Information Gathering for Geography Data Collection

Introduction:
During the last decade, there has been an increase of the integration of visual methodologies, with geographical research. This aspect has managed to gain an increased attention from geographic researchers. Currently, it is easy for Geographers to access the tools of visual reproduction and production. The society is heavily influenced by visual representations and images. It is easier to pass on information through visual and imagery representation, as opposed to the use of words and symbols. However, the interpretations of these visual images normally lack a critical awareness or analysis. This is because they are always interpreted on a face value. Cloke (2004) explains that visual communication normally occurs through the help of visual aids. It is described as a conveyance of information and ideas in forms that it is easy to read, understand, and look upon.

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Thrift and Kitchin (2009) further explains that visual communication greatly relies on vision. Furthermore, it is always expressed or presented with two dimensional images. This includes typography, signs, graphic design, drawings, animation, illustration, advertising, industrial design, etc. Visual communication, explores the concept that visual messages that are accompanied by words have great capability of educating, informing, or persuading the audience of the message under consideration (Rubenstein, 2009). Geographers mainly use visual methodology as part of qualitative method of gathering data. This paper gives a discussion on the different ways whereby geographers have managed to incorporate the various visual methods in their research. This is by using a range of examples. Some of the major visual techniques analyzed in this paper include auto-photography, and participatory video making.
Auto-Photography and Geographic Research:
Auto photography is an example of an ethnographic research methodology. It provides a tool used in qualitative research methods that help in understanding the qualities of an environment, and geographic locations. This tool is on most occasions used by human geographers for purposes of collecting information. This is mainly because of advances in photographic technology, it is easy to access it, and it is also affordable. Stockinger (2013) explains that auto-photography is directly related to film development, and it relies on the camera technology. In geography, the use of auto-photography is directly related to the invention of disposable cameras (Phoenix, 2010). This was a one-time user camera which could not operate without a film. These types of cameras were very popular in the 1990s, and this is because it was a new technology, and it was easy to use the cameras for purposes of taking images (Kitchin, 2009).
For new researchers, and those without a substantial amount of research funds, this method of data collection was very expensive (Teese, 2008). However, with the emergence of digital cameras, it is now cheaper to use auto-photography for purposes of collecting geographic data. Furthermore, it is easy to take a large volume of photos, through the use of digital cameras (Rubenstein, 2009). Furthermore, because of a drop in the cost of equipments, geographic researchers have gained the capability of developing their own videos that consists of data collected. Under human geography, researchers have used auto-photography to study the geographic location and elements of children all over the world (Gomez and Jones, 2010).
This technology is easy to use, when studying children. This is because it is easy to categorize these children into subject groups. These children might find it intimidating or difficult to understand the verbal language of research, hence the use of auto-photography. Stockinger (2013) explains that auto-photography is not restricted to the study of only children. It can be used to study and collect data on time-space geographies, human identity, and the interactions between human beings, and the environment. The early pioneers on the use of auto-photography in geography are Joan Wingate and Stuart Aitken (Stockinger, 2013). This is through their study on how the environment affects children, and how to use auto-photography to help adult researchers to understand the different views of children, regarding their environments. This work was able to incorporate the methodological approach in the children’s geographies which emphasized on the everyday and local lives of children. It further analyzed the impact of social differences like ethnicity, race and income, on the environmental mobility and experience of children (Reason, 2008).
In concluding their research, the two authors denoted that children who suffered from cerebral palsy, and whose movements were restricted, engaged in taking photographs, as compared to their counter parts, who were normal (Rubenstein, 2009). Furthermore, watching other children playing was a way in which a disabled child was able to participate in the playing activity. Auto-Photography is not only used in the geographic study of children. It is also possible to use it in studying time and space. This is better depicted in a study by Johnson, May and Cloke (2008) on the geography of homelessness. Under this research, the researcher were analyzing the various strategies in which homeless people use for purposes of protecting themselves, and maintaining their areas of residence, i.e. space. This is because the homeless are always vulnerable to intimidations and exploitation, and when they are found in wrong places, people would chase them. Johnson, May and Cloke (2008) believes that auto-photography is an important source of getting information. It is far much more useful that traditional sources of information such as books, and newspapers. It complements these sources of information. Furthermore, auto-photography has been used in accelerating the spatial development of Urbanization on Guangzhou (Phoenix, 2010).
This is a province located in China. For example, in the year 2000, Guangzhou began a series of spatial expansion. This was after its merger with the districts of Huadu and Panyu. To effectively develop the province, there was a need of proper urban planning and development (Kochak, 2006). The use of auto-photography was essentially in this aspect. Urban planners of Guangzhou took a series of photographs, of various locations of the province. This was for purposes of studying them, and hence coming up with a better policy, on how to plan the province. Policy formulators were able to use these photos for purposes of planning to build an extensive road network that connected the province of Guangzhou and Foshan (Chiang, 2005). This is clearly depicted on the North Western border of the provinces of Guangzhou and Foshan. The construction land between the borders of these two provinces is directly connected with one another, and road network has approximately sixty intersections (Loo, 2009). This is for future expansion.
Participatory Video Making and Geographic Research:
