Effect of Magnetic Field on Hydrodynamic Behavior

Effect of Magnetic Field on hydrodynamic behavior in a Microchannel Heat Sink
Mohammad Nasiri 1*, Mohammad Mehdi Rashidi 2,
1 Department Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 5166616471, Iran
2 Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
ABSTRACT
In this study, hydrodynamic behavior nanofluid (Fe3O4-water) in a MicroChannel Heat Sink (MCHS) with Offset Fan Shaped under magnetic field was numerically investigated. The two phase mixture model was used to simulate the nanofluid flow. Flow was assumed laminar, steady and incompressible. The effects of changing Reynolds number, power magnetic field, and nanoparticle diameter on fluid behavior are considered. The results show that the friction factor decreases and Nusselt number enhances whit rising Reynolds number. Whit increases intensity magnetic field the pressure drop, friction factor and Nusselt number increasing. The results indicate that non-uniform magnetic field has more effect on nanofluid behavior compare uniform magnetic field.
Keywords
Nanofluid; Microchannel heat sink; Magnetic field; Friction factor; Nusselt number

Nomenclature

,z

Cartesian coordinate axes

Velocity component in x and y and z direction, respectively (m/s)

(a,b)

Center of magnetic wire (m)

Velocity vector (m/s)

0

Velocity inlet (m/s)

Acceleration vector (m/s2)

Thermal conductivity (W/m K)

Specific heat capacity at constant pressure

Boltzmann constant (1.3806503Ã-10-23 J/K)

Temperature (K)

I

Electric intensity (A)

H

Magnetic field intensity vector (A/m)

Heat flux (1 MW/m2)

Channel width (300Ã-10-6m)

Hydraulic diameter (0.00001333 m)

Channel length (2.70Ã-10-3m)

Drag coefficient

Mean velocity (m/s)

Drift velocity (m/s)

Slip velocity (m/s)

d

Mean diameter (nm)

Nu=

Nuselt number

friction factor

=

Reynolds number

Prandtlnumber

Magnetic field (T)

Greek symbols

magnetic permeability in vacuum (4Ï€Ã-10-7 Tm/A)

Dynamic viscosity (kg/m s)

Thermal expansion coefficient(thermal expansion coefficient (K-1)

Density (kg/m3)

Mean free path (17Ã-10-9 m)

Magnetic susceptibility

Particle volume fraction

Electrical conductivity (s/m)

Subscripts

Particle

Base fluid

bw

Bottom wall

Effective

Average

Introduction
Nanofluids has higher thermal conductivities compared to them base fluids [1-5]. Currently the use of nanofluids in thermal engineering systems such as heat exchangers [6-7], microchannels [8-10] , chillers, medical applications [11,12], and solar collectors [13].
Tsai and Chein[14] investigated analytically nanofluid (water-copper and nanotube)  flow in microchannel heat sink. They was found that optimum values of aspect ratio and nanofluid did not make conversion in MCHS thermal resistance. Kalteh et al. [15] investigated the laminar nanofluid flow in rectangular microchannel heat sink both numerically and experimentally. Compared the experimental and numerical results presented that two-phase Eulerian-Eulerian method results are in better accordance with experimental results than the single-phase modeling. The reasons experimentally  study by Azizi et al.[16] reported that Nusselt numbers decreases whit rising Reynolds number and enhancement heat transfer by using nanoparticles camper to that of pure water for similar Reynolds number. Sheikholeslami et al. [17] studied effect nanoparticle on heat transfer in a cavity square containing a rectangular heated body numerically. They indicated that using nanoparticle increasing heat transfer and dimensionless entropy generation.
Micro channel heat sink (MCHS) using in many applications, such as microelectronics and high energy laser. MCHS cooling is very important because heat flux in this channel higher than regular channel. Many studies analyzed the convective heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids in micro channel heat sink in recently many years ago[18-24].
Sakanova et al. [25] investigated effects of wavy channel structure on hydrodynamic behavior in microchannel heat sink. They found that increasing nanoparticles in pure water the effect of wavy wall unnoticeable. Radwan et al. [26] using nanofluid on heat transfer microchannel heat sink in low concentrated photovoltaic systems investigated numerically. They show that nanofluids is effective technique for enhance heat transfer. Tabrizi and Seyf [27] investigated laminar Al2O3-water nanofluid flow in a microchannel heat sink. They showed that increasing volume fraction of Al2O3 and nanoparticle size reducing the entropy generation.

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Chai et al. [28-30] studied hydrothermal characteristics of laminar flow microchannel heat sink with fan-shaped ribs. Their results presented that used the fan-shaped ribs the average friction factor 1.1-8.28 times larger than the regular microchannel, while used the offset fan-shaped ribs was 1.22-6.27 times increases. Also the microchannel with large rib’s height and small rib’s spacing, the frictional entropy generation rate increases and thermal entropy generation rate decreases comparing than the smooth microchannel.
Magnetic fluid (ferrofluid) is a stable colloidal suspension consisting of a base liquid and magnetic nanoparticles that are coated with a surfactant layer and it can be controlled by external magnetic fields [31]. Sundar et al. [32-33] experimentally studied the heat transfer characteristic of Fe3O4 ferrofluid in a circular tube whit applied magnetic field. They detected that the heat transfer increases compared to water flow at same operating condition. Aminfar et al. [34-36] studied effect different magnetic field on ferrofluid for different channels. They showed that using the uniform and non-uniform transverse magnetic increasing heat transfer coefficient and friction factor. Also shown that non-uniform transverse magnetic enhanced heat transfer more than axial non-uniform magnetic field.
In this study, the uniform and non-uniform transverse magnetic effect on heat transfer of ferrofluids flow in a microchannel heat sink with offset fan shaped by using mixture model. The effects of uniform and non-uniform transverse power magnetic fields, Reynolds number and nanoparticle diameter variation are studied in details.
Governing Equations
Researchers presented different models for numerical analysis in multi-phase flows [37-40]. The mixture model is one of methods for nanofluid analyses [38-41]. In this study, flow is assumed steady state, incompressible and laminar with constant thermo-physical properties. The effects of body forces and dissipation are negligible. Also, for calculate the density variations due to buoyancy force was used the Boussinesq approximation. Considering these assumptions, the dimensional equations define as:
Continuity equations:

(1)

Momentum equations:

(2)

The term refers to Kelvin force; it results from the electric current flowing through the wire. In this equation, H is Magnetic field intensity vector that determined as [42]:

(3)

where

(4)

(5)

I is electric intensity. The wire direction is parallel to the longitudinal channel and in the center of cross section at the (a, b).
Also, M is the magnetization in Equation (2) and determined as [36]:

(6)

where is magnetic susceptibility of ferrofluid at 4% volume fraction for different mean diameter is present in Table 1.
Table 1. magnetic susceptibility of ferrofluid for different mean diameter

mean diameter

magnetic susceptibility

10

0.34858668

20

2.7886935

30

9.4118388

In Equation (2), is called Lorentz force that determined as:

(7)

Where and are respectively effective electrical conductivity and nanofluid velocity vector, also is the induced uniform magnetic field that can be calculated by intensity of magnetic field:

(8)

Energy equation:

(9)

Volume fraction equations:

(10)

In Equation (10), Vm, and Vdr are the mean velocity and the drift velocity, respectively, that be defined as:

(11)

(12)

where φ is the volume fraction of nanoparticles.
The drift velocity depends on the slip velocity. The slip velocity defined as the velocity of base fluid (bf) with respect to velocity of nanoparticles (p) and determined as:

(13)

(14)

The slip velocity is presented by Manninen et al. [31e]:

(15)

In Equation (15) f drag and r are drag coefficient and acceleration respectively, which can be calculated by:

(16)

(17)

In Equation (16), Rep = Vmdp/veff is the Reynolds number of particles.
Nanofluids Properties
The physical properties of water and Fe3O4 nano-particles are shown in Table 2. The water-Fe3O4 nanofluidis assumed is homogenous that the thermos-physical mixture properties calculated for 4% volume fraction of nanoparticles.
Table 2. Properties of base fluid and nanoparticles [35,40].

Properties

Water

Fe3O4

Density (kg/m3)

997.1

5200

Specific heat capacity (J/kg∙K)

4180

670

Thermal conductivity (W/m∙K)

0.613

6

Electrical conductivity (s/m)

5.3

25,000

Dynamic viscosity (kg/m∙s)

0.0009963

The physical mixture properties are calculated by means of the following equations:
Density of nanofluid:

(18)

Specific heat capacity of the nanofluid:

(19)

Dynamic viscosity of nanofluid [43]:

(20)

Thermal expansion coefficient of nanofluid [35]:

(21)

Electrical conductivity [36]:

.

(22)

Based on the Brownian motion velocity is Thermal conductivity of nanofluid [44]:

(23)

dp and dbf are particle diameter(nm) and molecular base fluid (0.2 nm).
In Equation (23) Pr and Re are Prandtl and Reynolds number, respectively defined as:

(24)

(25)

Also, in Equation (25) is water mean free path (17 nm) and kB is Boltzmann constant (1.3807 Ã- 10−23 J/K).
Definition of Physical Domain and numerical method
Fig.1 shown the geometry of the microchannel heat sink with offset fan-shaped reentrant cavities in sidewall. The channel width and space between a pair cavity is 300 μm.The channel length is 2.70 mm with a thickness of 350 μm and the pitch distance of two longitudinal microchannels is 150 μm.
The channel cross section heat sink has a constant width of 100 μm and constant depth of 200 μm and  radius of the fan-shaped reentrant cavity is 100 μm.

Fig. 1. a) Geometry of microchannel in the present study b) Cross-sectional plane of transverse non-uniform magnetic field c) Transverse uniform magnetic field
In this study, used the finite volume (FV) method to numerically solved non-linear partial differential equations. The velocity pressure coupling by SIMPLEC algorithm. The discretization of momentum and energy equations used the second order upwind scheme and the solid phase equations became discretization by first order scheme.
In this study for evaluate of effect the mesh points on the precision of the results, several grid sizes have been tested for the constant heat flux at Re = 300 are given in Table 3. The 1188000 grids is adequately suitable.
Table 3. Grid independent test (Re = 200,T0 = 300, 4% vol.).

V/V0

T/T0

Grid

1.038

1.027

672914

1.029

1.019

889440

1.023

1.013

1188000

1.02

1.011

1591128

In order to validate this, the amount of mean temperature at the bottom of the microchannel compared by numerical result of Chai et al.[45](Fig.2). Also for comparison effect the magnetic field, the dimensionless velocity under the magnetic field compared by analytical results of Shercliff [46] that shown in Fig. 3 and can be seen a good agreement between results.

Figure 2. Comparison of the results for average temperature bottom heat sink

Fig.3 Comparison between numerical and analytical results for flow under magnetic field
Boundary conditions
The set of non-linear elliptical governing equations are solved by using the boundary conditions in the entrance of microchannel (Z = 0),

u = 0; v = 0; w = v0 ; T = T0

(26)

at the microchannel outlet (Z = 2.7 mm):

; u = 0; v = 0 ;P = Patm

(27)

In the left and right sides of microchannel outer adiabatic walls (X = 0 & w):

(28)

In the microchannel inner walls:

(29)

(30)

Finally, a constant heat flux condition is imposed at micro heat sink bottom wall (y = 0).
Results and discussion
The variations of pressure drop and Reynolds number for various transverse magnetic fields are shown in Fig. 3a. It can be seen that for a given fluid, the pressure drop increases by increasing the Reynolds number because rising the velocity inlet. As shown in Fig. 3b whit increases intensity uniform and non-uniform magnetic field in the same Reynolds number (Re=300), the pressure drop increases for non-uniform magnetic because the secondary flow near wall became larger and powerful. Also scale up particle diameter of 10nm to 30nm decreasing pressure drop (Fig. 3c).

Fig. 3. Effects of various a) Reynolds number [H=6Ã-106, dp=30nm] b) power magnetic field gradients [Re=300, dp=30nm] c) particle diameter [H=8Ã-106, Re=300] on the pressure drop
Fig. 4 presented streamlines for various magnetic fields at 0.0015≤ Z ≤0.002. As shown in Fig.4, when magnetic field is weak the streamlines same together because the magnetic field had not enough powerful for veer stream. By increases intensity magnetic field the nanofluid flow shift to near wall and thereupon the vortex in reentrant cavities became powerful Fig.5.

Fig. 4. Stream lines in same Reynolds number (Re=300) and particle diameter [dp= 30nm] for a) non-magnetic field b) non-uniform magnetic field (H=6Ã-106 A/m) c) uniform magnetic field (H=6Ã-106 A/m)

Fig. 5. Stream lines in same Reynolds number (Re=300) and particle diameter [dp= 30nm] for non-uniform magnetic field a) H= 6Ã-106 A/m c) H=8Ã-106 A/m
The friction factor decreases as Reynolds number increases (Fig. 6a). The magnetic field cannot overcome viscous force and affect mean velocity when intensity magnetic field is low, therefor the friction factor is almost fixed for using magnetic and non-magnetic field. Whit increases intensity magnetic field the mean velocity decreases and while the pressure drop increases (Fig. 3.b); therefore, the friction factor increases at maximum intensity field (Fig. 6b). Also scale up particle diameter the main velocity and pressure drop decreases. The uniform transverse magnetic field is depended to velocity that whit decreasing velocity the uniform transverse effect decreases on flow, so friction factor rising (Fig. 6c).

Fig. 6. Effects of various a) Reynolds number [H=6Ã-106, dp=30nm] b) power magnetic field gradients [Re=300, dp=30nm] c) particle diameter [H=8Ã-106, Re=300] on the friction factor
Figure 7 shows the variations of average temperature bottom heat sink for different condition. Whit increasing Reynolds numbers the velocity increasing too and the vortex in reentrant cavities became bigger and powerful, thus average temperature bottom heat sink decreases (Fig. 7a). Effects of various power magnetic field gradients [Re=300, dp=30nm] on average temperature bottom heat sink presented in Fig. 7b. When the intensity magnetic field is weak cannot affect average velocity because cannot overcome viscous force. By strengthening the non-uniform transverse magnetic field the average velocity became larger and growth vortex in channel, therefore average temperature bottom heat sink reduces. Particle diameter rising, the non-uniform transverse magnetic had more effect than uniform transverse magnetic and non-magnetic on average temperature bottom heat sink (Fig. 7c). Whit scale up particle diameter decreasing thermal conductivity and heat transfer for when applied uniform transverse magnetic because it independent of particle diameter.
Figure 8 presented the variations of average Nusselt number for different condition. Nusselt number enhances with Reynolds number in
 

The Organizations And Behavior Commerce Essay

I would like to give you a short introduction about my UK Westfield Stratford based organization running very well in clothing. It is Primark, Primark is leading market retailer in clothing and operating nearly 200 stores all over the UK. Primark is based on lower end of the market and showdown their cloths according to the every single customers budget. Let’s go to the Primark’s structure and culture.
Task 1:
Task 1.1 Definition of the organisation culture: “The set of the set of beliefs, values, and norms, together with symbols like dramatized events and personalities, which represent the unique character of an organization, and provide the context for action in it and by it.” Beliefs and values are words that will pop up frequently in other definitions, as well. Norms might be described as traditions, structure of authority, or routines.” BY Gareth Morgan
Organisation: Organisation word is integrated with two words Org+ Nation. Means of that is how to organise.
Culture means which kind of the environment in which they produce products. Culture means what we are, what we are stand for, what we do. There is smooth feeling of an organisation means we are in between in special environment, all around of you rules and regulation. This kind of the feeling is shown that you are in different walking around an organisational culture. There are six types of organisational cultures:
Power culture: this type of culture is usually found in small and medium size of business organisation. In this system main thing is that control. Means of that a key person has controlled the organisation and they have the power of decision making. This kind of culture is like dictatorship and usually seen in SMEs.
Role culture: this kind of the culture found commonly in most of the organisations. In this type of the culture every person /employees have their own role. Like in organisation they are many employees working for a specific job, some of them are working manager, clerk, and more are on different type of job. A good example of this culture is bank (any). All of those employees working their individual role, clerk, cashier, anyone do.

