1960’s – Folding wheelchairs were commonly fitted with electric drives. The drive units were still very heavy and quite difficult to put on and take off. At that point both joystick and steering column mechanisms were available. In 1970’s, Wheelchair frames made of aircraft quality aluminum were introduced to the market and started a revolution of ultralight wheelchairs. The technology has aided in the reduction of the overall weight of many types of wheelchairs. however, 1980’s – Most electric wheelchairs on the market were still bulky, heavy, and required a special vehicle for transportation. The power components of the chair were integrated into the frame which has been strengthened to support them. in 1990’s – The popular electric wheelchairs on the market are foldable though they require removal of at least the leg rests and batteries. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and a growing awareness for the rights of the disabled have greatly improved research and design efforts in the assistive technology industry. Interest has also increased in this area due to the current trend toward the “graying of America” as the average age of Americans increases. (History of Wheelchairs and Power Add-On Units)

Figure 1 Depiction of Confucius in a wheelchair, year 1680 (brusco, 2015)

Figure 2 The wheelBath chair, year 1881 (brusco, 2015)

Figure 3 King Philip II’s wheelchair, year 1655 (brusco, 2015)

Figure 4 Farfler’s wheelchair year 1783 (brusco, 2015)


Wheelchair framework is 1 of the normal vehicles utilized by physical mobility or wiped out ones are restricted in its capabilities, for e.g., it needs human power to move the chair. It is moreover can’t be use for a important lot as the client drained in moving the seat utilizing their very own energy. On that point, the other problem is the presence wheel seat is additionally not so much affable as the shape and its position like as can’t be fixing to the client’s body in getting settled seat. This undertaking worried about the ergonomic feature which is the noteworthy component of human aspect building and thought of wheelchair formation are proposed after generally speaking the standards is fitting with this factor. In this responsibility, the need necessity is to assess the human factor building of the current wheel seat. The ergonomic essential to suitable in the study of structuring articles to be better adjusted to the state of the human body or to address the client’s stance. Wheelchair configuration could be keeping the client from sitting in places that may detrimentally affect the spine. The ergonomic good-looking assembly of wheelchair which offers a fitting variable highlights and dissimilar components which can be changed by the client that need turn out with many plans and evaluate it as indicated by man factor designing and material determination. Before update it, expert need lead a market review to collect fundamental statistics to be integrate into the item.


A few investigations have demonstrated that the two kids and grown-ups advantage significantly from access to a methods for free portability, including power wheelchairs, manual wheelchairs, bikes, and walkers. Autonomous versatility increments professional and instructive chances, lessens reliance on parental figures and relatives, and advances sentiments of confidence. For little youngsters, free versatility fills in as the establishment for much early learning [1]. Non mobile youngsters need access to the abundance of upgrades managed self-ambulating kids. This absence of investigation and control regularly creates a cycle of hardship and decreased inspiration that prompts learned defenselessness. For grown-ups, free versatility is an important aspect of confidence and assumes a urgent job in “maturing in place.” For instance, if more seasoned individuals discover it increasingly difficult to walk or wheel themselves to the commode, they may do so less regularly or they may drink less liquid to reduce the recurrence of pee. On the off chance that they become unable to walk or wheel themselves to the chest and help is not routinely accessible in the home when required, a move to an all the more empowering condition (e.g., helped living) perhaps fundamental. Versatility restrictions are the main source of functional impediments among grown-ups, with an estimated prevalence of 40 for each 1,000 people age 18 to 44 and 188per 1,000 at age 85 and more established. Versatility troubles are also solid indicators of exercises of day by day living (ADL) and instrumental ADL inabilities in view of the need to move to achieve a considerable lot of these exercises. In addition, impaired portability frequently brings about diminished opportunities to mingle, which prompts social detachment, uneasiness, and depression. For instance, 31 percent of people with major mobility troubles detailed being much of the time discouraged or anxious, contrasted and just 4 percent of people without mobility challenges. (simpson, 2005)

A wheelchair is a wheeled portability gadget wherein the client sits. The gadget is impelled either physically (by turning the wheels by the hand) or by means of different computerized frameworks, Wheelchairs are utilized by individuals for whom strolling is troublesome or incomprehensible because of disease (physiological or physical), damage, or inability, Users can discover uniquely crafted high caliber ultra-light elite wheelchairs just as adornments that empower them to individualize their look and style. The principal wheelchair was concocted, required help to push, the twentieth century saw a quick advancement in wheelchairs, from the main mechanized wheelchair, to the principal collapsing wheelchair, to lightweight and sports wheelchairs. Inquires about in the territory of wheelchair control framework are as yet going on. Numerous individuals with incapacities don’t have the aptitude fundamental to control a joystick on an electrical wheelchair. This can be an incredible downside for the client who is for all time unfit to move any of the arms or legs. They can utilize their wheelchair simpler just utilizing voice directions. In the proposed plan, the primary thought of utilizing voice actuated innovation for controlling the movement of the wheelchair is to demonstrate that it very well may be a selective answer for seriously incapacitated. (developed wheelchair, 2016)

Application and scope:

Automatic smart wheel chair has extensive range of scope and applications is as follows:

      Physically disableperson physically challenged people can use it as per their purposes, as they require the wheelchair ideally.

      One disable people who is able to move his head can go for accelerometer ADXL335 section; one disable people who is able to use his hand can go with joystick, no matter he is able to move his right or left hand, we can shift the position of the of the joystick and the position switches on the armrest. Furthermore, in case one able to move his legs only, he can go with the footrest section.

      Old people in the old age homes or various NGO’s, children and old age home people can also use this smart wheel chair as per their requirement.

      Patients suffering in hospital from firm paralysis can use accelerometer ASDXL335 function by moving of their head when wearing that particular accelerometer helmet as per requirement.


Hardware requirements for development of wheelchair


After taking input and process the input at the speed of 12MIPS (Million instructions per Second) method selects the corresponding motor driver and sends the signal that then drives the desired half. There ar electric motor for the movement of the good wheel chair. The output of the motor driver is fed to the relay switch, the output of relay switches ar connected to motors. The minimum needed current for the motor is one.6 amps at seventy rate, most at four amps to run it at 106 rate (without load). They really modification the electrical signals of the microcontroller into the motility motion and supply desired practicality. (Rohit Singh, 2013)

Motor Drivers (L293d)

Motor Drivers amplifies the output to the microcontroller such it will drive the several actuators. L293D IC is employed for the shift the relay driver

1. H-bridge motor driver integrated circuit (IC).

2. Motor drivers act as current amplifiers.

3. L293D has output current of 600mA and peak output current of 1.2A per channel.

4. The output supply (VCC2) has a wide range from 4.5V to 36V.. (Rohit Singh, 2013)

Figure 5 L293D Motor Driver Board (l293d motor driver board)


Joystick module

Analog joystick has 2 variable resistors for 2 axes. Every rheostat has 3 pins; 2 extreme pins ar connected to Vcc (5v in our case) and ground. The middle pin is that the output pin. The output voltage is between Vcc and GND betting on the position of stick. By activity the voltage output of 2 variable resister from that the joystick is constructed, we are able to verify the position of stick in x and y axis. (Rohit Singh, 2013)



Figure 6 joystick (san sam joystick module)


Figure 7 picture of buzzer


The ADXL335 could be a tiny, less command, 3-axis completion measuring instrument bysignaccustomedoutput voltage. Merchandise readsspeeding up with least all-out vary of ±3 g. This will live stationaryacceleration of gravity (g)intotilt-control sensingfeatures, similarly by way of dynamic acceleration ensuing as of vibration, motion and shock.

1. 3 Axis Sensing.

2. Small, Low, Profile Package.

3. Low Power: 350uA.

4. Single supply Operation: 1.8 to 3.6V. 5. 10,000 g shock survival. (R.S.NIPANIKAR, 2013) (Rohit Singh, 2013)

Figure 8 Accelerometer ADXL335 (ADXL335 Triple Axis Accelerometer Breakout )

Position Switches

These switches ar connected at chair, to modify the input management unit as Joystick if the joystick can fail, it is make a copy management for the driving force. (Rohit Singh, 2013)

Figure 9 position rocker switches (spdt-3 position rectangular switches)


We will use the Arduino UNO microcontroller, it’s the most process and process a part of the good Wheel Chair that takes input from the detector, processes it and provides output. It operates at high frequency of 12 megahertz and acts as control center for the machine. (Rohit Singh, 2013)

Figure 10arduino UNO (ARDUINO UNO BOARD)

Ultrasonic ranging Module:-

It is used to sense the obstacle. Its use to halt the wheel chair from any kind of danger or hit off. We have set its obstacle sensing level upto 45cm. as and when it sense obstacle it will cut the circuit at a sudden of the whole wheelchair and the buzzer will start beeping for 3seconds. (Rohit Singh, 2013)

Figure 11 Ultrasonic Ranging Module (ultrasonic distance sensor module)

Motor: Motor receives power from your Motor driver IC. This power is utilized to do physical works, for example move the Wheel chair. DC motor orientation, speed and operation can be controlled with microcontroller. We can start it, stop it or make it go either in clockwise or anti clock wise direction. The speed of the Motor is controlled by the help of PWM (pulse width modulation).

