Impact of the Aviation Industry on Global Warming

Global warming might be the biggest problem that humanity has yet to face, because it involves all of us, wealth, health, nothing can provide guaranteed future unless the problem is fixed or rather reduced in this case. And for the last few decades public concern grew as the situation wasn’t getting any better, thus people started engaging in activist actions so the higher ends would take initiative in their hands. Most people voiced their positions by protesting with displays and banners, signing up for the petition to be presented to representatives and spreading awareness about climate change. And of course, with the public demand, the government or companies couldn’t do anything other than obey the power of people, so the actions against climate change were progress smoothly. For the actions including reduced use of fossil fuels, addition of rechargeable energy such as solar panels, wind turbines and putting strict regulations on emission for every industry to maintain. But in the middle of all progress and transition, the aviation industry often gets left behind due to the public’s limited access to it other than boarding the plane. In other words, the public doesn’t know much about aviation industry emission as they don’t have much access to it other than boarding it, therefore they simply don’t care. Thus the government doesn’t care as much for it, unlike other industry such as auto or industrial production because people show their concern or position regarding the matter as public has a chance to actually get to see the waste being released in front of them such as car exhaust or big power plant pipes. And indifferent public opinion creates a never ending cycle which locks itself in the place and there’s no escape routine, like since people don’t know it they are not going to spread the awareness, then the government is also in indifferent position because there’s no demand and these two create a big hole in emission reduction system as aviation companies get out of without strict supervision over them. Of course since it’s an industry there are some regulations and attempts for transformation, but since there are no strict supervision over it, the results are not as successful as fellow industries. That might be the reason why the aviation industry might not be working as hard as fellow industries. In other words, like any other industry that contributes emission aircrafts should also be part of the strict regulation and transition to green energy. Therefore, to stir strict management actions from the government over aviation industry emission and its transition to clean energy (solar, wind energy; alternative fuels or development of new engine), the public must show their position by protesting with their concerns displayed, spreading awareness, signing the petition to be represented to show the position of public over aviation and its contribution to climate change, so that the government tightens the regulation over aviation industry.

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However, there are individuals and parties who question the importance of aviation’s emission and its regulation. Because the yearly contribution of emissions caused by aircrafts are fairly low compared to other industries such as auto or industrial. That is approximately 2% (781 million tons of CO2) out of all industries in 2015 which is only 12% of all transports compared to 74% of on road vehicles according to ATAG (Aviation Transport Action Group) and thus majority of the public doesn’t know about it, since the numbers are small the awareness doesn’t get spread to society as well as it should be. And the people who are aware of the numbers are neutral towards the issue, because even with prevention the outcome won’t change too much. Plus the party that are indifferent with the aviation emission doesn’t end with the people who use airplanes as a transport or shipping but also the companies that provide the flights such as Chinese Southwest Airlines. Back in 2015 the representative stated, that there’s no need to care for it when the damage by fellow industries are much greater in article released by BBC news in “Can Planes Ever be Clean and Green”. Which makes sense, because why would a provider care about something that customer doesn’t? Since most planes are owned by companies and run as a business under government control, while few planes or jets are under the governments’ ownership but they don’t serve as a transportation method for public but most of the time serve as a transportation for government officials or workers and other are considered as military vehicles. As a result the government doesn’t care for it too, because there’s no one who demands change or shows concern regarding aviation emission and regulation.

It is true that 2% yearly emission out of all industries and 12% of transportation isn’t much. But airplanes are not regular on ground vehicles that we’re used to and its released waste is more dangerous. An article “Plane Exhaust Kills More People than Plane Crashes” by M. Inman on National Geographic News as the title suggests explains the toxic pollutants of airplanes are deadly for its possibility to spread in larger areas due to being released on higher altitude. Also the author added the fact that deaths caused by airplane emissions are much higher than deaths caused by airplane crashes. For instance the main fuel for airplanes is kerosene and on the ground slightly it’s safer than gasoline or propane and of course releases toxins but off ground kerosene is more dangerous, not because its structure but the way its being released and where its being released. On the other hand auto pollutants are released close to the ground yes it can affect nearby people but the outreach wont be as wide as planes which makes it less dangerous for people. But as auto vehicles are for us to use and we have better access to it, so we get to see and smell the pipe releasing its pollutant making people believe that it could be more urgent. But the tragedy of aviation emission doesn’t end on released CO2.

In addition, Clark Duncan in his article, “The surprisingly complex truth about planes and climate change.” Concluded that aviation emission is 50 times worse than cars in short term views on climate change. He discussed about the amount of CO2 releases and also added the facts aviation is tropospheric ozone that causes stronger but shorted bursts of temperature increase. The tropospheric ozone is a layer surrounding earth that has high amount of chemicals such as oxides of nitrogen and volatile organic compounds activated by sunlight and its effects not only humans’ health but also plants’. Which translates to aviation emission isn’t big as of today but still as dangerous as other industries if not more, because the numbers provided for climate change responsibility was only based on the CO2 contribution while other factors such as trails and impact on ozone layer are dismissed. So not regulating it well or making a change will result in further climate change. So if the public must demands strict regulation over aviation industry like any other industries, its easier to fight the climate change, but as of today no one shows concern.

When public doesn’t like something they commit some action to let the higher ends to know that they are unsatisfied, aviation emission is on unsatisfactory level but no one says anything compared to other transportation. Back in December 2015 Tristan Smith a lecturer in Energy and Transport paid a visit to Paris, where the World Climate Change Conference was held. He reported that near Eiffel Tower environmental activists were attending demonstration event to demand better environment protection, but he noticed one thing, that’s the missing signs of aviation and shipping, where in fact they contribute emission too. Whereas, the cars also type of transportation for public but in most cases owned by people themselves have strict emission restriction on it, such as more fuel efficient cars, hybrid versions or electric cars, but to account emissions there’s even section such as better air conditioning, thus there are even available 100% emission free cars. Thus, even if the auto industry is on bigger number scale when it comes to waste, still they are being regulated and improved rapidly, so in the future auto industry might not be a concern at all. While on the other hand, the aviation industry is still a dangerous contributor of carbon dioxide emission wastes, still not being regulated or improved with as much urgency, which translates to further emission percentage from it in the future.

Aviation flights used to be considered as a luxury back in the day, but today its considered same as other transportations but compared to other industries its expected that aviation is still increasing in demand, rapidly so the numbers of emission will rapidly grow as well. According to IATA (International Air Transport Association) press release (67) the passenger numbers might reach 3.91 billion of people by 2017, and its 31% increase from 2012, which is, was 2.98 billion. Passengers number growth equaling 930 million, translates to more CO2 gas being released. Even though the industry itself is promising 50% reduction in CO2 by 2050 compared to 2005, with today’s attitude towards the issue there’s no guarantee in the promise. As ATAG calculates with the aviation industry’s growth the emissions might increase by to 5%, in worst scenario 15% by 2050 so it might get worse than today. In the long run, with the increasing numbers in demand and obviously following pollutants the impact of aviation holding over environment will be a huge deal in near future, so taking actions now before it gets bigger is easier than dealing with a giant hole that wasn’t dealt with in many years. But even without much supervision over them, the industry and airlines are also trying to reach more eco friendly solutions, and it doesn’t only benefit the environment, such solutions do cost huge sum of money in the research period bud might also provide cheaper and faster flights in the future.

Many companies and organizations are working on reducing the pollution of airplanes, and surprisingly there are many ways to reduce the environmental effect of airplane emission, as of today the most popular one for reduction is biofuels. Biofuels are fuels based on regular fuel used for certain vehicle/engine and mixed with some sort of organic waste such as deceased animal or plants and are mostly used on bigger planes that can’t function properly solely on solar/wind power due to its weight. For example, major companies such as Boeing and United Airlines were the first ones to test and invest into further development of alternative fuels. According to an article released by Boeing in December of 2014, informed about the test of “Green Diesel” biofuel being successful and provided the calculation of 50-90% in reduction of carbon emissions. But exactly this method isn’t widely practiced on commercial daily flights as of today, but the future steps are already being taken.

As the biofuels are mix of regular fuels and organic waste concludes they are cheaper than regular fuels so there’s a chance for people to fly cheaper and faster. And the United Airlines declared their transition to biofuels starting 2016 with help of their partners AltAir’s fuels that could reduce emission by 60%. Also informed about the partnership agreement with bioenergy company Fulcrum in June 2015 for larger amount of fuel that will frequently provide fuels by 2018. And it’s only the beginning, because if one company starts using biofuel that not only less harmful but efficient and the possibility of ticket prices decreasing the other companies wont just sit and watch. Because if one company is making a progress while being more affordable while not losing money on that, of course the public will choose them. Some for their environmental concern, while most for cheaper tickets. So in the order not to lose the business the other companies will follow shortly. But there are few that are making a bigger progress by focusing on bigger picture than dealing with smaller details.

Given that it takes longer and it’s harder for airplanes to improve because they are really in fact iron birds flying high in the sky and are different that on ground ones. Still people thought airplanes, cars and trucks are same transportation vehicle, also concluded that if they can improve auto vehicle’s fuel they could change airplane’s too. And maybe that was the reason why it took longer and hardship for airplanes to become for eco friendly, because most of the time the focus was based on fuel. Since airplane’s fuel is used on higher altitude and uses more energy it’s extremely sensitive than auto vehicles. The possibility of liquid fuel reacting during the flight is dangerous, as the fuel can freeze or loose its consistency thus the engine wont work properly. So there are people who thought maybe improving the engine is easier than creating a fuel, so they made it and are ready to change the game.

Earlier this year the Washington Post reported about  “The next generation of eco friendly airplanes…” .The engines named PurePower made by Pratt & Whitney a united (aerospace) technology company, which provided engines for commercial and military use.  Last year the design of PurePower was unveiled to the public for the first time, after 30 years of research and developingbut it said it was for jets only. Even though engine functions were more efficient and quiet, it was disappointing to hear that the use was limited to lighter aircrafts, because there are many methods for jets to fly green but none for commercial/bigger planes. But thankfully this year the improvements and additions of engines to PurePower family have been made and it’s said to be possible to function for bigger aircraft. This year’s update noted improvements such as 16% less use of fuel, use of less fuel for longer distance and heavier load and up 75% reduced noise pollution with the help of engine’s higher thrust and it could cost less for passengers. With the great improvements demands also rose up to 6000 from various customers all over the world, notable ones such as AirBus, Mitchubishi and Bombardier, also this July prnewswire.com revealed that Air Canada made a deal with Pratt & Whitney for next 15 years. So, at this rate the future of aviation looks brighter than ever, with better engine combined with biofuels the amount of pollution produced by aviation industry might decrease much faster, than only working on fuels. But since the limit of technology improvement is none for now, the possible “futuristic” rides are coming with its design.

As technology improvement reaches higher the efficiency doesn’t stop on the fully functional form of a vehicle or gadget but also its availability to be used in other fields as well. And exactly that was the concept of future airplane/terminal created by Switzerland’s École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne as reported by Forbes author Kristin Tablang this July. The concept showed that by it looks it was similar to a plane that has 2 extra main bodies. So this vehicle could fly with the 3 in total cabins, and the 2 extra ones detaching and being used as a train/metro. The estimated weight is about 29.5 tones and 98 feet long, as for passenger numbers it 450 people per cabin and 150 self contained fuselage, which emphasizes its ability to carry a load of 3 huge commercial planes while using the twice as small engine. So if this concept becomes reality in near future, the way transportations work on and off ground would be really be like “Killing two birds with one stone”. Not only it can bear with heavier weight in flight with smaller engine, but also the cabins working off ground could also mean that any combination of transportation could be made and the fields they could be used gets wilder. If such designs come into real life, the future is then.

In conclusion, for aviation industry to improve the government management over it is important, to maintain and make the management more functional the public must let their positions known to the government with various ways such as protest or representing of petitions. Aircrafts are same transports as cars but differ as a vehicle, the fuel it uses, and the way and where it releases it makes it more dangerous. Due to the fact aircrafts being off ground vehicles emissions spread to wider areas and their contrails also impact climate change. So any industry that contributes pollution to environment should have a strong supervision over them, even if the numbers contributed are not as high fellow industries. Furthermore, even if aviation improvements are taking longer and harder because aircrafts fly on high altitude, still the government has to maintain certain limitations over it and set bars to reach so that the industry will work harder to reach them. Even though, the aircraft industry is making a progress with biofuels and new type of engines and designs but having set goals might help the progress against climate change to go smoother, so as a public who uses airplanes as a transport and the earth as home we should give a little push to higher ends so that they can be strict.

Works Cited:

ATAG “Aviation and climate change.”  ATAG, n.d. Web.2016.

ATAG. “Facts and Figures.”. ATAG, n.d. Web. May 2016.

BBCNews. “Can planes even be clean and green” BBC, n.d. Web. 28 May 2015

Braconnier,Deborah.  ”Airplane contrails worse than CO2 emissions for global warming: study.” Science X Network, n.d. Web. 31 Mar. 2011.

Clark, Duncan. “The surprisingly complex truth about planes and climate change.”                       Guardian News and Media Limited, n.d. Web. 9 Sept. 2010.

IATA. “AirlinesExpect 31% Rise in Passenger Demand by 2017.”  International Air Transport Association (IATA), n.d.  Press Release No. 67 Web. 10 Dec. 2013.

ICAO. “Aircraft Engine Emissions.” © International Civil Aviation Organization,  n.d. Web. 2016.

Inman,Mason. “Plane Exhaust Kills More People Than Plane Crashes. “ National Geographic Partners, LLC, n.d. Web. 10 Oct. 2010.

Jensen, Bret, and Jessica Kowal. “Boeing Conducts World’s First Flight with ‘Green Diesel’ as Aviation Biofuel.” Boeing., n.d. Web. 3 Dec. 2014.