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Task culture: a task culture means task is team based to fulfil and completed the task in a time boundary. This kind of the culture is popular in today’s world. A perfect example is of that a contractor. In construction is a team work and bound in time restriction. This culture is very beneficial and every employee feel empower and motivated in team work. In Primark we can see clearly task culture in organisation. Primark motivate to their employees to in lines of the organisational goal.
Person culture: person culture means own work and ownership, a person who is work for itself and his own boss, this kind of the culture is common in small (shops) organisations. For example of window shop, grocery shop etc.
Forward looking culture: some organisations come and across the barriers as very dynamic, they given the power to their employee to take risk and put forward new ideas. The organisations encourages to their employees for new innovations. This kind of the environment shows the forward looking culture. Ex The perfect example of that is a fashion designer and advertisement.
Backward looking culture: this kind of the culture is looking for previous methods and surveys for the organisations, they don’t want to take risk. They are usually slow than others.
Task 1.2 Organisational structures: organisational structure means the way of performing of organisations. It determines the manner in which it operates and performs. A structure allows the responsibilities for different departments for their work. It provides the better environment relationship between various sections of organisation. An organisational structure is often provide chart which will show how management working. This chart makes clear who work is for that. And who is responsible for what and who responsible for whom and who handle with this/that situation.
There are three types of organisational structure:
Hierarchical organisation: Hierarchical organisations are working as downward, there are many layers are below one by one, one manger has for their team and they are responsible to them. The resulting chart is showing as pyramid. A senior manager has their subordinates, they are responsible to them. Every body knows their place in the hierarchy. This system is enabling to tight control.
But communication is a problem with this system. Without effective management it can take longer time to pass the information to upper management. Staff are not fully empowered, every decision they need to approval of their seniors. This is effect on the morale of the employee; it is reduce the working capacity of the employee at work.
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Flat hierarchical organisation: in this system chain of command is much shorter than hierarchical organisation, and span of control is much wider. It means a manager has responsibilities of many employees. This structure provides more freedom and responsibility for their work. Communication is good between manager and their employees; it is effective in decision making.
This system gives employees more responsibilities for their work. Communication system with each other is good. It has producing good results and strong commitment and team spirit. Public banks are the original example of that. The role of manager and employees.
Matrix organisation structure: this structure is most complex organisational structure. This kind of the organisation is often creating for special/specific projects. It is for developing a new product. This system managed by manager. Decision making is quick and team is responsible for project complete in and on time. Example of that is: advertisement agency. They are work for a creative developing program.
Task 1.3 Look at the factors associated with individual behaviour and discuss how they influence an individual’s behaviour at work.
‘Behaviour is process of thoughts; the action what inner body is acting will be reacting in front of us’. (www.answer.com)
Behaviour means how a person react and acting and express their thoughts and their ideas. Some peoples are naturally smart and somebody is adapt and adopt by learning method, and behave according this. Means of that is how a person doing and react to show and see as well. Various factors are that:
Demographical factors: in this factor the organisation wants from an employee behave on their work. A person has good academic background and effective communication skill. And the person is belongs to social background, well educated etc.
Skills and abilities: a skill person has the ability to perform well at their work. Individual behaviour and performance is highly influenced by skill and ability. A person can perform well if they are ability and skill to prove their self.
Perception: there are many factors that influence the perception of a person. Perception is vital part of person. They play/perform good role according to his work and perform better with their knowledge in positive manner.
Attitude: the factors are mostly influence on the formation of attitude are family, society, culture and education. Then a person cooperates with their environment in a favourable way and produce good results.
Personality: personality reflects by family, society, culture and situation and background of the person. It helps them properly in directing their effort and motivating to achieve the goal/objective. And also a person shows their unique potential. It helps others to understand yourself and you will have the important key to motivating, helping and working with others. So every organisation demands a specific behaviour from their employees and such behaviour can discover by observation, learning, exposure, and training.
Task 2:
Task 2.1 Compare the effectiveness of the various leadership styles: Leadership styles is that looked at styles like that the autocratic and democratic styles which they explain are with limits, but in practice the behaviour of many, perhaps most, leaders in business will be somewhere between the two.
Define by Contingency theorists “Tannenbaum and Schmidt” suggested the idea that “leadership behaviour varies along a continuum and that as one moves away from the autocratic extreme the amount of subordinate participation and involvement in decision taking increases. They also suggested that the kind of leadership represented by the democratic extreme of the continuum will be rarely encountered in formal organizations”.
Four main leadership styles:
Autocratic: The leader takes the decisions and announces them; expecting subordinates to carry them out without any further question means of that leader of the team are total in power over their team and team have very little opportunity to give suggestion to them. This is an effective style of leadership and beneficial.
Persuasive: in this style leader have also took decision in organization without any discussion but they believe on some their trustful or able subordinates. They are creating a kind of positive environment in organization to motivate the employees to achieve the target. This style is also creating success for organization.
Consultative: In this style the leader discuss with the group members before taking decisions and, they are taking consideration, advice and their feelings about the project. If they want to advice from their employee if they are able and it is valuable for the project then.
Democratic: Democratic leadership has made the decision with all the advice of their team members and involves all of them in decision making process. This style creates an environment of satisfaction and also helps to develop the skills of peoples. They are feeling of motivation and they do hard work and produce better results. So it’s good for the organization and their self too.
Task 2.2 Explain how management theories relate to, and influence, the actual practice of management in the real world.
Management and leadership are fulfilling each other on that way leadership should be distinguished from management. Management involves in managing, operating, and planning. So manager play the role of leader and he/she has the authority to handle the every activities in the organisation.
Management have own areas and authorities position in organisation. Main three types of management theories:
Scientific management school:
The management theory is “the one best” by Fredrick Taylor. He also advocated the systematic training of workers in “the one best practice” rather than allowing them personal judgment in their tasks. Theory said that the workload would be shared between all the workers and with management, and management divided the work to the all staff according to their capability and suited to them.
Main thing of Taylor’s theory they broken down the complex task into smaller/sub tasks this was the theory by Taylor at the time of industrial revelation in UK.
Classical organisational theory school:
In this theory management are works of Max Weber’s bureaucratic theory and Henri Fayol’s administrative theory. According to the theories of Weber “ideal” bureaucracy as follows:
Fixed and official authority areas, a firmly ordered hierarchy of super and Subordination, management based on written records, through and expert training, official activity taking priority over other activities and that management of a given organization follows stable, knowable rules.
The bureaucracy was imagined as a large machine for attaining its goals in the most efficient manner possible. However, Weber was strictly of bureaucracy when he observed that the more fully realized, the more bureaucracy “depersonalizes” itself – that, the more completely it succeeds in achieving the discovery of love, hatred, and every purely personal, especially irrational and incalculable feeling.
According to the Weber: he imagines the pleasant environment of the organisation it is good for every business structure.
Task 2.3 Evaluate the different approaches to management:
Management is important part of every business organisation, their main task to do to make business plan, organise, control, coordinates and motivate to all levels to meet the desired result/target/objectives. Different organisations have used appropriate management theories to reach or accomplish the task. They are trying to provide the necessary knowledge about the human behaviour and possible human policies to control and motivate employees to get advantages to improve their efficiency and effectiveness.
Bureaucratic Management Theory
A form of structure to be found in many large-scale organisations is bureaucracy. Its importance in the development of organisation theory means that it is often regarded as a sub-division under the classical heading and studied as a separate approach to management and the organisation of work.
The tasks of the organisation are due as manager duties between the different situations.
A hierarchical authority applies to the organisation of offices and positions. Regularity of decisions and actions is achieved through properly well-known systems of rules and regulations. Together with a structure of power, this enables the coordination of various activities within the organisation.
This is designed to result in rational judgements by officials in the performance of their duties. An employment by the organisation is based on technical qualifications and represents a lifelong career for the officials
Human Behaviour Approach:
Human behavioural approach is that they believe that successful management depends mostly on a manager’s ability to how understand and work with people who have a range of environment, needs, awareness, and objective. The progress of this humanistic approach from the human relations movement to modern organizational behaviour has very much subjective management theory and practice.
With the Human Relations movement, training programs recognized the need to cultivate supervisory skills, e.g., delegating, career development, motivating, coaching, mentoring, etc.
Systems Approach;
The systems approaches go to rights these two earlier approaches and the work of the formal and the informal writers. They are focused on the total work organisation and the inter-relationships of structure and behaviour, and the choice of aspects within the organisation. This approach can difference with view of the organisation as like different parts. The systems approach encourages managers to view the organisation and may be some part of the business environment. So meaning of that any activity can affect the other part of the organisation.
The effect of systems theory is helping managers to look at the organization from a broader point of view. Systems theory has conveyed a new perspective for managers to understand outline and procedures in the workplace.
Contingency approach:
The contingency approach showed renewed concern with the importance of structure as a vital influence on organisational performance. The contingency approach, it is look like the extension of the system approach and the possible means of differentiating between optional shape of organisation structures and systems of management. There is no one best state. For example, the structure of the organisation and its ‘success’ are dependent, that is contingent upon, the nature of tasks with which it is designed to deal and the nature of environmental influences.
My points of view every organisation running to development and make profit so they are used all the latest trends, and trends come and go. They are good or bad depending on many variables: industry; company culture; education level of workers; existing contracts and laws; etc. Mostly, however, they are good or bad depending on how well they are applied.
Task 3:
Task 3.1 Impact of leadership; a manager and a leader have many ways they can impact an organisations work, they have impact upon the motivation and consequently the productivity of the organisation. Good leadership qualities are able to motivate a person to achieve group or team’s objective successfully, and success are based on the ability and skills of a good leader who can use according to the situation and justify with action, the example of their job action. These are many different approaches can adopt by a leader and it should be produce good results. We can go through basic these three methods, which can use by leader and manager to build a team to achieve objective. But it has been depending on the situations like as:
As an authoritarian style if a new employee who doesn’t know any thing about the job. A good leader is become good coach for him/her. And that way employee will motivate to learn new skills with new environment to follow their goal.
As a participative style in a team of workers who don’t know and understand their job and in case of any problem a leader who has all the effective skills to handle the situation and he can set example for the employees with participative manner, it could up the moral of the employee and participate in the job and become a part of the team.
As a delegate style if an employee who knows more about the job than leader. Then a leader needs to give the chance to show their skill towards the goal of the team. It could be a great reward for him and in that way a leader encourage the team to do hard work.
Using all these three styles a leader can win their employees confidence and produce good results for their organisation.
 
The personal recognition for team members will positive impact on team and which is play enormous role to success, it is real motivate for an employee to utilize their capability to successfully achieve goals.
If you give their employee credit for the success of the team and makes employee motivate and work hard to achieve group’s assignment.
Group success is dependent on their employees’ knowledge and skills.
A positive environment shows the effective style of leadership, it build good team which is working for specific purpose.
There is a metric or measure of group’s success that is available to the individual
Primark is believes in bringing out the best in all our people, and allow them to realise with their full potential. And company promotes and encourages the learning and development throughout the business and aiming to build up the capability of their employees. And company recognise the area which need to improvement. This means company develop the need could achieve their target.
3.2 Explain the motivational theories of Maslow, Herzberg, McGregor and Vroom and compare how well their theories 3.3 and usefulness of the theories.
‘Definition: motivation is based on three specific aspects such as the arousal of behaviour, the direction of behaviour, and persistence of behaviour. Arousal of behaviour involves what activities human behaviour and direction of behaviour is concerned with what directs behaviour towards a specific goal. Persistence of concerned with how is the behaviour is sustained’. By www. ezinearticals.com
Theories of motivation:
Motivation is very important processor of an organisation, if a company motivate to their employees they should be improve their position in corporate world. Motivated employees mean work are progressing with efficiently and effective way. Employees are working with more responsibility and always think about the progress /improvement of the work and organisation.
There are three main theories are for motivation:
Herzberg’s two factor theory: it works as hygiene factor and motivator factor. Hygiene factor is works according to those elements include: company policy and administration, wages, salaries and other financial payment, quality of supervision, quality of inter-personal relations, working conditions, feelings of job security. This theory is directly motivating employees work hard. It has a problem with the theory would de motivate an employee if not present.
Motivators are more concerned with the actual job itself. For instance how interesting the work is and how much opportunity it gives for extra responsibility and promotion. Herzberg believed that businesses should motivate employees by adopting a democratic approach to a management.
Maslow’s motivation theory; it’s belonged with the psychological needs of employees. Maslow put forward a theory that there are five levels of human needs which employees need to have fulfilled at work.
All of the needs are structured into a hierarchy and only once a lower level of need. A business should therefore offer different incentives to workers in order to help them fulfil each need in turn and progress up the hierarchy.
Taylor motivational theory: Workers are motivate by organisation paid to employees to number of items they produce in bound of time with pay according to how much they produce. As result workers are encouraged to work hard maximise their productivity. Method of Taylor is mostly adopted business saw the benefits of increase productivity levels and lower unit of costs. Taylors approach has close with like as an autocratic management style, this theory is soon dislike by the employees. It makes employees as machines.
Vroom’s motivational theory: Vroom describes expectancy motivational theory (Yale school of management1964). Vroom stresses and focuses on outcomes, he is not gone through the process had adopted by Maslow and Herzberg. The theory is telling us how intensity of a tendency to perform in a particular style is highly dependent on the intensity of an expectation. And the performances are getting the desired outcome by team or individual.
Task 4:
Task 4.1 In your explanation of groups show the difference between groups and teams
“A team is not a bunch of people with job titles, but a congregation of individuals, each of whom has a role which is understood by other members. Members of a team seek out certain roles and they perform most effectively in the ones that are most natural to them”. Dr. R. M. Belbin
Role of teams are suggested by Belbin used in many organisations around the world today. Team role we are use our strength as advantages and that manage our weakness as best we can. It is well define of your drawback and trying to avoid them nicely.
Definition: a group of highly skilled peoples those are working for specific purpose and goal, working for a common goal and share the reward (profit), they are cooperating with each other.
Group means those people are get together for specific task that is group. It can be a social relationship between two and more than two peoples. They are getting together for a social work, or any organisation /affinity. Like as animal rights organisation PETA is working in India organised by Monica Gandhi and now all over the world. This group is working for security of animals and their rights, abnormal behaviour against them.
Group building a process that is start to working for special arrangement in specific area to develop or improve the situation in special case. For example Cancer research group UK, RSPCA, NCPCA etc groups are working to develop or making sure of provide facilities in Africa to survive new born children’s to give them resources.
Task role; This role is related to finishing or getting done the work. They are playing different-2 role to finish a task step by step from early start through to action. (Individuals may fulfil many of these roles for the duration of a project. In this case is providing the guideline how to accomplish the task.
Initiating
Information
Clarifying
Summarizing
Censes testing
Maintenance Roles maintenance is role like referring to every individual’s action to help to defend the relationship in the group. Role of every individual is working to satisfy peoples with their work. They are trying to maintenance of the task, look after the emotional life of the group, help to make it work, believes the needs of individuals. They open up the channels of communication. There are few types of style in Maintenance Roles:
Encouraging
Harmonizing
Expressing group feeling
Gatekeeper
Compromising
Standard setting and testing
Individual role: individual role means a person who has authority and supervisory in group progress and process. Individual play roles like a dictator or dominant person which has been the authority to finish the task and it is like leader as well. If this person is not a leader then their behavior in group like a team member how to effecting the project with their unique behavior.
Dominating
Withdrawing
Degrading
Uncooperative
Side conversation
Task 4.2 development of teamwork:
To improve a team’s effectiveness, it is necessary to understand the factors that impact on to the group’s performance. Those factors make a team perfect:
A team agreed to work together for a clear goal and objective
They are trust each other,
Communicate with each other,
Review its progress regularly,
It concerned with career and personal development of its members.
Cooperate with other groups
Environment of the team management is trust worthy and support to each other.
According to those factors a team get success and reached their target easily. With those factors a team effectively work in an organisation. In my point of view can’t be a threat for an organisation because of their environment, and discipline. They appreciate their work of all
Encouraging: The leader (managers) using the encouraging style does so to help the team member to increase self-confidence and ability to perform the task extremely well and without any help. The encouraging style has lots of conversation about the goal and a sharing of views on how it should be deal with. The person who has been performing the task is encouraged to specify their own performance. Progress is evaluated together with importance placed to build self-confidence so task can be understood by you (leader) in the future. The encouraging style is particularly useful with able young professionals who are not yet have experienced and who are not ready to work without help.
Task 4.3 Evaluate the impact that technology:
Technology is vital part of the business organisation. We can’t think about a business without technology, means of that without technology a business like a sun without shine. So business can’t survive without of technology. Technology is a key of success of an organisation.
A technology plays and fulfils the every area of the organisations, technology effect and left their footprints on generation. Technology effects on every aspects of the business of working life. A business organisation can reach and get latest information from market and how those react on it and what effect occurring.
Primark working with fully loaded new technology. But today’s world an` organisation is nothing without this; they have the latest techniques to reach peoples to give them best services. Rapid changes in media, transport and communications technology have made the world economy more interconnected now than in any previous period of history. Nowhere is this more evident than in the world of textile manufacture and clothing distribution. Consumers want fashionable clothes at affordable prices.
http://www.belbin.com/rte.asp?id=8
Belbin Team Roles

 

Organizational Behavior in Health Care: Case Study

Preparing Staff for Transition
According to Borkowski in her book on Organizational Behavior in health care, she depicts the numerous changes that individuals are anticipated to portray in cases of a changes in an entity. The area that the book has concentrated on more specifically is on the health organizations. Through the first three subtopic namely, diversity in health care, attitudes and perceptions in addition to workplace communication, she has focused her attention to providing the readers with concise and clear overview from a health care manager’s point of view. This particular knowledge will be helpful in outlining the crucial areas concerned in preparing staff transition when merging Springdale health organization with St Mary’s HMO.