Figure 12viper motor used in our prototype

Bluetooth module

Figure 13 bluetooth module hc05


Battery to power the prototype

Figure 14 12V 7.0 AH sealed lead-acid rechargeablebattery used in our prototype

Figure 15 caster wheeels used for front wheels

Project design

Figure 16 making wooden seat for the wheelchair

Figure 17 painting the wheelchair

Figure 18 control unit of the wheelchair

Figure 19 Accelerometer for the head control

Figure 20 push switch buttons on the Armrest

Figure 21 joystick module for the Armrest


Wheelchair motion: the wheelchair performs two kinds of movements: straight and pure rotational movements. These two movements executed at a given speed allow to accomplish the tasks we proposed to do. The wheelchair position relies on dead reckoning from wheels encoder readings. Wheelchair displacement and heading angle are obtained from the well known kinematics equations given in [1]. Nevertheless these equations give an accurate method to calculate the position; it is well known in practice that mobile robotics deal with very poor dead-reckoning. Problems such as wheel slippage and variable surface characteristics contribute to a poor dead-reckoning. A researcher said about wheelchairs: “Even in straight travel, variations in wheel diameter due to load shifts cause angular accuracy to be an order of magnitude worse than in most mobile robots”. This statement has indeed been confirmed.


      To design and to fabricate an automatic wheel chair for all kind of physical disabilities.

      To define mechanical properties, control system and mechatronics properties of the automatic wheelchair.

      To integrate appropriate sensor and actuators ad use contemporary software on the automatic wheelchair.

Individual objectives

      To develop the program of joystick and position switches to control the armrest gears.

      To design and fabricate the armrest controls of the developed prototype of automatic wheelchair.

      To analyse and determine the external and internal forces on the wheels, axial shear, moments and bending stress, modulus and strain and failure involve in the framing of the automatic wheelchair and also identify stress concentration areas.


Whenever we will give command to the individual function it will give command to the control panel of the wheelchair and the Arduino uno will take the command successfully and after all of that individual functioning the wheelchair will tends to react as driver wants to move. And when so ever the obstacle will in front of the wheelchair it will suddenly cut the circuit off and close the whole circuit of the wheel chair and the buzzer from the control panel will start for 3.5seconds. and we also have a switch in the control panel that if we want ultrasonic sensor in use or not. If we don’t want, them even we can also turn the switch off of the ultrasonic sensor but then it will not going to sense any obstacle.



Analyse the Tractive forces

Figure 22 Tractive Force on Wheel (Babu, 2015)

Drive wheel motor torque:  We assumed the model criteria as shown in Table 1.

The RF is resistance factor that accounts frictional losses between the axel of the viper motor and driven wheels. Standard values are between 1.1 and 1.15. There are many factors that affected on calculation of maximum torque such as the following.

1)      Rolling Resistance (RR): rolling resistance is based on vehicle weight and rolling resistance factor during motion of the vehicle as in Equation 1.
– Equation 1

Grade resistance (GR): Grade resistance is based on gravitational force that used to drag the vehicle back when it is scaling an oblique surface as in Equation 2.
  – Equation 2.

2)      Acceleration force (FA): Acceleration force is based on needed force to stop the maximum speed in the required time as in Equation 3.
FA=GWW×Vmax ÷g (ta)
– Equation 3.

3)      Total tractive effort (TTE): total tractive force is based on three forces RR, GR, and FA as in Equation 4.
– Eqaution 4.

4)      Wheel motor torque (Tw): wheel motor torque is based on the TTE as in Equation 5.
– equation 5.

Wheel motor torque

Tw = TTE * Rw * RF


TTE = Total tractive effort

Rw = Radius of wheel (rear)

RF = Resistance factor


Solving for TTE


Where :

RR = Rolling resistance

GR =  grade resistance

FA = acceleration force

Solving for RR :

RR = GWW * Crr

Where :

GWW = gross vehicle weight

Crr = surface friction as shown in table 2.


RR = GWW * Crr

 = 30Kg (0.020)

Solving for GR :

Solution :

is inclined lane angle

= 30kg [sin (20)]

GR = 10.26

Solving for FA :
FA=GWW×Vmax ÷g (ta)

Where :

 Vmax – maximum desired velocity

G – gravity =

ta = desired acceleration

solution :


Solving for TTE :

TTE  – RR + GR + FA

 = 0.6Kg + 10.26Kg + 5.11kg
TTE=15.97kG ≈16KG

Solving for Tw

TW =
16Kg ×0.075m ×1.3
Tw=1.56kgfm9.8N.M.1Kgf= 15.29Nm

Table1. Vehicle design criteria



gross wheelchair weight (GWW)


weight on each drive wheel


radius of rear tire


radius of front tire


desired top speed

6Km÷hr1000m÷1km1hr÷3600s= 1.67m/s

Desired acceleration


Maximum inclined angle


Worst working surface


Resistance factor



Table 2. Rolling resistance factors. (Mai S. Mabrouk, 2017)

Contact surface




Asphalt (good/fair/poor)


Wood (dry/dusty/wet)


Snow 2inch/4inch)


Dirt (smoothy/sandy)


Mud (firm/medium/soft)



Table 3. Technical specification of our wheelchair.



Seat width


Neat depth


Armrest height


Seat height


Back height


Overall open width













Block diagram of the project















Block diagram of my part










Flow chart for the joystick and the position switches




























Figure 23 network diagram of the control unit


Wheel Chair Running Time Calculation

Power of viper motor = 50 watts

We know, P = V x I

Where, P = Power in Watts, V= Voltage in V And I = Current in Amp

V = 12 V DC

I = 4.2 Amp

Battery Capacity = 7.0 Amp-hour

Run time in hours =50/4.2 = 11.9hours or 5.32x 6km/hr= 71.4km

Motor Selection

On the basis of Torque, T= 33 N-m, a DC motor with worm gear has been selected [10]. Because     worm drives are a compact means of substantially decreasing speed and increasing torque. The detail of DC motor is as follows;

PMDC 24 V, 180 W, 60 rpm, 9.4 Amp, 36 N-m, worm geared motor

Driven wheel Speed, Ns = 50 RPM

Driver Speed, Np = 60 rpm

Constraint: Center distance is approximately 356 mm adjusted by motor axle movement.



Figure 24 line graph of distance v/s time

In the figure 24, the relation of distance v/s time is shown. And in this graph it is shown that the data is gathered to determine the speed with respect to time.

Figure 25 line graph of speed v/s time

In the figure 25, in this graph the relation of speed v/s time is shown, and by this graph we can see that speed remains somehow constant when the time is increasing, so we can say that the acc The market potential and fast propels in biomechanics, prominent advancement is being made in wheelchairs. The Electric Powered Wheelchair (EPW) assessment depends on the quality, wellbeing, and cost adequacy of wheelchairs. Effective EPW model with an ease is displayed. Our EPW model is recognized from most other comparative EPW in its endeavors to utilize down to earth parts for limiting support worries through straightforwardness and strength. By and large, this model comprises of programming and equipment interface parts. The usage of RE innovation permitted reusing past information for structure creation model. It encourages examination of the model that dependent on chronicled item information and produces viable improvements during item get together techniques. For instance, General Motors Company have vehicles appraisal focus that dismembered and dissected 40 of adversaries’ vehicles consistently by utilizing a “teardown” procedure to figure out how much every segment costs for delivering, how to accomplish lower expenses, and how to advance industrialization process. By utilizing RE innovation, commercial center patterns and intensity can likewise be characterized. This innovation reached out to item teardowns of mechanical and gadgets as appeared in our model.

For equipment parts, the center of this model is the Arduino uno microcontroller which is equipped for the interface for all the equipment parts. A microcontroller is constrained by DC engines for transmission every which way or to stop by utilizing a joystick module. All correspondence and controls in this model went through this microcontroller successfully. An ongoing advancement by me and my colleagues controlled our Electric Powered Wheelchair (EPW) was actualized utilizing the Bluetooth device(HC05). Bluetooth gadget is utilized for remote control of the electric wheelchair and empowers it to fill in as an independent gadget. We have utilized ultrasonic sensor that stable at a known separation. Speed of the item is evaluated by isolated the separation between the sensor when distinction of the article. The ultrasonic sensor is intended for simple utilization and a lot less expensive with remarkable execution, particularly in a mechanized gadget. At long last, incapacitated patients are tested for working the EPW in various conditions. Subsequently, our EPW planned in this model is a fruitful electronic gadget that accommodated a wide range of physically incapacitated patients the capacity to recuperate some portion of their versatility and facilitate the lives of patients experiencing at least one handicaps. It is surely critical to keep on actualizing fitting biomechanical advances of EPW so as to improve the wellbeing and advantage of a patient with handicaps.eleration remains constant with time

