Hawker Centres in Singapore

This paper examines how the success of the hawker centers in Singapore has to do with several factors that we can acknowledge as well in Colombia, even though the two countries are so diverse in cultural aspects.
The Hawker Centers have been part of the Singaporean culture since 1950, making them a deeply rooted tradition; that must be adapted in order to fit into the Colombian complex and diverse culture. Here we intend to show how the concept can be implemented in Colombia in a successful way that allows us all to identify ourselves with our roots and matching points as Colombians.
INTRODUCTION
Hawkers Centers are open-air complexes with many stalls that sell a wide variety of inexpensive food, resembling a food mall.
These centers are the most popular and an emblematic place to eat in Singapore; and since the population of the country is so diverse, the food offered includes all the cultures (Chinese, Malay and Indian). People generally go to these places to find something they like and to enjoy the multicultural pluralism of this country, in a context where cultural differences are converted into cultural match points.
The Hawkers Centers are considered the CULTURAL METAPHOR of Singapore. According to Martin Gannon, in these places one can find 5 characteristics that described the culture, those being: Ethnic diversity but unity, Efficiency, the power of women, and, Safety and Synthesizing traditional and new values.
Colombia is a multicultural society, and is subdivided in what we can call micro-nations, the most of them are located in the natural geographical regions, The Caribbean Lowlands which culture is the result of a mixture between indigenous and Africans, the Pacific Lowlands where the roots of African culture are exposed, the Andean Highlands where people reflects the strong influence of their Europeans ancestors, and finally the Orinoco savanna and the Amazon rainforest two regions evidencing the pre-Columbian identity of this salad Bowl called Colombia.
“Mil Sabores, una Identidad” Hawker center will be a place where the 5 geographical and cultural regions of Colombia will be represented, and Colombians coming from all around the country will find in food the way to make the cultural differences a reason for unity instead of conflict.
COLOMBIAN CULTURE
We consider that Colombia is a Salad Bowl, composed by different subcultures which are difficult to classify, Estanislado Zuleta says that Colombia is divided in 3 main groups of people, the coastal, the caribeans, and the people from the high plateaus (altiplanos).bajucol-colombia
The multicultural and multiethnic character of Colombia is explained by its history, the Caucasians and the Africans races were brought by the conquest, and these new races get mixed with the indigenous, given birth to new ethnic groups, making possible that today Colombia counting on a population of approximately 44 Million with have an ethnic composition of 58 percent mestizos, 20 percent Europeans, 14 percent mulattos, and the remaining of African descent and mixed African-Amerindian.
The geographical regions of Colombia are another way in which we can classify the cultural differences. Due to the difficult topographical situation of the country there is a geographical isolation, each region has developed unique and diverse characteristics, making even more difficult to describe Colombia as one culture.
The complex cultural diversity of Colombia is reflected by the different traditions, values, believes but also by the diversity of the gastronomy, the aesthetics such as the music, architecture, painting, dancing, theater and many others.
The Andean region for example is cultures where there are strong remains of the European ancestors, people on this region have a strong character and are usually hardworking and big entrepreneurs. inside the region there are also differences and we can divide the cultural groups in the “Paisas” from Antioquia and from the coffee Region, the “Santandereanos” from Santander and Norte de Santander, a part of the “Vallunos” from Valle del Cauca and Cauca, the “Tolimenses” , the “cundiboyacenses” from the interior part of the country, the “Pastusos” form Nariño and finally the “Rolos” from Bogota.

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The Caribbean Lowlands is the product of a mixture between Indigenous and Africans, in this region you can find tropical and outstanding way of life, the region located in the north of Colombia is composed by the “Costeños” from the Atlantic coast and the savannas of the north, the “Guajiros” are also part of this region and are in their majority from the “Guayu” indigenous group.
Then is in Pacific lowlands where we find the strongest roots of the Africans, the region of the Afro-Colombians is characterized by its flavors, colors and ancestral rituals that even other Colombians are not familiar with. This particular region ins composed by the “chocuanos” from Chocó and the afro-Colombians from Nariño.
The Orinoco savanna located in the east part of the country is also a different world like every region in Colombia. The terrific landscapes of an eternal green that get mixed with the sky in horizon, and the virgin jungles are the homeland of the “llaneros” and of many Indigenous tribes that are protected by the forest as their natural barrier.
Finally the Amazon rainforest is the natural guardian of the most traditional and ancestral values and beliefs of the pre-Columbian tribes, this region whose population is mainly indigenous is an amazing place, that can be described in only one word “DIVERSITY”. The most of Colombians are not familiar with this region, maybe because due to our high uncertainty avoidance, our aversion to risk and to what is different, we don’t even dare to cross this forest rich in bio- and cultural-diversity.
Colombians are so different, regionalist and in a way ethnocentric, we are aware of our differences and the majority is deeply identified with their regional culture and defend it from the others influence; we are a kind of a salad bowl where people is together but never melted. But despite all those differences there are some things that we love about this multiculturalism, things that constitutes the match point of our cultures, making possible that we all feel and enjoy being Colombians, those things are Food, Music and art.
Hofstede’s analysis
The analysis for Colombia is very similar to other Latin American countries; where societies are slow to accept changes, are risk-adverse and have a high concern for rules. This can be because in Colombia the population is mainly catholic, which promotes the idea that there is an absolute truth.
According to the analysis that Hofstede made, Colombia has one of the highest rankings in Masculinity, what this means is that there is high degree of gender inequality, and that men are the dominant within the society.
Colombia has high uncertainty avoidance, which explains the low level of tolerance for the unknown and the foreigners; this also explains the need for rules and laws.
Collectivism is very important for our culture, the family is very influential on each individual, and loyalty is required in order to maintain the harmony.
Finally the high power distance shows the huge inequality of power and wealth in the society, which explains the high level of poverty.
SINGAPORE CULTURE
Singapore is a City – State with a population of 4,5 millions, the territory is divided in 65 islands.
Singapore has become the way to get into the Asian countries and the place where most of the companies want to have their headquarters because of Singapore’s economic and political security. This high quality of life is thanks Thomas Stanford Raffles, the founder of Singapore and who created the port that nowadays is between the first by volume and the second by containers busiest port of the world and also created a neighborhood for each ethnic group where each region could be governed by itself. Then lee Kwan Yew, the father of the modern Singapore has implemented a system that implemented the western democratic values but always maintaining the Asian identity.
In Singapore people live in harmony, they are usually well educated and really smart. Although there are from different neighborhoods, languages and cultures, the interaction among them is really common, Chinese can marry Indians, in a Hindu temple located in Chinatown, is like a salad bowl of Malays, Indians, Chinese and Europeans.
Singapore is a pluralistic place, where they interact between each other, but don’t create just one culture, they are Chinese – Singaporean, Indian – Singaporean, Malays – Singaporean, etc., they don’t change their roots, “although the bulk of Singaporeans do think of themselves as Singaporeans, regardless of race or culture. Each still bears its own unique character”  .worldmap-singapore
Each ethnic group has its own religion and its own festivals, but anyone can attend. The tolerance is really important and there is not discrimination toward people from another religion. For example the “Chinese are predominantly followers of Buddhism, Taoism, Shenism, Christians, Catholics and some considered as ‘free-thinkers’ (Those who do not belong to any religion). Malays have the Muslims and Indians are Hindus. There is a sizeable number of Muslims and Sikhs in the Indian population”  .
Singapore has four official languages: Mandarin (comes from china), Malay (comes from Malaysia), Tamil (comes from Indian) and English (comes from Europe). The last one is the most used for communication and business, the others are talk only in their homes in order to keep the roots and traditions of their home culture. In Singapore almost everyone speak more than 2 languages. They have a dialect called Singlish is like a symbol for many Singaporeans and it’s an influence of Malay and Chinese that have change some words in the informal English language.
“Whatever the race or religion, the country’s communities unite as one nation, where most religious or racial gaps are being bridged”  .
The Hawker centers are considered by Martin Gannon the cultural metaphor of Singapore. There are five features of the hawkers that let us to identify the culture in Singapore.
First, Ethnic Diversity but Unity, as we already said, Singapore is composed by three ethnic groups, so Chinese , Indian and Malays live in harmony and are treated as Singaporeans provided with the same rights and Obligations. In the hawker centers the different ethnic groups are represented, each one has a number of stalls depending on their percentage on the total population. The unity between the different cultures in Singapore is highly explained by the five principles imposed by Lee Kwan Yew:

Nation before community and society before the self.
Family as the basic unit of society
Community support and respect for the individual
Consensus, not conflict
Racial and religious harmony  