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Among the number of aspects that an organizational behavior especially in a health setting looks into include diversity, motivation, stress, power, leadership, management, group dynamics and ways of approaching management changes (Borkowski, 2010). Borkowski has expounded adequately on each factor and how it can be approached and addressed. At the same time the author has presented, learning objectives, a number of activities like evaluations and self assessment exercises and case studies in each chapter to increase the readers’ comprehension on the different ideas that have been tackled in the chapter.
To say that this text is not helpful to learners is an infringement; the text is arranged in a way that helps bring out the ideas and facts in an arranged organized manner that helps increase the comprehension of the readers. Both practical encounters and the theoretical parts of the book help bring out the rigor making it very applicable and appropriate to students both at the undergraduate and post graduate levels of education (Borkowski, 2010).
Apart from the students, health care mangers are provided with a critical insight on comprehending the dynamics and problems that are deemed to be encountered at the work place. The book thus provides a solution into how different ideas should be approached in order to increase an organizations probability of achieving set targets and goals. Through this understanding, workers morale is improved and this leads to an increase in productivity. The book also provides practices and theories essential for health organizations. It is thus undisputable to say that the ideas brought forward by this text in regard to meeting and satisfying constant organizational behaviors that are challenging modern organizations. The text presents us with a myriad that confronts modern health organizations and how to successfully approach such instances.
Diversities in workplaces
Diversity in work places is one of the issues that the organizations should take into considerations if their organizations have to perform optimally. Diversity in work places involves the differences that are exhibited by the employees of the company. The differences as portrayed by the employees of the organizations are according to the race affiliations of the employees, the gender, religious faith professed, disabilities, sexual orientation, physical appearance and the nationality. The diversity in the places of work can be used as strength to the organization since people would come with the ideas that are meant to improve the performance of the organization and thus enable the organization to meet its goals and objectives. On the other hand diversity can be a source of failure to the organization especially where the management does not work to acknowledge different ideologies brought to the organizations. The management of the organization should come with ways to prevent possible conflicts in the organization as a result of the diversities exhibited by it employees (Borkowski, 2010, pp.15).
In many organizations today they acknowledge that the diversity in the organization is the source of success to the organization. It would be absurd for the organization to hire people who thing alike because the generations of ideas would be limited and thus dismal performance of the company would be recorded. In order for the organization to tap the benefits brought by the diversity of their workforce, the organization should be geared towards forming diverse-work-relationship which is important to ensure the success of the organization.
For the transition program to be successful, both Springdale health organization and St Mary’s HMO ought to come with the programs that are meant to reward diversities in work places for instance organize cultural fairs to acknowledge people of different cultures that are present in the organization, have maternal leaves in order to enable women in the organization have time to nurse their children and also have a way of rewarding skills and special talents possessed by the organization for instance through job promotions, monetary reward and recognition of the individual as having played an important role in the success of the company (Mathis, 2007).
Workplace communication
Effective communication is important in the organization just like in any relationship. In an organization the takes place every other time in form of issuing order to the employees of the company by the management or through the communication of the report or findings of a give assignment to the management by the employees of the company. Thus for the business organizations to ensure it successes in the industry, it should be in a position to ensure accurate, relevant and timely information is passed to the intended parties for decision making.
In the organization the communications is made to different stakeholders constantly. Importantly the business is in communication with its employees. Communications can either be from the management giving policies to be implemented by the employees. On the other hand communication can be from the employees of the organizations communicating the findings of the assignment given by the management of the organization. Lack of the effective communications between the management the employees can lead to the frustrations and killing morale and thus dismal performance of the organization. The business is in communications with its customers when it wants to communicate on the delivery of goods to the customers, for instance. Like the customers of the organization communicate with the organization when they are placing orders, want to make payments for the goods supplied and when they want to lodge complains to the company. The organization is also in communication with its suppliers of the raw materials to the company. When the company devises effective communications with all the stakeholders, it ensures success in the organizations; the effective communication is paramount in ensuring the company meets its goals (Borkowski, 2010, pp.72).
There are many sources of lack of communications or presence of poor communication in the organization. In the organizations nowadays, lack of clear instructions from the management to the employees on the accomplishment of the tasks remains to be the major source of problem in the organization. It is pathetic to note that employees of the company lack the information they need to carry out a given task in this era where information is flooded in the society. When the instructions are not clear, the employees fail to perform that task and hence the organization fails to meet its goals and objectives. Effective communication in the organization is hindered by among other issues by the management creating a conducive environment where the information can be shared freely. Employees fear that when their share information in the organization would be reprimanded or intimidated and thus opt to keep quit rather than go through a humiliating ordeal. The management should come with the rewarding systems that encourage the employees of the company to share their ideas and thus leading to improvement in working conditions and thus success of the organization. Another source of poor communication in the organization is the conflicts among employees themselves. Employees of the company may not be in good terms with other employees and thus inhibit sharing of the ideas. It is therefore the sole obligation of Springdale health organization and St Mary’s HMO organization to come up with systems that ensure the employees share information they have among each other and also avoid instances that would lead to conflicts for instance defining roles of every employee as defined in performance contract and also in organizational structure.
Leadership Styles
Kippenberger, (2002) says leadership deals with how much a person can influence and motivate people. Some have considered leadership to be innate, this implies that leaders are born; others have disputed this fact and have termed it to a blatant lie saying that leaders are made. Despite all this contradictions, they all agree that leaders are people who have the ability to guide and influence people towards achieving stipulated goals with the most effective means. How one becomes a successful leader is not defined by oneself or those above you, the people who define successful leaders are those under you. The degree of influence you inculcate in them towards a given direction is what will define how successful you are as a leader (pp.110).
A number of leadership styles have been forwarded. A leadership style deals with the approach and manner of approaching, implementing and influencing a given group f people. The different leadership styles are applicable to different organizations and groups of people. This therefore means that, a style that is very fruitful in one organization may or may not be applicable to another organization or a given group of individuals. The different styles thus are applied to different entities and situations. Three types of leadership styles have been established and can be used by leaders depending on the situation at hand (Kippenberger, 2002, pp.110). Most leaders although, operate with one dominant leadership style with the others coming handy depending on the need.
Paton & McCalman (2008) considers autocratic leadership style to be used in giving directions and ultimatums. Leaders often employ such a style when they are directing their employees on what they want them to do and the way it should be done. This style is very appropriate in cases when there is an emergency and the leader wants to solve a given problems, when one is short of time and in instances when the leaders have managed to motivate their employees well. In some situations, a number of individuals have considered this leadership style as a yelling vehicle, where the leader is to use very demeaning words and language to employees and even abuse of power. This in regard to business can not be termed to as the authoritarian type of leadership but an unprofessional style that has no place in the leadership repertoire (pp.119).
The other leadership style is referred to as the democratic leadership. This leadership style is involves the employees being included in the decision making processes because all the processes made in an entity will affect the people in one way or the other. The style allows the employees to identify what they will do and how. Despite the employees being allowed to bring their opinions and suggestions in to the decision making process, the leader is the one with the final say and maintains the final authority regarding all the decisions. When such a style is applied, many have considered it a weakness, rather it is a strength where the leader has the confidence the employees will be able to respect the democratic process and the decision arrived at. The democratic leadership style is applicable in cases where both parties have information i.e. the leader has some pieces while the other pieces are held with the employees (Kippenberger, 2002, pp.114). Employers do not have to know everything, and this is the reason as to why employers employ people who are knowledgeable and skilled. It is also applicable in makes the employees fell part and parcel of all the undertakings in the firm and thus they watch their entire single moves.
Lastly, the third leadership style is the free reign or the delegative leadership style. The employees in this leadership style are allowed to make and arrive at their own decisions. Despite this, the leader is still in charge of everything and he makes the final call on decisions made. The style is applicable in cases where the employees have the competencies to analyze a situation and come up appropriate decisions and what to be done. It involves delegation of duties since you can not be able to do every thing.
Groups and Teams
In addition, both Springdale health organization and St Mary’s HMO, should strive to manage both the teams and the work groups. It should be acknowledged that all teams are a form of work group but not all work groups are teams. There are three types of work groups namely; dependent work groups, independent work group and interdependent work group. Dependent work group are under the control of the supervisors who control the whole group. Independent work groups are also under the control of the supervisor but the supervisor is the boss as it is the case in dependent work group. In interdependent work group, the members of the group rely on one another to have a certain task accomplished. The organization should ensure that the members of the work force work as a group in order to realize full potential of all workers in the organization. In this era where the organizations emphasize on the division of labor and specialization, an employee to perform in the are where they are best talented in, the organization should ensure that that every employee carry out a specific task in the group in order to have the maximum benefits for the entire organizations.
Attitudes and Perceptions
Though change is very inevitable, workers reacts to the idea with very mixed reactions. This is because change in any institution or condition will have to alter a thing or two. Especially with the current business environment, entities are geared towards attaining global standards for their survival. With the change taking place in organizations, there is a reflection on the emotions and psychological reactions of the labor force as they try to come up with resistance measures of the phenomenon. This means that if not well approached, a lot resistance shall be exhibited by the labor force. A very significant point regarding change is that it can not be forced down the people’s throats (Borkowski, 2010, pp.41). Change is accompanied by a number of ideas. There are those who may risk loosing their jobs, there may be the restructuring of the entire organization leading to being transferred to other departments and there may be complete new leaders who may come into the entity. Change in organizations has entirely been identified as the cause for depressions and stress among the workers in an entity.
Borkowski (2010) asserts that the risks that accompany change are very fatal than any other business undertaking. Change the norms of an entity and trying to follow an unknown direction. This thus requires a lot of faith and having the trust that something better will take place. Workers believe that with change, they will loose their total control over the things they used to do in an entity. Taking a faithful leap among the employees is not an easy thing and most do not have the courage to take such risks, so the best they can do is try to resist the changes (pp.42).
Motivational strategies
The employees of the company should be well motivated in order to improve their performance in order for the realization of the goals of the organization. The employee should be appreciated and thus feel to be part and parcel of the organization; employees are one of the most valuable asset in the organizations and they should be handled well to ensure that the organization attains its goals. There are motivational strategies that have being identified that management of the organization could use to ensure that the employees are well motivated. One of the motivational strategies is team work; the management should form work group with the hope that the peer pressure among the employees would improve the performance of the organization.
Team work as a motivation strategy has worked effectively since every employee would want to work hard to meet the expectations of other members of his group rather than the expectations of their supervisors. The second motivational strategy available to the organization is the personal involvement; the management of the organization should allow the employees to be involved in placing their standards. The employees should be allowed to make commitment of what they intend to achieve in the organization, this would give the employees the zeal to attain the goals they have set for themselves. Work enhancement is another motivational strategy; the work is structures in the organization in such a way that it has fulfillment to the employees. Management can motivate workers by issuing to them rewards either in form of monetary things or non monetary goods; this would make the employees to work hard in order to recoup the prizes offered by the management. The management also request for the mutual exchanges as a way of motivation; the management may do some favor to the employee for the return of a given level of performance. The management can also place a competitive reward for the employees in form of a prize; the employees would work hard in order to receive the prize. And lastly the management can punish or inflict fear to the employees to ensure performance; the employee who does not performance is suspended of sacked and thus the employees would work hard to avoid such punishment (Brehm, 2004, pp.119).
Resistance to Change
There are a number of reasons that may make people to resist change. Some of the reasons are associated with the normal norms of the old firm and the people who would like to be identified by the old ways of the firm (Tobin, 2009, pp.30). People are identified as social beings, through this, we would like to remain attached and connected to some things and people especially those whom we know, those who we have learnt from and those that we are familiar with. It is this kind of royalty that helped our ancestors to defend themselves ands hunt (Kippenberger, 2002, pp.224). And to show its effect, we are much glued to those whom we know and resist any form of change that may seem to compromise these situations.
Secondly, there may be resistance to change amongst the people of a given organization due to lacking role models in the new assignments that one is expected to take up. Through observation, one earns a lot and knowing that you will never have this learning opportunity compromises an individual making him resist changes.
Tobin (2009) views lack of competence in new tasks to also lead to change resistance. New tasks may require new ideas, skills and knowledge and this may make people not to allow change to take place in an entity. This is especially if they perceive the changes as a danger to their existence and job security. For instance, in the merging in the case study above, it is clearly put that some employees will have to loose their jobs while others will be incorporated to other departments. This is a clear indication that change can never be welcomed into an organization if the employee considers the risks unbearable (pp.30).
Conclusion
In conclusion, the management of Springdale health organization and St Mary’s HMO should handle their employees well to ensure that the organization has met its goals and objectives. It should be noted that the employees of the company are the most important assets of any organization and that they should be managed effectively to ensure that the organizations perform optimally. The management of the organization should recognize that the diversity among the employees is the strength that should be exploited for the benefit of the organization. The management should ensure effective communication in the organization, sharing of relevant, timely and accurate information to all stakeholders in the organizations should be ensured for decisions making. The management should ensure that the employees of the organization are well motivated and thus ensure performance.
 

Unethical Behavior Of The Coca Cola Company Commerce Essay

Coca Cola Company is one of the best selling beverages companies in the world and it has extended its businesses worldwide. As a result of their success and as a result of their utmost contribution towards the world economy most of Coca Cola’s unethical business practices have been ignored by the general public. Yet as a result of the protests and civil organizations’ activities against the company reveals the truth. Coca Cola Company was established in May 1886 and since its inception they have used significant amount of drugs in order to make unique recipe and the drink consists of 60mg of cocaine which comes from the coca leaves. Even though the cocaine is harmful to human body company use it with their products in order creates addiction towards the product. This was a total crime and unethical practice of the company so legal issues were brought against Coca-Cola and they had to avoid cocaine but as a substitution company decided to use caffeine which is also well known as an addictive ingredient.

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Apart from that company was sued for misleading labeling process in 2006. Company had included fake details about the drink which mislead the consumers. This is one of the unethical business practices of the Coca Cola Company. In 2001 company was accused for violating human rights of the employees who work in bottling plants in Columbia. Company has offered very poor and unsafe working environment also they were paid very low wages. The worst part of the above story was company was suspected for kidnappings and killing of union members who tried to win their demands and rights by using the paramilitary death squads.
This is a good example for the unethical business practices of the organizations and it is not accepted by the whole society.
How organizations can attain success by being an ethical organization
Most of the businesses exist to make profits but maximizing the profits should not be the only purpose of the any business but it should be more ethical. With the development of the global business practices and concepts organizations are keen on producing the products that not harmful to human beings and environmental friendly and harmless new technologies are being used to make such products. In addition to that organizations avoid the misleading advertising practices and employees and consumers are treated fairly and honestly. Organizations can gain more advantages by practicing ethical behavior. Now it is time to demonstrate the advantages of being an ethical organization. So I have used the direct selling company which was established in UK as an example.
Amway is very famous huge global direct sales enterprise which own by few families of UK and it manufactures and distributes more than 450 consumer products. This company has become leading icon as a organization that follows organizational social responsibilities, that have implemented social and ethical programs around the world, that have action plans to be a good corporate citizen and as a organization that support people to enhance their living standards.
Amway’s vision is “helping people live better lives” so by keeping their vision in mind company helps to poor children around the world particularly to access to education and medicine.
Amway Company perform major role in the societies it functions. They have implemented global business strategy for producing, distributing, and marketing the product over the local boundaries. In order to be strength for above mentioned strategies and gain positive image for the organization it has created another strategy for promoting corporate social responsibility of the company in globally. The policy include helping to charities, always acting in a ethical way and honest way.
By establishing ethical policies organization expects to build up loyalty and pride towards their products, enhance Amway’s reputation as a caring organization, make a real difference to human lives, conducts social campaigns that support the business and social aims of the company, to builds trust and respect in Amway brands and to establish corporate social responsibility as a high priority.
As an ethical business organization Amway contributes to societies in several ways such as creating employees’ job security, providing harmless goods that value for consumer’s money and conducting community conducting projects.
The company has created business ethics that can guide the behavior of the company and its supporting roles. As a result of the ethical company they have to fallow rules and regulations of the different countries that they functions without violating them and they need to protect the consumers by providing safety goods which meet the quality standards and satisfaction levels of the customers. This directly helps and encourages ethical selling process of the organization.
Amway operates in highly competitive business environment and they have found perfect competitive advantages performing a positive participation in the society and paying their more attention on environmental protection programs. As a result of concerning above mentioned facts society believes that the organization is very ethical and it helps to upgrade its image as a more accountable organization.
This is how the Amway Company attains many business advantages by being an ethical business organization. This example will be good model to follow because if any other business can function such way it is easy to enhance their business reputation, it is easy to improve the customer base and loyalty and it is easy to increase customer satisfaction and finally any organization can maximize the profits by presenting harmless goods.
 

The Korean Consumption Behavior

Introduction
The rapid economic development and the opening of the international market, Korean’s consumption behavior is increasingly developing along developed countries’ (Taiwan, Hong Kong, Singapore and Japan) consumption patterns. The opening up of the Korean economy led to the increased purchasing power of banks and this allowed them to recover from the 1997 financial crisis faster than other countries that were affected. When the country recovered, the demand for foreign products increased, especially for luxury goods. The Korean central bank claimed that nearly 20% of household spending on goods was made up of imported products. This was only for January, the first month of the year in 2002 (Don, 2002). In particular, Koreans of younger and younger generations are starting to become their luxury markets’ main consumers. Once a traditional country that viewed luxury items as impractical and wasteful, Korean consumers are now more in tuned with the trends in the luxury industry and are more willing to engage in status symbols competition with each other. Koreans could be said to have faced many changes over the last decades, which primed the economy and citizens for a surge in individualism now, and enhanced their pride in the ability to afford and buy luxury items.

