How To Revive Ijtihad And Reopen Closed Doors Religion Essay

This third chapter is to seek what caused stagnation in Ijtihad, than find answers for how to possibly revive and initiate a Revolutionary Contemporary Ijtihad? It looks also at its common misconceptions and finally cites the newly existing subjects; which need an urgent attention from current mujtahids.
What Caused Stagnation In Ijtihad?
Current Ijtihad is severely suffering crisis of thought and lack of prospective. “Ijtihad …began to be viewed as limited to legal matters, rather than as methodology for dealing with all aspects of life.” (Al-Alwani, 2005, p.65). And even the broad judicial matters that relate to methodology of all aspects of life become narrowed and confined into few legal matters. This limitation made Ijtihad to become more duplicate and unable to prompt solutions, or meet the current challenges.

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The causes of stagnation are actually at multiple levels; political, social, moral, but the most important for this project is that related to intellect of mujtahids and Ijtihad itself. “The methods of reading and interpreting the Islamic heritage itself also suffered from serious lapses…reflected in doctrinal splits, political and intellectual muddles.” (Tamimi & Esposito, 2002, p. 153). There are serious debates and criticism that the Contemporary Ijtihad school has been initiated to oppose the orthodox schools which strictly adheres to Al-Shafi’ orthodox formulation of the principles of shari’ah Law, and criticise the Abbasids political coercion of what existed of Ijtihad outside the sphere of the four officially adopted Sunni schools of thought.
These debates and criticism reveal the unbridgeable chasm between the adherents of classical schools and some modernist tendencies to seek more flexible and liberal approach to Ijtihad. “People seeking knowledge were thus caught between following alien contemporary thought or sticking to old traditional ways of thinking” (Al-Alwani, 2005, p. 1). The core of dispute appears to be about the role and function of Prophetic Sunnah/ Hadith, in the equation of Ijtihad; bedsides to the revering grade of secondary sources such as; consensus, analogy, and Shafi’ principles!
A healthy process of Ijtihad should seek continually for the best way to improve its ways and contemplate on what cause stagnation; rejection of each-others, chronic sectarianism, political oppression, social injustices, economic slowdown and nesting fanaticism. Regrettably these negativities are even aggravating and running out of control; the Muslim nation lives in turbulence; Palestinian lands are still occupied, imperialist west and sectarian wars in Iraq, Afghanistan, and Somali, Sudan… Muslims are turning against each others, dictatorships flourishing… The tricky problem is what caused stagnation in the first place?
Imam Shafi’ as the other early Muslim jurists set the foundation of Muslim classical jurisprudence principles; in order to wipe out the prevailing confusion and bring unity to the Muslims. “In theory, Shafi’i distinguished simply between the argument taken from traditions and the results of systematic thought”…Shafi’i created the usul alfiqh”. (Semerdjian, 2008, p.16) He introduced the grade of precedence for the compiled testimonial Based-Hadith of the Prophet as well as the secondary conjectural sources of consensus, analogy, and logical jurisprudential principles, then empowered them to become as revered as the Quranic teachings. He might have a noble intention seeking Muslim unity, but his method is for sure erroneous; as his formulation of principles surely proved not always to be bright. He must have caused a significant problem for every generation, as creativity has stayed confined for over a millennium!
The fear of traditionalist that theological debates may create havoc and uncertainty is groundless; as there is already a great deal of havoc and uncertainty because of the accumulated Ijtihad methods and absolute policies. The traditionalist school has to defend its position in free open theological debates, on the base of Quranic teachings that human are able to rationalise for themselves; as it is baseless to claim that such debated matters have already been argued and resolved along before. To advance positively the civilization; every generation need to revise and sift its heritage by retaining the good facets and discarding the bad ones. Within the shari’ah spheres; the theological debates have to be liberated again from Shafi’s traditional-blockade.
There is prevailing concurrence asserts that the Muslim-thought continued to thrive luminously for three centuries after the Prophet’s death, introducing such top-calibre historian such as al-Tabari, mathematician such as Al-Khawarizmi, astronomer such as al-Battani, physicist such as Al-Biruni, and many others. (Said &Khan, 1996, p.44). The orthodox school with its anti-evolutionary and absolutist attitude is still the major obstacle for the modern school to re-conquest the Ijtihad’s territories that was owned once, in the early centuries! This liberal modernist relativist attitude does not wide-open the doors for revolutionary Ijtihad; it is just an add-on tension to the conflict where orthodox Muslims have sporadically labelled them as non-believers and issued death-religious-edicts against them! It will be better to have comprehensive outlook where absolutism and relativism coexist and cooperate rather as a pair. 
One of the key problems challenging the Muslim nation now is frequently swamped in nostalgia for long-ago glories and confined into the past customary approaches of Ijtihad. The hard-hitting equation that the past Muslim scholars paved the way for Western notions of reason which tended to be sophisticatedly categorised for example Western critique of reason is outstandingly segmented into various types of reasoning: critical reason, functional reason, instrumental reason, imperialist reason, abstract reason… While the Muslim scholars of Ijtihad are still oblivious which definition should be given to reason whether analogical or consensual…Instead of seriously looking how to revive their Ijtihad and enriching it with the new scientific achievements!
02. How to Revive Ijtihad?
The classical mujtahids in naïve attempt to establish a uniting universal rules to solve the legislative problems of their time; they ended in abating the Ummah intellectual powers. A proper Ijtihad would not be initiated “unless the call to Ijtihad becomes widespread intellectual…” (Al-Alwani, 1993a, p.234); emancipated from the existing traditional schools of thought while its religious institutions independent from the manoeuvring of political regimes.  What the Muslim Ummah should bear in mind; without the mean of Ijtihad; it will never rise to the Muslims’ inspiration, solve their problems, and earn a respectful place in the current world!
Regarding the question of who is eligible to practice Ijtihad, Allah endowed every human with the right to reason for himself; it would be absurd to claim that access to reasoning in Muslim Ummah is the exclusive right of a few qualified? Ijtihad is not only open to the ones who displays moral excellence of piety and equity, further attained a high status in Arabic linguistics and branches of jurisprudence; deep understanding of the fundamentals of the original sources and Islamic history…In fact, every Muslim has the full right to engage in creative and scientific reasoning, as he should not allow Ijtihad to be hijacked by legal scope, a political authority or handful of male jurists, whose Ijtihad achievement is private and suspending female and collective contributions?
 Ijtihad should now confront, in Muslim societies, the reality of current circumstances and variations; which urge a serious study of the Muslim societal needs and aspirations for social justice, freedom of expression, economic prosperity, and moral government… Hence, the required Ijtihad should be revolutionary and make the present-world patent in the light of Islam not rather Islam interpreted in the shade of the present-world as it is reflected indirectly in the tendencies and forms of liberal contemporary Ijtihad.
03. Revolutionary Contemporary Ijtihad:
To escape this long lasting vicious circle, the Muslims should think outside the models of past Ijtihad! By going back to the simple basic Quranic precepts such as “Let there arise out of you a group of people inviting to all that is good, enjoining the good (Al-Ma’rûf) and forbidding the wrong (Al-Munkar). And it is they who are the successful.” (Quran, 3:104) “You (Muslims), the best nation ever raised up to mankind commanding the right, warding off the mischief and believing in Allah.” (Quran, 3:110) yet, so simple, but religious theologians mystified them by their inconsistent and idiotic offers such as Muslim would get blessing from Quranic recitals even if he might not grasp a word of what he recites; simultaneously, Muslims should not attempt to comprehend the Quran as it is beyond their comprehensions; in actual fact distancing the Muslims from the essence of Islamic message-the actual Quran itself.
How it comes that the Sunni traditionalists have claimed for more revered secondary sources because the Quran for them contains finite rulings; whereas Allah himself certified in his Book that is complete: “”All the creatures on earth and all the birds that fly with wings are communities like you. We did not leave anything out of this scripture, to their Lord; all these creatures will be summoned.”(Quran, 6:38). The Quran offers great comprehensive teachings and a right life-guidance to all mankind; as its moral aspects are potently reflected in the successful model of all Allah’s Prophets and His last Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon all of them).
Once–as a source of Muslim creativity– the proper theological debates and proper Quranic teachings are liberated, then Ijtihad as rationale and method will automatically rehabilitate and the creative intellectual activity will mechanically flow. On the basis of the universal dogma taught in the Quran; the contemporary Ijtihad should take two principal forms: the practical and the theoretical, In spite of the preservation about philosophy because of 12th century Ghazzali’s eminent philosophy-refutation.