Second, Efficiency, in hawker centers there is an unspoken rule, servers and customers must be quick and efficient. Efficiency in Singapore is evident in communication in which people usually prefer quick aswers, and also in the cutting-edge technology present in the different aspects of daily life.
Third, the Power of Women is an evident factor in the centers; the number of men and women working in the center is the same and are treated in the same way. Women also play important roles in business, and there are a lot of policies promoting equal opportunities in the workplace.
Fourth, the safety is one of the most important aspects of the social system in Singapore, there are rules and regulations governing the simplest aspects of the people’s life, these regulations are also strict regarding the Hawker Centers.
Fifth and finally, “synthesizing traditional and new values”, Singapore is trying to maintain their traditional Asian values while implementing efficiency and practicality. The hawker centers represent this because they offer traditional food, but also western food.
HOFSTEDE’S ANALYSIS
According to Hofstede Singapore is a country with a high power distance, where the even if poor people is not so poor, there is a big gap between the rich and the poor. There is also a high power on the leaders, and population is forced to obey the law.
The individualism is very low, due to the Confucian values there is a tendency to collectivism, the country cares a lot about family values and cooperativism.
The country has male values such as people being worth for themselves and every person should take after themselves, but regarding the role of women, there is an equality of gender and they have an important role in society.
Finally, uncertainty avoidance is low, due to the multiculturalism, people is no afraid of what is different. But if we take into account the extreme regulations it should be a little bit higher.
SIMILARITIES
Colombia and Singapore are as different as a western and an Asian country can be. But even if those differences are so marked culturally speaking, we find some similar situations or conditions in which the two countries have simililarities.
First taking the Hofstede dimensions of both countries as reference, it can be seen that three out of the dimensions evaluated are quiet similar, Colombia and Singapore present a high level of Power distance, in both countries the gap between rich and poor people is so big, it has be taken into account that the dimensions and the concept of the richness or the poorness is different in both countries. Individualism is very similar too, the collectivism characteristic of the Asian countries is also present on the Colombian culture. Masculinity is also high, evidencing two goal oriented cultures, were success is synonymous of recognition, but in terms of the role of women in society we can say that even if Colombia is one of the countries of lain America with more women participating in high rank positions, Singapore has advanced more regarding the equality of genders. Finally the difference in the uncertainty avoidance is evident, while in Singapore there is not aversion to new, unknown or different things, Colombians are pretty scared of change; but in terms of norms we can say that both countries have a huge amount of rules and regulations that evince a high uncertainty avoidance.
Then when we talk about similar conditions, we are referring to the multiculturalism. With similar conditions, we mean, respecting the proportions, that in both countries there is a lot of people from different cultural backgrounds living within one state that is trying to build one cultural identity respecting differences and enforcing thins in common.
IMPLEMENTATION
Business idea
We have chosen to bring and to adapt the concept of the HAWKER CENTERS of Singapore, into our country. (Bogotá)
The Hawker center is going to be called “MIL SABORES, UNA IDENTIDAD”. It is going to be located in the North of Bogotá, and it is going to be more fashionable and delightful than the ones in Singapore; this is due to the fact that people in Bogota believe in status, in differentiation and they are willing to pay the price if you are offering something containing this characteristics.
The idea is to create a place with different food stalls according to the five Colombian regions which are: The Caribbean Lowlands, Pacific Lowlands, Andean Highlands, Orinoco savanna and the Amazon rainforest.
Bogotá is the capital of Colombia, this makes it the city in which the best universities, jobs and opportunities are found; for this same reason people from all over the country goes there to achieve their goals, and prepare for the future. We can consider Bogota as a the Singapore of Colombia, where people from different cultural backgrounds live an interact with each other in a pluralistic environment.
According to the quantity of people from each region living in the capital, a proportionate number of stalls will be installed. And besides this, a small number of stalls will be dedicated to International food, such as Arab, Chinese and Italian.
The idea is to offer our customers dishes from their regions but also to offer them dishes that otherwise they wouldn’t find so easily.
So the experience of going to “MIL SABORES, UNA IDENTIDAD” is planned to be like a trip trough Colombia, where the costumer can interact with people from different regions and get to know their gastronomy and their culture.
The place is going to be decorated with the most typical objects of each region and music from our artist will be played.
REASONS FOR POTENTIAL SUCCESS
We believe that this project, if implemented, would have success because although we have high uncertainty avoidance (according to Hofstede’s) .We do enjoy to try and to get to know different aspects of other cultures.
We can say that we are selective in our integration, and that is why we love to go in vacations to the coast and eat excessively, because we enjoy their food, that is very hard to find when being in the interior.
Since we are offering the experience of feeling in a trip through out Colombia, some of the difficulties that Colombia has as a state are creating opportunities for our business to thrive.
For example:
The hard mobilization through our country.
The dangers of making a road trip.
The difficult economic situation.
The unsanitary conditions of the food in some places.
The long distances and the poor infrastructure.
DIFFERENCIATION
Our main concern is for people to believe that “MIL SABORES, UNA IDENTIDAD” is just like any regular food mall, but as soon as the customer enters in the building it will discover that this innovative project, is nothing like a regular food mall it is an experience for all your senses that you can’t find elsewhere in Colombia.
The mix of music, food and entertainment will allow the customer to feel in different places at the same time and to experience the richness of our folklore.
TURISTIC ATTRACTION
As international negotiators we appreciate the foreigners that decide to visit our country and that are interested in getting to know us. Because of this, we have decided to integrate everything that represents us in one single place.
Coffee is one of the things that we are known for, so it is clear that we are going to take advantage of this, and build a coffee stall, with a variety of products that contain coffee, such as: caramel, candies, drinks. Etc.
Finally we believe that a souvenir store is also required for foreigners, where they can find hand-made stuff from our natives and artisans, such as hammocks, jewelry, musical instruments, clothes etc.
CONCLUSIONS
We have concluded that with the correct adaptation, the concept of Hawker Centers could have success in Colombia. The implementation is based on the different regions, making this an inclusive project, taking advantage of the contrasting influences that have gathered in the country.
The experience in “MIL SABORES, UNA IDENTIDAD” is going to be like a trip into the different Cities, where all the family can enjoy dishes of the diverse cultures, creating them a sense of awareness for the other.
Finally this project is going to awake the sense of a national identity and the patriotism of the people for their country by focusing in how our differences can bring us together instead on breaking us apart.
 

Accessibility of Centres to the Road Networks: Lagos Island

THE ACCESSIBILITY OF CENTRES TO THE ROAD NETWORKS: THE CASE OF LAGOS ISLAND, NIGERIA
Mr. A. O. Atubi
&
Prof. P.C Onokala
 
Abstract
Proper co-ordination of transport and public facilities provision is vital to any balanced regional development strategy. The central aim of this study therefore was to study the relationship between access to the transport networks and the provision of central facilities in Lagos Island. The results of the analysis of connectivity indices reveal the development of an increasing complex network, although the road network for 1997 remained the same as that of 1986. Using simple regression analysis, it was found that no strong relationship between road, accessibility and occurrence of facilities could be established. Rather population of centres was found to be more significant factor in the distribution of public facilities. Thus, recommendations capable of enhancing equitable transport development include; constructing new roads that will increase accessibility, save time and reduce cost to other centres and relocating some facilities too.
Introduction
In an urban area, there is a complex mix of land uses and all the major broad groupings of person movements (i.e.) journey to work, official trips, education trips by school children/students, shopping trips, journey made to get home, an miscellaneous journeys) in urban areas are made between them. Thus, while trip are made for a variety of purposes, they are made to and from various land use Onokala. (1995). Oyelegbin (1996), observed that traffic jams keep Lagos motorist on the roads for hours and that many motorists are blaming frequent traffic Jams of numerous deep pot-holes, blocked drainages and poor road network system. While the number of vehicles were increasing the road network infrastructure are not bet increased proportionately and even the existing ones degenerate in quality at increasing rate.
The Lagos Island Local Government Area is the single most important local government in Lagos State due to the fact that most government establishments: private parastatals and public buildings are located here.
It is essential to appreciate that the purpose of transport is to provide accessibility, or the ability to make a journey for a specific purpose. Transport is not timed for its own sake, but is merely a means to an end.
The construction of transport infrastructure influences transport costs by is of a reduction of distances and/or a higher average speed. This will lead to changes in the choice of transport mode, route choice, time of departure (in the case ingested networks) and the generation or attraction of new movements per zone (Bruinsma, et al 1994). For example, within several European countries both the private sectors, as represented by mobile shops, and the public sector for example mobile library, have for many years provided services on-wheels for rural communities.
Existing services could in future he coordinated to ensure that each community in turn became the focus of several of these services, so that the hinterland population need make only one journey into the centre to take advantage range of facilities (Brian and Rodney. 1995).
Thus, in the U.S.A. accessibility studies in the late 1970’s and 1980’s centres on access to public facilities especially as observed by Lineberry (1977). Mladcnka 78), Mclafferty and Gosh (1982). In Nigeria several studies on accessibility tend to be related to urban centres or urban based activities. However, Onokerhoraye (1976) and Okafor (1982) sought to identify the major factors that influence distribution of post primary schools in Ilorin and lbadan respectively. They attributed the larger catchment areas to urban schools to travel distance to school and to population of urban centres. [Bardi (1982) also investigated the relationship between growth of road network and accessibility of urban centres in Bendel State, while Abumere (1982) tried to establish the nodal structure of Bendel State towns m the foregoing discussions of past studies in Nigeria we observed that the emphasis tends to be either on urban centres (Onokerhorave. 1976), postal services (Oherein, 1985), banking (Soyode et al. 1975), bus transport services (Ali, 1997) and access to facilities in relation to road network (Atubi, 1998). There is however a need to take a total vie of transport in terms of the various activities for which the users demand mobility (Jansen, 1978).
Methodology
This research focused primarily on the study of road transport network system in Lagos Island Local Government Area especially as it relates to accessibility of centres Thus, structural characteristics and accessibility of major centres to the road network was considered at three points in time i.e. (1976, 1986 and 1997 periods).
In developing the research design, areas that are accessible to the road network and with population of 1,000 and above at each period were taken as activity centres. Population of 1.000 was chosen as cut-off point to enable a substantial number of centres, especially those at the end of routes to appear as nodes especially as the network grows. The choice of nodes was therefore based on population size.
Data Analysis and Discussions of Results
In order to classify the major centres, data on six areas of central facility provision were collected namely: Medical, educational, market, postal services, banking and administrative headquarters.
Data on these chosen facilities were collected both from published sources and through field survey. A list of registered health facilities in the study area by 1997 compiled by the Lagos State Ministry of Health, Alausa. Ikeja: list of primary schools in Lagos Island Local Government Area from the Lagos Island Local Education District Department, and monthly returns of postal facilities from post and Telecommunications (NIPOST) Marina, Lagos were used as the base data to collect the number of these facilities. More comparative data on the number and location of the services are collected from the General Post Office (G.P.O.) Marina. Lagos. The data on the distribution of banks in Lagos Island Local Government Area were collected from Central Bank of Nigeria, Lagos, while data on the distribution of markets were collected from the Department of marketing Lagos Island Local Government Secretariat. City Hall, Lagos.
The accessibility of centres to the road network in Lagos Island Government Area was analyzed using the graph theory approach. It is used to handle properties to transportation networks in order to bring out their characteristics and structures. Other major techniques of analysis used include the homogenization of data etc.
By 1976, we had 22 out of the 30 major centres directly connected by all season roads. Each direct connection forms a link. As an illustration by 1976, one could only move from race course to Cable Street (Net) before moving to C.M.S. (Old Marina). In this case we have 2 links along Race Course – C.M.S. (Old Marina) road. In sum, 23 links or edges were identified by 1976 which connected 22 nodes.