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According to Nueno and Quelch (1998), the rising demand for luxury brands in Korea can be explained by the rising wealth in the whole of Asia and its emerging markets. The luxury goods industries, facing decreased demands from the traditional markets they serve, such as Europe, which at that time, was dealing with recession and minimal population growth, started to shift their focus on affluent Asian consumers who perceived Western luxury brands as signs or symbols of good taste (Nueno & Quelch, 1998). Among the Asian markets, Korea was one of the markets largely focused on by the globaal luxury brands (No, 2003). As younger and younger citizens of Korean gain more spending power, they increasingly became consumer trendsetters. Specifically, the trends and styles they follow are the ones from the Western countries (Louis, 2002). Individuals in their 20s are becoming the dominant consumers of the global luxury brands available in Korea, outpacing the middle-aged consumers (Park, 2000). Global luxury marketers became aware of this and they started to form strategies that would specifically attract this demographic of consumers. This is a far cry from their traditional target market, especially since they also started to cater to the young Korean consumers who certainly have money, but can be considered to be only belonging to the moderate-income bracket.
There are specific factors shaping Korean’s consumption patterns when it comes to the luxury market. Specifically, the factors are personal values; social recognition and demographics of young Korean consumers shape their purchasing decisions in the luxury market.
Personal Values
The variable of personal values has been widely used to illustrate the underlying dimensions characterizing consumer behavior and received significant amount of attention of researchers. According to Vinson et al (1977), who empirically measured the effects stemming from personal values on consumer behavior, personal values play an important role in shaping consumer behavior towards specific goods. Sukhdial et al (1995) particularly looked at the effects of personal values on consumer behaviors toward the luxury brand market. The authors found that personal values are critical in determining whether a consumer will buy or not buy luxury cars. Individual values and social-related values make up the personal value variable. Individual values are consumer ethnocentrism and materiality (Ha, 1998; Park, 1999; Sharma et al., 1995). Social-related values are conformity, vanity and the need for uniqueness. All these variables are discussed below.
Consumer Ethnocentrism
The variable of ethnocentrism determined the consumer behavior of Koreans with regard to luxury goods. Previous research illustrated that individuals who are highly ethnocentric are those with greater affinity with overseas products, which are produced and manufactured within culturally similar countries. As such, a high level of ethnocentrism discourages Koreans from purchasing global luxury brands. According to Shimp and Sharma (1987), consumer ethnocentrism can be defined as “the beliefs held by American consumers about the appropriateness, indeed morality, of purchasing foreign-made products” (p. 280). Various literature have expounded on the role of consumer ethnocentrism with regard to the behavior and attitudes of consumers when it comes to goods imported abroad (Shimp and Sharma, 1987; Durvsula et al., 1997; Brodowsky, 1998). Studies are also aware of the significant role that consumer ethnocentrism plays on consumer behavior when dealing with products made abroad; as such, they focus on the possible impacts with regard to the evaluation of the products manufactured in countries of cultural similarity on consumer behavior (Watson and Wright, 2000). There are also studies that determined the product-specific impacts of foreign-made products (Kim and Pysarchik, 2000), and impact on foreign brand personality (Supphellen and Grønhaug, 2003).
Some studies specifically looked at Korean consumers’ behavior as affected by their level of ethnocentrism. Some studies (Ha, 1998; Park, 1999; Sharma et al., 1995) illustrated negative influence effects of consumer ethnocentrism on purchasing imports. Those with high level of consumer ethnocentrism are more likely to shun foreign-made goods. In addition, Park (1999) determined the critical influence of consumer ethnocentrism on attitudes toward imported clothing in the Korean market. The study found that there is a negative relationship between consumer ethnocentrism and attitudes toward when it comes to buying global luxury brands.
Materialism
Materialism refers to a person’s penchant for accumulating goods and money. Some cultures view this trait as positive and desirable (Diener & Biswas-Diener, 2002). According to Belk (1984, 1985), materialism is a personality-like trait that differentiates a person when it comes to his or her possessions. A materialistic person will view possessions as essential to their identities and survival, while a non-materialistic person will view these possessions as secondary or even worthless. Richins and Dowson (1992) claimed that materialism refers to a group of centrally-held notions about the significance of possessions and their roles in one’s life. As such, being materialistic propels an individual to acquire more and more material objects. Under this definition, Richins and Dowson (1992) stated that materialism is a key factor that shapes an individual’s consumption behavior and patterns, especially the type and quantity of goods they would buy.
As consumption patterns also became globalized, consumption behavior became largely shaped by transitional and multinational firms’ marketing efforts. Consumers worldwide are becoming more material as they start having difficulties discerning which is a need and which is a want. Global marketing efforts make it hard for consumers to believe that they can forego something they want. One pattern that emerged is that people start to value material lifestyles and value well-known/popular brands that showcase their prosperity (Solonom, 2004). With their market doors expanding to global trade, and with their disposable income increasing, Korean consumers are one of the prime examples of such consumers.
Koreans are now in the brink of materialism. They want the lifestyle that is being portrayed by the media that are highly fictional, romanticized and dramatized. According to Yoon (2003), spreading of materialism among the Koreans, particularly the younger generations, has been conspicuous starting from 1995. Nearly two decades later, it can be observed that Koreans are increasingly viewing money as the representation and sign of success, and as a result, are increasingly attracted to global luxury brands, which are the epitome of wealth and achievement in life. They buy these goods merely to show off to others.
Specific studies such as the ones by Fournier and Richins (1991), Richins (1994) and Wong (1997), have illustrated the significant and positive relationship between that of materialism and conspicuous consumption. According to these studies, materialism encourages success-orientated consumption and purchase of goods. Fournier and Richins claimed that two causes for increased level of materialism is the idea that one can display his or her status through his or her possessions and the idea that they can affirm themselves through these possessions. According to Richins (1994), individuals who are highly materialistic have higher tendencies to put more importance of expensive goods and would be the ones most likely to publicly display these items to show their success and social status.
Bearden and Etzel (1992) categorized goods into publicly-consumed and privately-consumed. Wong (1997) took these categories and performed a study to determine which category will be prone to conspicuous consumption. Wong found that individuals are more materialistic towards publicly consumed goods and therefore, these goods are more likely to be consumed conspicuously. Public goods are the goods that can be used or consumed in public view and not commonly owned or used, such as household items. Global luxury fashion brands are one of the top goods in the public goods category, which is why materialistic individuals will put prime importance into the acquisition of these brands or goods. Materialists would consume these goods primarily for displaying them publicly so as to announce their status and successes in life.
In this light, Ziccardi (2001) defined luxury brands as less about the item, and more about the brand and what it stands for. Koreans, especially the young ones can be considered the ones who are status-oriented, and would showcase this personality through their possessions. According to Wong (1997), comparing East Asian consumers with American consumers, it can be said that East Asian consumers are the ones more materialistic. American subjects buy these expensive goods not because they are putting prime emphasis on the public meaning of luxury consumption, unlike their East Asian counterparts (Wong & Ahuvia, 1998). Most studies used the concept of materialism to pinpoint that Asian consumers, who are shaped by the value of collectivism will more sensitive to the public meaning of luxury consumption than did Western consumers, and this will influence their buying patterns. As such, materialism promotes Korean’s purchasing intentions toward global luxury brands.
Conformity
Literature claimed that conformity is one of the most significant factors shaping purchasing patterns when it comes to publicly consumed products. As such, Wong and Ahuvia (1998) put forward that consumers in Confucian culture are more likely to purchase luxury good based public reputation of the members of the group they belong to in comparison to their Western counterparts. Therefore, conformity promotes purchasing intentions of Koreans toward global luxury brands.
According to Bearden and Etzel (1982),, reference group influences are different between publicly and privately consumed goods as well as between luxuries and basic necessities. Conformity is described as one of the most significant factors shaping publicly consumed goods. Taking this into consideration, Wong and Ahuvia (1998) claimed that those who abide by the Confucian culture will be those who are likely to put a great deal on the effects of their consumption of luxuries. When it comes to fashion, an earlier study by Rose et al (1994), claimed that individuals who have higher level of conformity will be those who are likely to consume clothing and display the brand out to the public. It is easy to assume that conformity is one of the most important predictors of buying luxury brands, particularly for fashion brands. Wong and Ahuvia (1998) differentiated luxury consumptions between Confucian and Western countries. They found that although both groups consume conspicuously luxury goods, Americans buy luxury products because of their personal preferences, while those in East Asia, buy these goods because they want to conform to specific social norms. They also found that Southeast Asian consumers put greater emphasis on publicly-visible items because of their attached symbolic meanings and values. This suggests that East Asian consumers, who experience higher pressure to conform are more likely to buy publicly-visible luxury items, because they perceive these goods as directly representing their wealth and success.
According to Lacsu and Zinhan (1999), East Asian consumers are more likely to buy luxury items, especially those that have social visibility. Because luxury goods shout success and wealth, and are especially different from mass market products, East Asians are more likely to conform to social pressure and experience higher drive to purchase these brands.
The need for Uniqueness
According to Workman and Kidd (2000), an individual’s need for uniqueness significantly affects his or her behavior toward luxury fashion brands. According to Tian et al. (2001, p. 52) uniqueness is an important factor in consumer behavior. Uniqueness is defined as “the trait of pursuing differentness relative to others through the acquisition, utilization, and disposition of consumer goods for the purpose of developing and enhancing one’s self-image and social image”. According to literature, consumers’ self and social image are largely derived from the symbolic meanings they attach to the products they purchase (Tian et al., 2001). Therefore, consumers wanted something not generic and very similar to others. Luxury products have the great power of inducing the feeling of uniqueness among consumers. Aside from being insanely expensive, and the fact that all of them reigns worldwide, they are reputed to be of incomparable quality, having legions of counterfeits under their names. After all, imitation is the best form of flattery. One word to describe these luxury brands is “iconic”. Take for example, Gucci and its red and green stripes, these may just be your ordinary logo, but no, everyone wants a piece of it. The brand offers high fashion yet very commercial items, which is why everyone loves it. Chanel on the other hand as the next brand favored by most luxury consumers, is observed to stay in this position and relevant to the industry because it has a host of classically stylish goods. Koreans’ need for uniqueness promotes purchasing intentions toward global luxury brands.
Those vying for uniqueness in their possessions are those more likely to be attracted to luxury goods, because uniqueness is precisely what luxury brands seem to offer to the consumers. There are many factors that verify this. First, luxury brands’ limited quality enables the buyers to feel unique and distinctive from others who use mass market products (Burns & Brandy, 2001). According to Tian and Mckenzie (2001), those who value uniqueness are attracted to luxury products because they are scarce and they would not find just anyone owning the same. In this regard, luxury brands endeavor to preserve their uniqueness by not producing too many of the same design so as to avoid over-diffusion. This makes them very different from the mass market products. According to Dubous and Paternault (1995), employing an empirical test showed that consumers are attracted to luxury products through awareness, and negatively attracted through diffusion, which is a paradox under luxury brand management. Consumers are aware that luxury brands strive to uphold their prestige by being endorsed expensively by popular people, but they are not made to be owned by many people. As such, consumers’ need for uniqueness find that luxury products satisfy this need. Korean consumers’ general perception of foreign luxury brands in general follows this line of thought. They perceive that owning luxury brands differentiate them from others and make them unique because not all will have the same kind or brand. Even with the influx of global luxury brands in the Korean market, Korean market still have this notion that luxury brands are hard to access, and having it will make them one of a kind, because luxury goods have scarcity value.
According to Gluck (2002), young Korean consumers purchase apparel and other fashion items in which they can use to express their individuality amidst a rather uniform society. Young consumers in Korea believe that they can express their uniqueness using foreign brands with scarcity value, which as a result, boosted demand for luxury brands in the Korean market. In addition, because luxury goods are globally characterized as having recognizable styles and designs, it is easy to showcase their uniqueness, social status and success even across the world. Young consumers are attracted to luxury goods to the promise of uniqueness as well as giving them a boost in their social images.
Vanity
According to Netemeyer et al. (1995, p. 612), vanity is the “excessive concern for, and/or a positive (and perhaps inflated) view of, one’s physical appearance” and achievement vanity as “an excessive concern for, and/or a positive (and perhaps inflated) view of, one’s personal achievements”. Vanity is the concern of an individual with his or her physical appearance because they use it to convey social status. As such, people who are vain will engage more in conspicuous consumption because this can show off their physical appearance and status (Netemeyer et al., 1995). As of now however, no study has yet determined the relationship between vanity and fashion luxury consumption. However, it is hypothesized that Korean consumers’ vanity promotes purchasing global luxury fashion brands.
According to Durvasula et al (2001), vanity is described as one’s strong emphasis toward one’s outward appearance such as being overly concerned and fretful over one’s clothing, from the style, to the quality and to the brand. According to Durvasula and his colleagues (2001), a person’s belief or perception that others are looking at how he or she dresses, or what kind of luxury brands he or she carries, this will shape his or her decision in purchasing luxury brands. Social recognition therefore plays the key in individual’s decision to purchase luxury brands.
Social recognition
Although personal values such as materialism and conformity can stimulate individuals to purchase luxury goods because of what they represent and symbolize, they might not be the only factors why luxury goods consumers are attracted to these products and brands. According to Nueno and Quelch (1998), consumers feel that owning luxury brands allow for information to spread with regard to the owners’ social status. These luxury products can help the consumers say what they cannot publicly announce, which I that they are wealthy and successful. The ownership of these goods allows them to claim their social status and prestige without saying it outright. Consumers believe that the nature of the global luxury brands allows others to recognize the brands and this will be a vehicle for the owner to communicate to others their success. This nature plays a crucial role in shaping one’s decision to purchase luxury brands. In particular, Koreans view global luxury brands as the embodiment of prosperity and social status, which is not really that different from the perception of the Westerners. Because others will recognize one brand, consumers will experience higher intention of buying this brand.
Demographics
Demographics play an important role in the purchasing decision of consumers when it comes luxury goods. Demographics include age, income and purchasing frequency. According to Louis (2002), younger people are more attracted to luxury goods and what they offer. In Korea, the younger generations are those who have higher purchasing intentions when it comes to global luxury goods. They are what most lable as consumer trendsetters and they try to uphold this image, by having the “IT” things
According to Dubous and Duquesne (1993), income is a very important factor when it comes to luxury goods purchases. As widely known, luxury goods are not cheap. Therefore, monthly income or at least monthly pocket money of the young people plays a significant determinant. By having the means, consumers will be more inclined to buy luxury goods. Once consumers become loyal to a brand, it is already easy for firms to market the goods to them. In fact, it has been said that attracting new consumers are more difficult than maintaining existing ones in the industry of luxury goods.
Veblen’s theory and East Asian consumption patterns (projections in South Korea)
Emergence of the mass production phenomenon in the modern era allowed for economic crises, the resolution of which should be through mass distribution and mass advertisement. A direct consequence is the transforming of the household from being a unit of production to that of a unit of consumption (Kearl & Gordon, 1992). This transformation also led to a new form of consumer ethic, which replaced Weber’s Protestant ethic of self-discipline. It also goes against the principles put forward by Weber, such as purposeful activity, delayed gratification and thrift. In this modern era, different patterns of over spending can be observed such as: orgy of spending (McKendrick et al., 1982), hedonism (Bell 1980; Campbell 1987); impulse spending (Kearl and Gordon 1992), and then the different marketing promos and strategies of firms to make people buy such as, “buy now, pay later and more others (Packard 1957). It can be said that majority of these characterizations can be explained by Veblen’s (1979) and Simmel’s (1904, 1950) seminal work on modern consumerism.
Veblen’s most well-known principle related to his term ‘conspicuous consumption’ which describes the unnecessary purchase of services and goods which are bought for the sole focus of displaying and advertising wealth. This is done in the endeavor to maintain or attain a certain level of social status. Such goods are now collectively known as ‘Veblen goods’, which is a group of commodities. The fact that these goods are placed at such high prices is the very thing that makes them attractive to conspicuous consumers.
Conspicuous consumption was certainly not limited to the western countries, in East Asia, for example, girls in affluent families would have their feet broken and tightly bound so that they grew to have tiny “lotus” feet.  These were thought to be very fashionable since the women who had them were unable to survive without the help of servants. This was a sign of wealth taken to the extreme.
Today, there are still many examples of ‘conspicuous consumption’ and the studies on general modern consumption are so intricate, that almost all walks of life are targeted with today’s mass media. Adverts and billboards are everywhere telling the public what’s ‘cool’ and what’s not. Brands like Louis Vuitton, Chanel and Moet & Chandon sell a lifestyle. Moet & Chandon advert states ‘Be Fabulous’ and shows two beautiful well-dressed women climbing out of an expensive car with a bottle of champagne in one woman’s hand. An advertisement like this is basically trying to show the public what status could be achieved by purchasing a bottle of Moet & Chandon. The term ‘Keeping up with the Joneses’ comes to mind, as studies show that many consumers purchase goods just to ‘show off’ and maintain a certain status amongst their friends.
Veblen goods aren’t just restricted to clothes as the purchase of certain magazines, purely for the status they offer. Being seen reading a magazine like Robb Report or Conde Nast’s traveller may give the impression that one can afford what is featured in the magazine. Veblen also spoke about the way dress can prove many things. The wearer can give an impression that they can spend without much thought on the price. Veblen goods are still very much around, such as designer handbags, expensive wines and thousand-dollar watches. The luxury watch is an ultimate example of a Veblen good as the consumer really buys into the allure of a higher status. Companies like Rolex, TAG Heur and Omega have all used celebrities such as Roger Federer, Leonardo DiCaprio and Daniel Craig in his bond suit. Even though its purpose is very practical and can help with everyday decision making. These watches are aimed a business men with a high salary who identify or would like to identify with the sports stars and actors wearing these watches at the back of TIME magazine and the like. A Louis Vuitton bag for example just wouldn’t be viewed the same without the high price tag.
Today’s fast fashion and mass production also encourages conspicuous consumption. However mass production has changed the outlook on man’s life and has created a singular type of existence which can be viewed as almost humiliating and that the products are what drives man. The trends we see from designers on catwalks are translated as quickly as possible into high street stores. It is not surprising that with the emphasis on keeping up with the latest trends, which ties into ‘fitting in with society’ consumption of clothes has reached an all-time high. The quality of clothes however, is less of a feature than the over-all look of the item. In the Victorian times, garments had to be made of the best lace, but with today’s technology, garments can be made to look more expensive than they really are. Keeping up-to trend with accessories such and bags and shoes is still very expensive to do. Designer’s put their signature touches on shoes and bags, which make them more lust after. Christian Louboutin’s shoes have the signature red sole, Louis Vuitton may feature an LV and a Mulberry bag could carry their characteristic tree on the logo. To be seen with any of these items offers a instantaneous status that comes with it.
Korea is now considered an epitome of such societies. When Korea was only beginning to industrialize, conspicuous consumption among most people can be said to be still tacit and defensive. An explicit display of conspicuous consumption was criticized for being impractical and imprudent, notwithstanding the person’s social status. This trend is now gone. Today, many Korean people compete based on social stature and symbols, and this encouraged new patterns of consumption. Even during religious rituals, Koreans cannot help but compete with each other by showing off how many their goods are or expensive as a sign that they have higher status.
Conspicuous consumption, behavior does not just exist within the leisure class, however throughout every class and individual in our society. The want to consume is nothing new, people work and live to consume, people are what they consume. As seen with celebrities today, they consume the best cars, the best clothes, the biggest houses. Veblen explains a man of wealth is the one who consumes without restrictions on anything. This type of consumption is what Veblen describes as “conspicuous waste”, the manner in which people dress is always seen and noticed, especially when celebrities are displaying them. With conspicuous consumption, the consumption and wealth must be displayed and noticed. Many celebrities, who are members of the leisure class, show off their homes, cars, clothes, and other items. Veblen argues this is harmful to our society, these luxuries and types of consumption are only for the leisure class, and one is expected to live this certain lifestyle in order to keep their standing in the leisure class. A man of the leisure class must consume certain goods and give away certain types of rewards or gifts to with hold his position within the leisure class. Koreans are very much in this phase right now, outpacing the Americans it seems.
Koreans are proving that the “emergence of the leisure class coincides with the beginning of ownership” (Veblen 22). Before the early 20th century, Korea was ruled by the Yi Dynasty and had clear distinction of the class system with the ideologies of Confucian Tradition: In this context, women were a form of ownership. Women were seen as a status symbol, a trophy wife, for which men of the leisure class could own and show off. When we own people, we own material or production, so by owning something one can exploit his earnings. Like ownership, most women of the leisure class are considered “vicarious leisure”. Veblen’s “vicarious leisure” is defined as people who live the life as though they are a member of the leisure class however don’t get all the material that comes with it because they are living through the wealthy. Throughout the barbarian stages, men were considered the breadwinner and worked while the women stayed at home while women were considered to live through their spouses. The women of the household were not suppose to work and were expected to be more “showy” about their leisure than men, they were expected to be beautiful and represent the household’s wealth.
Literature in the early 1980s showed that conspicuous consumption of products were positively linked to vulnerability to the influence of peers and the opinions of others. According to Bearden and Etzel (1982), conspicuous consumption is more likely when purchasing publicly consumed luxury products than privately consumed luxury products. Conspicuous consumption ate up a significant part of the income of the urban population compared to the rural population. Urban citizens are more concerned about their appearance and status, and are more susceptible to buying things that would serve the purpose, regardless of the cost.
Discussion
This study aims to understand the relation of conspicuous consumption and status competition in Korean women. This section explore the spending behavior of women in Korea, which are found as new phenomena under prosperity in South Korea after the 1997 financial crisis, hence post IMF period. Under current government forms and of Neo liberalism, we are able to recognize the irony that contest the very hegemonic idea of neo-liberalization, which is silent but hyper conscious in the minds of Korean women. This fact is elaborated in relation to the patriarchal ideology deeply rooted in the tradition (neo-Confucian) minds of Koreans and although times have moved on, the representation of body in Korean women in Korean society today remains valid. Here I am able to explore conspicuous consumption of the body as a whole, and how consumption on appearance is conceived in the minds of young women today.
Implementation of appearance of Women in the Post-IMF, Neo-liberal Korean Society
The transformations in post-IMF Korean society accorded with accelerated transition to a postmodern consumer society. An author proclaimed in 1999, “The present Korean society is a heaven for consumers” (Yoon 1999, 189), and the trend of consumption for self-distinction and expression of self-identities has been ever intensifying. Concerns over body in this “era of culture” became a widespread set of phenomena after the IMF crisis. Healthy lifestyles became a social trend in the 2000s when numerous self-help books were published to tell consumers how to pursue them. Women are increasingly drawn into consumption of not only of luxury consumption, but beauty products and care services as well. More women have been resorting to improve their appearances for which purpose smart or classy clothes and creative or original hair styles had been sufficient in earlier decades (Lee 2006, 73).
Especially for young women, their gender and class statuses are estimated no longer primarily by their individual characters and resources, but rather by their appearance. Increasingly, Koreans of all ages and genders view their appearance as something that can be improved through ever developing. Not being fashionable or know
 