Smith, Tristan.”Shipping and aviation are climate change’s main culprits – but they were nowhere to be seen at Paris.”. Independent Digital News and Media Ltd,               n.d. Web. 16 Dec. 2015.

Tabling, Kristin. “This Intriguing Aircraft Concept Aims to Eliminate Airport Lines and Terminals.” Forbes Media LLC, n.d. Web. 12 July 2016.

United.”Alternative fuels.” United Airlines, Inc, n.d. Web. 2016.

Washington Post. “The next generation of eco-friendly airplanes has arrived…quietly.” Washington Post Company, n.d. Web. 12 Jan. 2015.

 

Human Factors in Aviation for Pilots

Human Factors in Aviation for Pilots
Introduction
The term “human factor” belongs to the wide range of matters affecting how people achieve tasks in their non-work and work environments. The commercial aviation industry has recognized that human error causes most aviation incidents and accidents rather than mechanical failure. If interpreted intently, human factors are often deemed synonymous with maintenance resource management (MRM) or crew resource management (CRM). Human factors involve collecting information about human limitations, ability and other qualities and applying it to machines, tools, tasks, systems, environments and jobs to produce comfortable, safe and effective human use. Human factors are devoted to better perception of how humans can most efficiently and safely be combined with technology. That perception is then translated into training, design, procedures, or policies to help humans work better. (GRAEBER, 2014)

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In spite of rapid gains in technology, humans are ultimately accountable for guaranteeing the safety and success of the aviation industry. They must continue to be flexible, knowledgeable, efficient, and dedicated while exercising good judgment. In the meantime, the industry continues to make main investments in equipment, training, and systems that have a long-standing implication. Human factors cover the knowledge of comprehending the human capabilities, the application of this knowledge to the development, design and exploitation of systems and services, and the art of guaranteeing successful application of human factor values into the maintenance working environment. Furthermore, human factors experts participate in examining operational safety and developing tools and methods to help operator better handle human error. These duties require the experts to work closely with safety experts, engineers, training and test pilots, mechanics and cabin crews to efficiently integrate human factors in the designing of airplanes.
Human Factors in the Ground Environment
Before understanding the importance of human factors we must know the term “PEAR”. It reminds the four important facts for human factor programs: People, Environment, Actions and Resources. The Aircraft Electronics Association accepts PEAR as an outstanding way to recall key concerns for a human factors program.
There are as a minimum of two environments in aviation maintenance; physical work place and organizational environment. There is the physical work place in the hanger, on the ramp or in the shop while organizational environment exist within the company. A human factor should pay attention to both environments.
The physical environment includes ranges of humidity, temperature, lightening, cleanliness, noise control, and workplace design. Companies must accept these conditions and collaborate with the workforce to either change or accommodate the physical environment. It takes a cooperate assurance to address the physical environment. This physical workplace covers the topic “Resources” of PEAR when it comes to providing coolers, portable heaters, clothing, lightening and task design and workplace.
The second environment is organizational one. The significant factors in an organizational environment are usually related to communication, cooperation, mutual respect, shared values of the company, and their culture. An excellent organizational environment is progressed with communication, leadership and shared goals associated with profitability, safety and other key factors. The best companies support and guide their people and promote a culture of safety. We consider environmental matters as critical as other features in PEAR. . (Johnson, 2007)
Aviation safety relies deeply on maintenance. When it is not done properly, it contributes to a major proportion of aviation incidents and accidents. Some examples poor maintenance are missing parts, parts installed incorrectly, and required checks not being performed. The errors of an aviation maintenance technician (AMT) can be more challenging to detect as compared with other threats to aviation safety. A lot of times, these errors are present but not visible and have possibility to remain hidden, affecting the harmless operation of aircraft for larger period of time. AMT’s tackled with many human factors unique within aviation. Most of the time, they are working in the early morning or in evening hours, in restrained spaces, and in mixture of unfavorable humidity/temperature conditions. The work can be physically tiring; it also needs attention to detail. AMTs usually spend more time on preparing for a job than actually practicing it out. Key element of all maintenance work is a proper documentation, and AMTs usually spend more time revising maintenance logs than they do presenting the work.
Mechanical components in aircraft maintenance engineering have boundaries; technicians also have some limitations and limited capabilities when we look at the maintenance engineering system. For example, rivets used to fasten aluminum skin to fuselage that can bear forces acting to pull them apart. These rivets will ultimately fail if sufficient force is applied to them. The exact range of human limitations and capabilities are not clear as the performance range of electrical or mechanical components but the same rules apply in that human functions which is likely to damage and ultimately fail under certain conditions like stress, tensions etc.
Human factors understanding can lead to enhanced quality, an environment that guarantees continuing aircraft and worker safety and a more responsible and involved work force. More precisely, the reduction of minor mistakes can provide appreciable benefits including fewer missed deadlines, cost reductions, reduction in injuries, reduction in maintenance errors and also reduction in warranty claims.
Human factors in the Airborne Environment (flight desk, cockpit, formation)
Men already learn how to construct wings or airplanes, which when propelled through the air at maximum speed, will not only withstand the weight of the engine, but also of the wings themselves, and of the engineer as well. Men also learn how to build screws of adequate power and lightness to drive these airplanes at sustaining speed. Inability to steer and balance still become challenging for students and have flying problems. When this feature has been controlled, the era of flying machines will have reached, for other problems are of lesser importance. (Kantowitz, 2011)
Working with an aircraft in the Performance Based Airspace (PBA) will be extra challenging for the flight crews who have only worked in controlled airspace. But in real, only somewhat more challenging rules like Visual Flight Rule (VFR) are applied. The flight crew will have to handle more tasks, an arrival of basic separation responsibilities, have complete responsibility for all forms of situational awareness like mode awareness and traffic, possible greater workload under several conditions like severe weathers. To evaluate the necessary information needs of the flight crew to achieve the airborne self-separation task and to regulate the level of automation, it will be essential to study the following sub tasks; Conflict detection; Conflict privations; Traffic monitoring; Re-planning; Conflict resolution; Inter-traffic/traffic-FOC communication.
It becomes clear that today’s conventional airline operations possible do not offer the information to examine the above tasks. It is, though, assumed that the flight crew will demand the high quality ergonomically planned navigation and traffic information and in various circumstances may require to be aided by some level of automation and maybe through some decision support tools. Presently flight crews use the TCAS (Traffic Collision Avoidance System) instead of ATC (Air Traffic Control) and to help them attain a minimum level of traffic situational awareness. But in today’s operational environment, TCAS information will not be enough. A CDTI (Cockpit Display of Traffic Information) system will possibly be a better system to help the aircrew to maintain and develop a high level of traffic situational awareness by offering basic data about speed, position and provide information of future state of aircraft in the neighborhood. The important requirement will possibly be to aid the crew in the detection, prevention and resolution of an important conflict. In this area, it is assumed that the aircrew will be in a controlling position. The revealing of imminent collisions will be automated and will be implemented in the background. The crew will be warned in situation of imminent conflicts along with numerous solution strategies, which are supposed to be filtered and sorted for the crew by using various criteria (e.g., time/fuel optimization, wind and weather criteria, passenger comfort, etc.) to elect for the best solution in the given situation. The aircrew will have the probability to modify different factors of the maneuver (e.g. waypoints, aircraft speed, altitude) according to their requirements and own judgment of the situation. (International, 2007)
Improvements
One of the major risks a pilot faced is the unawareness of existing problem. This situation indicated as a loss of situational awareness. Loss of situation awareness is like danger is everywhere and you are pleasingly unaware of it. Loss of situational awareness can be initiated by somewhat as simple as inattention. A pilot is unaware of the mid-air collision curse because he or she hasn’t been concentrating in maintaining a traffic watch. A pilot is not aware of refueling of the piston engine aircraft that either jet fuel has been loaded into fuel tanks or not. A pilot is careless during the pre-flight examination that a poor gas seal and heavy rains put hazardous quantity of water in the fuel tanks. A pilot must have situational awareness to tackle any of the above dangerous situations effectively and efficiently. A pilot initially creates situational awareness through applied crew management skills and through trainings. Situational awareness also includes establishing targets and goals for a particular flight. Once established, it can be maintained by examining of clues to its possible loss.
False assumptions are also cause of flight crews’ problems. It can include great expectations, problematic fixations, ignoring bad news, and intense situation of pilots in case of stress. These problems must be reducing to improve environments of aircraft organization.
Cockpit stress management plays an important role in airborne environment. In case of any emergency, pilot must be clam, think for alternatives, choose one and then act on it. A pilot must avoid fear and panicking as they are our greatest enemies during emergencies. Don’t wait to announce any emergency until it’s too late for you to handle the situation. A pilot must immediately ask ATC for help. Lots of ground resources can be available for help. If any error occurs because of a pilot, he must forget about that and concentrate on the job at hands. A focus is must, think of an alternative plan and work on it immediately.
Use of checklists can prevent as much as 70% of all the accidents which occur because of pilot primary errors. Cockpit stress management procedure can also be accomplished by using checklists instead of relying on memory of pilots only.
Hypoxia is a deceptive problem in aviation. It occurs when body cell receives very less oxygen because of altitudes. Its consequences creep up on pilots without their realizing it. A pilot must be aware of how to handle this situation.
The way of pilot to perform their job, the manner they cooperate with other crew members, the manner in which they use all available resources and many other details related to human presentation, will have deep effect on the manner in which they fly the airplane. A pilot must undergo a proper professional training in the area of human factors to improve their performance in all the aspects.
Crew co-ordinations must be efficient and the monitoring and assignments of duties of all assigned crewmember must perform their jobs effectively. Communications occur between crewmembers related to flying tasks must not be vague, indefinite or unclear.
Summary
Human factors and its engineering feature involve the usage of knowledge about human limitations and capabilities to design a technological system. Human factor engineering also relates to personnel selection, training, procedures and many others.
Humans can also fail to function appropriately in various conditions. Human can face physical fatigue, affected by the cold, can break bones in accidents in workshops etc. Mentally humans can make mistakes, have restrained powers, and can make poor judgments due to lack of knowledge and skills. Furthermore, human performance is also influenced by emotional and social factors. Therefore proper training of aircraft maintenance technicians is required to full all the features of human factors. The aircraft maintenance technicians are the main part of the maintenance system. It is thus very necessary to have knowledge of mental processes function and different parts of body and also the understanding of performance limitations that can affect the work.
An essential part of the operational efficiency is continues improvement in flight crew training and in designs and procedures. Study of commercial airplane and human performance interfaces leads to reduce accidents and at the end increases flight safety.
The flight deck human factors are researched which include measurement of flight performance and risk, impact of advance technologies, assessing controller pilot information transfer, determining the consciences of stressors on human performance, recognizing human factors included in incidents and accidents, analyzing the effects of tasks design on pilot performance.
Human resources perform aerospace research on organizational and individual issues related to human factors. Research areas included designing of cockpit management programs, effective use of trainings related to human factors, recognition of human factors linked with maintenance- related aviation incidents and accidents and with aircrew
Bibliography
GRAEBER, C. (2014). AERO 8. Retrieved from Boeing: http://www.boeing.com/commercial/aeromagazine/aero_08/human_story.html
International, H. (2007, september). Human Factors in Autonomous Aircraft Operations. Retrieved from http://ifly.nlr.nl/documents/P2.1 iFly_EAAP08_nf.pdf
Johnson, D. W. (2007, april). A Model to Explain Human Factors. Retrieved from Industry: http://www.skybrary.aero/bookshelf/books/1482.pdf
Kantowitz, B. H. (2011). Hand Book Aviation Human Factors. Retrieved from http://theblackswaninvestmentclub.com/flight_manuals/human factors.pdf
Parry, D. L. (2014). HUMAN FACTORS AND PILOT DECISION-MAKING. Retrieved from http://www.langleyflyingschool.com/Pages/CPGS Pilot Decision Making.html#Human Factors and Pilot Error
 

Case Study of China Aviation Oil Corporation Ltd

Risk Management and Corporate Governance
A Case Study of China Aviation Oil Corporation Ltd.

introduction to CAO

China Aviation Oil (Singapore) Corporation Ltd (CAO) is the Singapore subsidiary of China Aviation Oil. CAO was established in 1993 and its main business were jet fuel (kerosene) purchase for Chinese airports and international trading of fuels. CAO developed really fast and achieved 92% market share of the procurement of imported jet fuel for China’s civil aviation industry by 2001.
However, it was then involved in a big scandal which lead to its failure. In November 2004, CAO declared a total loss of $550 million and filed for bankruptcy.

timeline of critical events

Q1 2003 – CAO enters into speculative option trades on oil prices with a bullish view
Q4 2003 – CAO changed its strategy and started trading speculative option trades taking a bearish view.
Oct 2004 ‐ international oil prices rose steeply, leaving CAO facing significant margin calls on its open (short) derivative positions.
Nov 2004 – in a press release CAO stated it was unable to meet some of the margin calls arising from speculative derivative trades. The total derivative losses amounted to $550m.
Mar 2006 ‐ CEO Mr. Chen Jiulin was arrested with the charge of insider trading, fined and sentenced to 51 months imprisonment.

Literature Review

option-based strategies

There are two types of options: call and put option. One can either long or short the two options to gain profit (speculating) or mitigate risk(hedging) from price changes.
In this case, CAO started its option trading in 2002 initially to hedge its jet fuel risk thorough. derivatives of futures and swaps. However, in the mid 2003, CAO started trading in speculative derivative options.

hedging

A hedge is needed to mitigate the risk from potential unfavorable swings in commodities. However, considering the cost and benefit effect, a hedge is not always necessary. One needs to understand the risks to be hedged, evaluate the severity and timing of downside risks properly, consider the financial instruments available and costs of certain instruments to determine the most cost-effective way to hedge.

risk management and corporate governance

Risk management is the identification, assessment, and prioritization of risks followed by coordinated and economical application of resources to minimize, monitor, and control the probability and/or impact of unfortunate events or to maximize the realization of opportunities. Risks can come from various sources including uncertainty in financial markets, threats from project failures, legal liabilities, credit risk, accidents, natural causes and disasters, or uncertain events, etc.
The Board should establish appropriate guidelines for trading and ensured that they were consistent with the company’s fundamental risk management policies, management capabilities and expertise, and overall risk appetite and tolerance. Senior managers (including executive members of the board) should formulate the major policies and guidelines of an institution. There should be a separation of duties between those who generate financial risks and those who manage and control these risks.