Muslim societies should allow and encourage the Critical philosophical thinking for inquisitive thought according to the Quranic teachings. While the practical form of Ijtihad should not be just confined in rituals and the dichotomy of what is permissible and not permissible; it has rather to be bravely involved in all levels of legislations at the fields of politics, economics, and social life. Similarly the academic credentials should not be equalised to stern thought or an apprehension for society. Figure.05 summarises what contemporary Ijtihad, in my view, should encompass to stir a revolutionary move towards a fruitful Ijtihad? 
All other sciences
Challenge/ traditions
Primary -Quran
Imaginative impulse
Qua creative
Analogical/ legal
Both genders
Collective/ communal
Consultative/ expertise
The Essential Possible Components of revolutionary Ijtihad
What Revolutionary Ijtihad should encompass!
Sciences Sphere
Politico-Societal sphere
Religious Sphere
Rational inquiry
Rational Criticism
Theological debates
In short, the Algerian scholar Malik  Bennabi in his book “Les Conditions de la Renaissance” (1948) has brought up, the foremost independence; is the mind independence from the lasting effects of both traditional Ijtihad tenets and Western colonialism which nurtured the Muslim feelings with inferiorities and shaped Muslim-mind with fluctuated ideologies. To realise this mind independency, the very basic concept of monotheism (tawhid) should be restored to its origins that a Muslim fears and bows only to Allah, all human are free intellectually and socially equal. From here He would seek and follow what Allah has already defined in His own words as the right-path, this is, in fact, the most significance step towards Ijtihad revival far from misconceptions of the Western influence and classical Ijtihad.
4. Misconceptions in Ijtihad:
The aforementioned views concerning current Ijtihad are due to some key misconceptions that have slithered into mujtahids’ mindset: some scholars state that the Ijtihad-doors are closed because the early scholars have discussed every issue and settle it; simultaneously to practice Ijtihad you need to have the knowledge of one of those leading scholars such as Shafi’; the scope of Ijtihad include only definite matters as shari’ah rule. Ijtihad is the field of only selected elite and only allowed in the absence of clear text…
Ijtihad is not a private privilege of some religious or scholarly elite as it does not occurs only in legal areas; therefore Islamic evidences have to be discussed directly upon any novel issues. Ijtihad should be open for private and collective mujtahids based on autonomous ground; as it should cover all areas of a Muslim-life. Ijtihad is also an individual obligation of every Muslim–whether man or women– with sound rationale to be involved in the contemporary Ijtihad that can reflect on different old and new subjects.
5. New subjects for Ijtihad:
The subjects of Ijtihad are as multiple as the spheres of life; as well as its scope are so-broad and unlimited. Ijtihad subjects might envelop all simultaneous matters of a Muslim-life while its scope might encompass all matters that hold the Muslims’ interests. Indeed, Islam deals with all life-aspects and covers all human situations. It is therefore not true that Ijtihad should not stipulate upon the complex and far-attaining subjects which need now to be examined and investigated.
1. The mission statement of modern Ijtihad is to spread and imply the creator message of mercy and wisdom to benefit the whole mankind and globe, Islam hence as divine message is global and not monopole of tribe, race, or particular society in particular land. Message of Islam embeds a humanitarian and global spirit; Muslims therefore should reinterpret the classical narrow outlook to divide the world into what is world of Islam and what is world of no-Islam. Emphasis should be placed on responsible citizenship for the whole mankind in the whole globe with all its add-on aspects of other creatures and environments
2. Shari’ah objectives should be more explored; as its scope in the Quran go beyond the five universal tenets introduced by Al-Shatibi–protection of faith, intellect, life, property, and lineage —to safeguarding morality and freedom, prevailing peace and mercy, establishing social justice and order, and protecting people’s stability and interests in all events. Hence; every Ijtihad should observe synchronically ihsan in all the shari’ah objectives –whether universal or conventional; simultaneously eliminate their paradoxes of mental and physical servitude, tyranny, injustice, cruelty, disorder, immorality and harm. The modern Ijtihad should indeed preserve and observe the Shari’ah objectives and Shari’ah constitutes.
3. Political and social realities of Modern life have generated about countless and complex problems in the Islamic societies. Following this comprehensive broadened approach necessitates that the contemporary Ijtihad’s fields and scope should cover all the spheres of what the Muslim-life noticeably occupies and should not stay confined in the jurisprudential notions and their terminological implications; or confined into legal matters in the proficient notions, but they should also cover political, economic, social, administrative, medical, educational, scientific and circumstantial aspects plus any aspect associated in time with the Muslim society.
4. Islamic Economics today need radical U-turn to procure creatively novel Islamic economic theories fully binding to the Quranic ethical guidelines and far away from adaptation to western fluctuated secular economic theories and also far away from reconciling tendencies on the expenses of Islamic Shari’ah equitable aims. Indeed without denying the due process that incorporates modern elements of the existing economic theories. What cause the Muslim world impoverishment and how can it be altered? How could Muslims build correlation with world economics without compromising their equitable principles of Islam?
5. Muslims today are confronting many new issues that require urgently attention to be inferred such as: The role and rights of women in Islam has to be reconsidered carefully by examining the original scripture-the Quran. The Sunnis and Shiites doctrinal gap and that one existing in between various Islamic schools of thought need a well-devised system to promote similarities and eliminate prejudices; why not dissolve the sectarian spirit among Muslims through spreading tolerance and dialogue.
6. How to create a Unity among Muslim states despite their contingent differences, at the same time how to form Islamic political authority systematically without being subject to influence by the historically formulated Islamic political systems after the demise of the Prophet, and even far from the western doctrine of democracy. How can Muslim states collaborate together and how to create preliminary unity among Muslim states? How to create proper Ethical-based Islamic governmental system that could become even a model to promote democratic systems in the whole world.
7. Modern Ijtihad should look for better concept of formulating treaties whether among the Muslim or across the other humanitarian societies, in a way it preserves the universal ethics and looks for conventional grounds to manage conflicts and clash between mankind societies. Proper Islamic Ijtihad should be used to guide Muslims and to act as model for none Muslims.
8. Ijtihad should inevitably foster a better communication for mutual relations with people of diverse faiths and cultures to promote positive dialogue and peace among various groups and nations around the globe instead of encouraging the impression of a clash across cultures and civilizations.
If the current Ijtihad remains unclear and our thinkers stay still captive to that restrictions imposed upon Muslims a long time ago; leaving them with a lot of misconceptions and little room for creative and incentive free thought; there would be never any change in the Muslim Ummah situation: “Thus, Allah does not change the condition of any people unless they themselves make the decision to change. If Allah wills any hardship for any people, no force can impede it; for they have none beside Him as Lord and Master.” (Quran, 13:11)
Hence, all stratums of Muslim-societies regardless to their gender and sect; religious jurists and academic scholars should project mutual sincerity, tolerance, openness, and dialogue to make a change and build a fruitful Ijtihad with a greater Muslim world to represent the Muslim nation with an ideal-image of Islam; work also hand in hand to find an alternative approach for more effective creative Ijtihad which can cope with our current piling-up problems!
Chapter IV:
Is there any alternative approach to new effective Ijtihad?
This last chapter is devoted to seek for an alternative approach to Ijtihad where creative impulse and the faculty of imagination are employed to broaden the scope of Ijtihad beyond the narrow legal compass to include all the other subjects of modern life. Then it looks for the suitability of each type of Ijtihad, by pointing out the key points that risen a dispute among Sunnis and Shiite regarding opinionative Ijtihad, and what type of Ijtihad should be forbidden for mujtahids to engage in.
Islamic Ijtihad is the sole legitimate device for intellectual rationale within the house of Islam; historically tracing its developments reveals three different modes: for Muslim Ijtihad as a interpretive and legislative tool, a type of technical reasoning for jurists; while for common Muslims Ijtihad was a creative and imaginative impulse. Muslim scholars are still speculative and imprecise about Ijtihad nature and generally the Ijtihad term implies either to an interpretive approach or legal analogical reasoning. Unlike the privileged jurists who knowledgably practiced their Ijtihad technicalities in their private auspices; ordinary Muslims before the nine century employed their initiative, imaginative and creative impulse to practice Ijtihad in their day-to-day life and environment to meet their life necessities within the framework of their Islamic set of beliefs, ethics, and Quranic notions.
An Alternative Approach: Qua Creative and Imaginative Impulse:
1. An Alternative Approach: Creative Impulse