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By 1986, the network became more complex as more nodes are connected through different routes. However, the same principles are applied. It has been observed that by 1986 the 30 nodes had become connected by 39 links. That means 7 extra centres had entered into the network systems. These are Leventis. C.M.S. New Marina), Force Road. Awolowo Road, Ilubirin, Ebute-Elefun and Anokantamo.
By 1997, the network remained the same as that of 1986 but the major difference was the construction of Third Main Land Bridge that links Lagos inland Local Government Area to Lagos Island Local Government Area. This was that since 1986, no major work has been done on the road network in Lagos and Local Government Area, hence the road network remained the same. Although, the indices of connectivity indicate increasing complexity of network between 1976 and 1997, the indices of nodal accessibility, which explain the accessibility of one node to all others in the network, indicate the changing fortunes some centres.
It is interesting to note that in terms of overall road distance, the most accessible centres in 1976 were Tinubu, Martins and Balogun, while the least accessible were Race Course. Epetedo and C.M.S. (Old Marina).
By 1986, we observed that Odularni had become the most accessible centre, while Tinubu and Nnamdi Azikiwe had become the second and Third most accessible centres in the network. Again, it was noted that Epetedo (Okepopo Marina), Ebute-Elefun, Anokantamo and ldumagbo remained the least accessible centres. Other new centres connected to the network at this state include C.M.S. Maria road), Force Road, Awolowo Road, Ebute-Eletun, Anokantamo and Idumagho. Their entry into the network has the effect of increasing the accessibility for all the nodes. However, by 1997 it was observed that odulami remained the most accessible centre which corresponds with the nodal accessibility by 1986, while Tinubu and Nnamdi Azikiwe remained the second and third most accessible centres in the network which also corresponds with the nodal accessibility by 1986. Again, it was observed that Eptedo (Okepopo Marina), Ebute_Eleflm, Anokautamo and ldumagbo remain the least accessible centres. Also he Tinubu-Nnamdi Azikiwe-Odulami-Bamgbose axis seems to have been enjoying high level of accessibility throughout the period. The more nodes are connected the greater the accessibility value for individual nodes. However, the entire network accessibility expands with increasing number of nodes brought into the network. Another observation is that there are some nodes (Awolowo Road, Ilubirin. Force Road, and C.M.S. (New marina Road) that were not connected in earlier times but they acquired quite high accessibility as soon as they were connected. It is observed further that there are some nodes, which declined in accessibility as more links were added. Thus Tinubu, Odulami. Olowogbowo, Balogun and Broad Street among others, declined in accessibility. The construction of Leventis – C.M.S. (New Marina Road) meant that a shorter route to cable street (net) from Force Road than through Tinuhu had been created. Other routes constructed prior to 1997, which reduced the position of Tinuhu, include martins Street-ldumota, C.M.S. (Old marina-Odulami and Okepopo. In this analysis. the researchers used the simple regression. A possible relationship between accessibility and human activities has been suggested by Lachene (1965) and Chapman (1979) among others, while Keeble et al (1982) actually established a relationship between accessibility and economic activities among the countries of the E.E.C. within the country. Atuhi (1998) has in Lagos State suggested some relationship between accessibility and public facility index, while Ali (1997) suggested some relationship between accessibility and bus transport services in Enugu.
For public facilities however, whose essential quality of their location is that they be as accessible to their users as possible one should expect to find a strong relationship between the two.
Policy Implications
The strategy of constructing new links to improve accessibility may involve heavier financial investment. Thus, a proper cost-benefit analysis is needed to determine the desirability of such investment.
Still another strategy would he to provide those services which centres lack based on extensive surveys of what are available and what are needed. This centre based approach might prove more useful if the people are guided to choose out of their preference.
Conclusion
It is pertinent to note that the social benefit of constructing a road that increases accessibility saves time and reduces cost goes beyond the financial evaluation. This is because it touches on human value.
References
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Ali, A.N. (1907) The Accessibility of major centres to the Transport Services in Enugu State, Nigeria. Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nigeria. Nsukka.
Atubi, A. 0. (1998) The Accessibility of Centres to the Road Network in Lagos Island Local Government Area Lagos State, Nigeria. Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, University of Nigeria. Nsukka.
Bardi, E.C. (1982) Development of road network and Accessibility of Urban centres within bendel State Nigeria 1967-1981: A Graph theory approach, Unpublished B.Sc. original Essay, Department of Geography, University of Nigeria. Nsukka.
Brain, T. and Rodney. T. (1995) Rural Transport problems, policies and plans. Transport Systems, Policy and Planning: A Geographical Approach. Longman House, Burnt Mill. Hariow England, Pp. 231-260.
Bruinsma. F.R. and Rietveld. P. (1994) Borders as harriers in the European road Network. A case study of the accessibility of Urban agglomerations in Nijkamp P. (Ed) New Borders and Old Barriers in Spatial Development, Pp. 139-52. Aveburv, Aldershot.
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Daly, MT. (1975) Measuring accessibility in a rural context. In white, P.R. (ed). Rural Transport Seminar, Transport Studies Group, Polytechnic of Central London, London
Hoyle. B.S. and Knowles, R.D. (1992) Rural Areas: The Accessibility problem in modern Transport Geography. Longman House, Burnt in ill, Harlow England, Pp. 125-137.
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Lineberry, R. (1977) Equality and Urban Policy, Saga. Beverley Hills
Mclafferty. S. and Gosh. A. (1982) Issues in measuring differential access to public Services. Urban Studies. Vol. 19, Pp. 383-389
Mitchell, C.C.B. and Town, SW. (1976) Accessibility of various social groups to different activities Transport and Road Research Laboratory, Crowthorness Berkshire.
Mladenka, K. (1978) Organization rules, service equality and distributional decision in urban polities Social Science Quarterly, Vol. 89 (1). Pp. 192-201
Morril, B.L (1970) Spatial organization of Society. Duxbury Press, Belmont, California.
Oherein, D.N. (1985) Accessibility to public facilities, a case study of postal service units in Owan Local Government Area, (Bendel State): Unpublished B.Sc. Thesis, Department of Geography, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
Okafor, A.N. (1982) Service area of public facility in Ibadan
Onokerhoraye, A.G. (1976) A conceptual framework for the location of public facilities in the urban areas of developing countries: The Nigerian Case. Socio-economic Planning Sciences, Vol. 10, Pp. 237-276.
Onokala, P.C. (1995) The effect of landuse on road traffic accidents in Benin City, Nigeria. Journal of Transport Studies; Vol. 1, No. Pp. 34-44.
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Soyade, A. and Oyejide, T.A. (1975) Branch network and economic performance: A case study of Nigeria’s commercial banks. Nigerian Journal of Economic and Social studies, Vol. 17, No. 2, Pp. 119-131.
 

Impact of Detention Centres on Asylum Seekers

BUSINESS REPORT: Asylum seekers
Executive Summary
This report outlines the impact of detention centres where those seeking asylum in Australia are placed. It examines the issues relating to detention centres and consequences of them. As it is repeatedly demonstrated by research, there is a uniform trend highlighting the trauma and the sufferings of asylum seekers during their stay at Australian detention centres. This is due to the inadequate facilities and the lengthy duration of time which asylum seekers are forced to spend in these detention centres. Adequate facilities are especially important for young asylum seekers as they endure sorrow to a greater extent. When viewing this issue from a global perspective, approximately 51.2 million people are displaced as a result of conflict or prosecution every year and close to 50% of this number are children (UNHCR 2014). These numbers provide reasons for provision of all the required facilities and faster processing systems to reduce the time at the detention centres.
This report examines the main causes of mental health issues and the difficulties of integrating into a new society amongst asylum seekers especially, young asylum seekers and provides possible solutions to ensure that asylum seekers transit into the new society comfortably.   
Issue Discussion

Facilities

Rwandan genocide and Syrian war (caused by the Arab spring) cause a large inflow of asylum seekers to Australia (Keller 2003, p.1721). Asylum seekers are detained indefinitely in conditions that abuse their human rights. This occurs in mandatory detention centres in breach of Australia’s commitment to Universal Declaration of Human Rights which states “Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution” (United Nations 1995 p.1). A large number of asylum seekers are genuine refugees that are fleeing from atrocities such as torture, rape, imprisonment, threats of death and murder. Australia’s mandatory detention policy in conjunction with the lack of facilities and health treatment aggravates the trauma of these experiences and severely affects the mental health and well-being of asylum seekers. Furthermore, Australia’s lack of cooperation in providing facilities violates international human rights standards (UNHCR 2014). Recently, the movement of thousands of Syrian refugees make their way into Europe via Hungary was stopped and held in detention-like environment increasing asylum seekers trauma (Al Jazeera 2006). It is essential for nations to accept asylum seekers and provide them with care and facilities as they endure traumatizing experiences and flee prosecution.
Figure 1.2 – Irregular arrivals by sea, selected countries (Phillips 2015)
Figure 1, (Irregular arrivals by sea, selected countries) shows the approximate number of refugees entering Australia and four other countries.  According to the figure, there is a great difference in the number of refugees entering the five countries. Further noted in Figure 1.2, the data provides information on the fluctuating number of refugees entering a country in a particular year within the given 7 years. This suggest that the refugee inflow into a country depends on the country’s refugee acceptance policy. However, in the case of Australia, there is a progressive increase in the number of refugees entering despite the stricter border policies.

Lengthy delays and offshore processing  

The length of time spent at detention centres by asylum seekers is indefinite and this aggravates the trauma as they remain uncertain of their future (Couldrey &Herson 2013, p.7). In Australia there are long processing steps where the asylum seekers are interrogated of their reasons of arrival. This lengthens the time spent at detention centres for getting a humanitarian visa. From figure 1, Australia is one of the countries with lower asylum seeker intake. Despite the increase in asylum seekers entering Australia, it remains the only western country to have a mandatory detention policy.  Mandatory detention can take place by detaining asylum seekers offshore. A piece of legislation was passed requiring all asylum seekers arriving on Australian shores are sent to offshore processing facilities (Kaldor 2014, p.3). This legislation puts strain on asylum seekers by detaining them in centres with inadequate facilities but also on the finances of the Australian government (Kaldor 2014, p.4). The lengthy processing system and sending asylum seekers offshore for processing is a disadvantage for both the government and asylum seekers.
Issue Outcomes

Mental Health Issues

Mental health is a significant factor that needs to be addressed by the host nations’ government. Placing asylum seekers in detention centres for a long duration of time without providing the adequate facilities has a significant negative impact on asylum seeker’s mental health and well-being (Cornelis et al. 2004, p.848). Despite Australia’s low intake of asylum seekers, it has adopted harsh laws that fuel the trauma faced by asylum seekers. Some of the detention centres in Australia are located in remote regions where facilities are not easily accessible hence the asylum seekers are not able to address their mental health issues (Keller et al. 2003, p.1721). Research conducted 2 years ago shows that refugees living in Australian detention centres, suffered up to 19 chronic mental health conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and social anxiety disorder. During the initial stages of the research, approximately 42% of adults and 59.1% of children showed symptoms of mental health disorder (Hadgkiss et al. 2012, p.17). This result conveys that children are more vulnerable and are largely affected by mental health illnesses due to their experiences and lengthy stay at the detention centres.