Analysis

CAO’s trading strategies

As mentioned above, the company’s trading strategy changing from hedging risks in 2002 to speculation with bullish strategy (bought calls and sold puts)in Q1 2003, which proved to be an accurate prediction. However, CAO then took a bearish view of the trend in oil prices in the fourth quarter of 2003, and began to sell calls and buy puts, with the result that it was in a short position at the end of the quarter. As the assumption was that oil prices would fall, it was further assumed that the counterparties would not extend the options, and these would therefore lapse to the benefit of the company. However, the price went further upward this time. The rise in oil prices resulted in the counterparties exercising the extendible features on options, and with the calls that were sold, the company faced the real risk of having to sell the contracted number of barrels at the strike price and realizing substantial loss.

incorrect option valuation methodology

The Special Auditor from PwC assigned by SGX discovered that the company used the wrong MTM valuation method by ignoring the time value, which lead to the misestimation of oil price and the wrong speculation strategy. While CAO had the chance to remedy the mistake by comparing the pricing with counterparties’ but the company met the margin calls without protest until it lost the financial capacity to do so at the end of September 2004.

Financial: the company developed fast and became monopoly in the market since 2000. In order to bolster its profile as well as boost investor’s confidence and generate more profit, the company was willing to take high risk.
Political: according to exhibit 8, the year 2003 saw the burst of Gulf War. The company may want to take advantage of the war so that higher risk is acceptable as fuel is a critical resource during wars.
Corporational: the lack of risk management knowledge of the CEO, insufficient management environment within the company and the inefficient external audit, as will be discussed in detail in the next section, further accelerated the fall of the big company.

CAO’s risk management and corporate governance

In its 2003 annual report, CAO indicated that it had “a formal system of rigorous internal controls over three layers”. Meanwhile, other sources of control includes China Securities Regulatory Commission and External Audits. It seems that the company should have a stringent risk appetite.
However, according to PwC’s report, despite a continuing significant loss in 2004, in order to avoid recording and reporting losses, the company adopted a much larger risk exposure by selling long‐term options with extremely high risk profiles to raise the premiums to cover the cost of closing out the loss‐making option contracts (Exhibit 1). So in effect, CAO covered‐up the losses that were realized when closing out the loss‐making near‐dated options.

Exhibit 1
It was unclear why the company’s directors did not question or object to this contravention of regulations. The Audit Committee did not carry out its function of identifying and monitoring the financial risks involved in options trading, and investigating whether the risk management framework and safeguards were sufficient for dealing with the business.

Follow-up Development

Restructuring outcome:
In response to the investigation results by PwC, CAO indicated in a press statement that it intended to form a committee to study the results and to recommend the company on specific remedial or disciplinary improvements. It also expressed the willingness to be more honest on past events and to move forward with the debt and equity restructuring exercise in a positive manner. The company then called for a creditor meeting to approve its latest debt restructuring plan on June 8.
As far as I am concerned, with the resources of the parent company, both from the aspects of finance and entrepreneurship, the support from Chinese government, and the establishment of a strict risk management framework, CAO can still gain back confidence from stakeholders, which may need time and effort.

Conclusion

Improper application of accounting principles, lack of oversight, inadequate knowledge of market and ineffective risk management systems for the speculative options deal were the major contributing factors towards CAO’s failure. We should learn a lesson from the case as factors are similar and equally applicable to different business contexts so it is important to avoid certain mistakes.

References

Li, S., & Nadeem, M. (2010). Risk Management and Internal Control: A case study of China Aviation Oil Corporation Ltd.
Farhan. (2016, April 10). China Aviation Oil (Singapore) Corporation Limited’s Jet Fuel Scandal (2005) – Casestudy. Retrieved January 15, 2017, from https://financetrainingcourse.com/education/2014/04/china-aviation-oil-singapore-corporation-limiteds-jet-fuel-scandal-2005-casestudy/
Yeo, A. (2014). China Aviation(Singapore) Limited- Sliding down a Slippery Slope: The $550m Derivative Trading Loss on November 2004.

Crew Pairing And Rostering Aviation Essay

The award scheme below is loosely based on CASA regulations as regulations for the Asia and Thailand region could not be located. This award scheme takes into account Federal regulations and union negotiated contracts.
A pilot may not fly and cannot be rostered when the pilot has exceeded:
38 working hours per any 7 consecutive days
100 working hours in any 28 consecutive days
900 working hours in any 364 consecutive days
11 working hours on a roster
8 hours flight time on a roster
Be signed on more than once in a working day
An employee (excluding pilot) may not serve work and cannot be rostered when they have exceeded:
59 working hours per any 7 consecutive days
155 working hours in any 28 consecutive days
1,400 working hours in any 364 consecutive days
11 working hours on a roster
Periods free of duty:
Pilot is allowed at least one weekend off in each calendar month
Normally the pilot is rostered for 5 days on consecutive duty and 2 days free of duty. By mutual agreement deferral of one free of duty day can be arranged with the free of duty day taken within 30 days. Separation of free of duty days can be undertaken with mutual consent.
If pilot is away from home base then deferral of free of duty days can be taken, however to be effective immediately upon return to home base.
A pilot cannot be rostered after 2200 the day before free of duty is issued. If a pilot has worked after this time due to delays the pay rate will double.
Similarly a pilot cannot be rostered before 0600 the day after free of duty has been issued.
A pilot will have a rest time after being on duty of 9 consecutive hours embracing 2200 to 0600 local time OR 10 consecutive hours.
If duty time has exceeded 11 hours due to delays the pilot will receive a rest period of 9 consecutive hours between 2200-0600 plus an hour for each 15 minutes over 11 hours OR 10 consecutive hours plus an hour for each 15 minutes over 11 hours.
If duty time has exceeded 12 hours due to delays then the pilot shall receive a 24 hour rest period.
Rostering:
A pilots rosters must be compiled before 7 days of the roster period and cover a minimum 14 day period.
Break:
A pilot will be allowed a 30 minute break within 5 working hours.
Leave:
An employee is entitled to 42 days of annual leave which may be split over two sections within a calendar year.
Work related injury or illness will have a maximum of 52 weeks absence from work fully paid if proof is found that firm is at fault.
Sickness or injury occurring outside of work will have a paid leave of a maximum 10 days within a calendar year.
Pay Rates
1:50 cabin crew ratio for 36-216 seats
1:36
Over 216 seats, 1 cabin crew member per each exit
B787-9 8 exits
Resource Planning
Flight Crew Normal 28 Day Roster
18 days flying
1 day training
1 day reserve
8 days duty free
Cabin Crew Normal 28 Day Roster
19 days flying
1 day training
8 days duty free
Flight Crew
There are 13 roster periods within a year (28 days)
Non working days are 42(annual leave) + 10(sick leave) = 52 days per annum
Therefore approximately 1.86 off duty periods per annum
900 working hours per annum max ÷ 11.14 working periods per annum = 80.77 working hours per period ———-80/10/13
80.77 working hours per period ÷ 19 flying days per period = 4.25 hours per day
Therefore we must utilise our aircrew an average of 4.25 hours per each flying day to achieve maximum utilisation of 900 working hours within 364 consecutive days, the regulation limit.
Cabin Crew
There are 13 roster periods within a year (28 days)
Non working days are 42(annual leave) + 10(sick leave) = 52 days per annum
Therefore approximately 1.86 off duty periods per annum
1,400 working hours per annum max ÷ 11.14 working periods per annum = 125.67 working hours per period
125.67 working hours per period ÷ 20 flying days per period = 6.28 hours per day
Hence to gain maximum utilisation out of our cabin crew respective to the 1,400 hours working limit per 364 consecutive days, the cabin crew would need to work approximately 6.28 hours per day.
Pattern Planning
Objective:
Minimise the number of crew that have to work each day hence flying the current crew as many block hours as possible. This allows for high utilisation of crew leading to a decrease in the amount of crew needed.
Crew staying over at DXB instead of BOM in case of delays BKK-DXB-BOM crew would go overtime. Duty time of BKK-DXB-BOM = 10:38 flight time = 7:53.
Aurora Air has decided on changing the aircraft schedule to try and implement a very high utilisation of flight crew, however this ended up not working due to the constraints of maximum flight hours allowed at any one time.
Pattern 01 (Base: BKK)
Day 1 Sign On 0500
Day 1 BKK/TLV 0600/0946 7:46 Blk
Day 1 Sign Off 1006
9:16 Dty
Overnight: Tel Aviv
Day 2 Sign On 1001
Day 2 TLV/BKK 1101/2247 7:46 Blk
Day 2 Sign Off 2317
9:16 Dty
Pattern 02 (Base: BKK)
Day 1 Sign On 0700
Day 1 BKK/DXB 0800/1033 5:33 Blk
Day 1 Sign Off 1103
7:03 Dty
Overnight: Dubai
Day 2 Sign On 1048
Day 2 DXB/BOM 1148/1538 2:20 Blk
Day 2 BOM/BKK 1653/2155 3:32 Blk
Day 2 Sign Off 2225 5:52 Blk
8:37 Dty
Pattern 03 (Base: BKK)
Day 1 Sign On 0730
Day 1 BKK/NRT 0830/1546 5:16 Blk
Day 1 Sign Off 1616
6:46 Dty
Overnight: Tokyo
Day 2 Sign On 1601
Day 2 NRT/KIX 1701/1748 0:47 Blk
Day 2 KIX/BKK 1833/2118 4:45 Blk
Day 2 Sign Off 2148 5:32 Blk
7:47 Dty
Pattern 04 (Base: BKK)
Day 1 Sign On 0530
Day 1 BKK/PVG 0630/1052 Blk 3:22
Day 1 PVG/BKK 1207/1429 Blk 3:22
Day 1 Sign Off 1459 Blk 6:44
9:29 Dty
Pattern 05 (Base: BKK)
Day 1 Sign On 1444
Day 1 BKK/TPE 1544/1940 Blk 2:56
Day 1 TPE/BKK 2055/2251 Blk 2:56
Day 1 Sign Off 2321 Blk 5:52
8:37 Dty
Pattern 06 (Base: BKK)
Day 1 Sign On 1654
Day 1 BKK/HKG 1754/2058 Blk 2:04
Day 1 HKG/BKK 2213/2317 Blk 2:04
Day 1 Sign Off 2347 Blk 4:08
6:53 Dty
Pattern 07 (Base: BKK)
Day 1 Sign On 0600
Day 1 BKK/ICN 0700/1312 Blk 4:12
Day 1 Sign Off 1342
5:42 Dty
Overnight: Seoul
Day 2 Sign On 1327
Day 2 ICN/BKK 1427/1639 Blk 4:12
Day 2 Sign Off 1709
5:42 Dty
Pattern 08 (Base: BKK)
Day 1 Sign On 1638
Day 1 BKK/SIN 1738/2024 Blk 1:46
Day 1 SIN/BKK 2139/2225 Blk 1:46
Day 1 Sign Off 2255 Blk 3:32
6:17 Dty
Pattern 09 (Base: BKK)
Day 1 Sign On 0630
Day 1 BKK/PEK 0730/1219 Blk 3:49
Day 1 PEK/BKK 1334/1623 Blk 3:49
Day 1 Sign Off 1653 Blk 7:38
10:23 Dty
Change due to 0600 constraint being included
Constraints:
Pattern 01 & 04 cannot have an OFF day preceding them
8 OFF days per roster period
OFF days must be in pairs
1 Training day per roster period
1 Reserve day per roster period
No reserve days overlap between each fleet type
Each pattern flown only once each day
An unscheduled day must follow a reserve day
Crew Rostering
Aurora Air has regarded that using the ‘fair share’ system in which the airline will assign the crew their flying duties in a fair manner taking into account periods of duty free time, hours already flown, etc (Cybula, 2006). In addition crew rostering will take into account the legal limitations of all employees within our region of Thailand and Asia. We have decided to take this approach as we are a starting up airline and it is assumed that pilots apart from the chief pilot will have similar flying hours.

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All unscheduled days are assumed to be standby days in which the flight crew can be allocated to a flight within a short period of time. Priority will be given to reserve crew who will be stationed at the airport assisting with operations of flights and will be used first to cover any shortages in staff. However if a further shortage of flight crews is realised then any flight crew on standby can be called into duty. Both reserve crew and standby crew are to go without pay however reserve crew must be at the airport in full uniform. Reserve crew will be given meals at expense to the airline. Crews who are rostered as ‘Reserve Ltd’ are limited in their ability as they cannot take over a flight pattern for more than one day as it will interrupt the normal schedule. Hence these days which only have reserve limited crew are much more susceptible to delays for the next coming day as the pilot may not be where they are normally rostered.
Flight crew using wide body jets are paid significantly more than narrow body jet due to the long haul nature. Because of this long haul there is less availability to fly more routes and hence the crew wage is a multiple. The flight crew is also paid by block hours rather than duty hours and once again if crew is to stay overnight the current wage already includes a multiple that takes this into consideration. Accommodation is provided for flight and cabin crew at the airline’s expense.
Cabin crew will be rostered separately to the flight crew due to their own set of regulation circumstances which is not included in this report.
 