Effect of Water Velocity on Erosion Corrosion Behavior

Effect of water velocity on erosion corrosion behavior of materials used in marine conditions
 
Corrosion, among others, is one of the main and considerable causes which is liable for the failure of the equipment and the material used in marine applications. Up to now, the majority of the materials that have been developed for marine applications are carbon steel, copper-base alloys, nickel-base alloys, titanium and apparently stainless steel and its variations such as super austenitic, duplex and super duplex stainless steel. (Meng, 2009) Last decade, the use of composites in maritime industry has also increased. (Jones & Summerscales, 2016)
One parameter, which influences the extent of corrosion on these materials is the water flow velocity, as a result of mass transfer and other incidents, such as erosion corrosion. (Scheers, 1992) For that reason, they are required to withstand to a wide range of velocities.
Water can be either static during shutdown periods or have movement. At low movement speed, the cathode reactants affect the rate of the erosion corrosion process. This most usually brings about higher rates of deterioration, but there are some cases – in the case of passive alloys, that this results in decreased rates. Furthermore, the provision of oxygen on the external surface of the corroding metal is extremely dependent on the water velocity. (Chandler, 1985) Oxygen can fuel the cathodic reaction in seawater which can also lead to higher corrosion rates. In conditions where the water velocity is increased, apart from the corrosion arising from the electrochemical process of corrosion, there is also mechanical action with much worse consequences. In other words, high velocity results in enhanced erosion corrosion of the components and the installation parts. The concentration gradients in the bulk of the fluid are destroyed by the turbulent conditions. The action which affects negatively the phenomenon of erosion corrosion appears in a very thin layer of the fluid which is bordering to the pipe wall. (Scheers, 1992) In addition to, there is also the impingement attack and cavitation corrosion which are more extreme forms of erosion corrosion. Conditions offering high water velocity can be found in tubes, pipes and rotating machinery.
Figure 1:Schematic of turbulent eddy mechanism for downstream undercutting of erosion-corrosion pits
On this dissertation, the effects of water velocity on erosion corrosion behavior of the materials that are used in marine conditions will be examined. Furthermore, the second part of this project will include the impingement of the water from different angles while the amount of the material loss during the impingement and electrochemical corrosion varies between different angles. Cathodic can be also applied, in order to investigate the effects on the erosion corrosion during the changes in flow velocity.

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It is very important and crucial to know exactly the effects of velocity because the combination of the electrochemical reactions with the synergy of the mechanical reactions due to the impingement in aqueous environments can cause horrible failures of the metallic components used in industry (Meng, 2009) . In addition there is also great need to know the difference in the number and in the size of the pits while velocity is increased (Wing, et al., 2016), as long as materials have suffered and caused serious accidents before in the marine environment and in the hole marine society. Moreover, pipes are used everywhere in ships and offshore structures, so after the study engineers will construct them with bigger safety and reliability (Jin, et al., 2016).
The dissertation I about the experimental investigation of the consequences on erosion corrosion behavior in materials, as long as the impact of the impingement from different angles. Afterwards, an anode will be placed on the specimen to investigate with accuracy the changes on erosion corrosion.
The major aim of this project is the accurate plot of the corrosion rates, in comparison with the different flow velocities. What is more, one of the aims of this research is the determination of the difference on corrosion behavior between materials and compare the deterioration process and extent of erosion to them. In other words, erosion corrosion, might not be the same in all marine materials, therefore engineers will have a better indication of the effect on each on of them, because in conditions where high velocity occurs, as the dissolved oxygen controls the rate of corrosion in sea water (Larson & King, 1954) . It is still very difficult to choose the most optimum material for a specific job in the current working environment, selecting a more erosion corrosion resistant material. (Meng, 2009) The ongoing protocols for design and selection are extremely basic and are based on empirical service data (Neville & Hu, 2001).
Moreover, another aim is to compare the degree of electrochemical and mechanical reactions in changing angles. The durability of steels and cast iron and other materials will be further interpreted. Lastly, the removal of the protective oxide film in stainless steels might accelerate corrosion (Bonner, 2016)
Many water characteristics influence the rate of corrosion process, like Ph, dissolved gases, temperature, dissolved salts, but the one under consideration is the flow velocity.
The effect of velocity on corrosion is also Ph dependent. Seawater is alkaline and it is more at the base side 7.9-9.0 and carbonate ion concentrations increase as ph increases (Sabrowski & Silva, 2010). Therefore, in basic or alkaline water, the higher velocities have as a consequence enhanced supply of the cathodic reactant, oxygen. For that reason, the cathodic reaction is stimulated and higher corrosion rates take place, causing erosive damage to the metal surface (Hodgkiess, 2013).
According to (Meng, 2009), an increase on velocity has as a result the acceleration of corrosion on behalf of the motion of the fluid, as well as (Neville, et al., 1995) state that the reason of the increased rate of corrosion is the enhanced turbulence and the mixing of water on account of the supply of oxygen.
Furthermore, as Giourntas stats in his study (Giourntas, et al., 2015), stainless steels have the ability to abide high flow rates. However, in the presence of solids I seawater the persistence is decreased. It also states the application of cathodic protection as a very important feature.
As reported by (Neville, et al., 1999), with or without the absence of solids, the E corr drifts to more positive values, during the impingement.
As stated by (Neville & Hu, 2001), in places with high velocity and sudden changes in direction because of pimps, elbows in pipeworks etc. higher rates occur.
Moreover, as Weber reports in (Webber, 1992) the effects are divided in three categories at low flow velocity, medium and high velocity. In the first category, natural convention is responsible, while at the second corrosion increases but without any significant mechanical effect of flow. During high velocities, the damage mechanisms becomes very complex. In keeping with (Li, et al., 1994), erosion corrosion problems enlarge catastrophically but the outflow of water.
In agreement with Lin and Shao, with increasing impingement angles and velocities, the erosion is developing also. The rate of 1020 steel is lower than pure aluminum’s. During erosion conditions, many mechanisms act but only one or two of them is the principal mechanism. (Lin & Shao, 1990)
Concerning (Scheers, 1992), the simultaneous effects of velocity and ph have been investigated and turn out that in mild steel, there is an increase in corrosion rate with the velocity of flow, according to the ph value. Not to mention that, L. Wang notices that erosion corrosion increases rapidly with the development of the flow velocity at 14 m/s at 80% HR (Wang, et al., 2016).
The dissertation of the effects of water velocity on erosion corrosion behavior of materials is mostly experimental. First of all, all available sources, papers and books will be investigated concerning erosion corrosion on materials that are used in marine condition. Furthermore, the effects of velocity and impingement angle will be searched. Relating the experiment, specimens have to be chosen. Possibly, only the major materials of maritime industry will be selected. These will have a cylindrical shape. Furthermore, those specimens will be placed in a recirculating rig as shown in the figure below. Afterwards, saline water will pass through a pump and therefore accelerate. Water will flow through pipes, where at the end of the piping system, a nozzle is installed, in order for the flow to take the exact preferable velocity. Nozzles will be changed. Directly vertical from the direction of the flow is the stagnation point. In the figure besides is a representation of the region where the liquid jet impinges to the solid material (Neville, 1995). The velocity depends on the diameter of the nozzle. Thence, water will impinge to the specimen causing erosive and corrosive damage. With the use of an equipment, the vertical impingement will change and erosive damage from different angles will be investigated. Afterwards, the exact amount of the material that has been degragated will be investigated through scale and metallography.
References
Bonner, R., 2016. Passivation coatings for micro-channel Coolers. s.l.:s.n.
Chandler, K., 1985. Marine and offshore corrosion. s.l.:s.n.
Giourntas, L. G., Hodgkiess, T. & Galloway, A., 2015. Comparative study of erosion-corrosion performance on a range of stainless steels. s.l.:s.n.
Hodgkiess, T., 2013. University of Strathclyde: General-Surface Corrosion. s.l.:s.n.
Jin, H. και συν., 2016. Failure analysis of multiphase flow corrosion-erosion with three-way injecting water pipe. s.l.:s.n.
Jones, G. & Summerscales, J., 2016. Marine applications of advanced fibre-reinforced composites. s.l.:s.n.
Larson, T. & King, R., 1954. Corrosion by Water at Low Flow Velocity. s.l.:s.n.
Lin, F. & Shao, H., 1990. Effect of impact velocity on slurry erosion and a new design of a slurry erosion tester. s.l.:s.n.
Li, Y., Burstein, G. & Hutchings, I., 1994. Influence of environmental composition and electrochemical potential on the slurry erosion-corrosion of aluminium. s.l.:s.n.
Meng, H., 2009. Erosion-Corrosion of marine alloys. s.l.:s.n.
Neville, A., 1995. An Investigation of the Corrosion Behaviour of a Range of Engineering Materials in Marine Environments. s.l.:s.n.
Neville, A., Hodgkiess, T. & Dallas, J., 1995. A study of the erosion-corrosion behaviour of engineering steels for marine pumping applications. s.l.:s.n.
Neville, A. & Hu, X., 2001. Mechanical and electrochemical interactions during liquid-solid impingement on high-alloy stainless steels. s.l.:s.n.
Neville, A., Reyes, M., Hodgkiess, T. & Gledhill, A., 1999. Mechanisms of wear on a Co-base alloy in liquid-solid slurries. s.l.:s.n.
Sabrowski, A. & Silva, P., 2010. ph:Regulation of Seawater, the role of Carbonae and Biicarbonate. s.l.:s.n.
Scheers, P., 1992. The effects of flow velocity and pH on the corrosion rate of mild steel in a synthetic m;newater. s.l.:s.n.
Scheers, P., 1992. The effects of flow velocity and pH on the corrosion rate of mild steel in a synthetic minewater. s.l.:s.n.
Wang, L. και συν., 2016. Erosionecorrosion behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel in wet gas environments. s.l.:s.n.
Webber, J., 1992. Br. Corrosion. s.l.:s.n.
Wing, L. και συν., 2016. Erosionecorrosion behavior of 2205 duplex stainless steel in wet gas environments. s.l.:s.n.

Causes and Impacts of disruptive Behavior (DB) in Healthcare

Introduction
Persons may be fascinated to study and work in the nursing occupation because it is trustworthy and esteemed; though, the reputation of nursing is at risk as nurses are vulnerable to violence at their work more than other professions (Carter 2000 cited in Norris 2003). Indeed, nursing profession is four times more dangerous than most other careers (Gallant, R 2008). Nurses deliver care for displeased patients and families, whether they are mentally or emotionally ill, or they are offenders. They also need to deal with staffs and other healthcare members within the organization who evoke distress and nervousness. Lateral violence (LV) in health organizations has come to be so widespread and troublesome that it has gained the concern of the policy makers, managers and the healthcare organizations.