Social cohesion

Asylum seekers who stayed in detention centres for a long duration and with inadequate facilities showed a slower rate of integrating into a new country as interviewed by the VU University Medical Centre of research due to mental health issues (Gerritsen & Bramsen 2005, p.14). Those diagnosed with mental health issues could not easily or comfortably integrate into the new society. Close examinations of research suggests that the lack of facilities hinders the asylum seekers ability to enter a new society as most of them come from backgrounds where they have not had a chance to educate themselves. At the detention centres asylum seekers are kept idle and in solitary confinement which fuels their insecurities therefore inhibiting them to find opportunities and success once they are out of detention centres. Research also shows that many young asylum seekers between the ages of 6 to 15 that have come out of detention centres show a slower rate of learning in comparison to the local students (Couldrey & Herson 2013, p.9). Inadequate facilities degrades asylum seekers in an effective transition into a better lifestyle.
Recommendations

Mental Health Treatment

Treatments and heath care facilities can reduce the impact of major issues such as pre-migration trauma, depression and anxiety. Such treatments at detention centres not only benefits the asylum seekers but also the Australian society as it is cost effective and creates jobs for Australian medical and health professions (Hadgkiss et al. 2012, p.23). Cases of mental health illness can reduce an individual life expectancy and can also lead to various other problems such as suicidal thoughts and violence. However, installation of programs that allows the asylum seekers to address their mental health issues can improve their mental health and also their lifestyle once they are released from detention centres. Key findings in studies show that the number of mental health issues such as alcohol abuse, drug abuse and violence reduces where proper treatment is provided which can be accessed (Keller et al. 2003, p.1722). This important step of providing health care will allow asylum seekers to integrate into the society.

Workplace skill development

It is important to provide facilities that contribute to gaining skills so that when asylum seekers enter the new society, they are better able to find jobs and there is reduced imbalance in socio-economic status (Gerritsen & Bramsen 2005, p.15). The lengthy processing time could be effectively used by the host nation’s government to install educational facilities that engage asylum seeker in workplace and work related skills such that they can find jobs much easier when they are out of detention centres. It is also important to provide education and language skills for young asylum seekers so that language does not act as a barrier but as an aid to get opportunities. It is vital to engage young asylum seekers in education as this will empower them and decrease the gap between them and Australian schooling standards (Phillips 2015). Taking this measure of providing facilities that may provide equal opportunity in getting employment once asylum seekers are out of detention centres is an effective way of not increasing unemployment rates and hence making a smooth transition into society.
References
Websites

Al Jazeera 2006, Hungary seizes refugee train arriving from Croatia, viewed on 18 September 2015, http://www.aljazeera.com/news/2015/09/hungary-seizes-refugee-train-arriving-croatia-150919003810139.html>
United Nations 1995, The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, viewed on 15 September 2015, http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/>.

Journal Articles

UNHCR 2014, ‘War’s Human Cost’, UNHCR Global Trends 2013, viewed on 10 September 2015, http://unhcr.org.au/unhcr/images/Global%20Trends%202013.pdf>

Phillips, J. 2015, ‘Asylum seekers and refugees: what are the facts?’, Parliamentary Library of Australia, viewed on 8 September 2015, http://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/pubs/rp/rp1415/AsylumFacts>.

Keller, A., Rosenfeld, B. & Trinh-Shevrin, C. 2003, ‘Mental health of detained asylum seekers’, The Lancet, vol. 12, no. 362, pp. 1721-1723, viewed on 15 September 2015, http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0140673603148465/1-s2.0-S0140673603148465-main.pdf?_tid=60f28634-5f74-11e5-bd3f-00000aab0f6c&acdnat=1442739095_b3b162da84af0a2c0dd5353d4321195d>

Couldrey, M. &  Herson, M. 2013, ‘Detention, alternatives to detention, and deportation’, Forced Migration Review, vol. 18, no. 44, pp. 4-14, viewed 15 September 2015, http://www.fmreview.org/en/detention.pdf>

Cornelis, J., Bettine, A., Hajo, B., Gernaat, E. & Ivan, H. 2004, ‘Impact of a Long Asylum Procedure on the Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorders in Iraqi Asylum Seekers in the Netherlands’, NERVOUS & MENTAL DISEASE, vol. 13 no. 12, pp. 843-851, viewed on 5 September 2015, http://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ivan_Komproe2/publication/8143453_Impact_of_a_long_asylum_procedure_on_the_prevalence_of_psychiatric_disorders_in_Iraqi_asylum_seekers_in_The_Netherlands/links/00b7d5304b6381a575000000.pdf>

Hadgkiss, E., Lethborg, C., Al-Mousa, A. & Marck, C. 2012, ‘Asylum seeker health and well-being’, St Vincent’s Health, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 17-31, viewed on 20 September 2015, https://svha.org.au/wps/wcm/connect/cb7b96fc-6653-42ea-9683-749a184d3aed/Asylum_Seeker_Health_and_Wellbeing_Scoping_Study.pdf?MOD=AJPERES&CONVERT_TO=url&CACHEID=cb7b96fc-6653-42ea-9683-749a184d3aed>

Kaldor, A. 2014, ‘Offshore processing: Australia’s obligations with respect to asylum seeker children who may be sent to Nauru’, Never Stand Still, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 1-9, viewed on 20 September 2015, http://www.kaldorcentre.unsw.edu.au/sites/default/files/Factsheet_Offshore_processing_asylum_seeker_children_BIA.pdf>

Gerritsen, A. & Bramsen, I. 2005, ‘Physical and mental health of Afghan, Iranian and Somali asylum seekers and refugees living in the Netherlands’, Original Paper, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 12-19, viewed on 19 September 2015, http://epiresult.com/downloads/refugees/SPPE.pdf>

Urbanisation of City Centres | Essay

Introduction
The past few decades have witnessed a myriad of development and rapid change throughout the city centres of the developed nations. Promethean gentrification schemes, improvements in infrastructure, and an amelioration of the service sector have all assisted in encouraging many citizens to buy or rent property within the very heart of the city.
As Pacione (2005, pg. 84) has highlighted, ‘there is now a growing body of case-study evidence that indicates a recovery of large cities from the high levels of population loss experienced in the 1970s era of counter urbanisation.’ Pacione (2005, pg.84) has also revealed that ‘the rate of population loss for all 280 of Britain’s urban areas fell from 4.2% in 1971-81 to 0.1% for 1981-1991.’ Thus, it would appear that there has been much success in encouraging households to dwell within the vibrant ‘zone of transition.’
However, academics are keen to discern whether or not the often adventurous strategies deployed by urban authorities and private investors alike will truly serve to stem the tide of citizens who seek to relocate to the rural hinterland.
The coming of ‘re-urbanisation’
From the mid eighteenth century onwards ‘that complex series of innovations commonly referred to as the industrial revolution’ hastened the process of urbanisation throughout Europe and gave birth to the ‘industrial city’ (Pacione, 2005, pg. 50). Social commentators such as Marx and Engels noted how the city exhibited an ‘unequal division of power’ (Pacione, 2005, pg. 51) between the capitalists (who owned property) and the working classes. Indeed, Engels’ study of Manchester during the mid 19th century highlighted the phenomenon of ‘class-repulsion.’