The contemporary Iranian sociologist, “Dr. Ali Shariati suggests an alternative approach to Ijtihad i.e creative impulse and imagination” (Ibrahim, 2008, P.188); essentially to emancipate Muslim prospects and construct a new world that would stimulate the Islamic civilization to flourish. Earlier Muslim thinkers of the second period of the nineteenth centuries initiated such a trend of thinking, unfortunately such a refreshing wave was suffocated by the reputed jurists of the time; because for them it might create –among the Muslims– confusion and disunity which were already swamping the nation. In realty, they did not like the very idea of Ijtihad as creative` and imaginative impulse; because they were captives of classical technical Ijtihad; they also perceived this movement as a threat to their social status and even to their source of revenues.
For example the Quran has a great creative impulse as inspiring force behind the birth of the flourishing sciences at a time when Muslim began reflecting on Quranic notions and its inductive reasoning. The dynamic notions of creation and universe in the Quran stirred evolutionary movements; the Quran knowledge also constitute of historical notions that urged its readers to rethink the cited experience of mankind in the Quran …etc Then in so being, by the fourteenth century, a new trend of theological, mathematic, scientific, astronomic… and philosophical inquiries were initiated. Sadly this legacy did not last for long, and then the qua creative of Islamic thought endured rapid decline as a result of internal Muslim-turbulences –such as the occurrence of rational conservatism Muslims, sectarian storms; sciences declined rapidly while more stiff theory of Ijtihad rulings and narrower prospectus prevailed. The door for Ijtihad was closed and never opened again? Any attempts –to free qua creative of Islamic thought -have been tainted by the orthodox and dogmatic radical trends with cynicism ‘kufr’ and innovations ‘bid’ah’ up till now.
It seems that the application of Ijtihad that was approved by the Prophet is qua creative thinking as he did not restrain it by methodology; similarly although there is no explicit Quranic text on Ijtihad, the Quranic plea to sensible enquiry and thinking is also not attached by certain attitude of Ijtihad. Hence, it becomes so clear that the Prophet, peace be upon him, also considered Ijtihad as a creative impulse rather than technical and legal reasoning which later was developed in affluence.
Alas, the methodology of Ijtihad has been encapsulated in the scope of principle of jurisprudences while they are themselves an artefact of Ijtihad. In the course of time; this methodology has been dramatically shaped by several factors; such as sectarianism, political atmosphere of monarchic caliphate, figurative thought such as analogy (qiyas) and clustered accord such as consensus; and so resulted into an unpleasant cost for Ijtihad. It ludicrously imposes restrictions on thinking by construed culture and untouchable traditions; alternatively, free imaginative and creative reasoning would be enhanced and orientated with an ethical and innate Islamic approach of regulations.
2. An Alternative Approach: Imaginative Thinking to Ijtihad:
Imaginative insight is not yet encapsulated by procedures and definitions framework of Ijtihad; Quran seems to provide symbols and markers of the unique thinking attribute such as innateness, imagination, and constructive criticism which inspire quite often the creative mind for new ingenious ideas. The thinking is one of the greatest Creator’s gifts and sign of His creation that can fit as divine example of God’s power of creation. The imaginative thinking of ‘bien-fait’ mind of a Muslim thinker can be also glistened by sources and tainted by cultural and religious influence, it is therefore to be explored and explained adequately to avoid being trapped in its deceptive prospects!
For instance, imagination is required to grasp the essence of these Sunnis Prophetic statements upheld in a famous hadith in which the Prophet instructed “Pursue knowledge even to China, for its pursuance is the sacred duty of every Muslim.” ( Al-Bukhari , V. 4, p.357} and in a further hadith explained that wisdom was the lost property of the believer; he was permitted to it wherever he found it. (Al-Tirmidhi, v.1, p.245) Hence, wisdom and knowledge must, therefore have been the ultimate achievements of human marvellous and creative thinking. The outcomes of creative thinking are often experienced in global spirituality and far beyond geographical settings or physical objects. Hopefully those sages of Muslim societies wisely adopt an imaginative thinking in their agendas of deliberations to inspire them into the genuine visions; caused them to narrow the remoteness and division between the intellect and the culture; commit themselves to better serving human fraternity, solidarity and global civilization.
Furthermore; Quranic verse which states that Good and evil cannot be equalised. Repel evil with goodness; those who are foes become your best friends. (Quran, 41:34), incite you to envisage a different future, reasoning on this verse without using imagination does not help to get near its essence. So imagination is here an input to a better future, it is also the input to a fine society. Imaginative Ijtihad must cooperate with legal reasoning without being hampered by it.
Imaginative and creative Ijtihad should be therefore adopted by mujtahids to practice true Ijtihad, which “cannot be a true Ijtihad unless scholars are free to express their opinions and others are free to criticize them if they make errors.” (Smock, 2004, p.4) Novelty and success of Muslim nation necessitates the absolute involvement of the average Muslims in practice of a creative impulse Ijtihad to unravel their every day dilemmas. The Rationale is not the only legitimate way to revelation, theological debates should be also left open to average Muslims to express their alternate notions of reality within the given sense of human innateness, which enables them to morally sense what is right and what is wrong.
Performing Ijtihad as imaginative impulse, creative thinking or legal reasoning accrues potential dangers that of being confined in the retrains of the past Ijtihad. For example although few Muslim scholars had attempted to ban slavery such as the Algerian scholar Ahmed b. Yahya al-Wansharisi whose famous fatwa “described slavery as a humiliation and a servitude caused by previous or current unbelief, and having its purpose as to discourage unbelief”(Clearence-Smith, 2006, p.28); most traditional scholars have failed to prohibit slavery, neglecting the essential universal Quranic teachings of human social-equality; since the slavery practice had always subsisted, the scholars were letdown by their poorer imagination and subdued them from accomplishing an insight-change as they could not imagine a world free of slaves, so-many Muslim scholars rather hold on the opinionative Ijtihad of there is nothing wrong with maintaining the evil institutions of slavery up-till- now!
Dispute over Opinionative Ijtihad:
Verily, the Muslim Shiites and Sunnis opinions are clashingly divided on the issue of what kind of Ijtihad is forbidden in Islam! Unlike fiqh Al-ather – narrative based hadith approach to Ijtihad-that thrived in Shiite Ja’fari, Sunnis Malliki and Hanbali schools, “fiqh alra’y developed in Iraq as ” (jurisprudence based on personal analogical efforts; This trend, which early on crystallized in the Hanafi School, fostered reasoning by analogy (Qiyas or Ijtihad Alra’y) and juridical preference (Istihsan).” (Crow, 2005, p. 12). But how each school envisaged the trend of Ijtihad is a contradictory problem?
This sort of Ijtihad is forbidden according to Shiite Islam and Hanbali School while it is permitted in other Sunni schools and considered as valid proof as Quran and Sunnah in determining Shari’ah rulings; believing that the Islamic rulings available in Quran and Sunnah are finite and limited while situations and actions are not. They therefore ruled out in the cases which had no ruling by divine text, the mujtahids must exercise his personal thinking to derive a new ruling. This permission has been grounded on some narrated ahadith from the Prophet and the most famous one is the Prophet’s hadith when he sent to Yemen, the companion Muadh Ibn Jabal, he question him on how he would issue rulings there. He replied: “In compliance with the Book.” “And if it is not in the book?” “I will exercise the Sunnah of the Prophet.” “And if it is not in the Sunnah of the Prophet?” “I will exercise my own opinion (Ajtahidu ra’ yi) ” he replied. (Abu Dawud, V.3, p. 303)
In fact, Sunni Muslims differ on what is Ijtihad al-ra’y and how is going to be envisaged as binding testimony in shari’ah? Al-Shafi`i maintains that the sole valid Ijtihad is qiyas. Nevertheless some other Sunni jurists see beside qyias as Ijtihad alra’y; finding judicial preference ‘istihsan’ –by jurist’s personal deliberations in quite independent cases on the base of justice and truth. Similarly with public-interest ‘istislah’– as weighing one thing as more convenient than another– some others counted too as an add-on in opinionative Ijtihad besides to the principles of jurisprudence. (Coulson, 1964, p. 53-64)
In contrast; the Shiite Islam believes, that Quran and Sunnah are complete and adequate; it therefore rejects and prohibits both Ijtihad alra’ y, especially analogy. Shiite Jurists back up their view with so many relevant Quranic verses and ahadith from their Imams and reject the very idea of revering qyias as absolute; because it is a type of conjecture and misleading methodology that can generate various errors. Despite their anti-qiyas attitude, they anonymously adopted the aspects of the principle of jurisprudence.
The right of such Ijtihad proved the Sunnis wrong in practice; if everyone is allowed to exercise and revere his own interpretive opinion, and then Islam as religion would be distorted. It might have been for this reason that the validity of independent Ijtihad was gradually cancelled by instructing Sunni mujtahids to exercise taqlid of the four Sunnis famous schools of thought, in the absence of the Abbasid political impulsion. Nevertheless, Ijtihad should not be left hijacked by classical sectarian schools’ fundamentals and special elite of Muslim scholars whether in Shiites or Sunnis, then what kind of Ijtihad should be forbidden in Islam?
4. The kind of forbidden Ijtihad:
Whether is the narrow legal definition of Ijtihad as a struggle of intellectual process to interpret primary sources and derive rulings;