The global economy where aviation industry was severely hit

The year 2007 saw a downturn in the global economy where aviation industry was severely hit by fall in air traffic. While airlines were struggling with declining profits, the complicacy of the operations in the aviation continued to bother airlines throughout the world with Cathay pacific being no exception. The crisis challenged the efficient business model of Cathay pacific which was ranked as the best airline of year in 2006. Robert Taylor was dealing with inventory operations and following are the issues that have to be taken into account:

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Inventory holding cost: Minimizing the holding cost was one of the most critical issues faced by the Cathay Pacific. Because of the convoluted nature of spare parts, it was not feasible to meet the demands of all the aircrafts. Given the fact that Cathay pacific has over 120 wide body jets  comprising of airbus and Boeing planes, it was very difficult to fulfill the requirements of all the aircraft at the right time. As a result the airlines could lose its significant business and in order to avoid those situations, Robert can work on the timely routine checks of the aircrafts. This will enable the firm to come up with a more detailed data on requirement of the spare parts (repairable, rotable etc.)
Buffer stock & Just in time: Initially the airlines incorporated the buffer stock management to meet the demand in the optimal time. But they still encountered several situations where a certain part was not available. It accounted for additional cost for Cathay pacific to set the buffer stock and also the spare parts in the distribution center was occupying a lot of space. Later the firm also tried to implement the Japanese model called just in time which works well in sectors like retail and manufacturing. But the airline industry is all together a different scenario where an airline can’t afford to wait for the spare part during the last minute check when the flight is scheduled to depart. This will eventually cause the further delay of flight and degrade the passengers experience of flying with an airline.
Reduce lead time: The rationalization of supply chain in the airline industry allowed the OEMs to monopolize the entire market. Irrespective of the demands, it is very difficult for the airlines to reduce their supplier lead time. Any reduction in lead time like suppliers or the transportation can help an airline to fix the problem in the stipulated time frame. Decreasing lead time of different supply chain components can increase supply reliability and help the firm to work in an efficient manner.
On the other hand there are certain issues that have to be taken into account for the procurement (Paul Barwell):
Switching costs: The spare parts can be classified in two criteria i.e. critical and non-critical parts. The complicity of the critical parts restricted Cathay pacific to switch suppliers because of the costs associated with switching. Also relying on the new supplier for the complicated parts was very difficult for Cathay pacific. On the other hand it had over 200 suppliers for the non-critical parts which required much of resources (time and money) to maintain the relationship.
Forecasting: Although Cathay pacific collaborated with other airlines to enhance exchange of information with respect to suppliers list and parts availability, it wasn’t able to reduce its obsolete inventory by 100%. With the implementation of one platform that will help the airline to develop a supply management cycle to optimize supplier selection and collaboration improvement, the forecasting can be much accurate to meet the demands in time. At the same time, the platform should be able to generate real time data with its collaborators and suppliers through online communication.
What is Cathay Pacific purchasing power in aviation spare parts procurement? What are the possible alternatives for improvements in the procurement process?
Ans: Being ranked as the best airline in 2006, Cathay pacific was able to gain certain purchasing power in aviation spare parts procurement which is:
Strategic sourcing: Cross functional teams at Cathay pacific helped in gaining leverage on purchasing by applying a systematic process of reducing the cost of spare parts purchased from different vendors. This process is evident from exhibit 5 where it simplified the complicated process of sourcing and procurement. This process gave an edge to Cathay pacific in monitoring, evaluating and managing relationships with suppliers to ensure operational effectiveness. With its implementation, the airline was able to leverage purchasing power across different divisions and negotiate favorable prices with the suppliers. Strategic sourcing also focused to consolidate the suppliers database and chose the preferred ones.
Aeroxchange system: Development of a collaborated supply chain system to expand the sharing and exchange of information (Spare parts availability and suppliers list) with different airlines gave an advantage to Cathay Pacific to select a supplier from the huge database. After its launch in 2000, technological advancement in Aeroxhange made this system capable of doing numerous tasks which helped the airlines to be more effective in their procurement. E.g.: In 2001, Aeroxchange launched its e-procurement platform to integrate the partners for quote management and also it incorporated the service order management in 2005  .
Although Cathay pacific invested a lot of time and money to improve their procurement, there are still many rooms for the advancement in their processes. The history of Cathay pacific (obtained from case study) says that they have always tried to lock the deals with the airlines and individual suppliers to enhance their procurement process. On the other hand, one point that should have been taken into account was establishing strategic alliances with the manufacturers (Boeing and Airbus) for the procurement activities. An alliance where manufacturers should focus on the materials management and help Cathay pacific to focus on core business activities. The integrated alliance with Boeing and airbus services will help to achieve greater transparency and efficiency in the resource operations. These services are acquired by most of the big players in the market like Delta airlines and Singapore airlines where they succeeded in generating good revenues by focusing on their core activities  . The other alternative for improvement is to reward the suppliers to suggest the cost saving ideas. This will help the airline to develop a sense of competition among suppliers for developing a sustainable and cost effective model for procurement which will eventually result in increasing the productivity of the fleet.
What are the advantages & disadvantages for Cathay Pacific to use third party logistics (3PL) partners for their repair management and logistics management? What are the criteria for Cathay Pacific to choose her 3PL partners for repair management & logistics management?
Ans: Advantages:
Economy of scale and economy of scope: The major outcome for firms to switch to 3PL is the value they will generate from economy of scale which means Cathay pacific will have the advantage of large truck fleets and warehouses. At the same time, it can enjoy the benefit of economy of scope by reducing costs and boosting the net value of airline. The benefits of these economies are attained depending on the type of 3PL partner (e.g. – IT based or component based). Secondly these benefits can help the logistics to work effectively and efficiently which will also enhance the repair management by providing access to right spare part at the right time.
Capital investment: Outsourcing logistics and repair activities can help Cathay pacific to save cost and hence reduce financial risks. Assets required in establishing distribution centers and networks normally need a huge sum of money that encompasses financial risks and hence by outsourcing, these risks can be spread to 3PL partners. Once the hedging of risk in complicated processes is done, airlines can focus more on their core activities.
Cost effectiveness: To perform the activities of repair and logistics managers, Cathay pacific pays millions of dollars to labors. However outsourcing these activities will result in saving the capital which can be spent on further expansion of the airline.
Disadvantages:
Loss of control: Outsourcing 3PL partners will lead to loss of hold and control over their logistics and repair activities. The transparency in these networks would diminish to great extent and may lead to underperformance.
Discontinuity of services: There could be some sort of reasons on the 3PL partner side which could lead in discontinuity in their services. At the end of the day, the contract and law forces the 3PL to pay the compensation of loss but that wouldn’t help an airline to continue the service efficiently during the specific time.
Difference of opinion: The opinion differences between client and 3PL partners can hinder the service of an airline whose fortune is derived from the time where every minute delay incurs a cost. On the other hand, it will certainly be a roadblock for the further expansion of the airline.
Criteria for choosing 3PL partner:
Formation of a team: While choosing a 3PL for logistic and repair management, cross functional team should be made from different divisions of an airline such as inventory management, control, quality testing etc. Forming a cross functional team will help Cathay pacific to choose the 3PL provider that meets their requirements.
Objective setting: The objective setting will depend on the requirement of an airline such as cost cutting and focusing on core competencies. Once the firm has set its objectives, it is easy to select a 3PL provider that will best suit the needs
Service availability: Based on the needs and objectives of an airline, the next and most important step is to shortlist the 3PL providers who provide those services. Given the fact that logistic and repair management are the core activities that defines the performance of an airlines carrier, the cross functional team should consider all minor and major aspects to close the deal.
 

History For Aircraft Investigation Aviation

Flying is generally a safe and fast method of transportation, but accidents always happen whether through human error, mechanical failure, or criminal activity. Over the last two decades, there have been many fatal aircraft accidents per year worldwide. These, and lesser accidents, have to be investigated scientifically in order to gain important lessons about aircraft performance and safety.

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The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) requires that a civil aircraft accident be investigated by an independent body belonging to the country where the accident took place. Each country has its own organization taking responsibility for this: in the United States, it is theNational Transportation Safety Board(NTSB); in the United Kingdom, it is the Air Accidents Investigation Branch (AAIB) and in Malaysia it is the Department of Civil Aviation. The purpose of the investigation is to find out why the accident happened and how similar events might be avoided in the future, rather than to apportion blame. The police will be involved in the investigation if sabotage or some other form of criminal activity is suspected, and the military generally looks into accidents involving service aircraft.
My research is about the air disaster investigation procedure for Malaysia on the matter of the procedure step, incident statistic, comparison between the Malaysian investigation procedures with other region.
History for aircraft investigation
The procedures for air accident investigations were first laid down in 1928 by the US National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. They required air accident investigators to consider the immediate and underlying factors of an accident in order to establish and apportion blame for its occurrence. A credit system was put in place that weighted causal factors according to their overall culpability – for example, an accident could be regarded 70% the result of pilot error and 30% the result of environmental factors.( New Zealand Air Line Pilots’ Association, 2009)
In 1944 the Chicago Convention drafted a set of procedures and processes to govern the burgeoning international civil aviation industry. Included in these procedures were rules concerning the responsibilities of contracting states in the event of an aviation accident on their soil. These standards and recommended practices were developed by the Accident Investigation Division between February 1946 and February 1947, and were later designated as Annex 13 of the convention. The convention allowed states to generate their own rules for accident investigation, so as long as the core practices of Annex 13 were incorporated and investigative practices aligned with ICAO Doc 9620, the Manual of Aircraft Accident Investigation.( New Zealand Air Line Pilots’ Association, 2009)
The primary focus of Annex 13 differed from that of the US National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in 1928: it was no longer to find fault and apportion blame for an aircraft accident, but to provide a mechanism by which participants in the industry – pilots, aircraft manufacturers and regulatory agencies – could learn from their mistakes.( New Zealand Air Line Pilots’ Association, 2009)
Accident Trend
In recent years, progress and development in science and technology have made dramatic contributions to human society. However, these same development have given rise to many new type of dangers, and a massive increase in loses that would have been in conceivable in the past. (Masako Miyagi, 2005)
This trend is by no means an indication of carelessness on the part of the individuals involved: rather, it could be considered an indication that the methods used to implement traditional safety measures in the past have reached a limit of effectiveness. This is because the most basic safety measures taken in the past were limited to reprimands and punishments targeting the person responsible for the accidents, and improvements to mechanical aspects stemming from the result of accident investigations. Such accident investigations placed an emphasis on technical analysis of events in accidents that had already occurred, and for this reason there is no question that they contributed to a sharing of important information regarding the mechanical aspects of these accidents, that this information was put to use in making improvements, and that significant results were archived through this process. (Masako Miyagi, 2005)
Human beings are able to develop and increase their abilities to some extent through education and training. The fact remain, however, that it is extremely difficult to obtain the information on human aspects of accidents that would be required to implement such training, because the people most directly involved may have been killed in the accident, or may be reluctant to come forward for fear of being held responsible. There are definitive limitations to approach described above even if all the relevant information in obtained; namely that when studied are made into accident prevention measures based on accident investigations, the investigations can only begin after the accident has occurred. Furthermore, the improvement measure based on accident investigations will only be of value in preventing the re-occurrence of accidents that are identical to those on which the measures were originally based. (Masako Miyagi, 2005)
Graf below showed that, by years to years, more accident happen because of human carelessness rather than mechanical failure. By times go by the percentage being increasing.
Graft 1.1(Masako Miyagi)
Boeing`s statistical summary
There are several reliable sources of accident data. One of the most easily accessible accident databases is maintained by Boeing, which publishes an annual Statistical Summary of commercial Jet Airplane Accident. Another good sources document is the International Air Transport Association (IATA) Safety Board Record(Jet), also published annually.( Alexander T.Wells and Clarence C.Rodrigues, 2004)
Hull losses were also analyzed according to the phase of flight in which they occurred (Graft 1.2). After the combined approach and lading phases, the next greatest numbers hull-loss accident occurred in the combined phases from landing through initial climb. Cruise, which accounts for about__ of flight time in a 1.5 hour flight, occasioned only 6% of hull-loss accidents.( Alexander T.Wells and Clarence C.Rodrigues, 2005)
The summary also considered primary cause factor for commercial operations hull-loss accidents for the period 1990-1999(Graft1.3). For accidents with known causes, flight crew were considered the primary cause in most 67% over the 10 years periods.( Alexander T.Wells and Clarence C.Rodrigues, 2005)
Graft 1.2 Phase of flight in hull-loss accident, all aircraft, worldwide commercial jet fleet
(1990-1999)
(Boieng commercial airplanes Group)
Graft 1.3 Primary causes factors (as determined by the investigating authority) in hull-loss accidents, all aircraft, worldwide commercial Jet fleet(1990-1999)(Boeing Commercial Airplanes Group)
Chart below showed about accident categorizes by airplane generation for the period 1990-1999 (Table 1.1). Most accidents occurred on landing, with 157 out of 385 for the 10-years period. Interestingly, most landing accident involved current generation aircraft. (Alexander T.Wells and Clarence C.Rodrigues, 2005)

Type of incidentGeneration

First

Second

Early Widebody

Current

total

Controlled flight into terrain

5

17

3

11

36

Loss of control

8

7

2

12

30

Midair Collision

1

1

2

In-Flight fire

1

2

1

1

5

Fuel tank explosion

1

1

2

off end on landing

7

17

3

22

49

Off side on Landing

3

20

3

11

37

hard landing

3

15

5

32

55

Landed short

4

9

1

2

16

Gear collapse/fail/up

8

8

2

13

31

Ice/snow

3

3

6

Fuel management/exhaustion

2

4

1

7

Windshear

1

1

1

3

Takeoff configuration

1

1

1

3

Off side on takeoff

1

1

3

3

8

Runway Incursion vehicle/people

5

1

10

16

Wing strike

2

2

Engine Failure/Separation

3

2

4

1

10

Ground collision

2

2

6

10

Ground Crew injury

3

2

2

7

Boarding/deboarding

2

2

4

Turbulance fatality

1

1

1

3

Miscellaneous

1

2

2

3

8

Fire on ground

1

2

3

2

8

aircraft structure

2

2

2

6

Unknown

1

3

3

7

Refused take-off end

3

6

3

2

14

Total

54

134

49

148

385

Table 1.1 Accident categorizes by airplane generation for the period 1990-1999 (Alexander T.Wells and Clarence C.Rodrigues,2005)