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The Chicago school of the 1920s promulgated the theory of ‘the city as organism.’ Burgess’s ‘concentric ring’ model of the industrial city highlighted how the form of an urban area commonly extended from a central business district (which was normally surrounded by a zone of poor quality housing and social exclusion) to areas of increasing affluence in the outer city and hinterland. The majority of the great industrial urban centres throughout Europe did indeed exhibit this pattern. However, since 1945 there has been a period of ‘post industrial urbanisation’ and a consequent ‘restructuring of urban form’ (Pacione, 2005, pg. 65).
One could now say that many cities within the developed world have now moved into a fourth transitional stage known as ‘re-urbanisation.’ This phenomenon is when ’the rate of population loss of the core tapers off, or the core starts regaining population’ (Pacione, 2005, pg. 83). Such a trend is encouraging for municipal authorities and private investors who for many years have been forced to endure a process of depopulation or ‘counter urbanisation’ within the inner city. This was due to a period of industrial decline from the 1950s onwards. The large slum clearance and resettlement projects conducted within cities such as Glasgow and Liverpool also significantly reduced the urban population.
As Holliday (1973, pg. 4) has succinctly stated, ‘change in cities is the result both of social, economic and technological forces at work in society and of particular local forces and physical factors within the city.’ Factors which have altered the structure of urban settlements and attracted residents back towards the city centre are indeed varied. There have been demographic alterations throughout the West since the post war ‘baby-boom.’ ‘Over a quarter of households contain only one person’ and ‘more women are starting a family late in life’ (Pacione, 2005, pg. 106). Thus, the requirement of a suburban family dwelling is not as essential for as many citizens now and the prospect of an inner city apartment may seem more attractive. As Knox and Pinch (2006, pg. 33) have also observed, the ‘growth of the service economy has had important consequences for the social geography of cities.’ Indeed, western cities are no longer industrial zones over-shadowed by Blake’s ‘dark satanic mills’ and many white collar workers within the financial sector often dwell comfortably within the urban core.
However, many would argue that the most potent force which has initiated the process of ‘re-urbanisation’ has been the stance adopted by governmental authorities in order to revitalise the city. Such a determination to improve the vitality and viability of the CBD often manifests itself in the guise of ambitious public/private ventures focusing on regenerating an entire area of the inner city. This was certainly the case at the London Docklands which has been entirely transformed over the past three decades.
The Regeneration of the London Docklands
The redevelopment of the London Docklands has been much publicised and is an example of a public/private venture which sought to revamp the ‘brown area of mostly abandoned nineteenth century docks and warehouses’ (Rykwert, 2000, pg.226) close to the centre of London. The London Docklands Development Corporation (LDDC) was set up in 1981 in order to manage the project. As Rykwert (2000, pg. 226) has noted, ‘Docklands offered a prime site for development, but only if there was huge investment.’
The LDDC coordinated the regeneration and transformation of this once dilapidated zone. In 1987 the government also agreed to ‘fund an elaborate infrastructure’ of ‘roadways, rail links, and mains services on a large scale’ (Rykwert, 2000, pg. 226). Docklands was also designated as an ‘Enterprise Zone’ which was exempt from the rigorous planning restrictions which existed elsewhere within the city centre.
According to the LDDC ‘Strategy for Regeneration’ report of 1997, the population of the locale had ‘increased from 39,400 to more than 80,000’ and the number of jobs had ‘risen from 27,200 to 72,000’ (LDDC, 1997) since 1981. The Corporation also stated that ‘the substantial numbers of new houses built has relieved pressure for residential development in London’s Green Belt’ (LDDC, 1997). A policy of offering generous tax incentives to private investors, coupled with public investment in local services would appear to have paid off. The LDDC also insisted that the newly revitalised residential districts of the zone are entirely ‘sustainable.’
However, there are some who would argue that the regeneration of the Docklands and the creation of new employment opportunities at Canary Wharf has largely benefited the influx of white collar workers, to the detriment of the socially excluded indigenous population. Gentrification of the area has also displaced many of the original inhabitants. Rykwert (2000, pg. 227) notes the stark contrast between the ‘expensively finished high-rise office buildings’ which ‘dwarf the more or less gated new housing to make an even sharper contrast with a blighted hinterland.’ Indeed, Rykwert also draws attention to the nearby borough of Tower Hamlets, which still suffers from one of the highest unemployment rates in the UK. Such a redeveloped area seems to be attractive to younger professional people who can enjoy the services and cultural aspects of the city centre close at hand. However, the ultra-secure environment of intercoms, security cameras and high walls, which envelopes the modern residential buildings, insulating the affluent from the potentially unsavoury world around them, is less appealing to families with young children. As Pacione (2005, pg. 65) has emphasised, young families will naturally gravitate towards the ‘stability, security’ and ‘comfortable world of consumption’ offered by suburban life.
Marketing the City Centre
Promoting a ‘positive image’ of the city is of paramount importance to contemporary municipal authorities. Indeed, as Knox and Pinch (2006, pg. 51) have noted, recent years have witnessed numerous ‘attempts by public agencies to re-brand cities and make them attractive to investors.’
The ‘Glasgow’s Miles Better’ campaign of the 1980s and 1990s, which was launched by Glasgow City Council, sought to shake off the ‘hard’ image the city had acquired as a centre of social depravation and criminal activity. The ‘Garden Festival’ of 1988 and Glasgow obtaining the accolade of ‘European City of Culture’ in 1990 further improved the reputation of the city and its environs. Glasgow is now considered to be a vibrant centre which offers a wide array of services and boasts a much improved infrastructure. Gentrification projects along the River Clyde coupled with the rejuvenation of the ‘Merchant City’ in the heart of the town have attracted white collar workers back towards the hub. The local council and private investors are now keen to promote the city’s heritage as well as preserving listed buildings, areas of environmental importance and historical monuments. Such a policy adds emphasis to Holliday’s (1973, pg. 21) statement that ‘the image of a city centre is a reflection of the values of city councillors and officers’ and that it is imperative to ‘present a centre of obvious commercial prosperity, traditional values, cultural activities and an appearance reflecting pride in the city.’
Such a determination to promote a positive image of urban space also compounds Eaton’s (2001, pg. 10) notion that ‘something as complex as the city can be promoted in the mind’s eye.’ The very perception one has of a city or space is of the utmost importance and has been of great interest to academics such as Michel Foucault and David Sibley in recent years. The LDDC also highlighted how the social connotations surrounding the name ‘Docklands’ have changed dramatically over the past few years due to positive marketing and a subsequent re-imaging of this once run-down area. The same phenomenon can readily be applied to the city of Glasgow, as well as other sites of urban regeneration.
However, modern-day architects who design dwellings for inner city urbanites understand the complexity of their task. Graham Haworth (who was involved in the renovation and design of residential buildings in Coin Street in central London) has acknowledged how ‘city-centre housing still proves to be something of a paradox’ and that buildings must ‘fit in comfortably to a metropolitan context’ whilst providing a ‘setting for small scale domestic activity’ (Haworth, 2003, pg. 150). Indeed, public tastes often alter considerably through time and space, and this phenomenon also represents a major challenge to all agencies involved in restoring and maintaining the vibrancy and vitality of the ‘zone of transition’.
Conclusion
Urban authorities now deploy a range of strategies to enhance their city centres. Allen, Massey and Pryke (1999, pg. 100) have also observed that ‘new flows of international tourists and business people are restructuring old urban spaces.’ As Knox and Pinch (2006, pg. 33) have highlighted, the post war world has witnessed the ‘emergence of global cities’ which must compete for inward investment.
The city centre offers a range of options for developers. The process of gentrification is seen by many to be a positive element in regenerating brown belt sites and a ‘back-to-the-city move by capital’ (Knox, Pinch, 2006, pg. 145). However, some would contest this ‘revanchist’ notion. Pacione (2005, pg. 212) has noted that gentrification ‘commonly involves residential relocation by people already living in the city’ and is not a ‘back-to-the-city move by suburbanites.’
The notion championed by the LDDC, and other agencies, that inner city redevelopment will place less strain on the rural hinterland and reduce the flow of households to the periphery is also questionable. It should be borne in mind that inner city regeneration tends to attract younger professional people in the 20-39 age group. Statistics released by the Development and Regeneration Services of Glasgow (2007, pg. 14) this year concluded that over 35% of the inner city population was within this age group. Numbers of citizens falling into the other age categories were below the national average. Indeed, one could say that the vibrancy of the urban core is more appealing to young professionals as opposed to households with children. Tonkiss (2005, pg. 80) has also emphasised that gentrification ‘remains something of a minority taste.’
As Holliday has highlighted, a variety of factors, from demographics to technological shifts, affect the development of the city. Municipal strategies tend to respond to these forces, and act accordingly. Despite the recent success of urban regeneration schemes, and a marked reduction in the depopulation of city centres throughout the UK, it seems likely that many households will continue to seek the safety and security of the rural periphery. During the period from 1981 to 1991 suburban zones in the UK continued to expand at a rate of ‘less than 6%’ (Pacione, 2005, pg. 84). Many retired people are also tending to move away from urban areas and relocate within the ‘sunbelt’ zone of the Mediterranean region.
Bibliography
ALLEN, J. MASSEY, D. PYKE, M. Unsettling Cities, Routledge, 1999
DEVELOPMENT AND REGENERATION SERVICES OF GLASGOW, Glasgow Factsheets, DRS, 2007
EATON, R. Ideal Cities: Utopianism and the (Un)built Environment, Thames and Hudson, 2001
HOLLDAY, J. City Centre Redevelopment: A Study of British City Centre Planning and Case Studies of Five English Cities, Charles Knight, 1973
KNOX, P. PINCH, S. Urban Social Geography, Pearson, Prentice Hall, 2006
LONDON DOCKLANDS DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, Strategy for Regeneration Report, LDDC, 1997
PACIONE, M. Urban Geography: A Global Perspective, Routledge, 2nd Edition, 2005
RYKWERT, J. The Seduction of Place: The City in the Twenty-First Century, Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 2000
THOMAS, R. Sustainable Urban Design: An Environmental Approach, Spon Press, 2003
TONKISS, F. Space, The City and Social Theory: Social Relations and Urban Forms, Polity Press, 2005
RIDDELL, R. Sustainable Urban Planning, Blackwell, 2004
SHORT, J, R. Urban Theory: A Critical Assessment, Palgrave, MacMillan, 2006
1
 

Traffic problems in city centres

Traffic problem has become a major problem in the word,it is obvious from the upsurge of private car use on the roads and the amount of problem they cause.Banning private cars in inner city is a blessing or a curse has sparked spirited debate.
Admittedly, one might have benefited a lot from one’s improved ability to move rapidly from one place to another space.Compared to other model, cars provide carring captivity and privacy,50% of commuters travel to work by car in London(Newman,1996).According to a survey,97,000 cars enter to central area between 7:30 am and 10:00 am.This may explain based on Figure3.3,it emphasize the fact that people spend money on cars reduced(exclude added costs) when travel the same trip,with 6% decreased from 1997 to 2004.However,the price of bus ticket and rail ticket has increased 10% and 4% respectively during the seven years.This may explain why more and more private cars are used.

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However, the massive cars enter to inner city cause some serious problems.The most significant problem is traffic congestion and this is evident in every morning and evening in rush hours(Figure3.1).Moving on a congestion road, speeds of traffic reduced to 6-10 km/h(Newman,1996).As figure3.1 indicates,moving on a congestion road,travel time increased more than 4 minute when drivers travel 1 kilometre.Moreover, sluggish traffic flow leads to high fuel and maintenance costs(Schuitema,G 2007).For instance,the cost of congestion in London is at least €3.5 bn per annum(Bailly).
In addition,the growth in car use decreases the quality of life in urban areas due to exhaust gas and irritating noise,causing actual harm to people health.The WHO reports that in European more than 30% urban dwellers has been disturbed by irritating noise,and 5-15% of all citizens suffer noise disturbance(Bailly).The massive cars enter to central area takes the menace to the bicycle riders and pedestrians.The total number of deaths in Europe per year due to traffic accidents reached 45,000.Inadequate of parking car is another recognize consequence of the upsurge of private car enter to central area that result in many gardens and grasslands give way to construct traffic facilities like highway,avenues(Bailly).
Because of these negative effect some people argued that private car should be banned to enter to inner city.However,if banning car enter to inner city will cause another problems.For instance,in Tokyo,the commute rail system has a over-loaded of 300%of capacity in rush hours so that public transportation fail to cope with the increasing transportation demand(Schuitema,G 2007).So,banning private cars in inner city could reduce the number of transport,it is most unlikely to be an acceptable solution.
Statistic from the London Congestion charge Report are illustrated in Figure 3.1 which shows the problem of traffic delays has improved since implement charging during rush hours in the March of 2003. Figure3.1 shows the travel time saved about 1 minute compared with charging before.However, the development of national economy and the improvement of living standard,people afford to extra fee ,the problem picked up again in 2006.From then onward it fluctuated ,and the general trend was upwards.Therefore,an approach to control the number of private car use is focusing on the sales of the private cars(figure 3)and imposing of road tolls during rush hours which, as figure3.2 indicates,has reduced from 2002 to 2006 the number of cars entering to central area fell dramatically,with a 36% reduction,and vans ,lorries and other charging vehicle decreased by 13% respectively.In contract ,for no-charging vehicle rose sharply,such as the number of bus and coaches increased by 25%.Not only avoid common use of private car entering to center area but solve the under-use and serious wastage of the public transport in peak hours.
To sum up,private cars indeed bring lots of benefit for urban residents,banning private cars in inner city will cause another problem.So government need make some methods control the number of cars,such as to impose charges,to establish bus lane and to subsidy the public transport fares(Newman,P1996) and people should reduce unnecessary daily commuting by car.
 

Data Processing in Big Data Centres Cost Reduction Approach

ABSTRACT
The tremendous development in cloud data processing leads to the high load on computation, storage and communication in the data storage centers, which influence the data center providers to spend a considerable expenditure in data processing. There are three features leading to this increased expenditure, ie., job allotment, data positioning and data movement. In this paper, these three features are taken into consideration and an approach for cost reduction for cloud data processing is proposed. I propose a Markov Chain Model to analyze the task completion considering the data transmission and its computation.
Keywords: Markov Chain Model, Data Center, Cloud data, Data Positioning, Data Processing.
INTRODUCTION
In recent years, the outburst of data all over the world has led to the demand of data processing in the data storage centers. This demand further leads to the increase in the cost incurred in the computation and the communication resources. As predicted by Gartner, by 2015, 71% of the data storage center hardware utilization would be from the cloud data processing which will cross around $126.2 billion. So, it is of vital importance to analyze the cost reduction problem in cloud data processing in the data storage centers.
Data Center resizing (DCR) has been proposed to reduce the cost involved in data processing by adjusting the number of activated servers through task placement[1].
The Cloud Data Service Architecture mainly consists of distributed file systems which is helpful in distributing the data and its copies all over the data centers for an efficient load balancing and high performance. Some studies focused on reducing the communication cost by taking steps to place data on the servers where the input data exist to solve the remote data loading problem.