Closed Landfills Potential Risks and Guidelines


Landfill is an area filled with waste material composed of a complex mixture of municipal and hazardous waste, disposed of by either individual, households and/or organisations (Staines, 2004).  Hazardous waste contains a high degree of toxicity as it includes contaminated soils, refinery waste, chemical processes and other by-products of commercial and industrial processes (Staines, 2004).  Municipal Waste (MW) is comprised of various materials mainly from household and commercial use (Chu, 2008).  Once landfills sites have reached their capacity, they are closed (Chu, 2008). As the demand for usable land increases, closed landfills are often used constructively to build parks, golf courses and sportsground ( Environment Protection Authority Victoria, 2015) . This is the case in the small town of Kouldwetsoque, where a sportsground and clubhouse has been built on a former landfill rubbish tip. However, years after its construction residents are complaining of strong odours coming from the site in particular the club house.  Due to poor records, the extent of the fill is unknown, however thought to be mainly general municipal landfill tip receiving household and general waste from the local area. Closing and reusing landfill sites offers many challenges, if appropriate closure measures have not been followed or if the proper engineered containment systems have not been implemented ( Environment Protection Authority Victoria, 2015). This can cause problems such as leaching hazardous substances, pungent odours and gas leaks, which can occur up to 30 years after the site is closed (National Solid Wastes Managment Association, 2008).   Concerns regarding the strong odours and exposure to possible toxic gases have been bought to the attention of the council. This report will review the risks and possible health concerns regarding the situation as well as policies and guidelines already in place along with recommendations and management options.