*Miscellaneous Accidents

-Coffee Maker Explosion
-Fuel spill
-Instrument error
-Hypoxia
-Jet blast
-Pilot incapacitated

-Taxied across ditch
-Window fail
-Tailstrike/RTO
-other

(Alexander T.Wells and Clarence C.Rodrigues)
Graft 1.4 Accident categorizes by airplane generation for the period 1990-1999 (Alexander T.Wells and Clarence C.Rodrigues)

Generation

Aircraft Type

First

Comet 4, 707/720,DC-8,CV-880/-990,Caravelle

Second

727,trident VC-10,BAC 1-11,DC-9,737-100/200,F-28

Early widebody

-100/-200/-300/SP, DC-10,L-1011,A300

Current

– MD-80,767,757,A310,Bae 146, A300-600, 737-300/-400/-500,F-100,A320/310/321, 747-400,MD-11,A340,MD-90,777,737NG,717

Table 1.2 Aircraft by generation (Alexander T.Wells and Clarence C.Rodrigues)
Graft 1.5 Accident Categories by airplane generation, all accidents, worldwide commercial jet operations. (1990-1999).(Boeing Commercial Airplanes Group)
1.2 Problem definition
The problem with the current situation is, even thought so many precaution have been make, but air disaster still happen. Is there any way to prevent this disaster to happen? Each country had theirs own investigation team. But after the investigation, still have some aircraft that crash and involve a mass casualty.
This research will study about the limitation of the investigation body if there is an air crash or air disasters occur in or outside of the investigation body region.
1.3 Objectives of research
The main objectives of this thesis are to make a research upon the investigation procedure and type of accident happen in Malaysia and throughout the world. These are several more objectives of the project:

Compare the investigation procedure between America and Malaysia.
To understand the concept of how the air disaster investigation procedure.
To prove that aircraft investigation can reduce air disaster.
Making a survey about the awareness of the investigation procedures.
To know the party that involved in board of investigation rules and regulation in Malaysia

1.4 Research scope
This thesis will go through the ICAO annex 13, Aircraft Investigation Procedure Manual and MCAR Part 12 to study the exact procedure of the Aircraft Investigation Procedures.
Chapter 2: Literature Review
2.1 Introduction
The Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation established the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) as a specialized aviation department within the United Nations. ICAO Annex 13 defines and directs requirements forAircraft Accident and Incident Investigationprocedures. As a result most nations or consortium of nations have some form of air regulating body which subsequently contains an investigation division.
Unfortunately not all agencies are created equally and national differences exist which influencefactual results in accident investigation. Six areas have been presented as a hindrance to proper investigative techniques in a paper by Dr. Horacio A. Larrosa of the International Society of Air Safety Investigators (ISASI)Accident and Incident procedures in Argentina MO4131.

Expertise and Experience
Investigative Budgets
Political and Religious Influence and Beliefs
Nepotism and Cronyism
Dedication and Desire
National Pride or Prejudice

2.2 Internationally Respected Players
2.2.1 National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB)
The National Transportation Safety Board is an independent federal agency charged with determining the probable cause of transportation accidents and promoting transportation safety, and assisting victims of transportation accidents and their families. The NTSB investigates accidents, conducts safety studies, evaluates the effectiveness of other government agencies’ programs for preventing transportation accidents, and reviews the appeals of enforcement actions involving aviation and mariner certificates issued by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG), as well as the appeals of civil penalty actions taken by the FAA.(NTSB,2002)
To help prevent accidents, the NTSB develops safety recommendations based on our investigations and studies. These are issued to federal, state, and local government agencies and to industry and other organizations in a position to improve transportation safety. Recommendations are the focal point of the NTSB’s efforts to improve the safety of the nation’s transportation system. (NTSB,2002)
NTSB Mission:
To promote transportation safety by

maintaining our congressionally mandated independence and objectivity;
conducting objective, precise accident investigations and safety studies;
performing fair and objective airman and mariner certification appeals; and
advocating and promoting safety recommendation. And
to assist victims of transportation accidents and their families.

2.2.2 European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA)
European Aviation Safety Agency has been the cornerstone of the European Union’s aviation safety programs for years; however, accident investigation has been the jurisdiction of each individual member state. In 2009 the EU outlinedthe requirementsto establish a “better and more uniform quality of accident investigations across the EU.” It will establish the rules for accident investigation for all states controlled by a central EU body in the near future. (EASA,2011)
The EASA has become the competent Community Aviation Authority for the safety of aviation underBasic Regulation 1592/2002; thus, it may be the recipient of safety recommendations related to the areas of its responsibilities. Furthermore, ICAO Annex 13 provides that the State of Design and the State of Manufacture shall each be entitled to appoint an accredited representative because of the function that have been attributed to each of those States with respect to the airworthiness of aircraft under Annex 8. Therefore, as the EASA is now in charge of the airworthiness, is shall be represented in Safety investigation in order to fulfil its obligation.(EASA,2011)
Under both, international and community law, all safety recommendations must be taken into full consideration by the entity to which they are addressed. In addition, in the preamble of theBasic Regulation 1592/2002it is stated that the results of the accident investigations should be acted upon by the EASA, as a matter of urgency in particular when, they relate to defective aircraft design or operational matters. ( EASA,2011)
To successfully discharge its responsibilities in this area, the EASA has included in its organ gram an Accident Investigation Section. It is responsible for the follow-up of occurrences where the Safety has been endangered. (EASA,2011)
Its main devoted tasks are:

To follow the progress of aircraft accidents and incidents investigations,
To be represented in investigations and collect information related to occurrences,
To achieve the processing of Safety Recommendations addressed to the Agency,
To provide progress reports and statistics on the Safety Recommendations processing,
To maintain a good coordination with European Accident Investigation Bodies,
To identify safety deficiencies and disseminate related information.

2.2.3 The European Three (E3)
The European Three are combination of the safety bureau in Europe, there are the Air Accidents Investigation Branch ( AAIB) of England, French Air Accident Investigation Bureau ( BEA France) and Aircraft Accident Investigation Bureau (AAIB Switzerland) are recognized as world leaders in several accident investigation areas. Not only do they aid nations of the EU in investigations but also non EU nations that have accidents involving aircraft manufactured in Europe, European registered aircraft, accidents occurring in any nation that was a colony of one of the EU member states and any nations requesting help.
2.2.4 Australian Transport Safety Bureau (ATSB)
Australian Transport Safety Bureau has gained a reputation as Oceana and Asia’s air accident investigating body. They are investigators in most of the small island nations of the South and Central Pacific or whenever requested by other nations. Australia’s development as a nation through the twentieth century was closely linked to the development of the aviation industry. This industry has helped us overcome vast internal distances and geographical isolation from the rest of the world.(ATSB, 2011)
The ATSB is responsible for the independent investigation of accidents and incidents involving civil aircraft in Australia. The ATSB’s primary focus for its investigations is fare-paying passenger operations. However, all accidents and incidents related to flight safety in Australia or involving Australian registered aircraft overseas must be reported to the ATSB. While the ATSB does not investigate all of these, it still needs to be notified so that the data can be recorded for possible future safety research and analysis. (ATSB,2011)
2.2.5 Transportation Safety Board of Canada
The Canadian Transportation Accident Investigation and Safety Board (TSB) has emerged as the leader in South and Central America. Similar to Australia the small population nation that is home to ICAO, works in close coordination with the larger NTSB in the USA. However, viewed as an alternative to Washington many Latin American nations work directly with Canada out of desire, security or necessity.(TSB, 2010)
Summaries
Most nations have the required ICAO investigative agencies but the variations between countries are still very strong. The positive factor for international accident investigation is that many investigators within these nations are willing to call upon each other and aid their work. Working together in the vast majority of air accidents, the public has a good chance of obtaining the truth about accidents within their borders.
2.3 Definition:
Before going through a little further, these are some definition that being use in the investigation for any accident or incident that happen. All definition are taken from ICAO , 2001, Annex 13, MCAR part 12 and NTSB 2002, Aircraft accident Investigation Manual.
2.3.1 Aircraft Accident
An occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft which takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight until such time as all such persons have disembarked, in which a person is fatally or seriously injured as a result of being in the aircraft or direct contact with any part of the aircraft, including parts which have become detached from the aircraft, or direct exposure to jet blast.
The aircraft sustains damage or structural failure which is adversely affects the structural strength, performance or flight characteristics of the aircraft, or the aircraft is missing or is completely inaccessible.
2.3.2 Aircraft Incident
An occurrence, other than an accident, associated with the operation of an aircraft which affects or could affect the safety of operation.
Serious incident – An incident involving circumstances indicating that an accident nearly occurred.
2.3.3 Investigation
A process conducted for the purpose of accident prevention which includes the gathering and analysis of information, the drawing of conclusions, including the determination of causes and, when appropriate, the making of safety recommendations.
2.3.4 Investigator in charge
A person charged, on the basis of his or her qualifications, with the responsibility for the organization, conduct and control of an investigation.
2.3.5 Chief Inspector
The Chief inspector of Air Accidents and includes any deputy chief inspector;
2.3.6 Inspector
Aperson appointed as an Inspector of Air Accidents
2.3.7 Field Investigation
An investigation which is not intended to be the subject of a report by an Inspector to the Minister.
2.3.8 Formal Investigation
An investigation which is intended tobe the subject of a report by an Inspector to the Minister.
2.3.9 Serious Injury
An injury which is sustained by a person in a reportable accident and which:

Requires his stay in hospital for more than forty-eight hours commencing within seven days from the date on which the injury is received
results in a fracture of any bone except simple fractures of fingers, toes or nose.
involves lacerations which cause severe nerve, muscle or tendon damage
involves injury to any internal organ; or involves second or third degree burns or any burns affecting more than five per centum of the surface of the body.

2.3.10 Aircraft.
Any machine that can derive support in the atmosphere from the reactions of the air other than the reactions of the air against the earth’s surface.
2.3.11 Causes.
Actions, omissions, events, conditions, or a combination thereof, which led to the accident or incident.
2.3.12 Flight recorder.
Any type of recorder installed in the aircraft for the purpose of complementing accident/incident investigation.
2.3.13 Maximum mass.
Maximum certificated take-off mass.
2.3.14 Operator.
A person, organization or enterprise engaged in or offering to engage in an aircraft operation
2.3.15 Preliminary Report.
The communication used for the prompt dissemination of data obtained during the early stages of the investigation.
2.3.16 Safety recommendation.
A proposal of the accident investigation authority of the State conducting the investigation, based on information derived from the investigation, made with the intention of preventing accidents or incidents.
2.3.17 State of Design.
The State having jurisdiction over the organization responsible for the type design
2.3.18 State of Manufacture.
The State having jurisdiction over the organization responsible for the final assembly of the aircraft
2.3.19 State of Occurrence.
The State in the territory of which an accident or incident occurs.
2.3.20 State of the Operator.
The State in which the operator’s principal place of business is located or, if there is no such place of business, the operator’s permanent residence.
2.3.21 State of Registry.
The State on whose register the aircraft is entered.
2.4 Investigation Responsibility for Instituting and Conducting the investigation.( ICAO , 2001)

2.4.1 Accidents or incidents in the territory of a contracting state.
State of Occurrence
The State of Occurrence shall institute an investigation into the circumstances of the accident and be responsible for the conduct of the investigation, but it may delegate the whole or any part of the conducting of such investigation to another State by mutual arrangement and
 

The importance of communication in aviation

Academic Research Paper
Aircraft is acknowledged as the most straightforward route for transportation on the planet. It is constantly utilized as a real and useful transportation across urban communities and countries. Subsequently the impact of aeronautics well being on human life is fundamentally essential. It is likewise extremely essential to give a careful consideration and be mindful of any conditions that may influence the well being issue in the field of aeronautics. Since the past aircraft crashes, it is evident that numerous aircraft calamities have been happened inside distinctive circumstances and causes. Communication difficulties and errors have been considered as a major factor in aircraft crashes. Ricard has mentioned “Air Traffic Control Management service methods are principles of technologies which were launched in 1950’s. From 1950 the Air Traffic Control Management were using a simple swapping of voice among the Air Traffic Controller and pilot.” The most paramount components that could be included in correspondence failure are because of lapses including people. Hence, misconstruing, absence of imparting plans and absence of clearness in configuration briefs, innovation and association disappointments, are some of numerous issues in conveying inside the aviation field. Regardless of the imperativeness of the above issues in flight calamities, one issue which is normal in numerous aircraft catastrophes is an absence of imparting data and information. Therefore in this paper I have tried to talk about the communication in aviation which includes the importance of communication between the pilot and the Air Traffic Controller and other numerous interchanges alongside the connection where the safety issues are introduced and effects of misleading communication and recommendations for improvements.