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Even though there were many solutions proposed to solve the above issues, none of the solutions were helpful in providing a cost efficient big data processing due to few disadvantages. First one, being the wastage of resources for the data that is not often accessed. Second, being the transmission costs involved depending on the distances and the type of communication used between the data centers. Not all the data could be stored on the same server because of its high volume; it is a mandatory one to store few data into remote servers that would incur transmission cost. Transmission costs get increased proportionally with the number of communication links involved.
To get rid of the above disadvantages, I consider the cost reduction for cloud data processing through a joint optimization approach of task placement and data positioning in the data centers. Every server may have only a few resources needed for each piece of data residing on it. The data will need more resources to carry out with its big data processing tasks. The main aim of this paper is to optimize the data positioning, task allocation, routing and DCR to minimize the overall computation cost involved. The contributions are briefed as follows,

This paper considers the cost reduction problem involved with the cloud data processing in the data centers by the joint optimization of data positioning, task allocation and routing. To explain the computation and the transmission involved with the data centers, the Markov Chain model has been used and the task completion time has been derived.
For cost reduction, three factors are taken into consideration. The first one is how to place data in servers and the second one is how to distribute the data and the third one is how to resize the data centers to achieve minimum cost operation.

OTHER RELATED WORKS
Cost Minimization in Server
The data centers are distributed throughout the world to store huge volumes of data that are accessible to thousands of users. A data center consists of a large number of servers that consume much power. Few Million dollars were to be spent on electricity cost that is a rising problem leading to the increased operation cost. The best known mechanisms proposed that grabbed attention was the DCR that focused on energy management by the data centers. Liu et al.[2] examined the same issue by considering the delay with the network. Fan et. al [3] analyses on how much computing equipments can be hosted within a fixed power budget in a safer and an efficient manner.
Data Management
The main aspect of data management is the reliability and effective data positioning. Sathiamoorthy et al. [4] proposed a solution based on erasure codes that offered high reliability in comparison with the Reed-Solomon codes. Yazd et al[5] proposed a scheduling algorithm to improve energy efficiency in data centers considering the data locality properties.
Data Placement
Agarwal et al[6] gave a data placement approach for the geographically distributed cloud services by considering the bandwidth cost, data center capacity, etc. It analyzes the logs based on the data access types and the client locations.
All the existing works either focus on the task allotment or on the data placement or on the data management. But this paper takes into consideration, the data positioning, the task allotment and the routing of data systematically.
SYSTEM MODEL
The geographically distributed data center topology is shown in Fig. 1. with all the data centers containing the same data are connected via switches. There are a set of data centers(D), and each data center d ϵ D that consists of a set of servers Sd connected to the switch md ϵ M having a local transmission cost of Cl .
The local transmission cost Cl will be less than the data center transmission cost Cr. Le the whole system be modeled as a Graph denoted by G=(N,E) where,
N is the vertex set that includes all the switches(M) and the servers(Sd)
E is the edge set.
The weight involved with the edges are represented as,
w(u,v)= Cr , if u,v ϵ M
Cl, otherwise
The data stored in geographically distributed data centers are divided into a set of chunks C. Each data chunk c ϵ C has a size and its is normalized to the server storage capacity. For each chunk of data, there will be P copies available in the distributed system for the fault tolerance. λc be the average task arrival rate requesting for chunk c.

Fig. 1. Data Center topology
The task arrival in each server is considered as a Poisson Process. If the task is distributed to a data center where the data chunk does not reside, it will take some amount of time till the data chunk gets transferred to that data center. Each task should be replied with a response time of R.
PROBLEM FORMULATION
Data Placement and Task allocation constraints
The binary variable ysc is used to refer to whether the data chunk c is placed on the server s.
ysc takes the value 1 if the chunk c is placed in the server s and it takes the value 0 if the
chunk c is not placed in the server s.
In any distributed file system for each data, there are P copies of data chunks stored and the data stored in each server cannot go beyond the storage capacity.
Any server is termed as an activated one(as), only if there are data chunks stored onto it or else tasks assigned to it.
Data Loading Constraints
For every data chunk c required by the server s, there are few external or internal data transmissions involved for which a routing procedure is devised.
The Graph containing the servers and the switches is divided into three categories,

Source Nodes: These are the servers consisting of the data chunks
Relay Nodes : These nodes receive data from the source nodes and forward them to the other nodes based on some routing technique.
Destination Nodes: These are the nodes that are receiving the data chunks.

Each and every destination node will receive the data chunks only if does not have a copy of it.
Cost Reduction
The cost involved with the transmission of the data chunks could be minimized by
choosing the parameters such as the ysc ,as , λc etc.
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
The performance analysis of the joint optimization approach describes that the communication costs decreased if more tasks and data chunks were placed in the same data center. Further increase in the number of servers will not affect the data chunk distribution among them. Increased requests lead to more activated servers and more computation resources and the joint optimization approach tries to lower the server cost. This approach balances between the server cost and the communication cost. When the delay requirement is very small, many servers are activated to provide quality of service. And the server costs decrease as the delay constraints increases.
CONCLUSION
This paper explains the joint optimization approach of data positioning, task allotment and routing of data to reduce the overall operational cost involved with the data centers that are geographically distributed.
This approach reduced the computational complexity considerably.
REFERENCES
[1] L. Rao, X. Liu, L. Xie, and W. Liu , “Minimizing Electricity Cost: Optimization of Distributed Internet Data Centers in a Multi-Electricity –Market Environment,” in Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computer Communications (INFOCOM).IEEE,2010, pp. 1-9.
[2] Z. Liu, M. Lin, A. Wierman, S.H. Low, and L.L. Andrew, “Greening Geographical Load Balancing ,”in Proceedings of International Conference on Measurement an Modeling of Computer Systems(SIGMETRICS. ACM, 2011,pp.233-244.
[3] X. Fan, W. D. Weber, and L. A. Barroso, “Power Provisioning for a Warehouse-sized Computer,” in Proceedings of the 34th Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture (ICA).ACM, 2007, pp.13-23.
[4] M. Sathiamoorthy, M. Asteris, D. Papailiopoulos, A. G. Dimakis, R. Vadali, S. Chen, and D. Borthakur, “Xoring elephants: novel erasure codes for big data,” in Proceedings of the 39th International Conference on Very Large Data Bases, ser. PVLDB’13. VLDB Endowment, 2013, pp.325-336.
[5] S. A. Yazd, S.Venkatesan, and N. Mittal, “Boosting energy efficiency with mirrored data block replication policy and energy scheduler,” SIGOPS Oper. Syst. Rev., vol.47, no.2, pp.33-40, 2013.
[6] S. Agarwal, J. Dunagan, N. Jain, S. Saroiu, A. Wolman, and H. Bhogan, “Volley: Automated Data Placement for Geo-Distributed Cloud Services,” in the 7th USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation (NSDI), 2010,pp.17-32.
[7] S. Govindan, A. Sivasubramaniam, and B. Urgaonkar, “Benefits and Limitations of Tapping Into Stored Energy for Datacenters,” in Proceedings of the 38th Annual International Symposium on Computer Architecture (ISCA). ACM.,pp.341-352.
[8] P. X. Gao, A. R. Curtis, B. Wong, and S. Keshav, “It’s Not Easy Being Green, “ in Proceedings of the ACM Special Interest Group on Data Communication(SIGCOMM), ACM,2012.pp.211-222.
[9] J. Cohen, B. Dolan, M. Dunlap, J. M. Hellerstein, and C. Welton, “Mad Skills : new analysis practices for big data,” Proc. VLDB Endow. Vol.2, no.2, pp. 1481-1492, 2009.
[10] H. Sachnai, G. Tamir, and T. Tamir, “Minimal cost reconfiguration of data placement in a storage area network, “Theoretical Computer Science, vol. 460.pp.42-53, 2012.
 

A Strategic Review of the People Management Issues in Capital Hotels and Conference Centres (CHCC)

INTRODUCTION
Capital Hotels & Conference Centres (CHCC) is a medium-sized international business that owns and operates 50 hotels and conference centres mainly in the UK and Western Europe. The company strategy has shifted to targeting only 4-star hotels lately in capital cities such as Toulouse, Bangalore, Bangkok, Bucharest and Shanghai and getting away from their 3-star venues and hotels going forward replacing the owners with a British General Manager.