Risks relating to environmental and human health

The environmental challenges associated with post-closure of landfills depends on a variety of factors such as composition of waste, age of waste,  degree of  waste compaction,  climate and most importantly the engineered containment system of the landfill (Victorian Auditor-General’s office, 2014; Cardno Lane Piper, 2014). There are three main concerns that need to be considered; toxins, leachate and gases ( Environment Protection Authority Victoria, 2015) . All of which pose a wide range of environmental and human health risks.  Each a briefly described below.

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–          Toxins: Most landfills consists of varying materials which contains numerous toxins (Environment Victoria , 2013). Over time these toxins are released and seep into the soil and ground water, lasting for several years (Twomey, 2011).  Examples include batteries, old tv’s, computers all of which contains arsenic, acid and lead (Chu, 2008). Mercury is also often found in landfills, and is known to leak from fluorescent light bulbs (Environment Victoria , 2013).

–          Leaching: Leachate is concentrated pollutant liquid formed from rainwater and the breakdown of waste (Young Deuk Kim, 2009).  Leachate contains various toxic organic pollutants, ammonia nitrogen compounds, heavy metals and other complex compounds (ZhaoYoucai, 2018).  Environmental risks from closed landfill is mainly associated with leachate contaminating the water in the soil as well as ground water (Environment Protection Authority, 2018). The generation of leachate in landfills is normal, however can still pose a risk to human health due to it contaminates migrating into nearby environment (ZhaoYoucai, 2018). This would be of particular concerns to the sportsgrounds in which players and groundsmen, would come into direct contact with the soil and are therefore frequently exposed. Furthermore, as well as rainfall, watering of the sportsgrounds may also increase the volume of leachate surfacing along with constant movement of the soil, which could increase the risk of waste-by product migration (Cardno Lane Piper, 2014).

–          Gases: landfill gas is a result of decomposition of waste (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2001). Methane and Carbon dioxide make up 90% of the landfill gases. Methane gas is extremely flammable, and whilst CO2  is a significant greenhouse gas (Blight, 2011). Ammonia and sulphides more likely responsible for the odour  (Speight, 2019). Table 1 provides a summary of the main components of Landfill gases

Table 1: Landfill Gas components




the constituent of landfill gases, will most likely pose the greatest explosion hazard

Carbon dioxide

Cause asphyxiation if their levels are sufficient enough to create and oxygen deprived environment. Additionally, because CO2 is denser than air, Co2  easily collects in enclosed spaces, and due to it’s colourless and odourless makes it difficult to detect. Low concentrations of Co2 may also cause headaches, sweating, rapid breathing, elevated heart rate and dizziness

Nitrogen dioxide

Odourless and tasteless


Extremely pungent and flammable


Causes unpleasant “rotten egg” odours and can be detected even at low concentrations

NMOCs(non-methane organic compounds)

Occur naturally by synthetic chemical process.

Carbon monoxide and Oxygen

Odourless and colourless

(Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2001; Speight, 2019; Scottish Environmental Protection Agency, 2004) 

Surface emission of these gases can also cause community discomfort due to odour and affect people’s general wellbeing (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2001). Such odours can also cause health concerns such as headaches and nausea (Department of Health. New York Sate, 2012). In addition to this, short term exposure to ammonia and hydrogen sulphide in the air can cause eyes, nose, throat and lung  irritations (Department of Health. New York Sate, 2012).  Furthermore, landfill gases may also carry small traces of carcinogenic  compounds in trace concentrations, raising health concerns for chronic exposure even at low levels (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2001). Gas levels can change depending on the age, type and quantity of waste and tend to peak within the 10 years after landfill closure (Environment Protection Authority, 2012). The major hazards of landfill gas include flammability, asphyxiation and toxicity (Wilhelm, 1993). Migration of landfill gas to structures and enclosed spaces can accumulate over time (Chu, 2008). Migration of landfill gas is dependent on a number of factors such as

–          Landfill cover type: if the landfill cover is made up of permeable material such as gravel or sand, then gas will most likely migrate up through cover

–          Moisture: Rain and moisture may push out landfill gases

–          Natural and man-made pathway: Drains and trenches may act as conduits for gas movement.

(Miroslav Nasteva, 2001; Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2001) 

Regulatory Guidelines for Australian Landfills

Once a landfill has reached capacity a post closure management plan which includes environmental monitoring and maintenance is necessary to protect the public and its environment (Environmental Protection Authority VIctoria, 2018) . Furthermore, the management of closed landfill sites are crucial to ensure that the environment and community aspirations are met (EPA South Australia, 2019). The following areas require ongoing monitoring after the landfill closed

–          Groundwater: the monitoring of groundwater should be undertaken up until an environmental auditor and EPA are satisfied.

–          Surface Water: Collection and storage systems should be inspected. This is to ensure proper draining and functioning.

–          Landfill Gas: The landfill gas system should be maintained until monitoring systems indicate that generation of gas a decrease

–          Leachate: It’s expected that landfill will continue to generate leachate post closure. therefore regular monitoring is required to show clear trends in leachate generation. Furthermore, inspections after heavy rainfall should take place to ensure management systems are not overloaded.

–          Settlement: most settlements are expected in the first 5-10 years after closure, in which frequent inspection should take place and discussed with an environmental auditor or EPA.

(Golder Associates, 2016; Environment Protection Authority, 2018; Victorian Auditor-General’s office, 2014) 

The Environment Protection Authority (EPA) have established policies and regulatory requirements and  tools; including licences and remedial as well as guidelines for open and closed landfills (Victorian Auditor-General’s office, 2014). These include

–          The 2012 Closed Landfill guidelines

–          The 2010 guideline Best Practice Environment Management Siting, Design, Operation and Rehabilitation of Landfills (the Landfill BPEM)

–          2004 Waste Management Policy (Siting, Design and Management Of Landfills)

–          guidelines for closed landfills and for those exempt from licensing

(Environmental Protection Authority VIctoria, 2018; Victorian Auditor-General’s office, 2014) 

As describe previously there are multiple hazards and risk  that can arise from closed landfills. In order to control such risks,  clause 16(4) of the Waste management policy (Siting, Design and Management of Landfills, No. S264, Gazette 14 December 2004) states that once a landfill has closed, it required by the owners of the landfill to provide notice as to who will undertake ongoing after, up until the landfill poses no risk to humans or the environment (Environmental Protection Authority VIctoria, 2018). After care management is crucial and must include inspection and maintenance of the landfill capping, landfills leachate collection system, landfill gas management system and of surface water control, as well including environmental monitoring system, verified by the an authorised environmental auditor pursuant to the EP Act.

 (Environment Protection Authority, 2018; EPA NSW, 1996)

Unlicensed landfills are generally not regulated, but must comply with landfill policy objectives (Victorian Auditor-General’s office, 2014). However if the landfill is seen as  causing an unacceptable risk,  the EPA can issue a notice to address the risk (Environmental Protection Authority VIctoria, 2018). Compliance, is monitored  by the EPA through inspections, reviews and audits as well as investigations (Environment Protection Authority, 2018).