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Firstly. The importance of communication is that when the aircraft is service it needs to be guided step by step on every single movement or changes it goes through on its journey, if there is no one to guide the aircraft when it is in air then it is good as a flightless bird. During this journey of the aircraft from one destination to the other the worst scenario is expected as no one has clue of what could go wrong when. So at all times the aircraft has to feed the ground controllers with all the information and system changes that takes place to help maintain the aircraft safety. Now when the aircraft travel from one country to another then in order for the pilot or cockpit crew to communicate with that country Air Traffic controller it is impossible for the pilot to learn the respective language or the vice versa. If this was the case there will many difficulties and confusion in the communication so to avoid this it was identified that “English” will be used as the international language to facilitate the communication as it is a must that everyone has to learn this common language. Even when it has been established that communication between the pilot and ground or pilot and cockpit crew is important for the safety of the flight, they still fail to feed the correct or insufficient information while communicating, for example there was an incident where the aircraft was to land in the Miami airport and the it had two problems one was that it was losing its altitude and the other one was the nose gear light wouldn’t work, so the air traffic controller was aware of the elevation problem but not nose gear and the cockpit crew was aware of the nose gear problem but not losing the altitude so when the air traffic controller contacted the pilot all he asked was “How are things coming along out there?” and pilot replied “OK” both of them were referring to a different problems and in while the plane crashed in to the everglades. This is due to lack of information and knowledge.
Secondly. The effects of miscommunication, miscommunication could cause massive disaster of the aircraft, as the pilot will take decisions based on the information he receives from the air traffic controller and if the air traffic controller interprets wrong information then the pilot’s calculations will go wrong. There are many reasons for miscommunication, due to faulty in the equipments which is used to communicate or not conveying messages properly. When one party conveying message to another they do not ensure that if the message has been properly passed on or not. Misconception is a basic sort of correspondence lapse. As stated by Krivonos, “from the past disasters the reasons of numerous flight debacles are because of false impression or listening to wrong data. He likewise showed that typically much of the time, individuals hear what they hope to hear instead of what is really said; thusly this desire is not generally right. In this circumstance, it is accepted that when individuals make presumptions from their desires, they decipher the message from the genuine mean and what should listen.”
An alternate fault that could result in numerous mishaps and catastrophes is the off base verbal correspondence between the cockpit crew and the air traffic controller. Correspondence between cockpit crew and the controller are conceivable because of moving of data in information connection and radio. The connection of information decreases the possibility of misconception data between the ground controllers and cockpit crew on the other hand, the radio permits the ground controller to verify the pilot’s understanding and in the event of listening to wrong data, the direction will be transmitted in an alternate structure.
Lastly. Recommendations for improvements in communication in aviation, the use of (SCAD) are a very useful. Therefore utilizing a framework to trade the data and information between the flight and the air traffic controller is vital in future advancement. Utilizing the satellite correspondence and a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) framework is needed for withdrawing information. The SCADA framework with incorporated control will assist to keep all advanced data and have the capacity to exchange information and files to diverse associations. The computerized data then might be transformed for further choice in Ground Control Management. As more than enough and right data is utilized for preparing, the best and the correct choice will be taken. SCADA is a structure that gathers information and data from many different standards of resource. In such circumstance sensors could be introduced in every aircraft to interpret all information to a focal area or processor for managing and withdrawal of paramount information. The best preference of SCADA is that it can consequently work without individual impedance thereby decreasing the danger of an individual failure. SCADA boost up the proficiency of getting information. This will reduce the measure of hazard that an aircraft could be in danger of. It empowers to gather information naturally and guarantee the right data being imparted and serves to decrease the amount of erroneous data that could be imparted by any aircraft organization. Morlet et al projected “the use of new advances, for example, satellite frameworks for information transmit and correspondence in flying. They brought up that the satellite correspondences will handle incredible achievement in transport administrators, for example, planes, ships, and trains. Presented utilizing expansive band satellite correspondence framework for administration in teams of aeronautical situations.” Radzik proposed a framework plan for get to in air nautical provisions utilizing the same satellite connections as prompt inspiration of satellite interchanges for ground traffic control. The satellite framework permits imparting of data in the flight framework. In this manner, air movement controllers can accept more terrific understanding into administration, while pilots are answerable for staying off the beaten path of other flights. They called attention to that utilizing distinctive advances for diverse flight stages is essential in future. Thusly, in view of the past studies, a proposal is recommended for development of avionics framework administration.
The aviation industry is expanding and even when there are many aircrafts accidents which are mostly due to miscommunication between the cockpit crew and air traffic controller. Communication is one of the vital things that aircraft requires when it is in service as without communication the aircraft is blinded, miscommunication could even make things worse which would ultimately end up with a catastrophic event and so it is necessary that correct measurements has to taken to improve communication by using Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCAD) and proper air traffic management. This change has to be carried out immediately and the result will be visible in the changes that have been made. Also requires more research on this idea and attempt more to reduce the aircraft crashes by vast number.
In conclusion the communication is very important human factor which leads to many aircraft crashes and incidents while cruising and on ground. Therefore everyone in the aviation sector is obliged to have good communication skills, and should implement steps to reduce miscommunication.
Word count: 1510
 

Conflict Management in Aviation

 
Conflict Resolution
Conflicts occur when there are disagreements between an individual or groups. When an individual strongly oppose each other’s ideas a conflict may start. Conflict can start anytime and at any place between anyone. A conflict results in verbal arguments, abuses and also spoils relationships. What should be noted is no matter how well you manage your organization conflicts may arise no matter what. Conflicts are always not bad for an organization. If managed properly conflicts can generate a positive outcome to the organization.
Different skills are used by the authorities to solve conflicts. Discussed below are few strategies used to manage conflicts.

Accommodating- this strategy essentially gives the opposing side what it wants. The use of accommodation often occurs when one of the parties wishes to keep the peace or treats the issue as minor.
Avoiding- The avoidance strategy tries to put off conflict before it happens. By delaying or ignoring the conflict, the avoider hopes the problem resolves itself without a argument. Those who actively avoid conflict frequently have low esteem or hold a position of low power. In some circumstances, avoiding can serve as a profitable conflict management strategy
Collaborating- This works by joining ideas set out by multiple people. The main objective of this strategy is to find a creative solution acceptable to everyone. Collaboration, though useful, takes significant time to be solved
Compromising- This strategy typically calls for both sides of a conflict to give up in order to establish an acceptable solution. This strategy prevails most often in conflicts where the parties hold approximately equivalent power.
Competing- This strategy usually results in which one side wins and other loses. Highly assertive personalities often fall back on competition as a conflict management strategy. Although this is not the best solution for a conflict it is widely used by the management to solve conflicts.

On the topic of conflict management George Kohlrieser states that, ‘Conflict management plays a very important role at workplaces to prevent conflicts and for the employees to concentrate on their work. The team leaders must ensure that the roles and responsibilities of each and every employee are clearly passed on to them.’
Managing conflicts is very vital for the organization because if not handled properly they can affect the productivity of the company output. Training the staff of such situation can be advantageous to the organization by many ways. If the necessary training is given to the staff the conflicts can be prevented and be handled in a more professional manner. The employer would also feel the importance of conflict management and also would make sure to contribute to prevent it at any cost.
Merit 02
Conflict Transformation
One perception of a conflict is that it can be good for the organization. If a conflict has come up it is verily due to one of the weakness within the organization. Once this weakness is identified the organization or business is able to rectify it and operate better. Conflicts are classified into two as long term and short term. Short-term conflicts can be relatively easily resolved while long-term conflicts involve non-negotiable issues that tend to resist resolution.Conflict may be a burden to the organization if it goes long term. As we have discussed before, an unresolved conflict may affect the productivity of the company and would result in the downfall of the organization.
The following texts are taken from Challenges of negotiating long term concerns (2010),‘to protect the future interests of their organization, negotiators sometimes must accept fewer benefits or absorb greater burdens in the short run to maximize the value to all relevant parties – including future employees and shareholders – over time.’
If the conflict is not resolved the organization would take every possible measure to solve it. Negotiators are brought in by the company if there is no short term solution for the conflict. This measure is taken by the organization to prevent the conflict to be a long term one because it would then become a more complex problem. The negotiators would try to accept the demands put up by the parties who are affected even if it’s not highly beneficial for the organization.
If a conflict does become a long term issue it would be a highly complex problem for the organization to solve. Then the organization would have to make sure to have constant interaction with the parties who are involved so that the conflict can be solved without any further due.
Distinction 02
Reasons for a conflict
Reason for conflict- The subordinate of the airline feels ignored by the superior and complains that the company is not bothered about the physical welfare of the individual and also feels that he is not satisfied with the return he gets on all the hard work he puts in.
Solution- The best solution the superiors can come up with is to first have a meeting with the sub ordinate to discuss the issue. Here they can discuss all the problems the individual is going through and a solution for it. Since the subordinate feels that he’s presence is not felt by the airline, the superior should get them involved during any decision making process of the company. Airlines should also have meetings and agendas to discuss the problems of the company and its employees. In this way the business is able to build a rapport between the superiors and its sub ordinates. This would make the employees that their idea is looked into and they feel that they too are important assets of the company.
Since the employee feels that he doesn’t get enough return for all the hard work he puts into, the airline decides to pay him extra for every additional hour he works. They also decide to give him an allowance for transport since he might have to travel late in the night during overtime.
The airline should make sure when giving solutions that the other employees are also treated fairly. Therefore before coming up with the solution the airline should study the operations first and then provide the solution after thinking wisely because an unresolved conflict could hamoer the potential production of the airline.
Task 04
Conventions
Tokyo Convention
This convention is also known as Convention of Offences and certain other acts committed on board of the aircraft. This was basically an international treaty which concluded at Tokyo on the 14th of September 1963. The Convention is valid to offences against penal law and to any act which tends to jeopardize the safety of persons or property on board civilian aircraft while in flight. Coverage includes the commission of or the intention to commit offences and certain other acts on board aircraft registered in a Contracting State in-flight over the high seas and any other areas beyond the territory of any State in addition to the airspace belonging to any Contracting State. Criminal jurisdiction may be exercised by Contracting States other than the State of Registry under limited conditions. For the first time in the history of international aviation law this convention recognized certain powers of the aircraft commander who on international flights may restrain any person he has reasonable cause to believe is committing or is about to commit an offence liable to interfere with the safety of persons or property on board or who is jeopardizing good order and discipline.
The Hague Convention
TheHague Hijacking Convention(formally theConvention for the Suppression of Unlawful Seizure of Aircraft) is multilateral treatyby which states agree to prohibit and punishaircraft hijacking. The convention does not apply to customs, law enforcement or military aircraft, thus it applies exclusively to civilian aircraft.The convention concludedon 16 December 1970, the convention has currently has 185 state parties. The convention only addresses situations in which an aircraft takes off or lands in a place different from its country of registration. The convention sets out the principle that a party to the treaty must prosecute an aircraft hijacker if no other state requests his or herextraditionfor prosecution of the same crime.
Montreal Convention
This convention was formally known astheConvention for the Unification of Certain Rules for International Carriage by Air. This convention was signed by 105 parties on the 28th of May 1999. It amended important requirements of theWarsaw Convention rule concerning compensation for the victims of air disasters. The Convention attempts to re-establish a new set of rules relating to the international carriage ofpassengers,baggageand cargo.

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The following texts were taken from Handling disruptive passengers (1998), ‘Unruly and violent passengers create a massive safety risk to the aircraft and its passengers. They can also prove to be very expensive to airlines. In some cases, captains have been forced to divert a flight to eject the violent passenger. British Airways has said that the average cost of an unscheduled landing is 40,000 pounds sterling.’
Airlines try their best when handling disruptive passengers because in aviation or any other business customer is considered as king. When it comes to airlines, they make sure to follow the specific guidelines provided to by IATA. Airlines are advised not to take drunken passengers in the aircraft. During flight if the airline feels that a passenger is getting too drunk, they can refuse to serve them more alcohol because it could make them unruly later on. Unruly and disruptive passengers are not tolerated by airlines because they can jeopardize the safety of aircraft, therefore airlines follow a strict set of rules when it comes to handling them. The airline crew can go to the extent of killing a disruptive passenger if they are trying to enter the cockpit forcefully. In minor cases such as verbal or physical abuse the cabin staff would use constraint belts to tie up the passenger.
Merit 03
Aspects of Conflict
There is a theory stating that conflicts have its own life cycles. At first stage it would not be that effective then during transformation it would reach an emotional level and event may lead up to a violent climax and then disappears and often reappears again. There is a reason why and individuals or groups have goals:

Goals may be mismatched (different from one another)
When goals are mismatched an issue would arise.
A party with unrealized goals would feel frustrated
Frustration then would lead to aggression which would also lead to verbal or physical violence.
This violence would affect conflict with the goals and objectives.

In this way a conflict would never be resolved. A simple conflict may combine with other conflicts and turn into a very complex situation where the solution can be complicating,
On the topic of conflict transformation Johan Galtung states that, ‘a conflict may almost get eternal life, vexing and waning, disappearing and reappearing, the original, root, conflict recedes into the background like when cold war attention focused mostly on such means of destruction as nuclear missiles.
Conflicts have both life-affirming and life-destroying aspects. Once formed, conflicts undergo a variety of transformational processes. .Conflict transformation is concerned with five specific types of transformation, focusing upon the structural, behavioral and attitudinal aspects of conflict:
a. Actors– modifying actors’ goals and their approach to pursuing these goals, including by strengthening understanding as to the causes and consequences of their respective actions;
b. Contexts– challenging the meaning and perceptions of conflict itself, particularly the respective attitudes and understandings of specific actors towards one another;
c. Issues– redefining the issues that are central to the prevailing conflict, and reformulating the position of key actors on those very issues;
d. Rules– changing the norms and rules governing decision-making at all levels in order to ensure that conflicts are dealt with constructively through institutional channels;
e. Structures– adjusting the prevailing structure of relationships, power distributions and socio-economic conditions that are embedded in and inform the conflict, thereby affecting the very fabric of interaction between previously incompatible actors, issues and goals.
For conflict transformation to happen, tensions between parties to the conflict must be overcome by ensuring that all actors recognize their interests not through violence. Conflict transformation looks beyond clear issues and is characterized by creative problem-solving. Conflict transformation involves a third party, in order to help actors modify their emotional views on the ‘Other’, thereby helping to break down divisions between the two parties involved in the conflict.
Distinction 03
Policy Regarding Unruly Passenger
Unruly and disruptive passengers are common sight which occurs in airports and also during flights. Passengers usually become unruly when they are drunk. Flight delays and or poor customer service are few other contributory factors for disruptive passengers. Airlines usually try their best to avoid such situations because it could affect the goodwill of the airline. Therefore airlines handle these cases with much precaution because they are highly sensitive.
The following texts are taken from Disruptive passenger behavior, ‘The problem of unruly passengers is constantly increasing within the airline industry. Although unruly passengers represent only a minute proportion of our passengers as a whole, we must never forget that one aggressive passenger can jeopardize safety on board.’
Airlines try to take immediate measure when handling unruly and disruptive passengers since they could jeopardize the safety of the aircraft. When it comes to handling these cases airlines usually follow the guidelines provided by IATA regarding handling unruly and disruptive passengers.
If the pilot in command feels that that the passenger has done or is about to do anything which may jeopardize the safety of the aircraft the pilot is entitled to take reasonable measures

To protect the safety of the aircraft.
Protect persons on board
Disembark unruly or violent passengers.