Participatory video is a process in which the participants work together for purposes of creating a video in regard to their common experiences. It is also a way of making an inquiry of the various challenges that affect the lives of the participants (Kitchin, 2009). This concept is widely used in the collection of data when studying human geography. Due to the immense benefits that participatory video making has, geographers have emphasized on its use in the collection of data. Under participatory video making, the participants and the researcher are joint owners of the data that emanates from the research (Rubenstein, 2009).
This research emphasizes that social action is an important part of a research. Furthermore, social action is exploratory, relational, and unpredictable. Participatory video making is therefore seen as an opportunity for empowering geographers with social skills that can help them to efficiently interact with the participants of the research (Chiang, 2005). Don Snowden was the first person to engage in participatory video making (Kitchin, 2009). He pioneered the use of media for purposes of enabling the community to develop various solutions to their problems. In his research, Snowden was able to work Colin Low a film maker (Kitchin, 2009). He carried out a study of Fogo Island, which was a small fishing community in Canada.
His main aim was to identify the various challenges and opportunities that are experienced by the residents of this community. In this research, Snowden managed to develop a film on different villages in the Island (Hueber and Alderman, 2011). These films illustrated various challenges that they were facing, and the ways of overcoming these challenges. By watching the videos of each village, the different villagers in the island were able to realize that they were facing similar problems (Bergman, 2010). On this basis, they had to come together for purposes of ensuring that they develop a solution to the problems that were facing them (Hueber and Alderman, 2011). Politicians were also able to view these videos. On most occasions, politicians were very busy, and unable to visit the Island, and learn on the different problems that the Islanders were facing. Furthermore, the Island was far away from the main land of Canada. As a result of the production of this video, the government was able to change its policies regarding the Fogo Island (Hueber and Alderman, 2011).
This is by improving the welfare of the people of Fogo Island through education, and building of infrastructures that could enable them carry out their fishing practices in an efficient manner. Furthermore, people within the Island began collaborating with each other for purposes of finding a solution to the problems that affected them. This technique was so successful that other geographers began using participatory video making in collecting data. Hester Parr examines the use of participatory video making in a mental health institution. Parr (2007) believes that it is possible to use participative video making for purposes of helping to change the manner in which the society views people with mental problems or disability. Furthermore, she explains that video making is useful in helping to hold important data about the effects that arts has on the mental health of another person.
Parr (2007) argues that participative video making is a collaborative process that requires the cooperation of all the parties involved in it. This would therefore make it possible for the participants to provide an in-depth data regarding the problems of the research. On this basis, Parr (2007) explains that participative video making is an important aspect that can help in solving the problems of a society. For instance, Parr (2007) explains that the use of a video referred to as Recovering Lives was successful in positively depicting the mentally ill people in Dundee. The filmmakers were able to collaborate with the mentally ill individuals in coming up with this video. They had an opportunity of telling their experiences and challenges that they face while living with this disability (Hay, 2010). On this basis, the filmmakers succeeded in explaining the different problems that mentally ill people face.
Conclusion:
Currently, most geographers are involved in gathering information through the use of visual methods of data collection. The most prominent of these methods are auto-photography, and the use of participative video making. Auto- Photography has been made possible because of the emergence of digital cameras. This makes it easier for geographers to take as many photos as possible. It is also a cheap method of collecting data, because digital carry are easy to afford. On the other hand, participative video making involves collection of data through film. Under this method, the geographer would collaborate with the population, while gathering data concerning a particular area of their research. These methods are used by geographers to solve a particular social problem. They are widely used in the area of human geography.
Bibliography:
Bergman, B. J. (2010). Making the Most of Your Video Collection: Trends in Patron Access and Resource Sharing. Library Trends, 58(3), 335-348.
Chiang, T. (2005). Historical geography in China. Progress in Human Geography, 29(2), 148-164.
Cloke, P. J. (2004). Practising human geography. London: SAGE.
Gomez, B., & Jones, J. P. (2010). Research methods in geography: a critical introduction. Chichester, West Sussex, U.K.: Wiley-Blackwell.
Hay, I. (2010). Qualitative research methods in human geography (3rd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hueber, A. M., & Alderman, D. H. (2011). Analyzing resident place satisfaction in a tourist destination through auto-photography the case of Southern Shores, North Carolina. Greenville, N.C.: East Carolina University.
Johnsen, S., May, J., & Cloke, P. (2008). Imag(in)ing ‘homeless places’: using auto-photography to (re)examine the geographies of homelessness. Area, 40, 194-207.
Kitchin, R. (2009). International encyclopedia of human geography. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Kochak, A. K. (2006). Development Indices: A Comparative Study of India and China. China Report, 42(1), 57-68.
Loo, B. P. (2009). An overview of transport geography in China. Journal of Transport Geography, 17(5), 419-420.
Parr, H. (2007). Collaborative film-making as process, method and text in mental health research. Cultural Geography, 14, 114-138.
Phoenix, C. (2010). Auto-photography In Aging Studies: Exploring Issues Of Identity Construction In Mature Bodybuilders. Journal of Aging Studies, 24(3), 167-180.
Reason, P. (2008). The SAGE handbook of action research: participative inquiry and practice (2nd ed.). Los Angeles, Calif.: SAGE.
Rubenstein, J. M. (2005). The cultural landscape: an introduction to human geography (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Stockinger, P. (2013). Digital Audiovisual Archives. London: Wiley.
Teese, B. (2008). Making Use of Video Interlacing. The Physics Teacher, 46(L1), L1.
Thrift, N. J., & Kitchin, R. (2009). International encyclopedia of human geography. Amterdam: Elsevier.
 