Older landfills such as the one in Koldwetsoque are most likely built to less stringent standards since the EPA introduced the first landfill policy in 1991 (Victorian Auditor-General’s office, 2014).  Therefore gas and leachate risks are far more complex, timing consuming and costly due to design, siting and past management (Victorian Auditor-General’s office, 2014). This would also include landfill capping. It should be recognised that landfill caps built prior to the first landfill BPEM are unlikely to meet seepage requirements ( Environment Protection Authority Victoria, 2015). Inappropriate and/or incomplete capping of closed landfills can lead to escaping of landfill gas as well as infiltration of rainwater to generate volumes of leachate (Environment Protection Authority, 2012). Therefore these caps need to be assessed and determined whether further construction work needs to be performed in order to meet the standards required (Victorian Auditor-General’s office, 2014). Furthermore, in order to prevent gases such as methane accumulating and migrating to the surface, a membrane and gas monitoring system should be in place with horizontal vents under the slabs/membrane (Department of Health. New York Sate, 2012).

Responsibility of landfill management right up until aftercare is required from the councils, the landfill owners(Victorian Auditor-General’s office, 2014). A series of guidance of materials is available, in order for the council to manage and monitor closed landfills (Environment Protection Authority, 2018). Furthermore the EPA released specific guidelines in 2012 for managing the rehabilitation and after of  landfills that are high at risk (Victorian Auditor-General’s office, 2014).  

Gas and leachate leakage are the main concerns from closed landfill, and therefore are extremely important for councils to have regulatory guidelines in place to manage such risks (Chu, 2008). In order to manage gas leakage, EPA requires all closed landfills to prepare and implement landfill gas risk assessments (LGRA) (Victorian Auditor-General’s office, 2014) .Guidance on completion of an LGRA can be found in the Landfill Licensing Guidelines (EPA publication 1323) (Environmental Protection Authority VIctoria, 2018). The LGRA must aim to increase extraction to prevent causing odours (Victorian Auditor-General’s office, 2014). Moreover, all closed landfills have to meet specific gas limits at the surface (Environmental Protection Authority Victoria, 2019)  . Hydrogeological assessment may also be required to asses the impact of leachate on ground water (Environmental Protection Authority Victoria, 2019).

Discussion and Recommendations

The use of closed landfill for recreational purposes such as sportsground is not uncommon,  however monitoring of the site should constantly take place to reduce environmental and health risks and to ensure the community objectives are met. The main concern of closed land fill is the emission and migration of landfill gases, which poses as the main risk to human health (EPA NSW, 1996). Whilst modern landfills are well engineered to have reliable well controlled gas measures, older landfills such as the one in Koldwetsoque are less controlled/managed and therefore more likely to cause environmental and public harm (Blight, 2011).  It’s up to the owners of the landfill, being the council, to manage after closure risks. However, in order to be able to accomplish this councils will require a high level of inhouse knowledge about the landfill in which the town of Koldwetsoque does not have (Environmental Protection Authority VIctoria, 2018) . Due to poor record keeping of what exactly  was dumped at the landfill, after care and risk management can be difficult. It should be acknowledge by the council of Koldwetsoque, that the closed landfill may not meet the stringent rehabilitation and closure requirements set by the EPA especially for gas and leachate management (Environment Protection Authority, 2018). Therefore the following recommendations are listed below

–          Under the Environmental Protection Act 1970, the council should prioritise and address closed landfill obligations, which should also include

Assessing and managing risks at closed sites

Planning to meet rehabilitation and aftercare costs

(Victorian Auditor-General’s office, 2014) 

–          The council should try and work towards building their inhouse knowledge to be able to work together with the EPA approved environmental auditors and landfill experts in order to effectively priorities, address and manage risks. (Environment Protection Authority, 2018)

–          Develop a prioritised Action Plan and assign risk based priorities to ensure they are actioned appropriately (EPA South Australia, 2019).

–          In order to appropriately asses risks and prioritise  actions, it’s recommended the council works the Environmental Protection Authority a well as regional waste and resource recovery groups (Environmental Protection Authority VIctoria, 2018).

–          It’s important the council ensures community engagement and to work collaboratively stakeholders to be able to effectively address the issue affecting their social and environmental well-being. Community engagement must include regular meetings between community and government bodies, that involve consultations with the community as well information sharing (Environment Protection Authority, 2012). 

–          In order to be able to appropriately evaluate the level of risks from landfill gases at site specific landfill gas risk assessment should be undertaken with appropriate measures for monitoring ( Environment Protection Authority Victoria, 2015). The findings from this will determine the proper management needed for the landfill gas. Guidance on how to complete a LGRA can be found in Landfill Licensing Guidelines, EPA publication 1323 (Victorian Auditor-General’s office, 2014). 

–          Landfill gases must be managed using the appropriate gas containment system, which must be monitored, and at all timed must be managed to prevent offensive odour (Environmental Protection Authority VIctoria, 2018)(Cardno Lane Piper, 2014).

–          An assessment of air toxics should be undertaken as part of the LFGRA. In order to accomplish this a monitoring plan should be developed and implemented (Victorian Auditor-General’s office, 2014).


The odours and community concerns regarding the closed landfill from Koldwetsoque should be addressed by the council. Gas and leachate leakage is off primary concern and  could be the cause for the odours. Due to the historic nature and poor record keeping by the council, regulations regarding closure such as capping and containment systems are unknown, and therefore management of after closure risks may be difficult, costly, and timing consuming. The recommendation and guidelines noted  above should be taken into consideration when investigating and ensuring that risks are prioritised and implemented within a time line. Its is crucial that a landfill aftercare management plan is implemented and monitored up until the site poses no risk to human and environmental health (EPA NSW, 1996). If required the site may be placed on the priority site register (Victorian Auditor-General’s office, 2014) . This will ensure stakeholders as well as the community are aware of the management requirements throughout the entire process (Victorian Auditor-General’s office, 2014).


Environment Protection Authority Victoria. (2015). Siting, design, operation and rehabilitation of landfills . Melbourne: Environment Protection Authority Victoria.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. (2001). Chapter 2: Landfill Gas Basics. In A. f. Registry, Landfill Gas Primer – An Overview for Environmental Health Professionals. Atlanta: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. (2001). Chapter 3: Landfill Gas Safety and Health Issues . Atlanta: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.

Blight, G. (2011). Landfills – Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow. Waste.

Cardno Lane Piper. (2014). Investigation of Risks at Former Landfills. Cardno Lane Piper.

Chu, L. (2008). Landfills. Encyclopedia of Ecology.

Department of Health. New York Sate. (2012). Important Things to Know About Landfill Gas. New York: Important Things to Know About Landfill Gas.

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EPA NSW. (1996). Environmental Guidlines. Solid Waste Landfil . Chatswood: EPA NSW.

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Miroslav Nasteva, R. R. (2001). Gas production and migration in landfills and geological materials. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology.