Outcome of this project

Automatic wheelchairs will stay prolific ground for mechanical research for a long time to come. Keen wheelchairs are magnificent proving grounds for sensor look into, especially machine vision. Savvy wheelchairs likewise give a chance to contemplate human-robot association, versatile or shared control, and novel info techniques, for example, voice control, EOG, and eye-following. Besides, shrewd wheelchairs will keep on filling in as proving grounds for robot control models. While there has been a lot of exertion dedicated to the advancement of shrewd wheelchairs, meager consideration has been paid to assessing their presentation. Not many shrewd wheelchair scientists have included individuals with incapacities in their assessment exercises. Besides, no keen wheelchair has been exposed to a thorough, controlled assessment that includes expanded use in genuine settings. Leading client preliminaries with savvy wheelchairs is hard for a few reasons. Some wheelchair clients don’t demonstrate any prompt improvement in route aptitudes (estimated as far as normal speed and number of crashes) when utilizing a keen wheelchair on a shut course in a research center setting. This could be on the grounds that the keen wheelchair does not work great or the wheelchair client was at that point so capable that little improvement was conceivable. Clients who can possibly demonstrate enormous execution gains, then again, regularly have practically no involvement with autonomous portability and may require a lot of preparing before they are prepared to take part in legitimate client preliminaries. The essential snag to leading long haul concentrates is the restrictive equipment expenses related with building enough keen wheelchairs. Long haul studies are vital, be that as it may, in light of the fact that the genuine impacts of utilizing a brilliant wheelchair for an all-inclusive timeframe are obscure. A few agents (e.g., the call focus) have proposed their shrewd wheelchair to be utilized as a methods for building up the essential aptitudes to utilize standard wheelchairs securely and autonomously. Most examiners, be that as it may, expect their savvy wheelchair to be an individual’s lasting versatility arrangement or have not tended to the issue by any means. It is conceivable that utilizing a savvy wheelchair could really decrease a person’s capacity to utilize a standard wheelchair, as that individual comes to depend on the route help given by the brilliant wheelchair. At last, for certain clients (especially youngsters), savvy wheelchair innovation will be powerful “preparing wheels” that can be utilized to show the most fundamental portability aptitudes (e.g., circumstances and logical results, beginning and ceasing on order), and for different clients, keen wheelchairs will be changeless arrangements. The differentiation between utilizing a keen wheelchair as a versatility help, a preparation apparatus, or an assessment instrument is likewise deserving of study. Every one of these capacities is remarkable and requires altogether different conduct with respect to the savvy wheelchair. As a portability help, the brilliant’s wheelchair will likely enable the client to arrive at a goal as fast and serenely as could reasonably be expected. The client isn’t given input so as to maintain a strategic distance from diversions and to anticipate crashes. As a preparation device, then again, the objective is to create explicit aptitudes. For this situation, criticism is probably going to be altogether expanded and the degree to which the brilliant wheelchair consents to the client’s info will be an element of the real preparing action. At long last, as an assessment instrument, the keen’s wheelchair will probably record action without intercession. For this situation, the client would almost certainly have no input or route help. (Simpson, 2005)

Problems faced

First the project team try the aluminium and plastic base for project, but for those one is make more expansive.

We tried to make the frame of the wheel chair as light as we could have, but the problem we faced about the material with it needs to be made.

Direct soldering used on Arduino instead of breadboard connection to avoid the loose of wires.

For ultrasonic sensor cannot be fitted in single Arduino so two Arduino used for this system.

We need to make another circuit for the ultrasonic sensor only, because after so many trials that all of the multifunctions cannot connect in one single Arduino uno board.

Electrical soldering problem with the electrical connections as we have many connections in the control panel.



@ Mechanical:

•          Connecting link will be sprocket.

•          Linear best actuator to be installed with the trunnion base..

•          Lighter design and the balancing can be done to balance the wheels of the wheelchair.

@ Control:

•          Can integrate best components to get good results.

•          Fabrication of the frame can be with lighter material.

•          Output current, voltage and the power produce can be improved by using more efficient  battery and sources.

•          Manual operation option to be added in the system.

•          Led display can also be added to show the battery efficiency or the battery remaining power.

•          Weather and water proof protection for all electrical and electronics component.



The obstacle avoidance algorithms have been primarily based on infrared (IR) sensors measures (Fig. 5 shows sensor arrangement). Two benefits of IR sensors, when in contrast with sonars, are the absence of cross-talk and the accelerated pace of obstacle detection. However, they are very directional which skill they don’t “cover” massive areas as sonars do. The wheelchair’s control is carried out on a three stage behavior. First level: if none of the infrared sensors detects an obstacle, the end-user can power the wheelchair at any place he needs and with the desired speed; 2nd level: if at least one sensor detects an impediment we come in a half-security area (represented in Fig. 5) which means to minimize to a moderated speed; two 1/3 level: this corresponds to a binding state of affairs the place the pace ought to be very low.

We are implementing automatic wheelchair which has more than a few advantages. It is working in three exclusive modes i.e. joystick mode, accelerometer mode and voice cognizance mode. Also there two sorts of sensors which will increase accuracy of wheelchair. This Wheelchair will be low-priced and can low-priced to frequent people. We can additionally add new technological know-how in this wheelchair. A machine for reliable awareness of speech and face has been designed and developed. This device can be made surprisingly efficient and wonderful if stringent environmental conditions are maintained. The setup for retaining these environmental stipulations will be a onetime investment for any actual existence application. The walking value of this machine is tons decrease as compare to different structures used for the same purpose. Always goal of the wheel chair is to transport a physically challenged man or woman from one location to another independently or via attendee. Although the current motorized wheel chairs fulfill the requirements of bodily two challenged  character  however two they two have two first-rate  disadvantage  is two of  higher two cost.  The value  of two existing wheelchairs begins from NZD 1550.  The frequent people can’t have the funds for this excessive charge of wheelchair. Also all the times two all amenities are now not required such as hand two arm for putting related things (glass, notebook etc.)  small bag two for preserving papers, two pen via the user.

In this two condition the designed chair fulfill each the  purposes. It has low value. If the  designed chair is manufactured at mass level the manufacturing fee can also be reduced as noted earlier. It has safety belt for the security of the person. Further, the customers of electric powered wheelchairs make bigger their mobility, maneuverability and independence. On the different  hand it  desires attention  now not only two to simply two fulfill the requirements of the two bodily challenged humans however it should be upgraded over a duration of time to furnish comfort, safety, multi-purpose, economical, light in weight for physically challenged person.  In this paper a wirelessly controlled wheel chair is proposed with the assist of accelerometer, whose demo model is already designed for bodily handicapped human beings so that they can manage their chair themselves and the wireless Bluetooth application gives an more benefit if wheel chair is no longer with them then they can manipulate chair.


ADXL335 Triple Axis Accelerometer Breakout . (n.d.). Retrieved from

ARDUINO UNO BOARD. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Babu, D. V. (2015). steering system forces and moments. Retrieved from

brusco, s. (2015, 02 12). MedTech Memoirs: The Wheelchair. Retrieved from

developed wheelchair. (2016). Retrieved from DEVOLPOED WHEELCHAIR:

History of Wheelchairs and Power Add-On Units. (n.d.). Retrieved from

l293d motor driver board. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Mai S. Mabrouk, S. Y. (2017). Biomechanical analysis of electric powered wheelchair by reverse engineering.

MIT intelligent wheelchair project. (2010). Retrieved from

R.S.NIPANIKAR, V. G. (2013). Automatic wheelchair for physically disabled persons. (IJARECE).

Rohit Singh, R. R. (2013). smart wheel chair. kathmandu, nepal. Retrieved from

san sam joystick module. (n.d.). Retrieved from

Simpson, R. C. (2005). Richard C. Simpson. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 423-436.

simpson, r. c. (2005). smart wheelchairs: A literature review. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development. Retrieved from

smart wheelchair. (2014, may). Retrieved from

Smart Wheelchair For assisting disables. (n.d.). Retrieved from

spdt-3 position rectangular switches. (n.d.). Retrieved from

study on smart wheelchair system. (n.d.). Retrieved from

ultrasonic distance sensor module. (n.d.). Retrieved from


Coding of the joystick/push switch buttons and Bluetooth module



MPU6050 mpu6050(Wire);

//#define DEBUG

#define period 10000

#define X_MAX 0.70

#define X_MIN -0.60

#define Y_MAX 0.60

#define Y_MIN -0.60

#define joy1X A0

#define joy1Y A1

#define joy2X A2

#define joy2Y A3

#define M1RED 3

#define M1BLACK 4

#define M2RED 5

#define M2BLACK 6

int button=A2;

int buttonState = 0;

int buttonState1 = 0;

#define FORWARD ‘F’

#define BACKWARD ‘B’

#define LEFT ‘L’

#define RIGHT ‘R’

#define STOP ‘S’

#define forwardButton 8

#define backwardButton 9

#define leftButton 12

#define rightButton 13

void setup()


  pinMode(forwardButton, INPUT_PULLUP);

  pinMode(backwardButton, INPUT_PULLUP);

  pinMode(leftButton, INPUT_PULLUP);

  pinMode(rightButton, INPUT_PULLUP);


  Serial.println(“Initialize MPU6050”);




void loop()


    int action=getbutton();

    if(action ==0)



      if(action == 0 or action == ‘S’)


        action = getAccel();

        if(action == 0)



          if(action == 0)



            if(action == 0)




              Serial.print(“Joy Stick2:”);





            Serial.print(“Joy Stic1k:”);






















      case LEFT:



      case RIGHT:



      case FORWARD:



      case BACKWARD:



      case 0:





int getJoyStick1()


 int xValue = analogRead(joy1X);

 int yValue = analogRead(joy1Y);

 #ifdef DEBUG


  Serial.print(“ ”);



  if (xValue>=1000)


    return LEFT;


  else if (xValue

    return RIGHT;


  else if (yValue

    return BACKWARD;


  else if (yValue>=1000)


    return FORWARD;



  return 0;


int getJoyStick2()


 int xValue = analogRead(joy2X);

 int yValue = analogRead(joy2Y);