Evaluation of the Collection Development Policy

Executive Summary

The aim of this report is to explore if and why a collection development policy is essential and valuable in the academic library field, and whether the Orinoco University should produce and employ a collection development policy. A literature search on collection development policy, and an analysis of the University of Melbourne and University of Queensland’s collection development policies was conducted to inform the outcomes of this report. The results of this report indicate that whilst there are some drawbacks to producing and adopting a collection development policy there are numerous advantages which support the development and use of a collection development policy in the academic library field. Generating and using a collection development policy can promote greater consistency in practices within libraries and help with the achievement of the library’s objectives (Johnson 2018). It is recommended that the development and use of a collection development policy should be strongly considered by the Orinoco University.

1. Introduction

The purpose of this report is to explore whether the Orinoco University should generate and employ a Collection Development Policy (CDP). The objectives of this report are to analyse and compare the collection development policies of the University of Queensland (UQ) and University of Melbourne (UM), highlight significant components of CDP, and explore why a policy document is essential in the academic library field. Information in this report has been obtained from a literature search and critical analysis of the Collection Development Policies (CDPs) of the UQ and UM. According to Johnson (2018, p. 82) a CDP is a document by which the library’s choice of resources, deselection and management of materials can be directed. There are mixed opinions about the importance of collection development policies (Chaputula & Kanyundo 2014 p. 317). Sanchez Vignau and Meneses (2005 p. 38) propose that a CDP is important in facilitating decision-making, however, other sources suggest that its development may be an ineffective use of time (Corrigan 2005, p. 65), it may become redundant (Snow 1996; Vickery 2004) and/or it may be too rigid or unclear (Mangrum & Pozzebon 2012, p. 109). The subsequent structure of this report is as follows: Abstract, Acknowledgements, Contents, Introduction, Main body of report, Conclusion, Recommendations and References.

2. Key elements of CDP

Johnson (2018) highlights that a CDP provides a standard for best practice by which progress can be assessed, assists with strategic planning, and promotes consistency and accountability. A CDP can inform librarians who manage collections and serve as an advantageous training tool for staff (Chaputala & Kanyundo 2014; Johnson 2018). Furthermore, it can reduce censorship and bias, and help with managing complaints (Johnson 2018). The literature is not conclusive on exactly what elements need to be included in a CDP as it may vary according to the intended audience of the policy (Whitehead 1989, p. 25). Some of the primary elements of CDP are outlined in this report.

2.1 Purpose and mission statement

An important component of a CDP is the policy’s purpose (including the target audience/s) as well as the library’s and/or the parent organisation’s mission statement (International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) 2001, p. 2; Johnson 2018, p. 86 & p. 90). A CDP should feature the library’s mission to reinforce that the collection being developed is there to satisfy the educational and research purposes of the parent organisation or community (Johnson 2018, p. 86), and to highlight the benefit they give to users (Fought, Gahn & Mills 2014). A succinct description of the user community and their needs is also an essential feature in CDPs (Whitehead 1989, p. 26).

2.2 Outline of nature/scope of collection and collection development priorities.

Another key element of CDPs includes an outline of the nature and scope of the library’s collections (Pérez Salmerón 2013). A CDP should include the library’s collection strengths and weaknesses (Dibyendu 2011, p. 154), and justification on what the library chooses to collect and not collect (Johnson 2018). The format of collections should be documented (van Zijl 1998, p. 101) as well as an evaluation of the collections (Johnson 2018, p. 90). Future collection development priorities/goals are also an important component of CDP to provide a standard against which success in achieving goals can be ascertained (Johnson 2018, p. 86).

2.3 Guidelines for selection and deselection

A CDP often includes guidelines for selection, acquisition, deselection and weeding which can provide rationale for when and why decisions are made (Dibyendu 2011 p. 153; Sanchez Vignau & Meneses 2005, p. 38). Clearly defined guidelines on such processes can safeguard the library from accusations of unfairness and misconduct (Johnson 2018, p. 88).

2.4 Budget statements

A CDP which addresses budgeting in its policies can help ensure that funding is apportioned equitably and assists to safeguard library funds by justifying its decisions (Vickery 2004, p. 338). Policy statements that encompass aspects of budgeting/funding can increase the library’s capacity to contest for funding, and provide information for funding applications and budget requests (Johnson 2018, p. 86).

2.5 Partnership and cooperative agreements

An outline of cooperative and partnership agreements can be a key element included in CDP (Johnson 2018, p. 87). This can include documentation of agreements surrounding sharing of resources (Johnson 2018, p. 87). Including cooperative statements can help to inform stakeholders on what each library is collecting (IFLA, 2001, p. 2).

2.6 Information on Access

Van Zijl (1998, p. 101) highlights that it is imperative that a CDP includes a passage explaining the type of access available to its collections. Outlining the level of access provided to collections is important as the constraints and availability of user access impact on collection development decisions (van Zijl 1998, p. 101).