National Solid Wastes Managment Association. (2008). Modern Landfills. A Far Cry from the Past . Washington: National Solid Wastes Managment Association.

Scottish Environmental Protection Agency. (2004). Guidance on the management of landfill gas. Scottish Environmental Protection Agency.

Speight, J. G. (2019). Unconventional gas. Natural Gas (Second Edition).

Staines, A. &. (2004). Public health and landfill sites. Department of Public Health Eastern Regional Health Authority.

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Victorian Auditor-General’s office. (2014). Managing Landfills. Victorian Auditor-General’s office.

Wilhelm, V. (1993). Occupational Safety at Landfill Sites – Hazards and Pollution Due to Landfill Gas. Contaminated Soil & Environment.

Young Deuk Kim, D.-G. L. (2009). Comparative study on leachate in closed landfill sites: focusing on seasonal variations. Material Cycles and Waste Management.

ZhaoYoucai. (2018). Chapter 1: Leachate Generation and Characteristics. In ZhaoYoucai, Pollution Control Technology for Leachate from Municipal Solid Waste (pp. 1-30). Butterworth Heineman.


Analysis of Open and Closed Economies

An open economy is an economy in which there are economic activities between domestic community and outside, e.g. people, including businesses, can trade in goods and services with other people and businesses in the international community, and flow of funds as investment across the border. Trade can be in the form of managerial exchange, technology transfers, all kinds of goods and services. Although, there are certain exceptions that cannot be exchanged, like, railway services of a country cannot be traded with another to avail this service, a country has to produce its own. This contrasts with a closed economy in which international trade and finance cannot take place.

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The act of selling goods or services to a foreign country is called exporting. The act of buying goods or services from a foreign country is called importing. Together exporting and importing are collectively called international trade. There are a number of advantages for citizens of a country with an open economy. One primary advantage is that the citizen consumers have a much larger variety of goods and services from which to choose. Additionally, consumers have an opportunity to invest their savings outside of the country. In an open economy, a country’s spending in any given year need not to equal its output of goods and services. A country can spend more money than it produces by borrowing from abroad, or it can spend less than it produces and lend the difference to foreigners. There is no closed economy in today’s world.
An economy in which no activity is conducted with outside economies. A closed economy is self-sufficient, meaning that no imports are brought in and no exports are sent out. The goal is to provide consumers with everything that they need from within the economy’s borders. A closed economy is the opposite of an open economy, in which a country will conduct trade with outside regions.

American countries in adopting open economy and free and other trade practices or the United States an open economy is the opposite of a managed economy. It is one that is characteristically market-oriented, with free market policies rather than government-imposed price controls. In an open economy industries tend to be privately owned rather than owned by the government. In the area of international trade an open economy is one whose policies promote free trade over protectionism .On the other hand, a managed or closed economy is characterized by protective tariffs, state-run or nationalized industries, extensive government regulations and price controls, and similar policies indicative of a government-controlled economy. In a managed economy the government typically intervenes to influence the production of goods and services. In an open economy, market forces are allowed to determine production levels. A completely open economy exists only in theory. For example, no country in the world allows unlimited free access to its markets. Most nations have fiscal and monetary policies that attempt to improve their economies. Many economies that are open in some respects may still have government owned, monopolistic industries. A country is considered to have an open economy, however, if its policies allow market forces to determine such matters as production and pricing.
In a closed economy, all output is sold domestically, and expenditure is divided into three components: consumption, investment, and government purchases.
Y = C + I + G an open economy, some output is sold domestically and some is exported to be sold abroad. We can divide expenditure on an open economy’s output Y into four components: Cd, consumption of domestic goods and services, Id, investment in domestic goods and services, good government purchases of domestic goods and services, X, exports of domestic goods and services. The division of expenditure into these components is expressed in the identity.
An open economy is one that engages in international exchange of goods, services, and investments. Exports are goods and services sold to buyers outside the country, while imports are those purchased from foreigners. The difference between exports and imports of goods and services is called net exports. When foreign trade is introduced, domestic demand can differ from national output. Domestic demand comprises consumption, investment, and government purchases (C + I + G). To obtain GDP, exports Ex) must be added and imports (Im) subtracted, GDP = C + I + G + X.
The act of selling goods or services to a foreign country is called exporting. The act of buying goods or services from a foreign country is called importing. Together exporting and importing are collectively called international trade. There are a number of advantages for citizens of a country with an open economy. One primary advantage is that the citizen consumers have a much larger variety of goods and services from which to choose. Additionally, consumers have an opportunity to invest their savings outside of the country.
Utility, or usefulness, is the ability of something to satisfy needs or wants. Utility is an important concept in economics and game theory, because it represents satisfaction experienced by the consumer of a good. Not coincidentally, a good is something that satisfies human wants and provides utility, for example, to a consumer making a purchase. It was recognized that one cannot directly measure benefit, satisfaction or happiness from a good or service, so instead economists have devised ways of representing and measuring utility in terms of economic choices that can be counted. Economists have attempted to perfect highly abstract methods of comparing utilities by observing and calculating economic choices. In the simplest sense, economists consider utility to be revealed in people’s willingness to pay different amounts for an economic term referring to the total satisfaction received from consuming a good or service. A company that generates transmits and/or distributes electricity, water and/or gas from facilities that it owns and/or operates.
The distribution of wealth is a comparison of the wealth of various members or groups in a society. It differs from the distribution of income in that it looks at the distribution of ownership of the assets in a society; the word “wealth” is often confused with “income”. These two terms describe different but related things. Wealth consists of those items of economic value that an individual owns, while income is an inflow of items of economic value (See Stock and flow.) The relation between wealth, income, and expenses is rather than the current income of members of that society.
The four factors of production in economics are land, labor, capital and entrepreneurship. In economics, factors of product’ are the inputs to the production process. Finished goods are the output. Input determines the quantity of output i.e. output depends upon input. Input is the starting point and output is the end point of production process and such input-output relationship is called a production function. There are three basic factors of production: land, labor, capital. Some modern economists also consider entrepreneurship for a factor of production. These factors are also frequently labeled “producer goods” in order to distinguish them from the goods or services purchased by consumers, which are frequently labeled “consumer goods.” All three of these are required in combination at a time to produce commodity. In economics, production means creation or an addition of utility. Factors of production (or productive ‘inputs’ or ‘resources’) are any commodities or services used to produce goods or services.
Factors of production may also refer specifically to the primary factors, which are stocks including land, labor the ability to work, and capital goods applied to production. Materials and energy are considered as secondary factors in classical economics because they are obtained from land, labor and capital. The primary factors facilitate production but neither become part of the product as with raw materials nor become significantly transformed by the production process as with fuel used to power machinery. Land includes not only the site of production but natural resources above or below the soil. The factor land may, however, for simplification purposes are merged with capital in some case due to land being of little importance in the service sector and manufacturing. Recent usage has distinguished human capital the stock of knowledge in the labor force from labor. Entrepreneurship is also sometimes considered a factor of production. Sometimes the overall state of technology is described as a factor of production. The number and definition of factors varies, depending on theoretical purpose, empirical emphasis, or school of economics.
In exchange relations two actors come to an agreement to trade with each other on mutually agreed-upon terms. Something is delivered, and something is expected in return, in a quid pro quo (“something for something”) relation. In product and labor markets, exchanges typically involve a flow of goods or services from seller to buyer, in return for a monetary payment. The monetary payments in turn create flows of labor and capital income. For example, when customers buy shoes from a mall shoe store, the incomes created include the payment of a wage to the shoe salesperson, rent to the owners of the mall, and profits to the owners of the business. Labor income is compensation received by workers in the form of wages, salaries, and fringe benefits. Capital income includes rents, profits, and interest. (Rent as economists use the term, refers not just to rent for housing, but to payments for the use of any asset).
Distribution of wealth and income, the way in which the wealth and income of a nation are divided among its population, or the way in which the wealth and income of the world are divided among nations. Such patterns of distribution are discerned and studied by various statistical means, all of which are based on data of varying degrees of reliability.
Wealth is an accumulated store of possessions and financial claims. It may be given a monetary value if prices can be determined for each of the possessions; this process can be difficult when the possessions are such that they are not likely to be offered for sale. Income is a net total of the flow of payments received in a given time period. Some countries collect statistics on wealth from legally required evaluations of the estates of deceased persons, which may or may not be indicative of what is possessed by the living. In many countries, annual tax statements that measure income provide more or less reliable information.
Have been described as the most directly observable attributes of goods produced and exchanged in a market economy. The theory of supply and demand is an organizing principle for explaining how prices coordinate the amounts produced and consumed. In microeconomics, it applies to price and output determination for a market with perfect competition, which includes the condition of no buyers or sellers large enough to have price-setting power.
For a given market of a commodity, demand is the relation of the quantity that all buyers would be prepared to purchase at each unit price of the good. Demand is often represented by a table or a graph showing price and quantity demanded (as in the figure). Demand theory describes individual consumers as rationally choosing the most preferred quantity of each good, given income, prices, tastes, etc. A term for this is “constrained utility maximization” (with income and wealth as the constraints on demand). Here, utility refers to the hypothesized relation of each individual consumer for ranking different commodity bundles as more or less preferred.
This assignment task one based about open economy and closed economy. The task two about utility. The open economy is market economy mostly free trade barriers and where exports and imports form a large percentage of GDP.