 #ifdef DEBUG


  Serial.print(“ ”);



  if (xValue>=1000)


    return LEFT;


  else if (xValue

    return RIGHT;


  else if (yValue

    return BACKWARD;


  else if (yValue>=1000)


    return FORWARD;



  return 0;


int getAccel()



  float x=mpu6050.getAccX();// normAccel.XAxis;

  float y=mpu6050.getAccY(); //normAccel.YAxis;

  #ifdef DEBUG

  Serial.print(“accX : “); Serial.print(x);

  Serial.print(“ accY : “); Serial.print(y);

  Serial.print(“ accZ : “); Serial.println(mpu6050.getAccZ());



  if(x > X_MAX)


    return RIGHT;


  else if(x

    return LEFT;


  else if(y> Y_MAX)


    return FORWARD;


  else if(y

    return BACKWARD;




    return 0;



void moveLeft()


  digitalWrite(M1RED, HIGH);

  digitalWrite(M1BLACK, LOW);

  digitalWrite(M2RED, LOW);

  digitalWrite(M2BLACK, HIGH);


void moveRight()


  digitalWrite(M2RED, HIGH);

  digitalWrite(M2BLACK, LOW);

  digitalWrite(M1RED, LOW);

  digitalWrite(M1BLACK, HIGH);


void moveForward()


  digitalWrite(M1RED, HIGH);

  digitalWrite(M1BLACK, LOW);

  digitalWrite(M2RED, HIGH);

  digitalWrite(M2BLACK, LOW);


void moveBackward()


  digitalWrite(M1RED, LOW);

  digitalWrite(M1BLACK, HIGH);

  digitalWrite(M2RED, LOW);

  digitalWrite(M2BLACK, HIGH);


void dontMove()


  digitalWrite(M1RED, LOW);

  digitalWrite(M1BLACK, LOW);

  digitalWrite(M2RED, LOW);

  digitalWrite(M2BLACK, LOW);


int getBluetoothByte()


  char ch=0;



   // Serial.println(ch);


  return ch;


int getbutton()


  if(digitalRead(forwardButton) == LOW)


    return FORWARD;


   else if(digitalRead(backwardButton) == LOW)


    return BACKWARD;


    else if(digitalRead(leftButton) == LOW)


    return LEFT;


    else if(digitalRead(rightButton) == LOW)


    return RIGHT;




    return 0;




Wheelchair Control vs. Sensors


The obstacle avoidance algorithms were based on

infrared (IR) sensors measures (Fig. 5 shows sensor

arrangement). Two advantages of IR sensors, when

compared with sonars, are the absence of cross-talk

and the increased speed of obstacle detection.

However, they are very directional which means they

don’t “cover” large areas as sonars do.

The wheelchair’s control is performed on a three

level behaviour. First level: if none of the infrared

sensors detects an obstacle, the end-user can drive the

wheelchair wherever he wants and with the desired

speed;  second level: if at least one sensor detects an

obstacle we come in a half-security zone (represented

in Fig. 5) which means to reduce to a moderated

speed;  third level: this corresponds to a binding

situation where the speed must be very low

Wheelchair Control vs. Sensors


The obstacle avoidance algorithms were based on

infrared (IR) sensors measures (Fig. 5 shows sensor

arrangement). Two advantages of IR sensors, when

compared with sonars, are the absence of cross-talk

and the increased speed of obstacle detection.

However, they are very directional which means they

don’t “cover” large areas as sonars do.

The wheelchair’s control is performed on a three

level behaviour. First level: if none of the infrared

sensors detects an obstacle, the end-user can drive the

wheelchair wherever he wants and with the desired

speed;  second level: if at least one sensor detects an

obstacle we come in a half-security zone (represented

in Fig. 5) which means to reduce to a moderated

speed;  third level: this corresponds to a binding

situation where the speed must be very low

Wheelchair Control vs. Sensors


The obstacle avoidance algorithms were based on

infrared (IR) sensors measures (Fig. 5 shows sensor

arrangement). Two advantages of IR sensors, when

compared with sonars, are the absence of cross-talk

and the increased speed of obstacle detection.

However, they are very directional which means they

don’t “cover” large areas as sonars do.

The wheelchair’s control is performed on a three

level behaviour. First level: if none of the infrared

sensors detects an obstacle, the end-user can drive the

wheelchair wherever he wants and with the desired

speed;  second level: if at least one sensor detects an

obstacle we come in a half-security zone (represented

in Fig. 5) which means to reduce to a moderated

speed;  third level: this corresponds to a binding

situation where the speed must be very low.

he obstacle avoidance algorithms were based on

infrared (IR) sensors measures (Fig. 5 shows sensor

arrangement). Two advantages of IR sensors, when

compared with sonars, are the absence of cross-talk

and the increased speed of obstacle detection.

However, they are very directional which means they

don’t “cover” large areas as sonars do.

The wheelchair’s control is performed on a three

level behaviour. First level: if none of the infrared

sensors detects an obstacle, the end-user can drive the

wheelchair wherever he wants and with the desired

speed;  second level: if at least one sensor detects an

obstacle we come in a half-security zone (represented

in Fig. 5) which means to reduce to a moderated

speed;  third level: this corresponds to a binding

situation where the speed must be v


Development of Automatic Wheelchair for all Physical Disabilities


The Development of an Automatic Wheelchair for all Physical Disability Types is a mechanical device designed and developed compatible with most physical disabilities that is self-mobile with the aid of the user’s command. This project will benefit the user especially the physically challenged who is suffering from paralysis by controlling the motion of the wheelchair with the elementary movement of their hand, feet, or head. The project is composed of four major control systems: the head gear control system, the armrest control system, the footrest control system, and the wireless control system. The headgear, which has a transmitter employing an accelerometer which is responsible for transmitting control signals to the motor driver following the movement of the head. This will be an advantage for the person who is paralyzed from the neck down. The armrest is set-upped with a joystick to control the motion and direction of the wheelchair. The armrest is also comprised of push-button switches which serve as a back-up control system if another control system may fail. This will be an advantage for the person who can only move his hand. The footrest is also integrated with joystick to control the movement and direction of the wheelchair using the foot. With the aid of an ultrasonic sensor placed in the footrest, the chance of for collision is eliminated. This will an advantage for the person who is paralyzed from the leg up. The wireless control system can be done by the use of a mobile application with Bluetooth connection to control the movement of the wheelchair.


Quadriplegia, also known as Tetraplegia, is defined as the “four-limb paralysis” and is caused by illness or accident, or injury that has resulted to the total or partial loss of ability to use the torso and limbs. The common cause of this is spinal cord injury. [1] Spinal Cord Injury or SCI primarily occurs amongst young to middle-aged people who obtained a traumatic injury, or non-traumatic medical condition that resulted in a disability that carries lifetime consequences. Each year in New Zealand, roughly 80–130 people are diagnosed with a Spinal Cord Injury. Most of these cases lead to partial or full paralysis. [2]. The figure below shows the causes of paralysis by percentage. It can be seen that the major cause of paralysis is stroke followed by spinal cord injury.

Figure 1: Cause of Paralysis [3]

One of the existing systems for a wheelchair which uses the head movement is the movement through voice recognition. Through voice commands, the user can control the wheelchair such as saying “susume” to navigate forward the wheelchair. It means “run forward” in Japanese. This is a grammar-based recognition system the researcher named “Julian”. There were three types of commands that are given: short moving command, basic reaction command, and verification command. The speech recognition system was experimented and resulted in 98.3% successful recognition rate for the movement command and 97.0% successful recognition rate for the verification command. Figure 1 below shows the block diagram of the system while figure 2 below shows one of the running experiment that was carried out. [4]

Figure 2: Voice recognition block diagram

Figure 3: Running Scene using a laptop

Another existing system uses facial recognition to give the command to the wheelchair. The user – with the initial help of another person or caregiver – could assign as to what facial expression is linked to a specific wheelchair movement. This was made possible through the use of facial recognition software, and a mounted Intel 3D RealSense Depth Camera, The computer captures a 3D map of the face and makes use of AI algorithms to process data in real-time to navigate the wheelchair. The system not only works on bright light but also on a dim light, and is incompatible with most of the motorized wheelchairs available on the market. [5]

Figure 4: Facial Expression Recognition

A similar paper proposed a system that assists the person with a disability to control the motion of the wheelchair wirelessly through hand gestures. The proposed system may be mounted on the principal functioning body part – like the hand to control the wheelchair movement. The system consisted of a transmitter that acts as a wireless remote that was mounted on the hand. The transmitter end consisted of a microcontroller using MEMS accelerometer which senses the tilt of the platform it is mounted on such as the upper side of the hand. Figures 4 and 5 below show the hand movement that will determine the motion of the wheelchair and the sensor used in the project. [6]

Figure 5: Hand movement for controlling

Figure 6: Accelerometer Sensor

Bluetooth is a wireless technology that is primarily designed for communication over a short range of distance at about 10m or 30ft. Electronic devices that use this technology have built-in radio antennas called receivers and transmitters that can simultaneously send and receive wireless signals to other devices with Bluetooth. It is often used for transferring photos from a digital camera to a personal computer, connecting wireless mouse to a laptop, hands-free headset to a mobile phone especially on cars while driving. These devices automatically connect to one another and up to 8 devices and do not interfere with each other because each pair uses different channels out of the available 79 channels. [7] The figure below show Bluetooth device connectivity.