2.7 Policies on gifts and donations

Guidelines for accepting gifts, declining gifs and removal of rejected gifts are an important element of CDP (van Zijl 1998, p. 103) as it safeguards the library and the possible donor from a practical and legal perspective (Johnson 2018, p. 88).

2.8 Statements on statutory requirements and intellectual freedom

A CDP should include any relevant statutory requirements (e.g., legal deposits) (Jeremy 2019). Statements on intellectual freedom can also help to preclude censorship and defend people’s rights on freedom to read (Johnson 2018, p. 87). 

2.9 Outline of responsibility for the CDP and policy revision process

A CDP frequently decrees who is responsible for the policy (Sanchez Vignau & Meneses, p. 39) and its policy revision guidelines (Johnson 2018, p. 89). Guidelines for policy review are necessary as Pickett et al. (2011) highlights that regular review promotes accountability and achievement of collection goals.

3. Comparison and contrast of the collection development polices of the UM and UQ

3.1 Similarities

Sanchez Vignau and Meneses (2005, p. 38) suggest that an important aspect of a CDP is an outline of what it hopes to accomplish. Both the UM and UQ’s CDPs clearly outline the purpose and scope of their respective policies and link their objectives/purpose to their parent organisations. Both the UM and UQ’s CDPs address who their target audience is, and who is responsible for their CDP and collection development.

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Corrigan (2005, p. 66) states that a narrative policy views the collection in broader detail and has a relatively uncomplicated approach. Both the UM and UQ’s CDPs appear narrative-type in nature (the UM’s document more so). Furthermore, both university’s CDPs have clear policies regarding their handling of gifts and include partnership statements (e.g., The UM mentions links with the Friends of the Baillieu Library and the UQ mentions connections with the Alumni Friends of The University of Queensland Inc.).

In terms of the nature/scope of collections both the UQ and UM’s CDPs explain the nature of their collections with the UQ breaking them down into different material formats (e.g., books, journals) and the UM outlining its collections within its ‘electronic collection policy’ section. Both the UM and UQ’s CDPs highlight that their preference is for materials to be in electronic format. Collection development priorities are not explicitly addressed under a specific heading in both the UQ and UM’s CDPs, however, priorities are intertwined within the body of the CDP of both organisations (e.g., both Universities highlight that their priorities are for provision of course materials prescribed by the university).

3.2 Differences

According to Vickery (2004, p. 338) the main purpose of a CDP is to assist staff to make consistent and impartial selection or deselection decisions. The UQ’s CDP contains clear policies related to the principles of selection and acquisition. By contrast, the UM’s CDP only touches on general principles of selection and acquisition very broadly within its ‘electronic collection policy’ and ‘collection development process policy’ sections. The UQ’s CDP clearly documents deselection and disposal policies as well as eligibility criteria for warehousing. The UM’s CDP broadly outlines guidelines for deselection and withdrawal within its ‘collection review process’ section, however, the UQ’s CDP has much clearer deselection criteria.

The UQ’s CDP addresses budgeting matters directly and is specific about it (e.g., no less than 45% of the Library’s budget will be spent on collections). By contrast, the UM’s CDP hardly mentions budgeting. A CDP should account for budget as it can assist librarians to undertake measures to reduce spending (Ketterman, Hooever & Cable 2012) and establish an accountable plan for the equitable management of resources (Johnson 2018).

The UQ’s CDP contains dedicated sections on electronic access and accessibility including a statement about supporting open access e-books and open education resources. The CDP of the UM does not have an explicit section discussing access to collections but does briefly touch on user access within its ‘electronic collection policy’ section (e.g., stating that only UM staff and students have access to materials referenced in reading lists). The UM highlights in its CDP its policy related to the commitment of preservation and identifies that they participate in the Portico and CLOCKSS initiatives. Preservation was not explicitly addressed in the UQ’s CDP.

Furthermore, the CDP of the UQ has a list of definitions whereas the UM’s does not. The UQ’s CDP has a statement that library policies are guided by the  Australia Library and Information Association (ALIA) statement on Free Access to Information and recommendations by the IFLA whereas the UM’s CDP does not contain these elements. The CDP of the UM states that it is periodically reviewed but does not document the frequency of its review process whereas the UQ’s CDP states that their document is reviewed every 3 years.

3.3 What is missing from the policies

Neither the UM or UQ’s CDP appear to have a clear evaluation of the weaknesses of their collections which literature suggest is important (Dibyendu 2011, p. 154; Johnson 2018, p. 86). Van Zijl (1998, p. 101) highlights that any exceptional characteristics of a collection should be in the CDP and that often the evaluation of the collection is subject-area specific. Neither CDP contained much information about evaluations of their collections from a subject area-specific perspective. The UM’s CDP was missing an ALIA statement on Freedom to Read, statement/s on intellectual freedom, budget statements and a timeline for document review.