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During the past years LV has gained special attention in organization research. According to National Council on Compensation Insurance (NCCI) in 2006, 60% of workplace assaults are presented and intensified in health organizations, social facilities, and personal care employments. Investigators have reported alarming findings about the negative consequences related to disruptive behavior (DB) for the individuals, the health organizations, and the patients. As for the impacts on the organization, DB has been reported to be associated with higher turnover and intent to quit the organization, higher absenteeism, and decreased commitment and productivity (Hoel, Einarsen & Cooper 2003). In addition, victim bullying has been reported to experience stress, job dissatisfaction, psychological and physical illness, and possible expulsion from the Job (Hoel & Cooper 2000, Keashly & Jagatic 2003 cited in Hoel et al. 2003, Vartia 2001) while patient bullying has been reported to result in reduced safety and quality of care (reference).
Although LV is considered a global epidemic (International council of nursing (ICN) (2007) and has long been a concern among healthcare providers, it has frequently gone uninhibited, or even pernicious, accepted as part of the organization. Thus, leaving these behaviors unaddressed, health organization quietly maintained and reinforced them. Fortunately, DB has lately come under better scrutiny. The American Medical Association (AMA) (2002) has commented: “Personal conduct, whether verbal or physical, that affects or that potentially may affect patient care negatively constitutes DBs. The American Association of Critical Care Nurses (AACN) in 2005 has noted that the presence of DB is negatively impacting the collaboration among healthcare workers, which is principal to instituting and supporting a productive work environment. Furthermore, Alspach (2007) stated that LV in nursing is insidious, costly, disgusting and affects patient care. These behaviors urge TJC in 2008 to warrant the healthcare organizations of the safety risk caused by intimidating behaviors and asked them to increase their awareness of the individuals and organizational risk resulting from these behaviors.
Those exposed to DB can live through stress, frustration, and psychomatic disorders. Sadly, Griffin (2004) found that 60 % of newly appointed nurses quit their work within six months of service upon exposure to LV, 20% leave the nursing profession forever. While, Veltman (2007) stated that DBs pushed the nurses to leave a particular job, and this drain on resources further affect patient care. In order to address this threat TJC (2009) introduced a leadership standard requiring that facilities looking for accreditation must formulate policies to tackle DBs in healthcare organizations.
Now all Healthcare givers should be charged with understanding and addressing this needed culture change within health organizations. In this paper, the causes and impacts of DB for both patients and healthcare workers will be reviewed. Strategies to address and combat DBs among healthcare givers will be discussed. LV, DB and bullying are the terms that I will be using throughout this assignment.
Laying the foundation
Several terms have been used in nursing research to describe the negative behaviors of nurses in health services. These include LV, bullying, relational aggression, intimidation, horizontal hostility, horizontal violence, sabotage, verbal abuse, psychological abuse, oppression and interactive workplace trauma. (Alspach 2007,Dellasega 2009,Longo & Sherman 2007, Lutgen-Sandivk 2007, Rocker 2008,Rowell 2005, Rosenstein & O’Daniel 2008, Stanley 2007, The Joint Commission(TJC) 2008) . Griffin (2004) identified the most common ten features of DB in the nursing literature (Duffy1995; Farrell1997, 1999, McCall 1996, cited in Stanley 2007): non-verbal innuendo, verbal affront, undermining activities, withholding information, sabotage, infighting, scapegoating, backstabbing, failure to respect privacy, and broken confidences. These kinds of DBs may be perpetuated by healthcare providers, patients or their families.
High jobs pressure such as nursing tends to create stresses that are often released when further stressors are added. The discharge of the unbearable stress can result in LV. Irrespective of the initiating stress, no one merits to be abused. When LV erupts, everyone is influenced (Rowel 2010).Some researchers argued that nurses are an oppressed group who intern contributes to the oppressive behaviors indicative of LV (Stanley et al. 2007). Moreover, oppression, vulgarity, and sexual harassment are key elements of LV (Lutgen-Sandivk 2006). But these issues are not the only means that DB may manifest itself in personal communications. Norris (2010) added that hostility may take the form of apparent detesting, patronizing language, annoyance with questions from neophyte nurses or unlicensed employees, disparaging, impoliteness, concealing information, and even temper tantrums.
DB is used to depict the workplace negative behaviors that may affect the health status of patient (TJC 2008). Dellasega (2009) refers LV to the act of intimidating, degrading that result in physical, psychological or emotional injury on a colleague or group while Rosenstein and Q’Daniel (2008) described LV as any unsuitable conduct, conflict, or confrontation ranging from verbal abuse to bodily or sexual harassment. According to Piper (2003) DB is any aggressive behavior that may endanger the stability of patient, unit, and the ability of the organization to achieve its mission. The ICN (2007) defined bullying as a behavior that dishonors, demeans, or otherwise shows disrespect for the dignity and value of an individual. Habitually, the fundamental cause of DP turns around “communication mishaps” (Ratner 2006, cited in Rowel 2010) or intentional obnoxious behaviors.
Sheridan-Leos (2008) stated that the term LV has been used for more than 25 years in the nursing literature and described it as an act of antagonism that occurs between nursing colleagues within an organizational hierarchy. DB may be obvious or subtle. Farrell (2001, cited by Leiper 2005) uses the terms active or passive to categorize DP while the TJC uses the terms overt or covert. Active or overt actions range from intimidating body language designed to discomfort another or others to overtly criticizing a colleague in the presence of others, shouting at others and even physical attack (Leiper 2005, Longo & Sherman 2007). Passive, covert aggression may take the form of gossiping, cover-up information needed to perform the job, or demonstrating unhelpful approaches during routine doings.
Griffin (2004) found that many experienced nurses are not acquainted with the term LV and thought new nurses were making up the term. Likewise, many forms of DB may be so delicate that certain actions are considered nothing more than a personality conflict between two persons. Jackson (2002) contends that DB is an axiomatic phenomenon in health organizations and is recognized by many organizational cultures as a part of doing business. However, when asked precisely about personal experiences with DB, most healthcare providers confess that they know it when they see it, and many acknowledge exposure to some sort of experience with it during their professional life (Alspach, 2007). Owing to the seriousness and continuity of the side effects of LV on patient outcomes, a great attention has been paid to this topic in the literature. Here are some examples of reported cases:
In a study conducted by the joint program and reported by the international council of nurses (ICN) (2007).Researchers found that the most common forms of LV are Verbal abuse, bullying and sexual harassment where verbal abuse ranks the highest among them. Verbal abuse had been experienced by 39.5% in Brazil, 32.2% in Bulgaria, in Portugal, 52% in the health center complex and 27.4%in the hospitals, 40.9% in Lebanon, and up to 67% in Australia. Additionally, bullying has been suffered by 30.9% in Bulgaria, 20.6% in South Africa, 10.7% in Thailand, in Portugal ,23% in the health center complex and 16.5% in the hospital, 22.1% in Lebanon, 10.5% in Australia and 15.2% in Brazil. Furthermore, sexual harassment impacted 64% in India, 90% in Israel and 56% in Japan, 69% for the UK, 48% in Ireland and 76% in the US.
The Institute of Safe Medication Practice (ISMP) surveyed over 2000 healthcare providers in 2004 including nurses (1565), pharmacists (354), and others (176) and reported that 88% of the surveyed staff suffered bullying by other workers in the form of haughty language or voice intonation. 87% felt impatience when questioned and 79% were unwilling or refuse to respond to questions or telephone calls.
The Nursing journal website (2006) asked guests “in the last 6 months have you observed any nurse dealing inappropriately with others?” 55% of all visitors claimed yes. This was demonstrated by a survey administered in 2007 to 663 nurses; 46% informed that LV was “very serious” or “somewhat serious” issue in their healthcare area and 65% reported witnessing DB repeatedly (Stanley 2007).
Ulrich (2006) surveyed 4000 nurses; 18% reported verbal abuse from another nurse, while 25% of all participants rated the quality of teamwork and communication with other nurses as fair or poor.
A minor study in Boston (2001) involving 26 new graduate nurses reported that 96% of respondents had seen LV during their first year of work, 46% stated that the act was against them. Acts of LV included being set them up to fail with an “unreasonable assignment”, sabotage, undermining, or not being available (Griffin 2004).
According to a survey written by the Workplace Bullying Institute in 2010 and commissioned by Zogby International survey (2010), an estimated 35% of the U.S. workforce has been bullied at workplace; 62% of bullies are men; 58% of targets are women,68%of bullying is same-gender harassment; an additional 15% witness it. Half of all Americans have directly experienced it. Simultaneously, 50% of targets and witnesses never report the incident (silent epidemic).
Leymann’s (1993, cited in Einarsen1999) asserts that four elements are noticeable in prompting bullying at workplace: (1) lacks of work design, (2) deficits in leadership performance, (3) a socially visible status of the victim, and (4) reduced ethical standards in the working department. Einarsen et al. (2003) designed a workplace bullying framework; which gives an overview of how factors on different levels may interact at different stages in the multifaceted bullying process. This framework calls the attention not only to individual factors (in victims and perpetrators) but also to contextual, organizational and social factors. Salin (2003b) adapted this framework (Fig. 2), which builds and argues a planned adjustment of the framework by constructing on organizational factors of intimidation and its tolerance/intolerance by using terms such as ‘enabling/disabling’ factors (Fig. 3).
The Problem
A survey conducted by TJC (2008) involving 4350 healthcare providers revealed that 77% witnessed DP by doctors and 65% by nurses. These behaviors are frequently demonstrated by professionals in positions of power and include unwillingness or rejection to answer questions; return telephone calls or pagers; patronizing language or voice intonation, and impatience with questions.
In response to these events, TJC (2008) issued a patient safety alert affirming that the existence of threatening and unapproachable behaviors weakens the effectiveness of teamwork, erodes professional behaviors, and creates an unhealthy work environment”. This sort of toxic environment can lead to malpractice risk (Rosenstein and O’Daniel 2005, Morrissey 2003, ISMP 2008), patient dissatisfaction and to preventable adverse outcomes, (Rosenstein and O’Daniel 2005, Gerardi 2008, Ransom and Neff et al 2000), increase cost of care, (Gerardi 2008, Ransom and Neff et al 2000) and causes competent clinicians, administrators and managers to look for new workplaces in more professional settings. Lutgen-Sandvik (2009) stated that nurses employed in a toxic, threatening environment often dread going to work and many face the day with feelings of “impending doom”. Recurrent exposure to bullying headed some nurses to retreat into silence, which led to disruption in communication and teamwork. Furthermore, continuous bullying may alter nurses’ self-confidence, initiativity and innovation resulting in psychological and occupational impairment (WBI 2003). All of these factors combine their effects to disrupt the stability of employees, the organization, and the patient’s safety.
Unfortunately, there is no research study in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) handling the issues of LV except for a minor one conducted in Saqr Hospital in Ras Al Khaimah. The executive director stated that DB by physicians, including Sexual harassment and verbal abuse is a major cause of nurses’ stress and dissatisfaction at the hospital. Such abuse pushes the nurses to turnover (Zain 2010). Moreover, unhealthy nurses-physicians rapport and authority abuse by the doctors have contributed to nurse turnover in the UAE (khaleej, T 2009).The absence of studies involving the whole emirates does not mean that the problem does not exist. Based on my observation as part of the healthcare system, many nurses especially Asians suffer from different kinds of hostility from physicians, superiors, peers, patients and their families in their work. This hostility take the form of shouting, oral degrading expressions, oral ironic remarks, raised eyebrow, unflattering face gestures, apparent detesting, and sexual harassment.
Literature Review
History
The notion of LV is not a new phenomenon. Horty (1985, cited by Piper 2003) defined the disruptive doctor as “as a very clinically competent to the extent of considering himself as the most experienced in the healthcare organization. The troublesome physician is naturally very tough to contact and hence argumentative and antagonistic. In the 1990s, DBs by doctors began to be labeled in the literature as a form of physician impairment (Piper 2003). Gawande (2000) revealed in his article “When Good Doctors Go Bad” how the medical community was not set to suitably address physician’s DB. Rosenstein et al. (2002) found out that lack of physician awareness, appreciation, value, and respect for nurses were serving to fuel the countrywide nursing shortage, profoundly impacting job satisfaction and morale for nurses. So what motivates TJC to ask the medical community to act against violence after two decades? Researchers agree that two milestone matters brought the dispute of LV to the front (Lutgen-Sandivk 2007, Rocker 2008, Rosenstein & O’Daniel 2008, Seidel, 2006).
The Institute of Medicine (lOM) published in 1999, To Err is Human. The report determined that medical errors cause between 44,000-98000 deaths yearly- more than result from vehicle accidents, breast cancer or AIDS (Baker 2009). The report emphasized the necessity to consider organizational resources and human factors that harmfully influenced patient care (Rosenstein & O’Daniel 2008).
The risk of a nursing shortage. Aiken et al. (2001) found in his global study in a sample of 43,329 nurses that job dissatisfaction was highest in the USA (41%) followed by Scotland (38%), England (36%), Canada (33%) and Germany (17%). More striking, however, was that 27-54% of nurses less than 30 years of age intended to quit within 12 months of data collection in all countries.
The U.S.A had a shortage of 150,000 nurses and that number is expected to reach 800,000 by the year 2020 (Childers 2005). Consequently, the nurses will be incapable to meet the forthcoming patients’ needs if this continues. One reason of turnover is the frustration caused by DBs.
Rosenstein et al. (2002) noted that nurse-physician relationship is the key element for retaining nurses. Rosenstein surveyed 2562 from 142 hospitals from 11 Voluntary Hospital Association regions. The sample included 389 physicians, 1615 nurses and 104 senior level executives. More than 90% informed witnessing DB by physician and over 33% of nurses tend to turnover. Using a scale of 1-10 to identify the level of nurse’s satisfaction and moral; LV ranks pretty high (8.01)
Figure 4
Theoretical Framework
Rowell (2010) suggested five theories about LV. (See Appendix I).
Causes of LV
Physicians related
Several researchers stated that the physician’s training at the hospitals make them vulnerable to DB (Kuhn 2006, Rosenstein & O’Daniel, 2008). During their training; doctors learned to think individualistically and to become accountable for their activities. This mentality promotes self-reliance, self-sufficiency and an “autocratic”, bullying conduct which is the antithesis of teamwork (Rosenstein et aI. 2002). According to Kuhn (2006), the absence of quality control starting in university and it is nearly difficult to be fired from internship. This leads the physicians to see themselves as the so-called “captain of the ship” but possibly do not have the necessary skills to keep it right. This also produces a hierarchal model of healthcare which builds passive roles for nurses and other subordinates (Rosenstein &O’Daniel 2008)
Piper (2003) found that DB is usually demonstrated by excellent clinicians who are accepted by their patients and the society. As they habitually have a notable record of accomplishments; victims may be unwilling to intervene considering the behavior as an exceptional one. Moreover, Piper stated that hospital managers who are supposed to implement the policies are confronted with the challenge of whether to ignore the behavior, or take a difficult decision of firing a great physician who shows too much enthusiasm.
According to Rosenstein & O’Daniel (2008) some hospital directors are disinclined from averting the aggressive attitudes of the physicians because they are not hospital employees and willingly admit their patients to the hospital and thus considered a source of organizational income.
Growing external forces such as governmental supervision, pressures for more productivity, managed care restrictions, lower payment, and increasing liability risk cause disruptive physician behavior (Rosenstein et al. 2002). Practicing physicians are overwhelmed with paperwork. As a result, demoralization, and anger will develop leading to oppressive conducts. Another likely cause is the stress inherent in today’s medical environment such as mental exhaustion and environmental stressors experienced by physicians lead them to commit medical errors (Kuhn 2006).
Staff related
The oppression theory will be applied to understand the nurse-to-nurse aggression. Healthcare institutions are controlled by the administrators and physicians who use their authority to rule subordinates. It is obvious that when any oppressed group recognizes that it is not possible to direct its power upward, the group then places their powerlessness and frustration on one another. These peer-to-peer hostilities, which reduce self-esteem, are called LV (Sheriden-Leos2008, Griffin 2004, Leiper 2005). Dunn (2003) confirmed in a study involving 500 nurses in the operating theater that the great numbers of nurses were verbally attacked by the surgeons. This sort of offensive abuse led the oppressed group to develop personal characteristic such as disunity and inability to oppose the physicians because of their positions, authority and ability to revenge from the nurses. Rowell (2005) estimated that 81% of oppressors are bosses, 14% peers, and 5% lower rank staff. Referring to Griffin (2004) this form of oppression causes the nurses to feel helpless, disrespected and self-loathing. Stanley and Martin (2007) have suggested an applied model of oppressed group behavior to demonstrate how LV seems to manifest itself in the workstation (Fig. 4).It also useful in predicting nurses’ retention and satisfaction.
Gender is another factor. Many studies revealed that females are more susceptible to LV than males. Dunn (2003) rationalized that women tend to suppress their feelings of bitterness. In addition, women are habitually considered inferior to men within society in general and healthcare organization in specific. Accordingly, it is not astonishing to see recurrent acts of sabotage in the nursing as 90% of nurses are females. Leiper (2005) has a parallel opinion and said that females generally underestimate their efforts and have lesser self-esteem than males so they can be irritated more easily and have a predisposition to yell at others. Dellasega (2009) concluded that males express their anger more frequent with bodily violence and this is usually accepted and women exhibited it through character insult, mortification, disloyalty and rejection.
ISMP (2004) surveyed 2095 nurses (86% female and 14 % male) and found that DB was nearly equal. Thomas (2003) agrees with this finding.
Not all Researchers support the oppression theory as the mechanism for DBs. Ratner (2006) view the oppression theory as condescending to nurses, making them appear as the powerless victim. Another standpoint suggests that organizational cultures, sustained struggles for authority, inconsistent work standards and management styles results in LV (Hallberg 2007). Further organizational causes include shortage, work overload, lack of administrative support, relations among groups, and organizational reform (Rocker 2008).
Patient/Family related
Patient or family members with a history of DB should be considered at high risk for becoming violent. Violence results from those who are frustrated, rampant, mentally ill, and substance abuser.
Finally, LV is not frequently reported by victims and therefore run unaddressed. Fear of revenge, the stigma related to ”blowing the whistle” on a peer, a wide-ranging averseness to oppose an oppressor (TJC 2008), the status quo, lack of confidentiality, lack of administrative support, and lack of awareness or reluctance among doctors to change inhibit the reporting (Rosenstein et aI. 2002). Similar to other kinds of mistreatment, staff violence is repeatedly viewed as an isolated matter and individuals are occasionally unwilling to talk about it (Gammons 2006). On several occasions, LV is not informed because it isn’t identified. Some practitioners doubt that bullying has happened except when somebody shouts or uses attacking language (Beyea 2004).
Forms and Manifestations OF LV: (see Appendix II)
Effects of LV on: Nursing workforce, Organization and Patient
The Nursing workforce
Defamation of professional dignity, stress, anxiety, frustration, and anger (Rosenstein & O’Daniel 2008), sleeping disorders, reduced self-esteem, low morale, disconnectedness from their colleagues, depression, apathy, and excessive sick leave (Alspach 2007, Longo & Sherman 2007), Suicide attempt (Griffin, 2004). According to the WBI, 45% of respondents had stress-related health problems which include debilitating anxiety, panic attacks, clinical depression (39%), and even post-traumatic stress.
Not astonishingly, the adverse effects of LV are not only restricted to the targets. Co-workers witnessing LV report stress and job dissatisfaction. Witnesses who never report are confused how to stop assailant. Unluckily, their silence often leads them to despair and turnover (Lutgen-Sandvik 2007).
Healthcare Organization
Manifestations include: increased patient illnesses, increased healthcare costs, unplanned absences, law suits (Rowell 2005), malpractice risks (TJC 2008) and turnover (Rosenstein & Q’Daniel 2008, Griffin 2004). Rocker (2008) states that between one third and one half of all work related absences and illnesses are a result of office bullying. According Yamada (2009) some victims pursue compensation or disability benefits as they are no more able to endure work stress and intimidation.
Along with Stanley (2010) the overall increase in nurses’ turnover induced by LV from 2002 to 2007 is 32%. Turnover costs the organization per RN for 2007 $82,000 – 88,000. Additional costs are decreased productivity and loss of experienced and knowledgeable nurses.
Malpractice of physicians and other healthcare providers, which is estimated at 4-6%, has a vast impact on organizational costs. Patients and families detect aggressive work environments (TJC 2008) and are ready to sue when they are faced with arrogant or insensitive behavior from healthcare workers (Aleccia 2008 as cited by TJC 2008).
The Patient
Rosenstein (2008) surveyed 4530 participants from 102 USA organizations from 2004-2007. The survey questions were intended to assess the respondent’s perception of the link between DB and patient care. The links were as follow: 66% adverse events, 71% medical errors, 53% compromises in safety, 72% detrimental impacts on quality of care, 25% patient mortality,18% were aware of a specific adverse event, 75% of them believe that the adverse event could have been prevented. According to Dunn (2003) some nurses may control patients by putting off their response to the patient’s needs- pain medicines, etc. Displeased nurses can also keep patient’s family uninformed about the patient’s health status or not support them when needed. Stanley (2010) reported that 1.5 million patients are harmed by medication errors yearly.
DISCUSSION
In today’s sophisticated healthcare setting, each system brings particular skills to patient’s care. Whether the clinician is a nurse, or any other healthcare workers; each has a unique set of expertise and acquaintance that enable them to view the patient from a particular standpoint. Each field is taking care of the patient at distinctive times and intervals of the day. The doctor visits the patient one or two times a day for 15-20 minutes whereas the nurse employs several successive hours bedside his patient. Therefore, the nurse is the first one who detects and attends the alteration in patient’s status, not the physician. The patient and the efficacy of the healthcare team are dependent on each other to thoroughly and assertively communicate the changes in the health status of the patient. Unhappily; DB hinders this communication process which affects patient’s outcomes.
It is of merit to mention that the international picture of LV is no difference from UAE.I have been working in the clinical setting for 16 years in different hospitals as a nurse and in a health institution as a teacher and clinical instructor. I have been exposed to and witnessed many episodes of Dbs. For example, I remember a situation when the head nurse asked the Surgeon whether he wants to start the patient on diet or continue keeping him nothing by mouth. The doctor replied in an offensive manner; give him “Shoes”. The head nurse asked him to write this in the “order sheet”. Sadly but true, the doctor did it without giving consideration to anything. The nurses felt that they were disrespected and were frustrated because of the recurrent response from the administration when DB is reported as “status quo”. That instance happened before 9 years but this troublesome situation impacted my psychological status that I recall it as if it occurred yesterday. Another incident, Though I do not like to recall it, but its profound effect keeps it all the time in my imagination when the nurse came to the nursing counter crying once an aged patient got the money from his pocket and asked her to satiate his sexual desire.
Furthermore, nurse on nurse aggression is also clear and take different forms ranging from verbal and non-verbal attack such as intentional rolling of eyes, folding arms, gazing into space when communication is being attempted, backbiting, withholding information…etc. to physical assault such as pushing each other. These DB extended also to the patient particularly the dependent and the unconscious patients who were insulted either by bad words or inappropriate care. The negative effect of these DBs was manifested by medical errors, reduced patient safety and care, decreased performance and productivity, frustration, dissatisfaction, turnover, and poor hospital reputation.
Although these are merely anecdotal notes, there are comparable events recognized in the research. Rosenstein & O’Daniel (2006) presented selected comments acquired from a survey of 4530 healthcare providers. They include terms such as “RN did not call doctor about change in patient’s health status because the doctor had a history of abusive behavior” and “particular surgeons give the impression that they have the right to be impolite and verbally offensive. It is hard to maintain a high level of performance when repetitively scared of being yelled at” (Rosenstein & O’Daniel2006).
Unhappily, DB is not solely restricted to doctors. Rosenstein’s survey data supports the issue that DB spread to other non-physicians employees. Remarks include; “DB from nurses is much more upsetting. I expect it from the surgeons but not from my peers” and “please realize that most stress is from RN managers, not MD’s”. According to Rosenstein & O’Daniel (2008), the most common situation that triggered DP by doctors, as conveyed by nurses, was calling physicians to report a decline in the patient’s condition. This shows a failure in communication that ought to bring dreadful results on the patient. For instance, if the physician’s order is inaccurate or not clear. The nurse many not carry out the order until clarified by doctor. If the nurse is anxious about making a telephone to the doctor due to fear of an annoyed eruption, she might postpone the call or make another work around by evading the doctor entirely and including another party. If there is inaccurate order of medicine, this situation can be revealed in various ways, all with awful outcomes for the patient. Primarily, the issue will not be verbalized as the practitioner did not desire to confront the stellar reputation of the doctor or because they were demoralized by previous behavior (ISMP 2008). Consequently, the incorrect medicine will be given. If the nurse calls the doctor and feels that the physician is irritated, the incorrect medicine can still be given and secondary repercussions such as being unable to correct the order in the future can result. Unfortunately, several nursing staff has to live with the guilt of a serious error because they did not follow up on a questioned situation (ISMP 2008). The negative outcomes of such an error can result in stress and frustration for all involved and thus can bring about DB.
Limitations
Workplace LV is a complicated issue. A diversity of expressions is used to reveal similar behaviors .Although they possess distinctive meanings, the terms are frequently used interchangeably in the nursing literature. There are also a many workplace abuse that might be categorized as DB.
First, the paper has focus merely on psychological and/or verbal abuse and not physical or sexual harassment. Second, the majority of literature focuses on LV in nursing profession in particular and to a certain degree
 