Figure 7: Bluetooth Device Connectivity

Another similar research was about controlling a robot using an android application with the aid of Bluetooth connection. The Android OS if not the largest, is one of the largest numbers of operating systems used in smartphones that is very rampant nowadays due to research, entertainment, and social media. The objective of this paper is to be able to devise an Android application or program than can control a robot powered by an Arduino microcontroller with the use of a Bluetooth module and motor driver. Since Arduino and Android are open sources, it is an advantage for this research to obtain information about the different aspects of programming involved in the project. The result of this project is a concoction of embedded programming and computing. It was concluded on this project that it is not hard to implement Arduino with Android. The following figures below show the system block diagram and the prototype of the robot. [8]

Figure 8: System Block Diagram

Figure 9: The Robot Prototype

The primary structure for supporting most external loads and maintaining the stiffness of the structure of the wheelchair is the frame. The frame can always be made stronger by increasing its size or adding reinforcements but the weight should also be considered and must be limited. This is to improve the moving performance of the wheelchair hence, must be reduced. For this reason, it is important to adopt light-weight materials for the making or designing of the wheelchair frame. Yet, the strength and stiffness should also be maintained. One study suggests using the fiber-reinforced composite material because of its high stiffness-to-weight and strength-to-weight ratios.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

Plastics matrix and reinforced fibers compose the reinforced fiber composite materials. Fatigue life and density are low, stiffness and strength are high, corrosion and wear-resistant, and environmentally stable are the advantages of this material over monolithic materials. These composite materials that are laminated reinforced fibers are usually made out of polyester/glass or epoxy/carbon that are broadly utilized in military, automotive, aerospace, aircraft, sports structures, and marine. With the use of these epoxy/carbon materials, the weight of the wheelchair can be effectively reduced. Figure 10 below shows the reinforced carbon-fiber (epoxy/carbon) composite laminates. The different color implies the regions of connection and tubular frames which are made of 26-ply and 16-ply, respectively. Each ply has a thickness of 0.2mm. To reduce stress concentration, thicker structures are used in connection regions.

Figure 10: wheelchair Frame System

The use of solid mechanics is a strong tool for designing a project. With the help of finite element and analytical calculations, stiffness, strength, and stress areas of the wheelchair structure can be easily predicted and identified and can instantly be modified to achieve an optimal design. Using these tools, the behavior of material for structural and design of wheels, frames, and impact-absorbing structure in the wheelchair have been analyzed. Figure 11 below shows the loading and boundary conditions of the wheelchair frame.

Figure 11: Subjected to Upward loading Test

Figures 12 to 14 below show the FEM model of the wheelchair frame used in the ANSYS software. Elastic property and static structural analysis were done on this FEM model. Using the thick shell theory to simulate this epoxy/carbon composite laminates, the SHELL91 that is 8-noded high-order shell elements with multi-plies were used. Furthermore, it is assumed in the finite element analysis that there is perfect bonding between plie. To deliberate the effects on the magnitude of stress, the directions of fiber for all plies may be changed. The boundary conditions were set on specific nodes for the finite element model. The external nodes on the frame are set to many nodes.


Figure 12: Finite Element Model         Figure 13: Finite Element Model

Figure 14: Finite Element Model

Figure 15 below shows the global deformation of the wheelchair frame system associated with [0/454/−454/904]s under the upward loading test. For the same case, figure 16 below shows the distribution of the normal stress (σ1) along the fiber direction on the outer surface of the tubular frame. The stress concentration can be noticed around the connection region. [7]

Figure 15: Displacement contour of Wheelchair frame system

Figure 16: Contour of normal stress (σ1) along fiber direction on the outer surface.

Another study simulated four wheelchair frames using different materials. It was Aluminium 1060 alloy, Gray Cast Iron, Stainless Steel, Mild Steel, and numerical analysis was done on it through Solidworks. This simulation was done with 980N (Above average weight of a person). The stress analysis on Aluminum, Cast Iron, Stainless, Mild steel is shown in figures 17 to 20.

Figure 17: Aluminium

Figure 18: Cast Iron

Figure 19: Stainless Steel

Figure 20: Mild Steel

From the simulation result, it is showed that Mild steel can sustain higher stress and its Strain & displacement is very low than other material. Due to the good simulation result, low market cost and availability Mild steel have been selected for frame material.

Table 1: Stress, strain, displacement result by simulation

Table 2: Properties of Mild Steel

 Tables 1 and 2 above shows the overall results from the simulation in ANSYS for the four different materials and the properties of Mild Steel.

Von Mises stress analysis is used to find the yielding criteria of isotropic or ductile materials under complex load. According to Von Mises yield criterion, it is independent of first stress invariant. But the ductile materials will exceed yield point when the second deviatory stress invariant will reach a critical value. The stress analysis of the wheelchair frame is given in figure 21 below [9]

Figure 21: Stress analysis on a frame



 A handicapped person with a locomotive disability needs a wheelchair in order to move around. One can do so manually by forcing the wheels by hand. However, types of physical disabilities vary from one handicapped to another. Hence, it is desirable to provide them with an automatic wheelchair that can be controlled by the head, hands, and feet that will be compatible for all types of physical disability – may it be a person cannot move his upper body but can move his head or the other way around. Since it is motorized and can move at a fair speed, it is important that it is able to avoid obstacles automatically at an instant. All this should be achieved at a cost that is reasonable. With these requirements in mind, the researchers propose an automatic wheelchair for all physical disability types.



To design and fabricate an automatic wheelchair for all physical disability types.

To integrate appropriate sensor and actuators and use contemporary software on the automatic wheelchair for all physical disability types.

To define mechanical properties, mechatronics properties, and control system of the automatic wheelchair for all physical disability types.


To design and fabricate the headgear of the developed prototype of an automatic wheelchair and integrate wireless connection.

To develop the program of the accelerometer and Bluetooth module to control the wheelchair through the headgear and mobile device.

To analyze and determine the external and internal forces, moments, axial, shear, and bending stresses, modulus, and strain, and failures involve in the framing of the wheelchair and identify stress concentration areas using ANSYS.



 This project is about the design and fabrication of an automatic wheelchair that will be suitable for all types of physical disability. This was made possible with the use of appropriate sensors, actuators, and microcontroller. This paper is focused more on two of the four control systems of the wheelchair which are the headgear and the Bluetooth module. The rest of the control systems are discussed on different papers. Also, this paper is focused more on the behavior of the wheelchair frame upon loading conditions apply. This has been done through simulation with the use of finite element analysis using the software ANSYS and some useful mathematical equations.


 The figure below shows the Work Breakdown Structure for the Development of an Automatic Wheelchair for all Physical Disability Types. It shows the five main phases of the project and the sub-activities under each activity.









Figure 22: Work Breakdown Structure of the Project



 The project was carried out through the use of sensors, actuators, and microcontroller. The project was divided into four control systems. The control system on the headgear, armrest, and footrest, and wireless control. The headgear is composed of an accelerometer sensor that will send voltage output signal that ranges from 2-3.6V, the input signal to the microcontroller, that allows the wheelchair to move forward if the headgear is tilted forward; move backward if the headgear is titled backward; and the same concept applies if the headgear is titled both left and right sideward.  The armrest is composed of a joystick module that allows the wheelchair to move on four directions along with its output signal. Pushbutton switches are also integrated into the armest – one for each direction – that will serve as a backup control if other sensors may fail. The footrest has also composed a joystick. Also, the footrest is integrated with an ultrasonic sensor that serves as a safety device that stops the vehicle if there is chance of collision.

 The figure below shows the block diagram for the whole system of the Automatic Wheelchair for all Physical Disability Types that is divided into four control systems but are connected together in 2 microcontrollers. Two microcontrollers were used for the reason that the ultrasonic sensor created errors on the system and needs to be isolated from other sensors.

Figure 23: Block Diagram of the Whole System

The figure below shows the flowchart of the control system of the headgear with the use of accelerometer. The 0.6V output signal from the accelerometer was set as the parameter that serves as the input signal for the microcontroller that determines the direction of the movement of the wheelchair. It was decided to be 0.6V output set that would allow the wheelchair to run smoothly after series of trials and test were done after sensitivity issues were observed.

Figure 24: Flowchart for the Accelerometer

 The figure below shows the flowchart of the wireless control system which is the mobile device that is connected to the wheelchair using Bluetooth connectivity. It uses a low cost and low power transmitters, with a range of 10-30 meters for class 2 devices that are common to mobile devices. Incoming Bytes declared in the codes are read by the module that signifies which command the Bluetooth module will follow that allows the wheelchair to move on a specific direction.

Figure 25: Flowchart for the Bluetooth Module



 The following figures below show the major hardware components that were used as discussed above.