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This report aims to analyse the factors that are likely to be contributing to the people management problem in CHCC. First, this report will discuss issues related to low business growth, then examine the challenges that this organisation has faced with the Graduate Development Program and finally move to identify the issues related to managers ‘ engagement, development and turnover. As a member of HBS hospitality & tourism consultancy services, a strategic review of the people management issues must be carried out for the apparent growth of the business analysing the CHCC acquisitions strategy and financial performance.
LOW GROWTH
As analysed from the Nampak business case study by Smedley (2011) A Lot of Bottle, where the business was cost-focused and traditional manufacturing without considering people’s savings. The Managing Director of the company Nampak, Eric Collins says, “The mindset has traditionally been that labour is cheap- so you invest in machinery and processes, you don’t invest in people”. CHCC is also a cost-focused company where, the company views their staff as a cost instead of viewing them as an investment.
Another issue prevailing here in CHCC is that CEO (ex-chef) aimed to create hotels for good quality restaurant to attract local diners in addition to hotel and conference guests.  The hotels lack the operational excellence required by the hotel targets in order to deliver at par excellent guest experience.
The fierce competition and lack of quality in service leading to a slower growth rate in comparison with the similar hotels and conference businesses. As viewed in the case study by Karson and Murphy (2013) on attracting local guests to resort food and beverage operations: The case of the Orlando Resort and Spa. Restaurant owners needs to understand the foundations of marketing strategy in order to identify their most profitable consumer base and the strategies needed to capture their patronage. The National Restaurant Association (2007) defines marketing strategy as consisting “of the major decision you must make about the segment of a market, which one or ones you can profit by addressing, how to position your products and services in that market, and why that market should buy your products and services.”
CHCC have replaced the owners with the British General Manager and seconded a Head of F&B and other Heads of the department from the UK. As suggested by Chung (2011) Developing your global know-how. ‘Global experience is considered imperative for career success, especially in the sales and marketing function’ regarding the relocation of the staffs or executives. Because it causes failure to adapt to a different culture, lack of competency and lack of communication skills resulting in a slower organic growth in the company as managers are not satisfied with their jobs.
Due to the acquisition, the turnover or the organic growth rate of hotel was less (around 60 million pounds) as compared to the competitors which are making 61 to 63 million per year. (1% to 3% more). As the study suggested by Amorós and Dalmau (2012). The Impact of Mergers and Acquisitions on Brand value in the Hotel Sector during the economic crisis in Spain says that, Mergers and Acquisitions (M&As) was the solution for many businesses to deal with the crisis, viewed by businesses as an efficient and fast way to gain market share, expand into new markets and acquire new brand. But making an M&A does not warranty that the new firm will succeed in every objective. It’s hard to meet all the stakeholder challenges. All researchers and media reports claim that most mergers fail, approximately 70% of acquisitions fail to achieve their expected value. Consequently, mergers and acquisitions sometimes end up destroying rather than creating value to companies.
The location of the company also acts as a factor of low growth here, as it is based in Reading, Berkshire which is a small town in England surrounding the countryside ideally not good for a business hub as it is famous for its medieval period. As suggested by Klein (2004) Corporate Headquarters Site Selection, the headquarters location is an important part of the company’s image and role for its shareholders and consumers as well and is a basic component of its market position and how its products are perceived by the customers.
THE GRADUATE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
The problem here is with the Graduate Development Scheme set up by the Personnel Manager for recruiting the graduates, most of whom were only British. It was unsuitable and most of the graduates left within few months for better pay and benefits as company lacked management and training development centres for the graduates neither the managers have any selection nor recruitment skills. According to the HR director Stevens J Sainte-Rose (Coca-Cola, 2008) for external appointments “You always have to have a fresh perspective and fresh thinking”. The Monitoring, Validation and Assessment process is missing from CHCC managers here to understand the needs of the staff to have training objectives for better strategic planning for the company.
A survey from the Coca-Cola (2008) Caught by the Fizz, brand commitment showed that marketing staff thought that more time was spent purchasing the talent to fill the positions rather than cultivating the talent. There was a running pilot programme to assess the training and development and evaluate the advancement strategies that would check whether people identified as highflyers were ready for promotion.
CHCC has failed to adapt the functioning of The International Assignment Cycle (Harzing and Christensen,2004) which closely follows the Recruitment and Selection process involving internal and external consultants, followed by the Hiring and Preparation of workers, by providing them with training to adapt to the Expatriation in another country followed by the Repatriation, enabling them to return and adjust back in the company. 
The concern added here is that, the Head Housekeeper and Public Relations and Publicity Manager are women and as a female, they could have some issues such as job discrimination, irregular working hours or perhaps the level of skills required in the hospitality industry. As said by Weyer (2007) explaining about the persistence of the glass ceiling for women leaders Gender inequality remains in leadership positions, even with lower-level women’s visibility 20 years later.
Also viewed from the case study by Menicucci et al. (2019) on Does gender matter for hotel performance? As gender diversity in the workplace is perceived both as a social and ethical imperative (Kelan, 2008; McCabe, Ingram, & Dato‐on, 2006). Given the evolution of women’s participation in the global labour market, it is noteworthy that a growing number of women hold leadership positions previously controlled by men. Female employees often find it difficult to compete with their male counterparts due to various visible and invisible obstacles and barriers (e.g., marriage, motherhood, sexism and stereotyping). For instance, this issue is heightened when the functional aspects of hospitality management include long working hours and high levels of flexibility (Pinar, McCuddy, Birkan, & Kozak, 2011).
The issue here is that the Personnel Manager and Training Manager have been internally promoted from the F&B department and are now reporting to the Finance and Administration Manager. As the Finance and Administration Director’s job description indicated by the Princeton-Blairstown Centre (PBC) is a 108-year-old, 501(c)(3) non-profit organization notes that its role is responsible for the organization’s accounting, financial reporting, budgeting, tax compliance, investments, insurance, talent management and audit functions. The position ensures appropriate controls and procedures of the financial and accounting process are in place and is also responsible for managing the organization’s operational, talent management and IT structures. That’s why they are better suited to strategic decision-making and operations that improve the performance programming and capacity building of the organisation, therefore not really people oriented.
SATISFACTION, DEVELOPMENT and TURNOVER of MANAGERS
Middle managers moving on to better jobs as they have received very little management training or development despite the fact the company was holding an open course management programmes for the managers. According to Dr Cole (2016) CIPD report about Training Line Managers says, There is a terrible confluence of pressures on middle managers to ensure that workers provide a truly high-quality service to service users, meet the organization’s needs in terms of results, performance details, be transparent to department heads, look at the team’s care and confinement to protect them in that sense. Therefore, it is important to provide training and development programmes for additional experience, understanding, structured work and thinking for them to take away good institutional memory as they go on to find better jobs.
In order to take away the institutional memory when the managers or staff leave, as seen from the Coca-Cola (2008) Caught by the fizz case study, Managers deal with an unforeseen problem, counselling, training sessions, personality development and feedback, and 360-degree analysis. When participants leave the centre, detailed feedback is given from both a marketing manager and an SHL (Saville and Holdsworth Limited) an international company conducting personality, behavioural and skill testing providing individual solutions coaches that relate to their current development programmes.
One of the recruitment choices for middle managers was to second them to global hotels and bring them back to senior positions, but
25 per cent left early due to unhappiness
35 per cent fell short of GM’s goals and
30 per cent left within one year because of the lack of cross-culture training programs, language barriers, culture differences, lack of communication skills, lack of competency and political instability provided to them by CHCC.
According to a report by Prokesch (2007) How GE teaches teams to lead change says that the reasons for the foster growth of the company have been:

Team training through an opportunity for managers to reach consensus on the obstacles to progress.
Participants are encouraged to understand both hard barriers (organisational structure, skills and resources) and soft barriers (how the leadership team members act and spend their time individually and collectively).
Managing the present and building the future is everlasting leadership.
Create a common language of transition.
The programme was not an academic exercise; it was intended to establish an action plan for the company.

According to the research conducted by Deery and Jago (2015) on Revisiting Talent Management, work life balance and retention strategies says that, employees who left for another company did so because they were given career progress or because they were confronted by other hotels offering better terms of employment. While greater opportunities for training and development are very important to retain staff. Karatepe (2013b) says that work engagement as a motivator will help retain talented employees through training empowerment and rewards.
CONCLUSION
After analysing the case study, the factors responsible for the cause of the problems was mainly the lack of training and development programs by the company. The root cause was having this business run by a Britisher instead of hiring a local Manager from the target countries as they were expanding towards Asia in order to understand and get familiarised with the local culture, people and language.
CHCC lacked recruitment and selection training due to which many graduates left their jobs as they were not given any feedback, motivation, incentives or rewards for good performance along with better pay and benefits.
The aim of the CEO who was an ex-chef had no experience in CRM (customer relationship management), was not updated with new technology and advancement and lacked experience for the current role. His aim was to create a hotel for good quality restaurant and attract locals for the business but he seems to lack  skills , and  does not appear to be well equipped with the staff management recruitment and operational qualities in order to meet the hotel targets to deliver excellent guest experience.
The company can benefit immensely from a proper marketing team to handle internal and external promotions of the company. The company was not updated, and Head of the Departments was following the old-fashioned recruitment policies as they were not agile thinkers and lacked efficiency and effectiveness in delivering the services with their team.
They lacked staff satisfaction and retention due to which many graduates moved on for better jobs. As the success tagline stated by Chiemelie (2019) Bacardi Martini UK “Family and people focus culture”. CHCC needs to effectively develop a set of organisational values to communicate, direct and reward, and use appropriate training and recruitment to enhance the match between potential and current staff and the needs of a value-based organisation.
REFERENCES
“A lot of bottle (human resource management at Nampak)”, 2011, Human Resource Management International Digest, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 213-219. Available at : https://www-emerald-com.ezproxy.herts.ac.uk/insight/content/doi/10.1108/hrmid.2011.04419faa.004/full/html
Amorós Arteaga, L., Dalmau Maria Rosselló, J. (2012). The Impact of Mergers and Acquisitions on Brand value in the Hotel Sector during the economic crisis in Spain. A case study of NH Hoteles & Hesperia. Department of Marketing. Available at : http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:538335/FULLTEXT01.pdf
“Caught by the fizz”, 2008, People Management, [Online], vol. 14, no. 16, pp. 24. Available at: http://web.a.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.herts.ac.uk/ehost/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=84826f88-b40a-43c1-a04e-45f6539cc15b%40sdc-v-sessmgr01&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=34014326&db=bth
Chiemelie, I. (2019). High Performance Working in Aspect Capital UK and Bacardi-Martini – Iloka Benneth Chiemelie, Ugboma Christian. [online] Ilokabenneth.blogspot.com. Available at: https://ilokabenneth.blogspot.com/2013/11/high-performance-working-in-aspect.html
CIPD (2018) ‘Performance Management: an introduction. [Editorial] CIPD. 29 September,2018. Available at: https://www.cipd.co.uk/knowledge/fundamentals/people/performance/factsheet
Clarke, M. 2017, “Building employability through graduate development programmes”, Personnel Review, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 792-808. Available at :https://www-emerald-com.ezproxy.herts.ac.uk/insight/content/doi/10.1108/PR-12-2015-0321/full/html
“Developing your global know-how”, 2011, Development and Learning in Organizations: An International Journal, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 1-16. Available at: https://www-emerald-com.ezproxy.herts.ac.uk/insight/content/doi/10.1108/dlo.2011.08125faa.005/full/html
Deery, M. & Jago, L. 2015, “Revisiting talent management, work-life balance and retention strategies”, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 453-472. Available at: https://www-emerald-com.ezproxy.herts.ac.uk/insight/content/doi/10.1108/IJCHM-12-2013-0538/full/html
Director of Finance and Administration Job Description. About Princeton-Blairstown Center. Available at: https://lnj.memberclicks.net/assets/docs/princeton%20blairstown-%20director%20of%20finance%20%20administration.pdf
Harzing, A., Christensen, C. (2004). Expatriate Failure: Time to Abandon the Concept? Career Development International. Vol 9. No 7. Pp 616-626.
Karson, K. and Murphy, K.S., 2013. Attracting local guests to resort food and beverage operations: The case of the Orlando Resort and Spa. Journal of foodservice business research, 16(4), pp.391-406. Available at : https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15378020.2013.824279
Karatepe, O.M. (2013b), “High-performance work practices and hotel employee performance: the mediation of work engagement”, International Journal of Hospitality Management, Vol. 32 March, pp. 132-140. Available at: https://www-emerald-com.ezproxy.herts.ac.uk/insight/content/doi/10.1108/IJCHM-12-2013-0538/full/html
Kelan, E. K. (2008). The discursive construction of gender in contemporary management literature. Journal of Business Ethics, 81(2), 427– 455. Available at:  https://doi-org.ezproxy.herts.ac.uk/10.1007/s10551‐007‐9505‐2
Klein, M. (2004) ‘Corporate Headquarters Site Selection’. More Business than Real Estate.  Available at: https://www.tradeandindustrydev.com/industry/manufacturing/corporate-headquarters-site-selection-441
Lewis, P. (2006), “The quest for invisibility: female entrepreneurs and the masculine norm of entrepreneurship”, Gender, Work and Organisation, Vol. 13 No. 5, pp. 453‐69. Available at: https://onlinelibrary-wiley-com.ezproxy.herts.ac.uk/doi/full/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2006.00317.x
Menicucci, E., Paolucci, G. and Paoloni, N., 2019. Does gender matter for hotel performance? Evidence from the Italian hospitality industry. International Journal of Tourism Research. Available at: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/jtr.2286
Mooney, S. & Ryan, I. 2009, “A woman’s place in hotel management: upstairs or downstairs?”, Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 195-210. Available at : https://www-emerald-com.ezproxy.herts.ac.uk/insight/content/doi/10.1108/17542410910950877/full/html
National Restaurant Association. 2007. Restaurant marketing, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall. Available at: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15378020.2013.824279
Pinar, M., McCuddy, M., Birkan, I., & Kozak, M. (2011). Gender diversity in the hospitality industry: An empirical study in Turkey. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30(1), 73– 81. Available at:  https://doi-org.ezproxy.herts.ac.uk/10.1016/j.ijhm.2010.06.007
Prokesch, S. 2012, “How GE teaches teams to lead change”, IEEE Engineering Management Review, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 31-41. Available at : https://ieeexplore-ieee-org.ezproxy.herts.ac.uk/document/6379399/metrics#metrics
Weyer, B. (2007), “Twenty years later: explaining the persistence of the glass ceiling for women leaders”, Women in Management Review, Vol. 22 No. 6, pp. 482‐96. Available at: https://www-emerald-com.ezproxy.herts.ac.uk/insight/content/doi/10.1108/09649420710778718/full/html
 