4. Conclusions

Overall, the UQ’s CDP is more comprehensive and specific in its policies that the UM’s CDP which by comparison contains more broad, general policies. The UQ’s CDP has a clear structure which makes it easier to locate important elements of CDP whereas one perhaps has to search more finely to locate specific information in the UM’s CDP. The UM’s CDP appears to be missing some key elements (e.g., statement on Freedom to Read). Whilst there are certainly some differences between the UQ and UM documents both appear to include many important overlapping components of a CDP (e.g., purpose of the CDP, policies regarding the handling of gifts). Having compared the CDP of the UQ and UM it appears that there is no one set way to write a CDP. The way a CDP is written and what is included may vary depending on the audience and what the organisation is hoping to accomplish (Sanchez Vignau & Meneses 2005 p., 38; Whitehead 1989). Policy statements vary as each organisation and its stakeholders are different (White & Crawford 1997). However, there are fundamental elements of a CDP which should be included such as: the purpose of the policy, mission statement, nature/scope of collection, guidelines for selection and deselection, partnership statements, budget statements, information on access, policies on gifts, a statement on Freedom to Read, a statement on who is responsible for the CDP and guidelines for policy review.

Based on a thorough literature review it appears that there is substantial evidence supporting the benefits of generating and using a CDP including it providing assistance and direction to meet the library’s goals (Corrigan 2005), and serving as a channel for communication with the library’s stakeholders (Johnson 2018, p. 86). There is also supporting evidence highlighting the negative effects of not having CDP in place, for example, Chaputala and Kanyundo (2014) found that not having a CDP resulted in fundamental practices that were inconsistent due to lack of clear guidelines. Despite challenges acknowledged in regards to developing and using a CDP such as it being time-consuming to develop (Corrigan 2005) and the document possibly becoming out of date and/or forgotten (Snow 1996; Vickery 2004), a quality CDP which is routinely reviewed can have substantial benefits which will likely outweigh the drawbacks.

5. Recommendations

Overall, it is recommended that the University of Orinoco should engage in formulating and adopting a CDP. A CDP is of ongoing importance and pertinence for the academic field and may benefit the University of Orinoco by assisting with strategic planning and commitment to organisational needs, assisting with budgeting, protecting intellectual freedom and promoting accountability (Johnson 2018). Developing a CDP can also serve as training tool for new staff (Chaputala & Kanyudo 2014: Johnson 2018) and help with managing complaints about collections (Johnson 2018, p. 87).

Whilst there are different ways of writing a CDP some important considerations for the University of Orinico may be to include a clear purpose, mission statement, information on the scope of collections, collection development priorities, and policies for selection and deselection. Additionally, information on access to the collections, cooperative and partnership statements, policies on gifts and donations, statutory requirements, a statement on Freedom to Read and a statement on who is responsible for the CDP should also be included.

Care needs to be taken to ensure that the CDP developed is of high relevance and quality as Disher (cited in Johnson 2018, p. 85) highlights that “having a collection development policy is not the same as having a useful collection policy.” The CDP developed by the University of Orinoco should exhibit consistency, demonstrate a level of flexibility, and allow some leeway for discretion and professional judgement instead of being rigid and inflexible (Moran & Morner, cited in Johnson 2018, p. 86). It is important that the CPD developed highlights guidelines for its review as a CDP is not stationary (Johnson 2018, p. 85) and requires constant revision to ensure best practice, to respond to changes in the community (Cabonero & Mayrena 2012, p. 1) and to maximise its effectiveness.

References

Cabonero, DA & Mayrena, LB 2012, ‘The development of a collection development policy’, Library Philosophy and Practice, pp. 1-23.

Chaputula, AH & Kanyundo, AJ 2014, ‘Collection development policy: how its absence has affected collection development practices at Mzuzu University library’, Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 317 –325.

Corrigan, A 2005, ‘The collection policy reborn:  a practical application of web-based documentation’, Collection Building, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 65-69.

Dibyendu, P 2011, ‘Collection development policy and selection criteria for electronic materials: Indian perspectives’, International Journal of Information Dissemination and Technology, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 152-156.

Fought, RL, Gahn, P & Mills, Y 2014, ‘Promoting the library through the collection development policy: a case study’, Journal of Electronic Resources in Medical Libraries, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 169–178.

International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) 2001, Guidelines for a collection policy using the conspectus model: Section on acquisition and collection development, viewed 6 July 2019, https://www.ifla.org/files/assets/acquisition-collection-development/publications/gcdp-en.pdf

Johnson, P 2018, Fundamentals of collection development and management, 4th edn, American Library Association, Chicago.

Ketterman, E, Hoover, J & Cable, K 2012, ‘Creating a shared neuroscience collection development policy’, Journal of Electronic Resources in Medical Libraries, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 197-203.

Mangrum, S & Pozzebon, ME 2012, ‘Use of collection development policies in electronic resource management’, Collection Building, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 108-114.

Pérez Salmerón, G 2013, ‘Collection development policy: where does it start and where will it end?’, BiD: textos universitaris de biblioteconomia i documentació, no. 30.

Pickett, C, Stephens J, Kimball R, Ramirez D, Thornton, J & Burford N 2011, ‘Revisiting an abandoned practice: the death and resurrection of collection development policies’, Collection Management, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 165-181.

Sanchez Vignau, BS & Meneses, G 2005, ‘Collection development policies in university libraries: a space for reflection’, Collection Building, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 35-43.