Figure 26: Arduino Uno Microcontroller

Figure 27: MPU-6050 Accelerometer Sensor

Figure 28: HC-05 Bluetooth Module

Figure 29:  Joystick Module

Figure 30:  Rocker Switch Module

Figure 31: Push Button

Figure 32: HC-SR04 Ultrasonic Sensor Module

Figure 33: 50W Wiper Motor Motor

Figure 34: 12V 7.0Ah Sealed Lead Acid Battery

Figure 35: 12V Sealed Lead Acid Battery Charger

Figure 36: 25mm Mild Steel Square Tubes

Figure 37: 75mm Rear Nylon Castor Wheels

Figure 38: 50mm Front Nylon Castor Wheels



 The figures below show the software programs that were used for finite element analysis for the wheelchair frame and the designing of the finite element model. ANSYS student version was used in the simulation of the wheelchair frame while Solidworks was used in making the 3D STEP model for the wheelchair frame. On the other hand, Arduino IDE software was used in compiling the programming codes with the use of C language for the Arduino Uno microcontrollers while Proteus was used in making the schematic diagram for the components.

Figure 39: ANSYS for Simulation of Wheelchair Frame

Figure 40: Solidworks for 3D Step File of Wheelchair Frame

Figure 41: Arduino IDE for Programming using Embedded C Language

Figure 42: Proteus for Circuit Diagram of the Whole System

 The figure below shows the circuit diagram of the whole system. It shows how the components such as the sensors and the switches are being connected to the microcontrollers. Since the accelerometer sensor provides analog voltage outputs, the pins are connected to the analog pins of the Arduino Uno microcontroller. The SDA of the accelerometer is connected to the A4 pin while the SDL is connected to the A5 pin. Of course, Vcc is connected to the 5V pin and GND to GND pin. On the other hand, the Bluetooth module is connected to the digital pin as it provides digital input signals that are written and read by the microcontroller.  The RXD pin of the Bluetooth module is connected to PIN 0 while the TXD is connected to PIN 1. Vcc and GND are connected to their respective pins. Joysticks, similar with accelerometer, give input analog signals to analog the microcontroller. The joystick for armrest is connected to analog pins. VRx and VRy are connected to A0 and A1, respectively. Similar case with the joystick on the footrest, VRx, and Vry pins are connected to A2 and A3, respectively. Pushbutton Switches are just the simple cut in and out of the digital input voltages on their respective pins. Each button signifies specific direction. The forward button is connected to Pin 8, Backward to Pin 9, Left to Pin 12 and Right to Pin 13. It also shows how the ultrasonic sensor is isolated in a different microcontroller that can be turned on and off anytime. A rectifier is provided to lower down the 12V supply from the battery to power the 5V Arduino Uno microcontroller. An L293D motor driver is integrated to drive the motors and allow the forward and reverse movement.

Figure 43: Circuit Diagram of the Whole System of Automatic Wheelchair

 The figure below shows the Arduino code used for the Automatic Wheelchair for all Physical Disability types. Comments are provided for better understanding. Indentions are made for better construction. The programming language used is embedded C language. This code is only used of the first microcontroller which integrates all the sensors except the ultrasonic sensor. The code for ultrasonic sensor is discussed in a different paper.

Figure 44: Programming Code for the Automatic Wheelchair for all Physical Disability Types


Table 3: Overall Cost for the Completion of Project

 Table 3 above shows the high-level cost breakdown of the components and materials used in the process of fabricating the Automatic Wheelchair for all Physical Disability Types.


 After a series of trials and tests, the group has come up with the prototype of the Development of an Automatic Wheelchair for all Physical Disability Types. Figure 45 below shows the prototype of the project with all the components installed. The prototype and all its components are in good working condition. All components are connected together in the main board located below the seat just at the back of the footrest as shown in Figure 46.

Figure 45: Automatic Wheelchair for all Physical Disability Types

Figure 46: Mainboard of Automatic Wheelchair for all Physical Disability Types

 The figure below shows the headgear which is only made of a plastic headband available on department stores where the MPU-6050 Accelerometer is attached on the uppermost flat surface of the headband. The reason for choosing the headband is for the comfort of the wearer of the headgear. The headgear should be parallel to the ground when attached to the wheelchair so that it would maintain on stop position.

Figure 47:  Headgear with the MPU-6050 Accelerometer Sensor

The figure below shows the wireless system of the project which is the HC-05 Bluetooth module that is responsible for giving input signal to the microcontroller to control the movement of the wheelchair. This Bluetooth module connects to the mobile device through Bluetooth connectivity. The connection can be made around a 30m radius as per Bluetooth class 2 devices which are common for all mobile phones. [10]

Figure 48:  Headgear with the MPU-6050 Accelerometer Sensor

 The figures below show the free android software available on Google Play that is used in connecting and controlling the Automatic Wheelchair for all Physical Disability Types. It can be used as a remote control by touching the arrows as shown in Figure 50, and also can be used as accelerometer as shown in Figure 52. The application is user-friendly and has setting options that can be easily understood as shown in Figure 51.

Figure 49: Bluetooth RC Controller [11]

Figure 50: Bluetooth RC Controller Interface

Figure 51: Bluetooth RC Controller Menu Options

Figure 52: Bluetooth RC Controller as Accelerometer

 The armrest is integrated with the joystick module and position switches with arrows indicating the direction as shown in Figures 53 and 54, respectively. This is to provide option to the user whether the user is comfortable with toggling a joystick or pushing a button. Not only that, one serves as a back-up system if the other fails.

Figure 53: Joystick Module on the right armrest

Figure 54: Push Button Switches on the left armrest

The figure below shows the footrest of the Automatic Wheelchair for all Physical DIability Types. It employs a Joystick which can easily be toggled by a foot which is placed on the center front of the footrest so that either foot can toggle the Joystick. Also, an HC-SR04 Ultrasonic sensor is integrated for added anti-collision feature which stops the wheelchair and activates the buzzer if there is an obstacle within a 50cm distance. The sensor is placed on the front of the footrest as to it usually be a blind spot area or beyond the line of sight for the user if the user is facing upfront straight.

Figure 55: Footrest with Joystick and Ultrasonic Sensor



 The figures below show the static structural analysis boundary conditions set based on the actual conditions of the wheelchair upon the user sits on it. The software used for analysis the frame is ANSYS.

Figure 56 below shows the first condition where a remote force which is equal to the weight of the person sitting is distributed on the sitting support. The figure below shows that a 980N (100kgf) downward remote force which is the base weight of our test as per research and the average weight of a built adult person. The weight will vary later as series of trials will be done.

Figure 56: Boundary Condition 1

 Figure 57 below shows the second condition where a downward force is applied on each armrest support which is equal to the weight of the resting arms. The average weight of the arm is about 5.3% of the total body weight of the person.The load varies as the weight of the person varies from person to person. [12]

Figure 57: Boundary Condition 2

 Figure 58 below shows the third and last boundary condition where fixed support is applied to the support where the wheels are attached. Take note that the Nylon wheels can only stand up to 100kg based on manufacturers manual [13] but the focus here is solely on the frame.

Figure 58: Boundary Condition 3

 In choosing the suited material for the frame, an analysis on four different materials was done and results were compared that lead the group in choosing the suitable frame material. The figures 60 to 63 below are the analysis of frame in four different material given the standard conditions and determining the maximum principal stress. The figures show that Mild Steel can withstand higher stress compared to the other three materials.


Figure 60: Mild Steel    Figure 61: Aluminium Alloy


Figure 62: Cast Iron    Figure 63: Aluminium Alloy

Also, Maximum Principal strain and Total Deformation of each material were also evaluated to be part of the determining factor in choosing the suitable frame material. The figures 64 and 65 below show an example of Maximum Principal Strain and Total Deformation Analysis on the Mild Steel frame.


Figure 64: Maximum Principal Strain        Figure 65: Total Deformation


Table 4: Comparison of a simulation result of four different materials

 The table above shows the simulation results of four different materials based on their maximum principal stress, maximum principal strain, and total deformation. Comparing all the given material with the given results, Mild Steel can sustain higher stress, and its strain and deformation are lower compared to the other materials. Due to good simulation results, low market cost, and availability of the material in NZ market, Mild Steel frame has been chosen as the suitable material for the Automatic Wheelchair for all Physical Disability Types.

 Further analysis of the wheelchair frame was done by varying the weight of the person. The figures below show the simulation results of the Mild Steel frame with the increase of 10kgs in six analysis. Von-Mises Stress Analysis was used to determine the yielding criteria of ductile or isotropic materials experiencing complex load. According to Von Mises yield criterion, ductile materials will exceed its yielding point even though it is independent of its 1st stress invariant when the 2nd stress invariant will achieve a critical result. [14]


     Figure 66: 100kg                  Figure 67: 110kg


     Figure 68: 120kg                  Figure 69: 130kg


      Figure 70: 140kg                  Figure 71: 150kg

  Table 5: Overall Summary of Simulation Results


 The table above shows the overall summary of simulation results done in the Mild steel Frame after increasing the load by 10kgs in six evaluations.

Table 6: Properties of Mild Steel


 The table above shows the properties of Structural Mild Steel used in the simulation of the wheelchair frame. All these parameters were considered by ANSYS software as to this table is from the library of the software.

 The figure below shows the relationship of the Von-Mises Stress or the equivalent stress with the weight of the frame. It clearly shows that the frame can still withstand a 150kg person sitting without considering the capacity of the wheel and size of the person that may fit on the sit. Also, it can be noticed given the simulation results that the failure will most likely to occur on the welded joints.