Such measure could include physically restraining the violent passengers. Every reasonable effort to protect passengers against any offences by unruly and disruptive passengers should be made. Passengers who are likely to be unruly and disruptive must be carefully monitored, and if necessary, refused embarkation. The flight crew is also trained to handle violent passengers. Alcohol is considered to be one of the root causes for unruly passengers therefore the crew makes sure to monitor the behavior of the passengers who consume alcohol. They also make sure to stop serving alcohol to passengers whom they feel will go to a state of drunkenness.
Airlines make sure to handle disruptive and unruly passengers in an appropriate manner so that the passenger’s feelings are not hurt because in fact the customer is king when it comes to any business.
Reference Page
Journals

Conflict Management (2005) by George Kohlrieserpg5

Available at:
http://www.imd.org/research/publications/upload/PFM149_LR_Kohlrieser.pdf?MRK_ CMPG_SOURCE=webletter-july-07>

Handling disruptive passengers (1998) by Martin Pittpg9

Available at:
http://www.ukfsc.co.uk/files/Safety%20Briefings%20_%20Presentations/Cabin%20Safety%20-%20Disruptive%20Passenger%20Guide.pdf>

Conflict transformation (2000) by Johan Galtungpg10

Available at:
http://www.transcend.org/pctrcluj2004/TRANSCEND_manual.pdf>
Websites

Challenges of negotiating long term concerns (2010) by Pon Staffpg 6

Available at:
http://www.pon.harvard.edu/daily/conflict-management/conflict-management-the-challenges-of-negotiating-long-term-concerns/>

Disruptive passenger behavior (1998) by Tim Chealpg 12

Available at:
http://www.ad-aero.com/airrage_causes.php>

Distruptive passenger behavior Pg 12

Available at:
http://www.hemmingfire.com/m/fullstory.php/aid/1702/Fight_or_flight.html>
1
 

Statistics with Aviation Application

Christopher Wright 
A. Type ofstatistical testyou planto conduct(check one, and giverelevantdetails)
 1-sample t-test
a) Target population:
b) Research variable:
c) Research question:
d) Expected result:
 matched pairs t-test
a) Target population(s):
b) The research variable will be the difference
between and
c) Research question:
d) Expected result:
✓ 2-sample t-test
a) Target populations (2): Total travel time between Midway and Denver & Houston and Denver
b) Research variable: Average total travel time
c) Research question: Is the average total travel time flying into Denver from Midway and Houston the same?
d) Expected result: The average total travel time is not the same.
B. Data collection plan(check one,and give relevant details)
✓ I will use data from a file. Give name of file and details below.
I will be using the “Southwest Airline Data” found in StatCrunch to test my hypothesis.
I will obtain data from a website(s). Give Name of website(s), full URLs and details below.
 Other data collection plan: Give specific details below.
Project plan is: NOT Accepted x AcceptedDate 3/2/17 Instructor Initials SH
Introduction
The intent of this t-Test project is to study and determine the average total travel times between Midway International airport (MDW) and Denver International airport (DEN) & William P. Hobby airport (HOU) and Denver International airport (DEN). Geographically speaking, both routes travel nearly the same distance with the final destination being DEN. This begs the question, is the average total travel time flying into DEN from MDW and HOU the same? To test this question, this paper will review a random sample of travel times between both routes of travel. Common sense tells us that even though the distance traveled to DEN for both routes is nearly the same, there are other variables (ex. ground delays, maintenance and weather) that can affect the total travel time of an aircraft. Therefore, the hypothesis will be that the average total travel time between the two routes will not be the same.
This study will only be discussing all Southwest Airline flights departing from MDW and HOU traveling to DEN. A random sample of 50 routes will be collected and tested. The focus variable will be the average total travel time between the two respective locations and will be collected and calculated in minutes.
It is important to note that the result of this test will only be valid within the test parameters.
(Source: ForeFlight)
Study Design
The study will be conducted as a two-sample t-Test with a 95% confidence interval and a 0.05 level of significance.
Hypotheses:H0: μ1 = μ2 (MDW-DEN and HOU-DEN routes have the same mean travel time)
Ha: μ1 ≠ μ2 (MDW-DEN and HOU-DEN routes do not have the same mean travel time)
To test whether the total travel for both routes is the same, we will state that the null hypothesis is that the total travel time for both routes is the same. The alternative hypothesis will propose that the total travel time for both routes is not the same. The formulation of the hypothesis for this study will produce a two-tailed (left and right) result.
Data
The data for this study was collected and is maintained by Embry-Riddle. It is located on the StatCrunch website under the MATH 211/222 data set group. The data that was collected was a sample of overall operations with Southwest Airlines at the Midway (MDW), Houston (HOU), and Dallas Love (DAL) airports. Southwest airlines operates from these airports almost every day and at multiple times during the day. For the sample to be representative of the overall population, it would have to mimic these population parameters. The sample that was collected does just that. It is representative of the overall population of all Southwest Airline operations at MDW, HOU, and DAL because the data includes information from different days and times. This fact also lends itself to the avoidance of bias. The other key with avoiding bias is to be as random as possible while still representing the parameters of the overall population. Furthermore, for the purposes of this assignment we will assume that the appropriate steps were taken by Embry-Riddle to provide its students that avoided bias to the best extent possible.

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From the large compilation of data, we will now shift the focus to the specific data to be tested. The data from Figure 1, located in the appendix, is the 50 specific data points that will be tested and includes the total travel times of both routes. To continue with preparation for the t-Test, we will ensure that the samples are independent and that the size is normal. The samples are independent because you can only be on one route of flight at a time, either traveling from MDW or HOU to DEN. Finally, for the purposes of this study will say that 50 data points (meeting the assignment requirement) is large enough, and therefore normal.
Figure 2
Figure 3Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6Figure 7
Descriptive Statistics
After ensuring that the data meets all conditions required for our particular confidence level of 95%, it is important to describe the data through statistical analysis and graphs (Figures 2 through 8). Figures 4 and 7 show that both sets of data have symmetrical distribution with little skew in either direction. Note thought that figure 4 displays Figure 8 a greater standard deviation. The boxplots (figures 3 and 6) help better describe figures 2 and 5, but are more effectively displayed with a side by side plotting as shown in figure 8. There we see that the medians are within 5 minutes of each other and that the data is not vastly separated. We can see that most of the data points from the HOU-DEN route would fit within the MDW-DEN IQR; and that all of the HOU-DEN sample data would fit within the bounds of the min and max data points for MDW-DEN. This side by side comparison makes a strong argument that even through there are differences between the data of both routes, those differences may not be statically large enough to reject the null hypotheses.
Findings
Original Question: Is the average total travel time flying into DEN from MDW and HOU the same?
Hypotheses:H0: μ1 = μ2 (MDW-DEN and HOU-DEN routes have the same mean travel time)
Ha: μ1 ≠ μ2 (MDW-DEN and HOU-DEN routes do not have the same mean travel time)
As we previously discussed, the initial look and plotting of the data showed that even though the routes were different, the data was close enough that it may not be statistically different enough to reject the null hypotheses. When looking at figure 10 and 11 to comparing the p-value (0.1627) to the significance level (0.05), we find that the p-value is larger and therefore we do not reject the null hypothesis. This supports the expected findings and shows that even though the data between the two routes was slightly different, it was still not statistically different enough to reject the null hypothesis.
In figure 9, the 95% confidence interval is 4.885 ± 3.445, or about (-1.44, 8.33). This confidence interval includes 0 and therefore both the null and alternate hypothesis are plausible. Only after conducting the hypothesis test were we able to conclude not to reject the null hypothesis.
Confidence Interval and Hypothesis Test Results
Figure 9
Figure 10
Figure 11
Final Discussion
In conclusion, we see that the average travel times between MDW and DEN & HOU and DEN are very similar. So similar that we were unable to reject the alternative hypothesis that they were not the same. The results we obtained in the test were expected, especially considering that the distance traveled for each route is nearly the same. The biggest take away from this project is how close all of the data was for both routes. This shows just how accurate Southwest Airlines can be when it publishes the average times of travel for these routes, and also how effectively the can plan out their flying schedule. Specifically for the test conducted, we can see just how consistent their average flying time is between destinations separated by the same approximate distance.
 
Appendix
Total Travel Time Samples

MDW-DEN Time

HOU-DEN Time

151

154

157

149

144

140

146

141

163

136

146

135

148

143

133

134

131

135

136

132

135

135

128

142

127

141

139

146

138

138

131

148

144

153

145

144

163

146

131

165

150

151

147

143

144

166

149

149

148

151

Figure 1
 
Sources:
ForeFlight. Vers. 8.2.3. N.p.: ForeFlight, 2007-2017. Computer software application
StatCrunch. Computer software. www.statcrunch.com. Pearson Education, 2007-2017. Web. 6 Mar. 2017.
“Southwest Airline Data.” StatCrunch – Data analysis on the Web. Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, n.d. Web. 06 Mar. 2017. .

Aviation Safety Strategies at Airports

Aviation Safety Strategies at Airports within the United Arab Emirates
One of the major issues that is relevant directly to airports, their management and operations is that of safety. It is the one area of the airport business that bound to cause concern to all of the business stakeholders, which includes airline operators, employees and the travel public. Recently, the international and regional airport and aviation authorities have developed a Safety Strategic Plan, which is recommended for use by all airports, indeed such a plan will become compulsory from January 2009.

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However, the development and implementation of such a plan is only the first step in the process. What is more important is that the plan is operated in practice in a manner that ensures its efficiency and effectiveness in addressing the issues that it has been designed for, namely to reduce and eliminate the potential for risk in safety issues.
With the continual growth of air travel and the fact that this standard has only recently been developed it was felt that there was a need to study whether there is the willingness and necessary processes within the airport organisational structure to commit to making this plan work. Using airports within the UAE as an example, due the regions higher than global average growth of air travel, it was found that in some areas, specifically management commitment, resources and knowledge, there were areas of difficulty that needed to be addressed, particularly if the airport industry wishes to retain the confidence and trust of those that it serves, and specifically to ensure that air travel retains its safe operation record.
Table of Contents (Jump to)
 
Chapter 1 – Introduction
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Aims and Objectives
1.3 Overview
Chapter 2 – Literature Review
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Airports and air travel
2.3 Airport operations
2.4 Airport safety
2.5 Regulations and legislation
2.6 Summary
Chapter 3 – Methodology
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Choice of research method
3.3 Secondary data
3.4 The questionnaires
3.4 Performance of the research
Chapter 4 – Analysis of Questionnaire’s
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Part 1
4.3 Part 2
Chapter 5 – Discussion and Analysis
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Discussion
Chapter 6 – Recommendations
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Industry recommendations
6.3 Further research
Chapter 1 – Introduction 
1.1 Introduction
As Dr Tarib Cherif (2008), general secretary of the ICAO[1] said in his introduction to an airport aviation summit held in Abu Dhabi in January, “Airport and airspace congestion in certain parts of the world are currently stretching sir navigation and ground facilities to the limit.” Furthermore, as this address goes on to add, with expected increases in global air traffic set to achieve growth of nearly 6% on average during the course of the next few years, with some areas of the world seeing double this figure, this will increase the pressure on all airport facilities and operations. Similarly, as the numbers of air travellers grows, the size of aircraft needed to carry this passenger load will also increase, as has been seen with the introduction of the latest European Airbus A380. Such aircraft will also add to the pressure at airports, both in terms of the flight operations and handling of extra passengers at times of boarding and alighting times (Wong 2008).
With the advent of these changes, none of the airport resources will become more tested than those involved with strategic airport safety systems. Safety at airports is a complex issue that affects virtually every aspect of the airport authority’s operations and, in addition, it relates to all of the resources being utilised, which includes the buildings, airfields, air traffic control, internal transportation methods, passenger controls procedures and the business employees. As such, it can be seen to be an issue of significant importance to the welfare of those who use these facilities, which include the airline operators who both have operational hubs at the particular airport location and those who use the location as destination points.
As with any other aspect of corporate management within airports, the effectiveness and efficient operations of safety systems within this environment need to be established and maintained through a process of strategic planning and monitoring, a process that has to be kept continually under review to ensure that it is regular upgraded to take into account the changing demands brought about by increased passenger loads, flight frequency and aircraft design and capacity. It is therefore important that the safety requirements of all areas if the airports supply chain are incorporated within this planning process. Furthermore, insofar as security issues such as terrorism impact upon safety issues, these also have to be incorporated within the strategic planning stage of safety system development.
Because of the high level of important that airport operational safety has for all of the business stakeholders, if follows that the concerns of these various interested parties is not only that the airports are developing safety strategic plans, but that these are being embraced by all those who work within the organisation and implemented and monitored in a manner that can be relied upon to deliver the expected performance levels and objectives, with is to ensure the safety of all and striving to address and reduce areas of safety risk. Incidents such as a near miss on runways near miss, accidents and terrorist acts within airport concourses and other safety related issues heighten concerns about airport safety and bring into question the quality of safety procedures that are in force at these locations. It is these issues that have formed the motivation for this research, namely can there be confidence and trust in the airport strategic safety planning and implementation process?
To provide a starting position for continued research into the issue of strategic safety planning and systems in airports, this study has concentrated solely upon the current situation as it has developed within the airports of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). This region was chosen because its size, with only six airports in total, together with the fact that is still in the process of international airport development, means that it provides a more appropriate area to begin this analysis and evaluation because strategic safety systems might be in an embryonic stage. In addition, as will be seen within the analysis of existing data in the literature review in chapter two, the Middle East is one of the fastest growing regions in the world in terms of air travel. Furthermore, with the limited number of airport within a limited area it was anticipated that, by choosing to focus the study on two airports in the region, the results would be a fair representation of the state of strategic safety planning in the region generally.
1.2 Aims and Objectives
The aim of this research is to provide an assessment on whether airport authorities have engaged with and embraced the process of strategic planning for the development of an airport safety system and, if so, to what extent these have been successfully implemented and maintained. In essence, the aim of the research can therefore be encapsulated within the following hypothesis: –
“To provide a clear understanding of the development and operational impact of the process strategic safety planning process within the six main airports that exist within the United Arab Emirates and identify whether these are efficiently implemented.”
To enable the achievement of these goals, it is intended to work towards addressing the following objectives: –

To evaluate the needs and requirement of safety system maintenance and monitoring within the changing air travel environment.
To provide an overview of the level of understanding and competency of airport personnel from the analysis of primary data responses.
To provide an assessment of the effectiveness and efficiency of the strategic safety planning process when experienced within a practical environment. This is be achieved by examining the results collected from primary data resources.