Snow, R 1996, ‘Wasted words: the written collection development policy and the academic library’, The Journal of Academic Librarianship, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 191-194.

van Zijl, C 1998, ‘The why, what, and how of collection development policies’, South African Journal of Libraries and Information Science, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 99-106.

Vickery, J 2004, ‘Making a statement: reviewing the case for written collection development policies’, Library Management, vol. 25, no. 8/9, pp. 337-342.

White, GW & Crawford, GA 1997, ‘Developing an electronic information resources collection development policy’, Collection Building, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 53-57.

Whitehead, D 1989, ‘How to write a collection development policy’, Paper delivered at “Collection development basics: a policy approach” seminar conducted by the ALIA Acquisitions Victorian Group on 22 November, 1989, pp. 25-28.

University of Melbourne 2019, Collection Development Policy, viewed 3 July 2019, https://library.unimelb.edu.au/collection_development_policy

University of Queensland 2017, Collection management policy, viewed 3 July 2019, https://web.library.uq.edu.au/collections/collection-management/collection-management-policy

 

Development of Water Collection and Storage Solution

1.    INTRODUCTION

Water is one of the most important resources on our planet. All plants and animals must have water to survive. If there was no water, there would be no life on earth. Safe and readily available water is important for public health, whether it is used for drinking, domestic use, food production or recreational purposes. Improved water supply and sanitation, and better management of water resources are important for a country’s economic growth.[1] To sustain life on earth people need to save water for the future. And this is where the concept of ‘Water Storage’ comes into action. Water Storage is a broad term referring to storage of both potable water for consumption, and non-potable water for use in agriculture. In most developing countries and in some of the developed countries found in the tropical climates, there is a need to store water during the dry season. And one of the solutions to this is ‘Rainwater Harvesting’, which is widely being practiced in most low and middle-income countries with adequate safeguards to prevent bacterial and chemical contamination. Proper hygiene, sanitation and the performance and reliability of health facilities can all be compromised due to lack of access to safe, reliable water supply. To address these needs rainwater harvesting can be employed in these regions due to its sustainability, feasibility and socio-economic benefits. It can also help provide employment opportunities and expand current knowledge and skills of the local people.

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Storing water invites a host of potential problems including contamination through organic and inorganic means.Contaminated water can transmit diseases such as diarrhea, cholera, dysentery, typhoid, and polio. Contaminated drinking water is estimated to cause almost 485,000 diarrheal deaths each year.[2] For many people clean water is just another thing that they take for granted. When people are thirsty, they turn a tap or open a water bottle to drink water. People wash, clean, flush and bath using clean water without giving it much of a thought. According to a report done by UNICEF on water sanitation, one in three people around the world does not have access to safe, drinking water.[3]Millions of children around the world face illness, exhaustion, and even death simply because they do not have access to clean water. Tragically, many children die from easily preventable waterborne diseases every day. Children – particularly girls are often denied their right to education because most schools lack private and decent sanitation facilities. Many women are forced to spend a significant portion of their day fetching clean, safe water.[4] And therefore, it is important to consider and take adequate filtering and hygiene measures to keep the collected water safe and clean for use.

Rising population contributes to higher demand for fresh water and also contributes to climate change which leads to greater fluctuation of harvested rainwater. Globally, 844 million people lack access to clean drinking water.[5] Every day, over800 children die from dirty water- mainly due to diarrhea caused by contaminated water, poor sanitation and hygiene and due to scarce, unreliable water supply and sanitation facilities in many communities. As a result, many children drop out of school and parents struggle to make a living. Access to clean water is a huge step towards development as when people gain access to safe water, they are better able to practice good hygiene and sanitation, which results in greater socio-economic status for the country.

The aim of this project is to develop an ideal water collection and storage system that can operate in the Timor-Leste to improve the lives of people in the communities of across Suco Holarua. Suco Holarua has recently seen significant progress in the area of water access. This improvement is due to a series of water systems supported by WaterAid, LBF, government programs such as the PNDS and others. Many of the systems in Suco Holarua, and across Timor-Leste, are gravity flow design, meaning they do not require any external energy source to move water from a source to a user. These have been very effective and currently the majority of aldeias in Holarua either have access to piped water from these schemes or access to rivers. Most households will store water in their home in small tanks or jerry cans. In addition to household uses including drinking, washing, and cooking, water from the water supply systems is also used in some locations for watering gardens and maintaining fishponds. The current water quality supplied in the settlements is limited to essential levels to allow survival. Additional quality would allow the residents to become more socially active and improve their health at the same time. This project will focus on increasing rainwater collection, storage and clean water supply. The collection system must satisfy several criteria and allow the communities to operate and maintain the system independent of expert assistance on a daily basis.