Figure 72: Von-Mises Equivalent Stress VS Person’s Weight


The prototype of the developed automatic wheelchair was designed and fabricated that can carry an average weight of a person that is 100kg.  Appropriate sensors were integrated and contemporary software were used. This wheelchair will benefit most physically challenged people especially the quadriplegics. The program for accelerometer and Bluetooth module was developed and was able to control the movement of the developed project. Suitable material was selected and Maximum Stresses, equivalent stresses, Maximum principal strain, total deformation and failure areas were identified with the use of ANSYS in this project. The developed automatic wheelchair is cost-effective compared to high-end automatic wheelchairs yet bring about the same functions and results.

For future work improvements, it is recommended to consider the design for waterproofing for electrical components. The use of a bigger capacity microcontroller that can cater to various sensor and functions is also recommended. A manual mode may also be considered. Switch for each component is recommended for future improvements since the user may not choose to use the control systems altogether. Also, it depends upon the type of disability the user has on what control systems will be appropriate to use. Also, an LED or LCD display can be integrated to show the remaining of the battery.




Disabled World, “What is Quadriplegia: Quadriplegic Facts and Definition,” Disabled World, 23 April 2018. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 3 September 2019].


P. J. S. P. B. S. K. Richard Smaill, “People ageing with spinal cord injury in New Zealand: a hidden population? The need for a spinal cord injury registry,” The New Zealand Medical Journal, vol. 129, p. 59, 2016.


My Cure Tips, “Paralysis Causes, Symptoms, Types | Best Method to Cure Paralysis,” My Cure Tips, 10 October 2018. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 31 May 2019].


T. S. a. R. K. Masato Nishimori, “Voice Controlled Intelligent Wheelchair,” 20 September 2007. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 6 June 2019].


R. England, “Intel’s AI wheelchair can be controlled by facial expressions,” engadget, 04 December 2018. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 6 June 2019].


N. S. B. R. S. B. S. S. M. Puneet Dobhal, “Smart wheel chair for physically handicapped people using tilt sensor and IEEE 802.15.4,” Conference on Advances in Communication and Control Systems, 2013. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 31 May 2019].


J.-W. L. W.-L. C. T.-H. C. Thomas Jin-Chee Liu, “Finite Element Analysis of Composite Frames in,” International Journal of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 6, 2014.




H.-A.-N. N. K. E. K. Hasnayen Ahmed, “Design, Simulation and Construction of an Automatic Wheelchair,” December 2015. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 7 June 2019].


Steve, “Bluetooth on Android-What is it and How it Works,” Steves Android Guide , 17 October 2017. [Online]. Available:,communication%20between%20devices%20very%20easy.. [Accessed 3 September 2019].


Andi.Co, “Arduino Bluetooth RC Car,” Google Play, 2019.


S. E. F. a. A. T. Plagenhoef, “Body Segment Data,” ExRx, 1993. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 3 September 2019].


Richmond NZ, “100mm Nylon Wheel 100kg Capacity Castor (R4489),” Richmond Wheel & Castor Co, 2019. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 3 September 2019].


Machinery’s Handbook, “Von Mises Criterion,” Engineer Edge, 2014. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 3 September 2019].


C. Woodford, “Bluetooth®,” explainthatstuff, 5 July 2018. [Online]. Available: [Accessed 14 May 2019].


Fabrication of Wheelchair Frame:



Back-up control if all components fail.

Programming and Setting-up of Components

Small Scale Automatic Tricycle Design and Fabrication

Abstract: –

Solar plays a vital role in our day to day life. We have decided to work on the solar tricycle especially for handicapped person. In this project it is discussed that how solar tricycle will help to reduce the effort of handicapped person. Comfort of the person in the tricycle is an important and we have given importance to it. The main content of the tricycle is Solar PV panel, Brushless PMDC motor, Charge controller and battery. This report will discuss about the main idea of this project and to get a larger picture on what is the problem in the current technologies, what that I want to achieve in this project and the area that will cover on this project. Tricycle is a widely used vehicle for transportation throughout in all around the world. The basic Tricycle is a three-wheeled design, pedalled by disabled persons in the side and seat in the middle for sitting arrangement. Manual drive tricycle is more affordable than hand driven. In this project report, I have discussed how to utilize solar power though the solar panel or photovoltaic cell and drive the battery, controller and the tricycle as well. 


Overview: –

Solar based tricycles, which use 100% solar energy power when the sun is shining. On other side electric vehicles, which use 100% electric power, use electric motors instead of an internal combustion engine to provide motive force. Moreover, in this types of solar vehicles use PV cells for converting sunlight into electricity. In that case the electricity uses directly by electric tricycle for running it or it can be stored in storage battery. One big thing is that the PV cells produce the electricity when only the sun is shining. If there is no sunlight in the sky the tricycle is depending on electricity which is stored in battery.   

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

Since the 1970s, inventors, government and industry have helped develop solar-powered cars, boats, bicycles and aircraft.  In 1974, two brothers, Robert and Roland Boucher, flew less than 300 feet of aircraft in an extremely lightweight, remotely controlled, pilot-less aircraft.  It was powered by PV array on the wings.  The first solar powered car was made in 1977.  It was small, light and relatively small.  Practical SPVs equipped with advanced SPVs have been built with the support of major auto manufacturers including General Motors, Ford and Honda.  After seeing all the inventions for making automatic tricycles based on solar systems.  So, we decided to make solar tricycles. [1]

Research papers: –

AN Daniel Dutarte, David Sandberg, Tolu Ondupi, presents a paper on “Electric Tricycle: Approach Mobility”: The project aims to provide current hand-operated tri-cycles to tricycle users with mobility levels.  The control requires a simple and inexpensive design for design purposes, a design that is required to be reliable, durable and functional, acceptable the design of an electric tricycle, with minor modifications to existing hand-operated tricycles.  Ho.  Designs include electric motors, drive systems, motor and steering controls, and power supplies. [2]

Abdul Qadir Baba Hasan presents a paper on the design and construction of a motorized project for people with disabilities, the project design is put on a motorcycle tricycle for the disabled.  The tricycle was designed specifically for people with healthy upper torso wheelchairs, from the pelvis to the rest of the foot.  It is designed to conform to commonly available wheel chairs.  The level of relationships between people with disabilities in the society is very dangerous. This project was therefore designed to correct the difficulties in the mobility of wheelchair users.  The main purpose of the project’s design is to reduce the mobility of physically handicapped people and provide them adequate rest as they wish. [3]

Present a paper on AK Lakiswaran A / L Summergame, “Development of Battery Power Trials”.  The main objective of this project is to develop a battery powered electric motor tricycle which can be used for easy transportation and economy reasons, for the development of battery powered electric motor tricycles which can be used for easy transportation and economy reasons.  A motorized tricycle is a three-wheel bicycle used to help paddle with an attached motor.  Commonly considered as a vehicle, tricycles are usually powered by electric motors or small internal combustion engines and act as electric bicycles. [4]

Upper all notes show the information of the previous research on solar tricycle. They might get some achievements and they may not. So, after all research we are deciding to fabricate this type of tricycle. In this project I am working on solar energy and tricycle breaking system and rear camera fitting system.

Objectives: –

To overcome the problem and the weakness, this project need to do some research and studying to develop better technology. To make it success there are several things that we need to know such as what will be the prime mover, how to stored it and the advantages of this new tricycle. In that case, these are the list of the objective to be conduct before continue to proceed on this project

•          To develop a tricycle that use renewable energy, environmentally friendly.

•          To develop tricycle that can charge the battery when it is not in used.

•          To ride tricycle via solar energy without any additional fuel

Applications: –

Travel for free with the power of the sun.

Provides free, ‘green’ transportation for short distances (

Charges while at work.

 Is cheap, simple, and low maintenance.

Project Scope: –

The scope of this project is very necessary in all around the world because it is specially fabricating for mobility persons and using this type of solar tricycle they can easily charge it and use it. It is totally based on solar so there is no need of any type of fuel so its cost is low as compare to other vehicles. Moreover, in that tricycle I am putting many good things like rear camera, solar panel for running this tricycle and many other things. The basic functions are totally automated and easy to operate. In New Zealand there are many disable people are using the tricycle which is provide by the NZ government so as specially in Auckland there are much demand of automatic tricycle as compare to other cities. We can see the Lime automatic scooters in all streets so this tricycle is working on same principle like automatic but the tricycle is more safe than lime bicycle as specially in balancing and safety purpose. 

Figure (1) Work breakdown structure of the project

Project methodology and requirements: –


Solar panel



Battery charger

Solar Charge controller

Figure (2) Expected model design of fabrication solar tricycle in CAD [5]

Solar Panel: – A photovoltaic module or photovoltaic panel is an interconnected assembly of photovoltaic cells, also known as solar cells.  Photovoltaic modules, commonly known as solar panels, are then used as components in a large photovoltaic system to provide electricity for commercial and residential applications.  One of the primary difficulties of solar energy and its cousin wind power is efficiency.  There is more than enough energy to hit the earth in the form of solar radiation to meet our species’ electricity needs.  Transition estimates that wind power is four times more available to us as species use each year.  Solar energy is even more dramatic, with the sun showing more planets every day than we use in a year.  So the difficulty has never been the availability of sun and wind, they are readily available

Figure (3) Solar panel 20 watt [6]

Solar charge controller: – Solar battery chargers are a cheap, environmentally friendly and convenient way to ensure that your battery is always fully charged and ready to run at all times.  The problem is with the Sun charging the battery from the solar panel.  It does not shine all the time and clouds merge along the way.  Our eyes adjust to the variation in the power of the sun but the solar panel behaves differently.  As the sun loses its intensity, the output from the solar panel goes down significantly.  Not only the output current decreases, but the output voltage also decreases.  Many solar panels fall below the 13.6v required to charge a 12.6 battery, and as this happens, the charging current becomes zero.  This means that they disappear as soon as the sun shines.