Structural Causes Of Unethical Behavior Within An Organization

Traditionally, organizations function within a certain set of guidelines and protocols that inherently form a structure in an organization. Pugh defines an organizational structure as a hierarchical concept of subordination of entities that collaborate and contribute to serve one common aim. Activities such as task allocation, coordination and supervision are carried out to achieve organizational goals.
Organizations are formal entities that distribute tasks through specialization and create a standard set of processes to create an efficient and effective workplace environment to increase productivity while saving costs. Standard operating procedure protocols, management protocols and standard set of rules and codes are implemented throughout the organization to ensure all employees perform their tasks as they are supposed to in the proper way. For instance, in a car assembly line, factory workers and engineers have to follow a certain set of guidelines to ensure the quality of the cars. Testing for safety and quality are standardized in every manufacturing branch not only throughout the country but internationally. Similarly, McDonald’s provide standard operating procedures for every franchise throughout the globe in order to maintain quality and the company’s reputation (Griffin, 2012).

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Although formal organizations provide a set of guidelines and standard procedures, in a situation where ethical decision-making takes place, these standard codes fail to provide a clear cut solution to the dilemma, thus resulting in unethical behavior which are caused by the structure of the organization. Organizations do provide codes of conduct and ethical code doctrines to employees prior to their hiring but implementing those codes are entirely up to the employees and their immediate supervisors. Even the CEO of a company can make unethical decisions to his own discretion despite being bound to the ethical codes of conduct of the corporation in which he serves. Moreover, considering he is the man in charge of the entire corporation, it is even more likely that he will not be held responsible for his unethical decisions.
When the organization structure fail to prevent unethical behavior, ultimately the profitability and sustainability of a corporation will be affected. This is where strict corporate governance needs to be put in place in order to minimize unethical behavior within an organization. In order to solve unethical behavior and improve organization structure, we must first understand how a structure can fail to prevent unethical behavior. Furthermore, we must identify the types of unethical behavior that can arise in ethical situations where an organization’s structure is ineffective. Finally, we will also expound on previous researches to identify ways to minimize unethical behavior within an organization by, among other things, improving the structure of the organization.
1.2.1 Boston Consulting Group
Founded by Bruce D. Henderson in 1963, The Boston Consulting Group (BCG) is a global management consulting firm that has successfully appeared in the top 15 of Fortune’s ‘Best Companies To Work For’ seven years in a row. As much as it was a subsidiary of The Boston Company, BCG currently has 77 offices of its own in 42 countries all across the World.
In attempts of trying to understand the nature of pricing in a manufacturing industry and as a result of work done for a semiconductor manufacturer, The Boston Consulting Group came up with its first breakthrough known as the ‘experience curve’ in 1966. The ‘experience curve’ states that the unit cost of a product gradually decreases as cumulated volume and production experience increases. Ultimately, the theory stresses that it is crucial and important to enter newly introduced fields and take hold of as much market share as possible. By doing this, an organization will be able to gain advantage over other late-arriving organizations in the same field and thus, eliminating any sort of competition. (Refer to Appendix C)
The Boston Consulting Group Matrix (BCG Matrix) also known as the growth-share matrix was introduced in 1968. The framework of the BCG Matrix consists of a box with four quadrants that is represented using terms such as cash cows, dogs, question marks and stars. The terms of the framework represent growth rate, market share and negative and positive flow of cash. The main goal of the framework is to achieve a balance between cash cows, question marks and stars and to sell off the dogs. As soon as the theory was introduced, the terms of the framework quickly became fixtures in the world of business. In the same year, BCG was released as a subsidiary from The Boston Company. (Refer to Appendix D)
Despite the departure of a few prominent and top individuals, The Boston Consulting Group became an independent company in 1975. BCG was one of the first few companies to practice the Employee Retirement Income Security Act as the company recognized its benefits and was quick to take advantage of the act. Through this act, The Boston Consulting Group was allowed to establish an employee stock ownership program. The establishment of the program made way for the process of buying BCG from The Boston Company to begin. By 1979, the buyout was completed five years ahead of the original schedule. (Refer to Appendix E)
The year 1985 paved way for some major changes at top level management for The Boston Consulting Group as its founder and then Chief Executive Officer (CEO), Bruce D. Henderson retired. He was succeeded by John Clarkeson who assumed the position of CEO and Alan Zakon who took on the position of chairman of the company’s board. In 1992, Henderson died at age 77. “Few people have had as much impact on international business in the second half of the twentieth century as the founder of The Boston Consulting Group,” eulogized the Financial Times upon Henderson’s death. (Refer to Appendix E)
In 2003, Hans-Paul Burkener was elected the fifth President and CEO of The Boston Consulting Group by the company’s partners. As of the year 2011, The Boston Consulting Group was ranked second on Fortune’s ‘100 Best Companies To Work For’, marking its sixth consecutive year on such a prestigious list. BCG continues to explore important topics that have significant effects around the World as the company aims to provide better and more quality service in helping organizations to combat the battle of ever changing landscapes in the management of diversity (Refer to Appendix F).
1.2.2 General Electric
In 1890, Thomas Edison established his own company and named as Edison General Electric Company by bringing his different businesses together. Two years later, Edison General Electric Company incorporated with Thomson-Houston Company and, then they named the new organization as General Electric Company. The new organization the General Electric Company is a diversified technology and financial services company. General Electric Company has different type of products and services. They main product and service is householder appliances and General Electric Company is one of the largest manufacturers of major appliances in the world. Besides that, General Electric Company also has other different type of products and services such as aviation, consumer electronics, customer training, electrical distribution, energy, finance-business, healthcare, oil & gas, water, lighting, software & services, rail, and other.
In the early 1890s, the first General Electric appliances electric fans were produced, and a full line of heating and cooking devices were developed in the year 1907. A few years later, General Electric Company developed the first airplane engine “booster” for the fledgling U.S. aviation industry. Besides that, the plastic filaments for light bulbs were created in 1930, and led to the first General Electric Plastics department.
Through the years, General Electric’s leaders have built a portfolio for the diversity of management and leading businesses. That’s made the General Electric Company become a most success company that drives growth and reduces the production costs; increase financial strength and Controllership that allow it to capitalize on opportunities through numerous cycles. And, they have a set of common values that allows it to face any environment or situation with confidence. In 1971, the General Electric Company with the helped from McKinsey developed a General Electric/McKinsey Matrix.
The General Electric/McKinsey Matrix was developed in year 1971, with the helped from McKinsey and consulting firms. And, General Electric Company used it to measure or decides which Strategies Business Units (SBU) should invest, retain, or divest. The GE matrix/McKinsey matrix is one that cans helps to improve the company’s businesses unit strength and helps to increase businesses unit attractiveness. Besides that, this matrix is measure the business unit through the business unit’s attractiveness and business strength. When the business unit’s attractiveness and strength is high, the company should keep invest for gain more profit. On the other hand, when the business unit’s attractiveness and strength is medium, the company should retain or selectively invest. But, when the business unit’s attractiveness and strength is low, it is the time for the company to exit that business unit or stop invests in that business unit.
The aim of this portfolio analysis is:
To decide the company should invest more or divest.
To helps the new product or business unit to develop a growth strategies.
To decide which business unit should retain or not.
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Unethical Behavior Resulting from Failure of Organizational Structure
Many researchers were found to focus on various aspects that management fails to prevent different types of unethical behavior within a corporation. Some of the unethical behavior that is being studied includes conflict of interest, false advertising, discrimination, insider trading, and harassment among others.
For instance, Sherry, Shilbury and Wood (2007) found that as sport becomes a fully-fledged business, there is an increased complexity of ethical issues within sports management and conflict of interest presents similar structural elements as traditional businesses. Practices such as providing benefits, trust and obligation are magnified, as there are also societal expectations and values emphasized in sport and sporting organizations. To illustrate the issue of conflict of interest arising from structural failing in this matter, five of the seven board members of the Californian Horse Racing Board actively own or breed racehorses and “at least six acknowledge that they gamble at the track” (Sherry, Shilbury, & Wood, 2007). This clearly is a conflict of between the board members personal interest and the interest of the corporation. Conflict of interest issues are usually not clearly outlined within the corporation, especially for people in top management and there is no obvious way to identify a person who has a conflict of interest because a hierarchical organization does not usually scrutinize an employee’s personal life. In this case, the integrity of the sport will be compromised, as society will not look with favor on the races for fear of them being cheated out of their bets.
Furthermore, despite laws and regulation outlawing discrimination while hiring, there is still a substantial informal form of discrimination in the workplace towards different races or genders. As found by Pompper (2011) after interviewing 36 middle aged, middle income women of African-American, Asian-American and Hispanic ethnicity in the communications industry, glass ceilings in communication organization remains impenetrable especially for women of these ethnicities. The research found that there is a higher level of financial uncertainty for middle aged, middle-income women of color within media organizations. None of the participants of the research reported having equal salary or status with male colleagues that do comparable work. While there have been strides to reduce employment discrimination in many countries, informal forms of discrimination that are not specifically outlined in corporate policies will still occur, especially in a society or country that inherently, in their culture, practice discrimination against gender or race.
2.2.1 Boston Consulting Group
In a publication titled ‘Strategic Business Models’, Frederick Betz discusses the six different kinds of generic business models that can be used in operating a company. One of the generic business models that he highlights is The Boston Consulting Group Matrix (BCG Matrix).
Betz defines a business model as a strategic technique of how one’s company now operates and how it should change to operate in the future. Also, he describes a business model as an abstraction of business identifying how that business profitably makes money.
Besides that, he identifies a business model as abstracts about how inputs to an organization are transformed to value-adding outputs. The transformation of input resources into output products or services is performed by the processes and operations of the business. Furthermore, he mentions that a strategic business model is a systematic list of policies that will guide the future specification of inputs, outputs, processes and values of the complete operations of the business of the corporation.
In a publication titled ‘Kiechel’s History of Corporate Strategy’, Robert J. Allio and Robert M. Randall interviewed Walter Kiechel III about his book titled ‘The Lords of Strategy: The Secret Intellectual History of the New Corporate World’ (Harvard Business Press, 2010). In his book, Kiechel chronicles the rise and stumbles of a number of leading consultancies – primarily Bain, Boston Consulting Group and Mc Kinsey after having interviewed originators of the core ideas behind strategy and strategic movement and executives at the companies where it was first practiced.
In his book, Walter Kiechel III regards The Boston Consulting Group as the ‘Lords of Strategy’. He explains that the pioneering consulting efforts of the organization has helped instill a sense of empiricism that is a fundamental key in competing. He defines empiricism as the ability to identify and recognize facts that are essential in gaining advantage over other late-arriving organizations in the same field. Also, the concepts developed by The Boston Consulting Group are made up of easy-to-understand and familiar patterns that make the task of interpreting the data less difficult. This indirectly enables one to figure out what needs to be done.
Besides that, Kiechel did not fail to draw attention to the opinions of critics and his personal opinion about The Boston Consulting Group Matrix (BCG Matrix) in his book. Critics pointed out that a certain organization can define and characterize the shares and size of a targeted market. However, it is impractical and almost impossible for the same organization to predict the exact growth of the market. Kiechel strongly believes that an organization should associate with the hidden message of the BCG Matrix. An organization should take the initiative to identify and accurately comprehend the competitive situation that it faces, the data for understanding the business that it is involved in and the potential that the organization possess. Otherwise, you are left at the mercy of every business unit’s manager telling you that “Next year is going to be different; This baby is really set to take off.” (Kiechel, 2010).
2.2.2 General Electric
Nowadays, General Electric can be more successful. If should related to the McKinsey and Company consulting firm. Because General Electric Company get the help from McKinsey and Company consulting firm, and developed a more complicated matrix (Figure 2.1). Through the internet research, the General Electric Company used GE matrix/McKinsey matrix as their planning system for management of diversity. From my general knowledge about the GE matrix/McKinsey matrix, it is a strategic that will separate from the mother company into many small business units and determine which business unit should invest more, retain, or divest.
From “Strategic Management: theory and case study”, by Tunchalong Rungwitoo, the General Electric / McKinsey Matrix, is a nine cell matrix from two dimensions, which is industry attractiveness and business strength. For the use of General Electric/McKinsey Matrix, they use the GE matrix/McKinsey matrix to identify whether the small business units should invest, retain, or divest. Besides that, it also can fits perfectly to the company’s strengths and helps to exploit the most attractive industries or markets.
Besides that, General Electric Company can see the status of their business units and suggest the strategy the business fell in which categories through the General Electric/McKinsey Matrix (Figure 2.2). The vertical axis of the General Electric/McKinsey matrix is industry attractiveness, which is determined by the factors such as market growth rate, market size, demand variability, industry profitability, industry rivalry, global opportunities, and others. And, the horizontal axis of the General Electric/McKinsey matrix is the strength of the business unit. Some factors that can be used to determine business unit strength include: market share, growth in market share, brand equity, distribution channel access, production capacity, and profit margins relative to competitors.
From “International Journal of Humanities and Social science”, the General Electric/McKinsey Matrix requires the identification and assessment of both external and internal factors, which are industry attractiveness and business strength on a nine-cell grid. To grow, to hold, or to harvest are the categories used to classify both attractiveness and strength (Figure 2.2). When that is high attractiveness and high business strength (Leader), the company should seek dominance and maximize investment. When that is medium attractiveness and medium business strength (Proceed with care), the company should specialize and invest selectively. And, when that is low attractiveness and low business strength (Withdrawal), the company should attack rivals and time exit.
3.0 Data Analysis and Discussion
3.1.1 Structural Causes and How to Solve Them
An organization can have a centralized or a decentralized structure. A centralized organization refers to an organization in which important decision-making tasks and power are given and carried out by few leaders. As stated by Vitez (2012), centralized organization depends on a single person to give direction and make decisions for the corporation. A decentralized organization, on the other hand, give autonomy to individuals in middle and lower management levels to make critical decisions and usually carry out decisions as part of a team (Vitez, 2012). The hierarchy of the organization also tends to be much more flat compared to centralized organizations.
In a centralized organization, ethical conduct is often disseminated in the form of ethical codes of conduct and corporate policies. It is easier to control and minimize unethical behavior within an organization with a central structure as employees have clearly written guidelines to follow in the corporation and if they fail to do so, they will be reprimanded for it. However, an employee’s own personal ethical standards may conflict with what is expected of him as a member of the organization and its corporate culture (Ferrell, Fraedrich, & Ferrell, 2012). Centralized organization also creates a “groupthink” environment in which in an organization culture where unethical behavior is prevalent, employees knowingly commit unethical acts or ignore unethical acts with full knowledge that these behaviors are morally wrong. As stated by Sims (2003), “the presence or absence of ethical behavior in organizational members’ actions is both influenced by the prevailing culture (ethical climate)” and, in turn, partially determines the culture’s view of ethical issues” (Sims, 2003).
Furthermore, central codes of ethics are created out of context of ethical dilemmas and may not be suited for delicate situations with no clear-cut solution. While having an ethical code may inhibit major ethical problems such as physical and sexual harassments that are clearly morally wrong and unethical to begin with, subtle ethical problems may not be outlined in the ethical code of the company such as alienating co-workers of other races.
Conversely, a decentralized organization gives more freedom to employees to make decisions and top management usually delegate decision making to middle and low management. In this type of structure, there is more flexibility to each unit of business to carry out tasks and make decisions. According to Gitman and McDaniel (2008), decentralized organizations benefit by “quicker decision making, increased level of innovation and creativity, greater organizational flexibility, faster development of lower-level managers, and increased level of job satisfaction and employee commitment” (Gitman & McDaniel, 2008).
Despite this, there is also a risk of unethical practices and behavior occurring in a decentralized organization. As employees are given more power to make decisions, they are now more susceptible to moral hazards in which an employee will have a higher tendency to take risks. As decentralized organizations have fewer internal controls such as corporate policies and code of ethics, these organizations rely on shared values (Ferrell, Fraedrich, & Ferrell, 2012). Therefore, it is harder to control employee behavior especially if they do not believe in the shared values of the organization.
To solve these structural problems, an organization must first acknowledge the possibility of unethical behavior occurring within its framework. An organization must realize the flaws that each type of structure presents and ways to combat these flaws to minimize risky and unethical behavior among its employees. In this sense, organizations should look into allocating resources to study and research the structural problems and implement the solutions into the organizational structure. Organizational change is somewhat harder and more costly to implement in a centralized organization because it involves changing all policies from top to bottom within the organization as compared to a decentralized organization, which is more fluid, and adapt to change quickly. New rules, values and organizational culture to minimize unethical behavior must always be monitored to gauge the success of these new policies.
Furthermore, an organization must tailor its ethical standards to the type of structure that it uses. For instance, in a centralized organization there should be more room to maneuver ethical dilemmas that does not strictly coincide with corporate policies. Moreover, centralized organizations should provide a form of outlet for employees to air grievances about ethical dilemmas and adopt a situational approach to ethical decision making in the corporation.
On the other hand, in a decentralized organization, top management should constantly portray ethical values outwardly through their actions so that it empowers employees to follow their stride and perform ethically as well. Leading by example is one of the approaches to keep employees from committing unethical acts in this type of organizational structure. There should also be some form of central codes of conduct, even in a decentralized organization to keep employees in check and to maintain the reputation of the corporation.
Other solutions to prevent unethical behavior are to set up a committee that will look into employees’ indiscretions in the company and evaluate whether these indiscretions are justified in the given circumstances. Instead of penalizing the employee by suspending them and creating resentment, the employees should be sent to ethics classes to help them rehabilitate their behavior. Ethics classes are a good way to disseminate ethical values within an organization but having classes in which the instructor tells the employees the rules, there should be a more interactive environment where employees get to try their hand in solving ethical dilemmas in the workplace. Ethics classes and training should also be given to new hires as part of their training in the corporation. Additionally, the organization can provide motivational training for employees to get them invested in the interest of the company and the company’s bottom line that is the customers. A motivated employee is a hardworking and productive employee and an employee that is less likely to make unethical decisions that may jeopardize the company and its customers.
3.2.1 Boston Consulting Group Planning System
Large companies that have diversified its business into other strategic business units usually face challenges in allocating resources among its units. The Boston Consulting Group Matrix Growth-Share Matrix (BCG Growth-Share Matrix) is a planning model for managing portfolio of different business units that is based on combinations of market growth rate and relative market share. The market growth rate represents industry attractiveness and relative market share represents the strength of a company within the industry relative to its competitors. Thus, the position of a company on the BCG Growth-Share Matrix indicates consumption of cash needed to diversify into a particular business and generation of cash through that particular business.
The portfolio planning model of the BCG Growth-Share Matrix is divided into four grids that are represented using four symbols; cash cow, dog, question mark and star. ‘Cash cows’ are used to represent a business unit in a mature industry that has a large market share. It generates more cash than it consumes which in return can be used to invest in other business units. Business units that are categorized as ‘cash cows’ should be ‘milked’ in order to gain profits while investing as little cash as possible into that particular business unit. Besides that, ‘dogs’ are used to represent a business unit in a mature industry that has a small market share and a low growth rate. It does not require high cash consumption nor does it result in high cash generation. Even so, business units that are categorized as ‘dogs’ are cash traps because the cash invested is tied up in a business unit that has little possibility. Instead, the cash invested into that particular business unit can be deployed into other more rewarding business units. (Refer to Appendix A)
In addition to that, ‘question marks’ are used to represent a business unit that has a small market share in a high growth market. Due to this, it consumes more cash than it generates. However, business units that are categorized as ‘question marks’ have the potential to become ‘stars’ and eventually ‘cash cows’ if high investments and resources to grow market shares are fueled into that particular business unit. Nevertheless, it is still a questionable decision as it is unknown if it will succeed and become ‘stars’ and ‘cash cows’. Furthermore, ‘stars’ are used to represent a business unit that has a large market share in a high growth market. It requires high cash consumption but at the same time, it results in high cash generation. Thus, the flow of cash in each direction is evened out. If successful, business units that are categorized as ‘stars’ will eventually become ‘cash cows’ when its industry matures. (Refer to Appendix A)
Despite its many advantages, the BCG Growth-Share Matrix has its disadvantages as well. The main limitation that has been identified is the questionable link between market share and profitability. This is due to the fact that an increasing market share can be very expensive and may not result in high cash generation as predicted. On top of that, the matrix overlooks many factors that contribute to the profitability of a business unit. For example, market growth rate is only one of the many factors that represent industry attractiveness. Also, there are additional factors that represent the strength of a company within the industry relative to its competitors besides relative market share. (Refer to Appendix B)
Moreover, the framework of the matrix assumes that each business unit is independent and does not depend on other business units run by the company. However, in some large companies, this is most certainly not the case. For instance, business units that are categorized as ‘dogs’ which do not require high cash consumption nor does it result in high cash generation may have been formed in order to strategically help other business units run by a particular company. (Refer to Appendix B)
3.2.2 General Electric Planning System
On the other hand, the General Electric also had own portfolio analysis for the diversity of management or Strategies Business Units (SBU), which is General Electric/McKinsey Matrix. General Electric/McKinsey Matrix is a business portfolio analysis on Strategies Business Units (SBU) that based on the business unit strength and the market attractiveness. The business unit strength is determined by some factors such as the market share, growth in market share, and others. And, the market attractiveness is determined by the factors such as market growth rate, market size, and others. Thus, the General Electric will invest the business unit through the market’s strength and the market’s attractiveness.
The General Electric/McKinsey Matrix is nine-cell portfolio matrix which will measure the business unit strength and attractiveness, and let the company know whether they should invest, retain, or divest that business unit. The advantages of this matrix are telling the company their business unit strength and attractiveness and what decision should them make. When the company should invest, retain, or divest the business unit? When the business unit falls into the categories A, B or D (Figure 2.3) is the time for company to invest. Because at that time, the business unit has a quite strong strength and market attractiveness, so the company should invest for growth or to maintain that business unit at that kind of category. On the other hand, when the business unit falls into the categories C, E, or G (Figure 2.3) is the time for company to retain the business unit. This is because the business unit does not have quite strong business strength and market attractiveness. But, the company also can try to invest that business unit for get more earning. And, when the business unit falls into the categories F, H, or I (Figure 2.3) is the time for company to divest that business unit or plan to exit that business unit because the business unit has weak business strength and market attractiveness.
Although the General Electric/McKinsey Matrix has many advantages such as it will looks through all the business unit sides such as market size, market growth rate, market share, and what decision should them make depend on the business unit’s strength and attractiveness, it has forgot about the other competitors and the new business unit. This matrix totally forgot about other competitors and the new business unit, we should look at other competitor’s strength and attractiveness too. This is because other competitors may affect own company’s strength and attractiveness and the growth rate too. And, for the new business unit, what can the new business unit should do, to invest, retain, or divest?
4.0 Conclusion
4.1 Organization Structure and Ethics
Organizations face many challenges when operating, one of which is the moral problems that can potentially occur within its structure. Organizations play an important rol
 