1.1. EWB Challenge

Engineers Without Borders is a member-based, community organization who are focused on developing skills, knowledge and appropriate engineering through partnership and collaboration to people and communities in need. EWB connect, educate and empower people through humanitarian engineering that uses a people centered, strength-based approach to improve community health, wellbeing and opportunity.[6] EWB focuses on long term community development and empowerment and the plans implemented are community based where the local community work closely with the organization in identifying and addressing their problems and help work out a solution and carry them out. The main aim of the organization is to provide and improve four major areas of life- Water, Hygiene and Sanitation, Appropriate Housing, Clean Energy and Digital Access, for communities, to create a better life for them. The vision of EWB is to be able to provide everyone with equal access to engineering knowledge and tools required to lead a resourceful life, free from poverty. The communities in developing countries require increased and improved access to engineering skills, knowledge and appropriate technology. The local engineering sectors must also be encouraged and helped to come up with innovative and sustainable ideas and solutions for their community problems and needs. EWB realizes and addresses all these needs through their Engineering with Communities, Education and Research and Leadership and Training programs.

The EWB Challenge is a program designed for primary year university students, delivered in partnership with universities around the world. It provides students with the opportunity to grow and learn about design, teamwork and communication through real, inspiring, and culturally diverse developmental projects.[7] Every year, EWB will select a specific disadvantaged community to work with that could benefit from humanitarian engineering and provide first year university students with information about this region and the challenges they face. Students can choose a topic to work with from a range of issues, which the local community have identified to improve their lives. Students are to come up with design solutions that are simple, cost effective and are easy to be locally manufactured, implemented, operated and maintained by the local communities. The best designs are then chosen, discussed and presented to the communities, to then be implemented with their consent and participation.

This year, EWB has partnered with Water-Aid in Timor Leste to help the communities come up with effective solutions for problems related to water supply and scarcity, electricity supply, hygiene and sanitation, waste management and road maintenance, across Suco Holarua, in the Manufahi District of Timor Leste. Suco Holarua and most of Timor Leste has recently witnessed significant changes in areas such energy access, water supply, and road networks. While the development is still in their primary stages, these initial infrastructure improvements are enabling an increase in community opportunity, sustainability, and well-being, as well as the inclusion of all individuals in project planning and outcomes.[8] The subtopic this project will research is Water Collection and Storage, particularly for the dry season, as the people in Timor Leste suffer from drought and water scarcity when there is no rain which adversely affects their living, agriculture and farming, which being one of their main sources of income and thus, affecting the quality of their life.

[1]https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/drinking-water

[2]https://www.who.int/sustainable-development/cities/health-risks/water-sanitation/en/

[3]https://www.unicef.org/press-releases/1-3-people-globally-do-not-have-access-safe-drinking-water-unicef-who

[4]https://www.unicef.org.au/our-work/unicef-overseas/water-sanitation-hygiene

[5]https://www.worldvision.com.au/global-water-crisis-facts

[6]https://www.ewb.org.au/about/whyweexist

[7]https://ewbchallenge.org

[8]https://ewbchallenge.org/wateraid-timor-leste

 

2. SITE DESCRIPTION

2.1. LOCATION

The Democratic Republic of Timor Leste, also known as East Timor, is a South-East Asian nation located at the east of Timor Island, approximately 700 kilometers northwest of the Australian city of Darwin[1]. The map of Timor-Leste is shown in Figure 1.1 (a). The island covers an area of 15,000 km2 . It is situated next to Indonesia, which lies to the west of the island (timorleste.tl,2019).  The state is divided into 13 districts, including the Manufahi district. Each district is divided into sub-districts and further classified into ‘suku’ or villages which comprise of many hamlets called ‘aldeias’. The capital of East Timor is Dili (timor-leste.gov.tl,2019). The ewb challenge of 2019 focuses on the rural development in the Manufahi district (Figure 1.1 (b)) and Suco Holarua (Figure 2.2) in particular (ewbchallenge.org,2019). Holarua is 109 km south of Dili. The closest airport, President Nicolau Lobato International Airport, Díli, is 112km north of Holarua.

(a)                                                                                  (b)

Figure 1.1. (a) Location of Timor Leste on Timor Island1.

(b)Location of Manufahi District in Timor Leste2.

Figure 1.2. Location of Holarua in Manufahi District3.

____________________________________

1https://www.google.com/maps/place/Timor-Leste/@-8.959465,123.2689198,6.4z/data=!4m5!3m4!1s0x2cfde50986e4a129:0x3e5c68387e85b3c!8m2!3d-8.874217!4d125.727539

2https://www.google.com/maps/place/Manufahi,+Timor-Leste/@-8.968155,125.5434454,10z/data=!3m1!4b1!4m5!3m4!1s0x2cfe73653ba627af:0x7ac7a153ff9bb9cd!8m2!3d-9.0145495!4d125.8279959

3 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sucos_of_East_Timor#/media/File:Sucos_Manufahi.png

1https://dfat.gov.au/geo/timor-leste/Pages/timor-leste-country-brief.aspx

2.2 CLIMATE AND TOPOGRAPHY

East Timor has two distinct seasons in a year: a dry season and a wet season. The dry season starts from June and ends in November, whereas the wet season is from December to May. The district of Manufahi has a tropical climate and there are heavy downpours most of the year. The West Pacific Monsoon winds are responsible for bringing rainfall to the area during the wet season. The mean rainfall and the mean temperature during a year in Same (the district capital of Manufahi) is 2328mm and 24.30C respectively. September is the driest month with an average of 22mm of rainfall and the highest average rainfall recorded (331mm) is in the month of January. This data is supported in Fig.2. (en.climate-data.org,201X). Due to cyclic phenomena called El Niño-Southern Oscillation and the Indian Ocean Dipole, the climatic conditions in East Timor varies dramatically, leading to either floods and landslides or droughts affecting most of the population (pacificclimatechangescience.org,2013).