Power-line Networking in Data Centres

Abstract
Management tasks in most of the datacentre’s is usually done over the same network that is serving production traffic. Hence, when there is a network outage in the data centre, along with production impact, servers and other network devices cannot be reached remotely and hence, physical presence in the datacentre is required. In this document, we shall propose an alternate theory to this problem. We can create an inexpensive management network among servers within the DC to handle management workloads using the existing power cabling. This needs to be noted that this network will not be serving production workloads.
I. INTRODUCTION
Electric wires have always had the capacity to carry multiple signals with them apart from electricity. This method was exploited by many ISP’s and Telecom providers across the globe to provide ADSL services which was a combination of Broadband (Internet) and Telephone (Landline) services using power cables.

Fig. A
The above figure is of a commercially available Internet Phone splitter that used to be setup in an individual’s house where an electric cable carrying multiple superimposed electric waves would connect to one end of the splitter and the other end would be connected to a Landline telephone and a WiFi router/modem. This technology of sending multiple signals over a electric cable is called Power-line networking and we are proposing this solution to setup a management network in a data centre. A management network will NOT be used to serve production traffic but will be used to do miscellaneous tasks within the Datacentre viz. backups and restoration, IPMI (iDRAC for Dell Servers, iLO for HP servers), OS installation, VM migrations, system monitoring etc.
Any random given datacentre would contain contain more than a dozen of network devices like routers and switches and quite a few servers. A typical network for a DC should have the following qualities:
1. Availability: The DC network ought to be constantly available at all times despite faults and failures.
2. Scalability: The DC network should be able to scale up and down at any given point as the size of the DC may increase over time. Furthermore, all devices should have access to it.
3. Deployability: The deployment needs to happen with ease and should be compatible with the existing infrastructure. [1]
Power-line Communication (PLC) permits communication of devices over a logical network connected by electric cables. To setup this network we shall be using commercially available PLC modems which unlike the switch use OFDM protocol for layer 1 and the CSMA/CA protocol for layer 2 networking. [4] Using this technique, scalability would not be an issue as the electric cabling would be present in the Data center and so would the cost relatively low as no changes need to be done to the existing Data centre’s infrastructure. Below is the image of a TPLINK HyFi Intelligent Wireless PLC Modem [1]

Fig. B
Numerous PSU’s are connected to a PDU which in-turn is connected to a UPS. A logical diagram can be seen above.
II. WHAT IS POWER-LINE COMMUNICATION
The concept of communication via the use of power cables in not a net concept at all. Since the 1980’s , electric gadgets used to send bi-directional electric signals of less frequencies to the electric grids. [9] Power cables already have the capacity to carry multiple signals of different frequencies with them. The fact that they have different frequencies means that they do not coincide with each other. This characteristic of power cables to carry data and Alternating current simultaneously is called Power-line networking/communication. [3]

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This process of carrying multiple signals is possible by superimposition of data waves over electric waves. Since the transmission of the data waves happens at 3000 Hz and the transmission of electric waves happen at a frequency of 50000-60000 Hz. Since the difference between the frequencies of these two waves is huge, it is considered that the signals do not affect each other. [3]
III. PROPOSED INFRASTRUCTURE
a) The power system in a conventional DC would consist of the following:
b) PSU (Power supply Unit): Used to convert Alternating current to a regulated low voltage DC current.
c) PDU (Power Distribution Unit): A device that has numerous outputs and is used to distribute electric current. An equivalent of a spike guard used at home.
d) UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply): A device that is used as a backup power supply in case the main power supply is out.
A conventional DC will have a server which is connected to a switch via an RJ-45 cable which in-turn is connected to a router which acts like a gateway to the internet. That way multiple servers can connect to a single switch and connect to the internet.

Fig. D shows a conventional network in a DC.
Most of the servers have more than 1 Network interface cards which we will be exploiting to setup a PLC management network in the DC. The PLC network we propose will connect to the eth1 network interface of the server while the production traffic is being served by the eth0 network interface. A logical diagram would look like the following:

Fig. D shows the proposed PLC Management network.
IV. PERFORMANCE OF PLC NETWORKS
A study was done recently at the Hong Kong university of Science and Technology which included six servers in a PLC network, and the findings are mentioned below:
Latency: The latency among the servers in the network was about 2.2 ms which is negligible [1]
Throughput: Not more than 50 Mbps traffic was served at any given point of time [1]
Packet Loss: The packet loss rates were almost close to none. [1]
The study concluded with a comparison to a Gigabit network using a switch. The study showed the PLC networks had very less throughput and because of the noise in the network, it was highly unreliable and not suitable for fine grained and time critical tasks for eg. Load-balancing, High Availability etc. Further learnings are:
Creation of a PLC network in a DC using mere commercial PLC modems. [1]
For management network tasks for eg. backups and restoration, IPMI, OS installation etc. PLC is just fine as it gives a decent latency and sufficient throughput. [1]
It is difficult to deploy PLC network in a DC across all servers as its not scalable. Each server would use 1 electric socket in the PDU + 1 electric socket for the PLC modem that is a total of 2 electric sockets within a rack for each server plus an additional RJ45 cable for connecting the PLC modem to each server. With 20-40 servers in a single rack the additional wiring required in the rack will only lead to a mess. [1]
V. ADVANTAGES OF USING PLC NETWORKING IN DATA CENTRES
Reduced cost of Equipment: With power cables across the entire Data centre, one does not need to worry about additional costs. Just a small amount of investment would be required in purchasing PLC modems. [1]
No significant amount of increase in Power consumption post using this technology. A significantly minute amount is added because of the use of PLC modems. But it is any day cheaper than buying additional network switches. [1]
Has the ability to work in Data Centres which have both AC current as well as DC current. [1]
Even after significant use of PLC networks in the study, no heating issues faced with the electric cables nor PLC modems. [1]
Easy to deploy and install without any issues as power cables are everywhere. [7]
The likelihood of this technology getting actually implemented in the year 2030 are very high as ISP’s as mentioned in the Introduction are already using it across the globe. [1]
It doesn’t require any specific hardware or software to be present on the system. [7]
PLC modems usually provides a minimum of 128 bit encryption for the network so no attacker can simply plug into an electric socket and sniff packets in clear text [7]
VI. DISADVANTAGES OF PLC NETWORKING IN DATA CENTRES
More latency within the network as the size of the Datacentre increases. However, this can be simply solved by using network repeaters throughout the datacentre. [1]
Less throughput as compared to a Gigabit switch.[1]
Increase in use of electric sockets and wiring within a rack (doubles per server) [1]
There can be noise within the network because of electrical interference and hence it cannot be used for time sensitive tasks/jobs. [4]
Some older models of PLC modems will not work if they are plugged into a spike guard or a surge strip. They need to be plugged directly into the power outlet which is not feasible within a Datacentre. [5]
Older wiring in a legacy datacentre can cause performance issues.
Limited configuration options as compared to a layer 2 switch. [6]
Different brands of PLC modems may not work together. [6]
Performance increase can be done amongst PLC modems if manufactures take the initiative to create industry grade PLC modems to be used within Data Centres.
With larger networks, additional investment would need to be done as the data signals can tend to get distorted in the PLC network.
VII. PLC NETWORKS FOR GIVING INTERNET CONNECTIONS TO REMOTE VILLAGES

Fig. E represents a Smart Grid
Across the globe, there are thousands of villages in Asia and Africa where there is no internet. However, the governments of those regions have just managed to get electricity supply to these villages. If PLC technology is further implemented and improved at a global scale, these villages can receive an internet connection to their homes using the existing power cables and contribute towards a digital world.
A proposal was made to for this issue by folks at Ryerson University of Toronto and they proposed the following study of Broadband over Power Lines(BPL):

Fig. E [8]
However, as the BPL PLC signals can get distorted post travelling for a kilometer, there are network repeaters that are setup at each power grid. Once the power cable reaches home, it can be connected to either a Wifi Router or a PLC modem which can transmit internet across all devices at home. The one of the biggest advantage for proposing BPL for providing internet to remote villages is that the infrastructure (power cables) like in the Data centre is already there and no additional costs need to be incurred by the government for the same.
VIII. CONCLUSION
In this paper, we have discussed about what PLC network is all about and a review of the study of a PLC network with 6 nodes was done. The performance comparison was made with the conventional network and a conclusion was drawn that PLC networks weren’t as performance oriented as the conventional network created using Gigabit switches and hence shall be not suitable for a production network within a Datacentre. However, be that as it may, it seems to be more than sufficient in terms of performance and availability for creating a management network within a Datacentre using network repeaters. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of using PLC networks in the Datacentre were also discussed in detail.
An alternate application of PLC networks was also discussed in brief using which governments of poorer nations / developing countries can use this approach to provide their citizens with a basic internet connection.
REFERENCES
[1] Li Chen, Jiacheng Xia, Bairen Yi, and Kai Chen, SING Group, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (2018) “PowerMan: An Out-of-Band Management Network for Datacenters Using Power Line Communication.”
[2] Rohan Murty, Jitendra Padhye, Ranveer Chandra, Atanu Roy Chowdhury, and Matt Welsh, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, “Characterizing the End-to-End Performance of Indoor Powerline Networks”.
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