It is felt that the above objectives will enable the research to provide a meaningful conclusion to the issues being addressed as well as allowing for recommendations for the future to be included where these are considered to be appropriate.
1.3 Overview
The study has been organised in a manner that enables a logical continuity of development of the issues that have been addressed and the way the research itself has been conducted, which is intended to add clarity of understanding for the reader. The following explanation therefore provides an overview of the study format.
Within chapter two, which commences following this introduction, a critical literature review is provided, within which analysis an evaluation into previous literature and studies into the issues of air travel, airport operations and safety performance issues with be addressed. It will also be used to highlight some of the areas of concerns that have been encountered by other researches on these subjects. Moving on to chapter three, the research design and methodology will be explained in greater detail. This will incorporate the author’s reasoning for the research method that has been chosen together with an explanation of how any constraints and limitations have been addressed. Furthermore, to enable others to following the logic of this study a short explanation of the data collection methods and research performance is also included. The findings from the primary research that has been conducted in support of the aims and objectives of this study, are presented in chapter four, and these will be analysed and discussed in further details in chapter five, where they will also be compared and evaluated by other existing data. As a result of these discussions, and where pertinent, appropriate recommendations will be presented in chapter six. These will relate both to the practical issues being faced by airport authorities when dealing with strategic safety planning and implementation, and suggest areas where further research may add more value and knowledge to this particular discipline. The study is then brought to a conclusion in chapter seven. Following the conclusion of this research paper, a list of reference sources is attached together with appendices, which includes additional information and data that was considered to be helpful in adding understanding to the study content. For example, detailed responses to primary data activity falls within this category.
Chapter 2 – Literature Review
2.1 Introduction
Business research studies set in isolation in general prove to be of little value except as forming a foundation for future research into the same issues. However, such researches are of more immediate interest where they have been set within, and compared with, the existing published literature and studies conducted within the same discipline. This critical literature review has been included with that purpose in mind. For reasons of clarity and understanding it has been segmented into three specific sections.
2.2 Airports and air travel
As was quoted from Dr Cherif’s (2008) address in the introduction to this study, air travel is continuing to see growth levels of around 6%, or to be more accurate 5.8% for the industry as a whole (see table 1). However, as this table indicates this is not being achieved by a balanced pattern when one analyses the position on a regional basis, as the same table, which covers the movements of around 94% of all international scheduled airline flights, although it does exclude the domestic travel, shows.
It is clear from this analysis that whilst North America and Europe has reached what could be considered a point of relative saturation, in other areas of the world there have been significant growth and losses being achieved. In terms of losses Africa is the major loser in terms of passenger travel and, joined with Latin America, is also losing its share of freight travel.
Table 1 Current air travel growth statistics

March 2008

 

RPK

ASK

 

FTK

ATK

v March 2007

Growth

Growth

PLF

Growth

Growth

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Africa

 

-4.30%

-6.00%

70.10%

-22.60%

-10.80%

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Asia / Pacific

4.30%

4.90%

76.50%

1.70%

2.10%

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Europe

 

3.70%

4.00%

77.50%

1.90%

3.70%

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Latin America

19.70%

15.80%

75.30%

-15.20%

13.50%

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Middle East

 

15.40%

16.30%

74.90%

15.20%

17.30%

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

North America

6.30%

6.10%

82.80%

8.80%

3.50%

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Industry

 

5.80%

6.00%

77.70%

3.30%

4.20%

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

YTD 2008

 

RPK

ASK

 

FTK

ATK

v YTD 2007

 

Growth

Growth

PLF

Growth

Growth

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Africa

 

-0.30%

-2.50%

69.60%

-11.90%

-4.70%

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Asia / Pacific

5.90%

5.50%

76.50%

2.60%

-3.00%

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Europe

 

4.20%

5.40%

74.00%

4.70%

5.50%

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Latin America

21.90%

19.60%

74.90%

-10.80%

12.80%

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Middle East

 

14.30%

15.00%

74.80%

15.80%

15.00%

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

North America

6.50%

6.80%

78.00%

7.80%

4.70%

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Industry

 

6.60%

6.90%

75.60%

4.40%

4.10%

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Explanation of measurement terms:

RPK: Revenue Passenger Kilometres measures actual passenger traffic
ASK: Available Seat Kilometres measures available passenger capacity
PLF: Passenger Load Factor is % of ASKs used. In comparison of 2007 to 2006, PLF indicates point differential between the periods compared
FTK: Freight Tonne Kilometres measures actual freight traffic

ATK: Available Tonne Kilometres measures available total capacity (combined passenger and cargo)

Source: http://www.iata.org/pressroom/facts_figures/traffic_results/2008-05-02-01.htm
However, what is more important in terms of the objectives of this research is the position being achieved within the Middle East, both in respect of the month against month and year to date comparisons. In terms of passenger and freight air travel this region has experienced a growth rate in excess of 15%, which, when considered against a 74.9% passenger load factor, indicates that there has been a considerable increase in the number of travellers that area using the UAE airport facilities. Furthermore, in terms of its share of the international passenger market, the UAE now accommodates around 8% (see figure 1).
When this is compared with the share that the region held as of 2001 (see figure 2), it confirms that the region’s air travel passenger growth pattern is increasing at significant rate, quadrupling in the space of the past six years, with similar growth being achieved within the freight market share.
It is apparent from these increases that, when compared with airlines in other areas of the world market, the Middle East airport systems are having to contend with a level of change in the services and products that they provide to the travelling passenger. In addition, the increase in the numbers of flights and operators using the airport facilities present these airports with additional pressures in terms of air traffic control and other infrastructure issues (Wells and Rodrigus 2003).
2.3 Airport operations
As Anne Graham (2003, p. 98-99) in her study of airports and their management has rightly observed, the increase in air traffic and indeed the shape of airline travel, has changed dramatically during the course of the past few decades. Growth of passengers and changes in their expectations has led to an increase in the number of facilities being offered in an effort to improve the traveller’s experience. This includes the expansion of retail and refreshment areas within the waiting areas and departure lounges (Graham 2003, p.100). This aspect of the airport expansion of revenue attracting resources has now become a significant contributor to the airport’s total revenue (Graham 2003, p.147). In addition, the airports have had to respond with major improvements to their sites in order to cater for the increase in aircraft traffic, which has in some cases included additional runways and maintenance facilities and well as administrative offices for these corporations. An example of this expansion can be seen in the development and improvements that have been made to the Abu Dhabi airport over paste few years (News 2008). As this article, following a doubling of passenger traffic between 1998 and 2006, with this growth expected to continue at around 30% by 2010, the airport authority has invested in excess of $230 million in increasing the runways and other internal facilities being offered by the airport. The Dubai airport underwent a similar process of transformation in the 1970’s and 1980’s (DIA History 2008).
The relationship between the airports and the airlines that it services has also changed, especially following the successes and growth of the “low-cost” or budget sector (Graham 2003, p.100). Not only did this mean that these airlines no longer required the lavish offices and passenger reception lounges that were available to them in the past (Delfmann et al 2005), but because of the nature and small margins of the low-cost airline model there have been increasing demands made upon the airport industry to reduce the carrier cost, for example by these carriers seeking reduction in landing fees (Wells and Rodregues 2003. Delfmann et al 2005 and Graham 2003). With the budget airlines being willing to transfer their business to secondary airports, who were prepared in most cases to cooperate over these issues, the major airports found themselves under increasing pressure to follow suite. Furthermore, part of the cost saving exercise for the low-cost carrier’s have been achieved by a process of improving turnaround times at airports (Wells and Rodrigues 2003). This is another issue that creates pressure for the airport, both in terms of the changes in the performance levels needed by air traffic control and then additional speed and resources that needs to be attached to enable the ancillary services, such as baggage handling to carry out their tasks.
However, perhaps the major issue that is affected by the growth in air travel for the airports, in addition to the extra facilities provided and the developing and changing relationship they have with the airlines, is in the area of safety.
2.4 Airport safety
As mentioned before, airport safety is of paramount importance (Graham 2003). This applies to the activities that take place within the terminal building, the airfield itself and the surrounding areas and ancillary services and facilities. For those who use the airport safety and comfort are paramount to their enjoyment (Delfman et al 2005, p.564) of the airport terminal facilities. Similarly, with rapid aircraft turnarounds, keeping runways and taxiing areas safe and working efficiently has an equal level of importance.
Safety and security is part of the same process within an airport environment and it is important for the authority controlling these facilities to ensure that the standards employed to maintain the safety of such an environment (Wells and Rodrigues 2003), by ensuring that the right level and content of safety measures is in force at all times and, furthermore, that these measures include a process for regular monitoring and changing as and when the changes in the environment suggests is necessary (Graham 2003). Amongst other issues this means being able to identify and address issues such as hazards that my cause concerns within or external to the facility (Graham 2003, p.111). Another important element is the training and awareness programmes needed for all of the employees (Wells 2005 and Graham 2003) aimed to ensure that a) safety rules are obeyed and b) that in the event of a safety incident the employees is able to respond rapidly and efficiently to resolve the problem.
In addition to the importance of safety measures for the obvious practical needs, the airport also have a duty to maintain these standards simply in order to ensure that their procedures comply with the relevant regulations and legislation that apply to their industry and operations.
2.5 Regulations and legislation
Internationally, the airports have to comply with many of the safety regulations and standards that have been set by the ICAO, which lays down certain procedures that must be carried out in the cases of safety breaches, for example accidents, injury and illness (Wells and Rodrigues 2005, p.72). In 2002, the ICAO was responsible for the adoption of the “Aviation Security Plan of Action”, which also included within its structure the safety aspects of running an airport (Graham 2003, p.259).
In an effort to ensure that the airport employees are sufficiently aware of and trained in the internationally accepted standards, the ICAO has produced a number of publications and runs training workshops (Wells and Roderigues 2005, p.99). Although the airport authorities are not obliged to use these facilities, they do have to ensure that their own training methods are sufficient to ensure that the key safety personnel within the business are qualified to the requirements laid down within the international standards. In the case of the UAE, the responsibility for airport operations and security and safety issues is dealt with through the regions own General Civil Aviation Authority, whose role and regulations reflects that of the international organisation.
Recently, the ICAO/GCAA have developed and introduced a programme known as Safety Strategic Plans. The intention is that every airport will be required to have such a document in written format within their operational facilities and that every employee must be trained and have complete knowledge of the safety procedures that are in force within the total airport complex. This document will have all the necessary reporting forms included and contain procedures for the monitoring of the safety programme in the practical environment (GACC). In addition to internal monitoring and auditing of the implemented safety strategic plan, the intention is that in the future, representatives from this organisations will act as external monitors to ensure that the safety standards and requirements are being adhered to by the individual airport. At present this plan is a voluntary process, but it will become mandatory from the beginning of 2009 (ICAO).
The ICAO and GCAA standards are directly related to safety as it impacts specifically upon airports and airlines (Graham 2003, p.111). However, in addition to these regulations, or in some cases incorporated within them, the airport will also be regulated by the other national health and safety legislation.
2.6 Summary
It can be seen from the research into previous and current literature that the air travel industry has changed significantly over the past few decades. Changes in the structure of the airlines, with the introduction of the low-cost carrier have led to a rapid expansion of the numbers of passengers that travel by air, with this growth expected to continue for the foreseeable future. This growth rate, which in the UAE is running at three times the global average, is placing additional pressure upon airport operations and their management. Responding to the loss of revenue as airlines have reduced their use of terminal facilities, the airports have reacted by increasing retail space and other facilities. However, the other impact that expansion of air travel has had is to bring additional pressure to bear upon existing airport facilities. An area that is of particular concern as a result of this situation is that of safety, both within the terminal complex and in the external areas of the airport. In an effort to address these concerns, the national, regional and international regulators are developing a safety strategic plan, which is intended to ensure that safety systems are maintained at a level that is sufficient to meet the current demands of the airport environment. The findings presented in chapter five and subsequent discussions and analysis in chapter six will assess how successful these new safety developments have been in practice.
Chapter 3 – Methodology
3.1 Introduction
One of the difficulties with addressing an issue such as the performance of safety programmes within an airport environment is that, because of the delicacy of the issue, incidences that can be deemed to have resulted from a breach of these regulations or poor implementation and monitori