Unknown. Open economy. Available: Last accessed 19th JUNE.
Unknown. . Close economy. Available: Last accessed 19th June 2014.
Unknown. Utility. Available: Last accessed 19th June 2014.
Unknown. Wealth distribution. Available: http://www. Wealth distribution Last accessed 19th June 2014.
Unknown. . Wealth distribution. Available: http://www.wealth distribution. Last accessed 19th June 2014.


Artificially Constructed Spacetime with Closed Timelike Curves

Artificially constructed spacetime with closed timelike curves to test the plausibility of Godel’s universe


The objectives of this research are to discover if in this set up we can prove blabla. The aim is to open up a door that leads to a more serious  interest and complex research on this topic.

There hasn’t been a lot of experimental research done to actually test CTCs, and in particular Godel’s model. The aim of this project is to conduct a simpler model of experiment that would prove that time travel is possible in an artificially constructed spacetime according to Godel’s model to include closed timelike curves, unlike the conditions that actually exist in our universe. Following Godel’s theory, this project aims to create a CTC otherwise not possible in our universe and test if it can work to send a quantum particle back in time, if only just for one billionth of a second.


Time travel is one of the most controversial topics in the theoretical physics realm. Theoretical physicists have been trying to prove and disprove time travel for decades. The biggest transition from science fiction to real physics happened when Van Stockum (1937) first described the possibility of a closed timelike curve the INVENTION of closed timelike curves, first mentioned by KOJBESE and established as a theory by Kurt Godel in 1949.  Kurt G¨odel in 1949 discovered an exact solution to the EFEs of a uniformly rotating universe containing dust and a nonzero cosmological constant, as discussed in depth and analyzed by Lobo, 2010.



The key aspect of this experiment is successfully creating a Godel mini-universe in a box that we will call the time machine. The box will be constructed to have all the parameters needed for the creating of Godel’s closed timelike curves (Godel, 1949), using a combination of techniques as presented in several attempts to experimentally create them [6]. In the entrance of the machine we set up a photon source that emits only one photon. At the exit of the machine we place a black box – completely impenetrable to outside influences, with one single opening at the exit of the time machine. In the black box we insert a single-photon detector (such as a Quanta Image Sensor (QIS)), completely untampered with [21].  

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We connect a strontium atom clock to the photon source. We start the simulation of the machine, therefore creating a space-time with potential CTC’s. After a billionth of a second the exit automatically closes, closing all entrances to the black box, after this time nothing else can enter or exit the black box. In the same instance that the exit closes, the photon source emits a single photon.

After the experiment is over we open the black box. If the photosensitive film is eluminated, it effectively means that the photon managed to enter the CTC and exit one billionth of a second before it was emitted, to the time when the entrance to the black box was still open, and enlighten the film. This confirms that the experiment was completely successful.

We shall observe positive results if the photosensitive film is eluminated, and negative results if it remains unaltered.

However, if the photosensitive film remains as it was, it doesn’t necessarily mean that the entire experiment is unsuccessful. This can be due to two reasons. The first one is obviously the lack of precision of the technology used, because we are talking about a time frame of one billionth of a second in which two simultaneous things have to happen – the exit must close, and the emitter must follow with emitting the photon precisely after that. Of course that follows another validity, should the film be eluminated, it doesn’t necessarily mean that the experiment was successful, it can mean that the technology failed to get this two actions in the correct order, and emitted the photon a billionth of a second after the exit closed. To validate this in the event of a positive outcome, we must test the technology, and we should gradually increase the timeframe, and possibly prove that the CTC can bring back the photon more than just one billionth of a second in the past. This brings me to the second reason why the experiment might yield negative results, the CTC is effective but it brings the photon back less than one billionth of a second in the past. With the latest technology we have today, there is a smaller fraction of a second that the watch can measure, up until 10-11 fraction of a second, but it would be impossible to create both conditions in such a time-frame, emitting the photon and closing the exit. Unfortunately we are bound by the latest technology in that aspect, and until we can improve to move faster that one billionth of a second, we cannot test this plausibility. That remains our biggest constraint.

The third possibility is that the time machine does in fact work, creating CTC’s, but the photon failed to get into the right one at the right time. This can only be by doing multiple attempts, but never fully disproved.

The limitations of this experiment are that neither reason for a negative outcome completely disproves the hypothesis, as well as none of the reasons for a positive outcome completely confirms it. However, in the case of at least one positive outcome, a new door for subsequent further experiments opens.


For the development of this experiment, we would use technologies for CTC’s already created, and a very simple and cost efficient set-up.


Godel tried to propose solution to the Einstein equation by introducing a cosmological constant. [1]

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