Figure (4) Solar charge controller [7]

Battery: – In a separate system away from the grid, batteries are used to store more solar energy converted to electrical energy.  The only exceptions, such as irrigation pumps or drinking water supplies for storage, are splashed with incense.  In fact, for smaller units produced less than one kilowatt.  The battery seems to be the only technically and economically available storage device.  Both the photo-voltaic system and the battery increase capital costs.  It is important that the overall system is optimized with respect to available energy tariffs and local demand patterns.  A special combination of properties requires a battery to be economically attractive for storage of solar energy.

Figure (5) Battery [8]

Upper all description I write overview of some equipment which will use in this project.

Table (1) Assume cost of components [9]

Sr no.


Unit cost


Total cost


Solar panel

$ 150


$ 150







Battery charger





Solar Charge controller










Rear Camera




 Total cost                                                                                                                              $497

Upper table shows the approximate cost of my parts. If some parts are collected by my group members for doing their work, then after we will assemble the whole project.

In future maybe many risks come through the project like, maybe I would not get any parts in New Zealand so I need to order it from overseas. Might be it costs is low as compare to New Zealand.

For overall, cost maybe $500 approximately and my group members approximately cost will be $900 so, the whole project will become $1400 approximately.

Project plan and schedule: –

Figure (6) Project plan of whole project in activity sheet [10]

Figure (7) Gantt chart of the project [10]

Figure (8) Network diagram of the project [10]

Upper whole work done in project liber software. Some activities is not clearly seen in the report so I e-mail soft copy to my teacher to Dr. Mustafa.






“arpnjournals,” [Online]. Available:


P. kongi, “in slide shsre,” [Online]. Available:


Solar tricycle


[Online]. Available:


[Online]. Available:


[Online]. Available:


“Survey on solar tricycle,” [Online]. Available:


project libre


Development of Automatic Ice Cone Filling Machine


 My project is automatic ice cone filling machine this machine the scope of this study like designing or focuses the various terms and developing of ice cone filling machine which is available on different type of companies like small and medium or big industries. This filling machine having a power to done manually with lot of human sources or limiting the capability to fulfil the market groups demand whereas, to automate the whole process of filling ice cone machine this machine is controlled the output of the ice cone from the discharge the top of the nozzle of the robot my purpose to design the automatic ice cone filling machine it is save our time with the help of two software I make my project machine simulations is very important thing in industrial automated because with the of machine simulation we make project in different ways there are many things available in this software such as machine design or different type of factories size available and different type of components are available on my project automatic ice cone filling machine I can use large conveyor belt and four sensors and one robot and two sensors for robot and two for conveyor.

Background of our project-

i) Balemi is a famous proposed man they can interpretation of different type of survey control theory form the basic things output and input include. This system was constructed in the year of 1992 moreover, in this system are include many things like input output process and some command are accept that it is correct or not this process when command is accept output or input of project produced some various type of message related to some changes that were occurred in the system. Belemi found some different type of problem in this project like communication delay between PLC and machine simulation. (sew)

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

ii) Hellene it is also a famous man they an surveyor of this project Hellene can started surveyor in the year of 1996 in this project they suggested that the main reason this was of the relay between physical implementation and abstract supervisor this things are noticed when the implementation was to be totally based on PLCs moreover, in the year of 2006 they improved their came and structure with a flow.

Problem statement of my  project –  There  are  various  problem I  research in pervious project some problems like

i)                     Manual work

ii)                   low  production

iii)                 efficiency

iv)                 time  consuming

v)                   sensors problems

vi)                 low  quality

But I have   solve   all this  problems  in  my  project In my project automatic ice cone filling  machine i face different type  of problems like-

1)      During the project the some information are missing on internet.

2)      When I work on ladder programme I face problem about inputs and outputs.

3)      When I work on Machine simulation I face problem on finding work parts.

4)      I design a  close  loop  system  which  can control  conveyor  by  infrared sensor.

5)      During the making project I put photocell sensor its  very difficult to run.

6)      I face problem in machine simulation after practice many time i learn simulation.

Project  objectives-   

1)      Increase affiance while working on my project I put many thing in my project with the help of all thing I  can make my project easy

2)      This project is very important for  big and small industry while I working on this project I put sensors to control the workparts.

3)      I also put timer in my project with the help of ladder diagram its control the efficiency of work parts and work correct with the help of timer

4)      It is also save a time and filling automatic ice cone in good way with the help of robot.

5)      In this project I have to run the  PLC ladder diagram and during this project this ladder diagram are very important in this  subject .


This work is a finished utilization of robotization. The procedures constrained by PLC and observed by utilizing SCADA. PLC and SCADA are significant piece of the ice filling framework. As the framework controlled by the modified PLC and SCADA is utilized to observe the procedure in framework. This framework uses a begin/stop control of the motor when we on the switch at that point engine will be on. Cone are kept over a robot line . At the point when conveyor will switch on then transport will begin moving. At the moment that container go under the tank then a sensor sense the cone and the valve open for the specific time that set in the programming for that time the work parts in to the container. The described volume through which client can pick the volume of liquid to be filled. Machine simulation  I can work on different thing and mainly  have to operate the quality of my project with the help of machine simulation In my ladder program I make according to project I make ladder in proper way with the help of some inputs and outputs.In my project I have to add many things such as conveyor belt and robots and sensors and my workparts.PLC is in charge of the considerable number of tasks in our venture. The unfurled bundle is placed in the filling machine. a legitimate shape is given to the crate i.e a rectangular box.. The Selector switches are on and all out 1 bundles are sent at transport line simultaneously where the utmost switches are in charge of putting the ice cone  are actually underneath the valve

  Components use in our project-

s. no










Develop solder robot




Simple roller


The detail and description of each components is given below-


There are different type of sensor which are applied in the project all sensor I put in my project that was photocell sensors because this sensors are available in the software and also these sensor photocell are appropriate for my project automatic ice cone filling machine.


The functioning of my photocell 1 is given blow and the  parameters  and location of photocell

i)                     To run first conveyor belt

ii)                   1 photocell for run robot

iii)                 1 photocell for off  robot

iv)                 To run second conveyor

Figure 1 sensor


i)                     Cone filling robot I have to develop this robot with the help of various thing in my project such as with the help of machine simulation software.

ii)                   This robot working to fill ice cone in the correct way

Conveyor belt-

Figure 2 conveyor belt (Ananth1, 1995)

i)                     Establishments with transport lines can be planned essentially and reasonably by considering a couple of variables.

ii)                   I will talk about how clients can stay away from superfluous increases which climb up the cost and muddle generation.

iii)                 Two of the most well-known erroneous conclusions are an abundance of shafts and following aides.

iv)                 The specialist may have a sense of safety about the application, however the augmentations will

v)                   Make the establishment progressively delicate to abandons and less clean.

Project design-

Figure 3 project design

Working  principle-

In my project ice cone filling machine I have include many things which was related to  my project in this project I include conveyor belt I have two conveyor belt and one conveyor belt having one robot to  fill all ice cone in correct way and  conveyors  having sensor as well to control everything in sequence  and I put another two sensors  in another  conveyor belt At the information side the containers are kept in position over the  conveyor  moreover, after complete my simulation I  worked on ladder diagram  with the help of all correct variable my project is run I put some inputs and outputs  according  to my project  whereas, The inductive nearness sensor is utilized to distinguish cone without reaching. These non-contact nearness sensor  identify ferrous material, in a perfect world The yield is then perused by outside control unit (for example PLC) that changes over sensor ON and OFF state into useable data.

Result and discussion-

The programmable controller based ice cone filling machine the machine has very quicker execution timer and time and working successful moreover, coordination with lot of security measure to different type of investigation simplicity and materials of activity  because of the hand to different hand  to hand there are many components I have to show in my project but some equipment’s and progressively complex with good wiring and requires  in my project automatic ice cone filling machine is consume time and limit of workers I have to  make m project with the help of ladder programme  in ladder programme  I design according to m y work I put some inputs and outputs when I make all variable correct than  my project run in ladder programme this project is very helpful  in big companies.

1)      It is very helpful project  in ice cream company

2)      Its is save  the time

Ladder programme –

Figure 4 ladder program

Variables –

Figure 5 variables

Figure 6 My  variables

In the automatic ice cone filling machine it is also known as automatic robot which I use but I use different type of variables in my project and those variable are use in project are to run the system and different functions. The variable those I used in my project are given in figures. All different type of variables applied for the components like in the form of digital inputs and outputs.

Project simulation-

Machine simulation finally I make my project in according to my work all things are correct I put some outputs and inputs according to my work as u see in figure I run my project properly with the of machine simulation software here you show I put one robot that was solder robot and two conveyor belt which I found in machine simulation software and I also include four sensors in my project and that can run with the help of ladder commands in ladder commands I make timer with the help timer sensors is run.



sew, w. (n.d.). /processing filling. Retrieved from