Psychodynamic Explanations of Behavior

Psychodynamic Explanation of Behavior

Psychodynamic behavior like other approaches to personality is based on beliefs or assumptions on human behavior as well as functions. Consequently, the focus of the theory is founded on social functions which studies are including research techniques utilized in arriving at the theory. However, it is significant to underscore that assumptions used may determine the outcomes of the argument. In the case of psychodynamic explanation of behavior, Freud, who is the originator of the approach through psychoanalysis? It is from this premise that this paper seeks to highlight the psychodynamic approach through post Freudian theory, the application of its concepts in individuals and its personality explanation as presented by Timothy’s case.

A description of the main concepts within the theory

The psychodynamic theory does not strive to alienate other psychology approaches but seeks to include them to realize a functional human being. Like other theories, the psychodynamic theory has its designated areas of application that include gender role development, therapy, psychopathology, attachment, dream analysis, and aggression. To be complete as illustrated by Leichsenring et al. (2006), the theory seeks attachment to the unconscious mind, collective unconscious, defense and defense mechanisms, psyche, psychosocial as well as psychosexual development.

To realize Timothy’s complete therapy, it is important to underscore that the theory includes all theories that were founded on Freud’s ideas. To thrive as a theory, psychodynamic is based on various assumptions including

That human behavior, as well as feelings, are significantly affected by the unconscious motives

Human behavior, as well as feelings in adult life which include psychological problems, are founded in childhood experiences.

All behavior has an unconscious cause including slips of the tongue which means that behavior is determined.

That personality constitutes of tripartite or the three aspects that include the id, ego as well as the super-ego.

An explanation of how the main concepts of the theory may apply to the individual

According to Sigmund Freud, personality redevelopment is realized through conflicts that exist among the three fundamental human mind structures that include the id, ego, and super-ego. Individual personality is also seen according to this theory as the conscious and unconscious forces which include unconscious beliefs and desires. These forces are transformed through psychic energy to shape personality where the interaction of the innate emotional forces explains behavior.

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It is from the above that the main concepts of the theory seek to address the foundation as well as the development of the psychological process in individuals. To arrive at the individual and demystify psychodynamic therapy, individual emotions, early life experiences, thoughts as well as beliefs prove essential considering they form recurring patterns that facilitate avoidance of stress, perceptions, and development of coping defense mechanisms. It is from this perspective that Leichsenring et al. (2013) stress that this theory cannot realize intended objectives without individual involvement through speaking freely on desires, fears as well as emotions.

A description of the ways this theory explains this individual’s personality well and where it falls short

As indicated above, the theory relies on individual openness to throw light on their psychodynamic therapeutic needs. Unlike other methods, this approach takes into account both nature and nurture debate. Through its focus on individual character, it is essential in its areas of application as illustrated above. Its reliance on realistic attributes or key features makes a practical approach to therapy.

However, a significant criticism on the theory is that the analysis of Timothy’s behavior is not scientific. Freud’s concepts are majorly subjective making them difficult to test scientifically. Other limitations include being too deterministic, use of case studies and placing much emphasis on psychological aspects while ignoring genetic or biological factors influencing mental health problems (Johansson et al., 2013).  Also, it ignores meditational processes such as thinking, and it is unfalsifiable or challenging to prove wrong and reductionist in simplifying the human mind. For example, it has a weakness in stressing that Timothy’s childhood experiences influence behaviors, thoughts, and emotions because this implies that humans have no conscious free will over behavior.

Conclusion

The psychodynamic approach presents an attempt to understand the human mind but like any other theory have its strengths and limitations. The theory holds that personality is explained through the conscious as well as the unconscious beliefs and desires. The related approaches emphasize that childhood experiences have a significant role in shaping individual character. However, there are apparent shortcomings such as the lack of supporting scientific prove. As a result Timothy’s case demands a post Freudian theory approach, and calls for careful consideration as a practical approach to explaining human behavior.

 

References

Johansson, R., Nyblom, A., Carlbring, P., Cuijpers, P., & Andersson, G. (2013). Choosing Between Internet-based psychodynamic versus cognitive behavioral therapy for depression: a pilot preference study. BMC Psychiatry, 13(1), 268.

Leichsenring, F., Hiller, W., Weissberg, M., & Leibing, E. (2006). Cognitive-behavioral Therapy and psychodynamic psychotherapy: Techniques, efficacy, and indications. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 60(3), 233-59. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/213135027?accountid=1229

Leichsenring, F., Salzer, S., Beutel, M. E., Herpertz, S., Hiller, W., Hoyer, J., & Ritter, V. (2013). Psychodynamic therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy in social anxiety disorder: a multicenter randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Psychiatry, 170(7), 759-767.

 

Criminal Behavior as Influenced by Nature & Nurture: The More Dominant Force

Nature & Nurture are the two factors which are understood to shape the personality and general attitudes of a human being. Nature being the genetic component and includes hereditary genes which can be traced back generations and the behavior of those descendants examined to look for commonality in criminal behavior or philanthropy. Nurture is the external component or the basic environment in which a person is raised. To draw a conclusion about a person’s environment their upbringing must be examined as well as other societal factors like a peer group and education. A myriad of studies have been conducted in order to determine which factor, nature or nurture, has the more dominant influence on a person’s eventual development with a number of them examining which influences criminal behavior in particular. With young children being the focal point of many of the studies, many of them discovered a correlation between the mistreatment of children and criminal behavior in those children as adults. (Gordon & Greene, 2018) However, naming a single factor as more influential than the other is a precarious position. A combination of environmental and biological factors now seem to determine the likelihood of criminal behavior in youth with environment having a greater impact. 

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Genetics has been an area of important study when it comes to criminal behavior. Researchers were convinced of a link when it was discovered that the children of criminals were far more likely to engage if criminal behavior than children whose parents were not criminals. (Gordon & Greene, 2018) As study in the area was furthered due to the discovery of this major heritability, a number of genes were discovered that could possibly explain the biological component of criminal behavior in people including the dopamine DRD4 receptor gene. (DiLalla, Bersted, & John, 2015) A second heavily examined biological component is the low amount of MAOA enzyme that is responsible for the regulation of metabolism of serotonin. (Levitt, 2013) The MAOA factor is of note as it has been used in an American legal case in which a legal defense team used a convicted murderer’s lack of MAOA function to argue the defendant was predisposed to depraved criminal indifference. (Levitt, 2013) Importantly, the defense team found a history of criminal behavior going back four generations and attempted to use that fact along with the defendants low level of MAOA function to commute a death sentence to life in prison. The defense was rejected and the man was executed in 2005. (Levitt, 2013)

Despite a strong case for the biological element in criminality, the environmental component should not and cannot be ignored. There is a volume of evidence from a number of studies which indicate that young children exposed to violence and abuse are more likely to engage and remain in a criminal lifestyle as adults with the likelihood of future criminal behavior increasing with a greater amount of exposure to aforementioned violence and abuse. (Gordon & Green, 2016) Other significant factors include physical locations such as school and neighborhood. Research has revealed that negative or nonexistent attachments to a person’s family, school, and neighborhood leads to a noticeable increase in criminal behavior. (Liu, Li, & Guo, 2015) An additional risk is peer victimization. Studies have shown that peer victimization leads to significant hostility, aggressive behavior, and rebellious attitudes. (DiLalla et al. 2015)

There is now compelling evidence that both environmental and biological factors contribute heavily to a human beings development including the risk of criminal behavior. The question becomes how closely intertwined the two are and if one is a greater factor than the other. A study from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill makes a claim that, while environmental and biological factors both contribute to delinquency in youth, genetic factors are only a part of the equation and not the determining factor and their surrounding environment largely determines the effect of said genetic factors. (Liu et al., 2015) The study sought to draw a correlation between delinquent behavior and genetic markers identified as aggression related genes. (Liu et al., 2015) The participants surveyed were American adolescents in junior high and high school across the country and the study was done in three waves. The first wave was from 1994 to 1995, the second wave in 1996, and the third and final wave from 2001 to 2002 with a total of 5,740 taking part with people of European, African, and Asian ancestry making up the demographic. (Liu et a.l, 2015) Other contributing factors included the number and education level of parents and the region in which they resided. (Liu et al., 2015) During the third wave, genetic samples were collected from full siblings and twins and the suspect genetic markers identified. Questionnaires were given at each wave gauging each individuals attachment to their families, school, and communities as well as any troublesome behavior they may have engaged in such as violence, drugs, drinking, and theft. (Liu et al., 2015)

The findings of the UNC Chapel Hill study showed evidence that those with the identified genetic markers were at greater risk of falling into violent and other delinquent behavior when they felt little to no attachment to the three main societal factors of family, school, and community. (Liu et al., 2015) In contrast, individuals with a strong level of attachment to family, school, and their communities were at less of a genetic risk even taking into account potentially mitigating factors such as neighborhoods with poor income levels and high unemployment. (Liu et al., 2015)

The argument of “Nature & Nurture” has been debated since the mid 20th century and neither has been decidedly proven to be more influential than the other. The argument is multi-layered as one would expect a debate surrounding complex human emotions to be. Researchers are split on which is more dominant although most would agree that a combination of the two shapes us into the people we become. (Hegger, 2015) There are other hypotheses such as the argument that our genes do not direct us to be more violent but that those genes make it difficult for the person to avoid violence. (Levitt, 2013) The UNC Chapel Hill study provided evidence that both environmental and biological factors were important in determining the course of young adults in the United States. According to them, strong societal influence and a support system consisting of parents, teachers, and the community were enough to mitigate genes they identified as contributing to aggression. (Liu et al., 2015) Although the study sounds convincing, the small sample size but be noted as well as the fact this included only American youth. Other countries may find similar studies have different results if the country has a less diverse population or the country or even political circumstances can be a factor. Further research is required to find a definitive answer although the guarantee of a definitive answer does not exist.

References

DiLalla, L., Bersted, K., & John, S. (2015). Peer Victimization and DRD4 Genotype Influence Problem Behaviors in Young Children. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 44(8), 1478. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.gwclib.nocccd.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edb&AN=103686948&site=eds-live&scope=site

Gordon, N., & Greene, E. (2018). Nature, nurture, and capital punishment: How evidence of a genetic-environment interaction, future dangerousness, and deliberation affect sentencing decisions. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 36(1), 65–83. https://doi.org/10.1002/bsl.2306

Hegger, J. (2015). Nature Vs Nurture: Which Causes Crime? Retrieved from https://www.correctionsone.com/probation-and-parole/articles/8685697-Nature-vs-nurture-Which-causes-crime/

Levitt, M. (2013). Genes, environment and responsibility for violent behavior: “Whatever genes one has it is preferable that you are prevented from going around stabbing people.” New Genetics & Society, 32(1), 4–17. https://doi.org/10.1080/14636778.2012.699352

Liu, H., Li, Y., & Guo, G. (2015). Gene by Social-Environment Interaction for Youth Delinquency and Violence: Thirty-Nine Aggression-Related Genes. Social Forces, 93(3), 881–903. https://doi.org/10.1093/sf/sou086