Figure 2. The annual rainfall and temperature in Same.

2.3. RURAL LANDSCAPE AND INFRASTRUCTURE

Most of the landscape consists of mountain ranges and the highest mountain in the nation is Foho Tatamailau reaching 2,963m at its peak.

The traditional houses in Timor Leste are made of wood and thatch. Some houses are made on stilts and are called Fataluku (Fig.3.1.). The other houses are built at ground level like in Figure 3.2. and Fig.3.3.

Fig.3.1. AFataluku house          Fig.3.2. A lopo                                  Fig.3.3. A Bunak

2.4 Health

Beginning at birth there is a life expectancy of 68.7 years (67.1 age for males and 70.4 age for females). The population have access to basic free health care services; however, the wealthier people access hospital care at nearly twice the rate of poorer patients. The basic packages that are offered for free mainly attends to communicable disease control, maternal and child heath, non-communicable disease control and health promotion. Despite the current health care services there is still issues such infant and maternal mortality rates being very high as well as issues with malaria, TB, diarrhoea, and pneumonia. Timor-Leste has one of the highest rates of women dying from pregnancy and childbirth in Asia. There is limited access to clean water and basic sanitation which contributes to the spread of infectious diseases which can be fatal. Sexually transmitted diseases are also common in sexually active age groups, this is mostly in Dili and the Baucau districts. In remote areas supply of medication is a major issue, particularly where they go without hospitals and where medical supplies are only available at health posts or community health centres.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/tt.html

http://www.moh.gov.tl/?q=node/48

http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2015/01/08/timor-leste-better-medical-supply-management-improves-lives

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5045628/

https://www.burnet.edu.au/system/publication/file/2141/Snell_et_al_2005b.pdf

https://www.burnet.edu.au/countries/12_timor_leste

2.5 Income

The prevalence of farming in the area is discussed in some detail on the climate resilience pagebut the short answer is yes!:

https://ewbchallenge.org/5-climate-resilience

https://ewbchallenge.org/wateraid-timor-leste/forum/economy-suco-holarua

There is  a good amount of socio-economic data to a degree of granulairty which should allow you to make an approximation of average income for Holaruans available through the Timorese statistics website.

https://ewbchallenge.org/wateraid-timor-leste/forum/average-income

 

 

 

 

 

2.6 Demographics

Ethnicity: The main ethnic groups in Timor-Leste are the Malayo-Polynesian and the Melanesian/Papuan. There are six distinct tribes of the Malayo-Polynesians and they are the Tetun, the Mambae, the Tududede, the Galoli, the Kemak, and the Baikeno. The main tribes of the Melanesian/Papuan people are they Bunak, the Fataluku and the Makasae. http://www.easttimorgovernment.com/demographics.htm

Religion: The Dominant religion is Roman Catholic at a staggering 97.6% of the population engaging. There is then 3.4% that attributes to Protestant/Evangelical, Muslim and other. The Timorese people maintain a strong belief in animism. “Animism is the belief that all nature is alive and filled with unseen spirits”. The constitution provides freedom of conscience, religion and worship. There is no official religion.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/tt.html

https://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/timor/religion.htm

Language: The official languages that are spoken are Tetun and Portuguese with a majority of 30.6% speaking Tetun Prasa. The working languages are Indonesian and English, however there are 32 indigenous languages spoken. Originally the Timorese people spoke Portuguese until Indonesia invaded the country in 1975. The Portuguese language was prohibited from being used for about 24 years until 1999. Timor-Leste gained independence from Indonesia in 2002 where finally Tetum and Portuguese were adopted as the official languages. http://www.easttimorgovernment.com/demographics.htmhttps://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/tt.html

https://www.quora.com/How-widely-spoken-is-Portuguese-in-East-Timor

 

PopulationCensus2015-07-11

Holarua

Suco

6,871

http://www.citypopulation.de/php/timor-admin.php?adm2id=100102

Tetum is a blend of Portuguese, malay and indigenous (rather than specifically Indonesian) languages. The language is relatively consistent within suco holarua but does vary more at the district level. This page contains more on the different languages and there’s a fair bit of literature that hsould be available through your library if you’re curious to know more!

https://ewbchallenge.org/wateraid-timor-leste/forum/language-holarua

The only data we would have in addition to what you can find in the national census aside from the data for Mankaet in the community insights resources. That shows that the community has  similar profile to the national average ie a skew towards the younger age bands.

https://ewbchallenge.org/wateraid-timor-leste/forum/age-groups#comment-form

Thanks for your question, the community isn’t tribal in the way you might be thinking here, and is predominantly Catholic.

Outside of churches there are some sites where independence fighters hid during the struggle for independence, such as cave systems, that contain artifacts that allowed them to continue their observance of Cathaolic practices while in hiding.

If you’re interested there are several unique languages within Timor-Leste which are mapped here which could provide some insight.

https://ewbchallenge.org/wateraid-timor-leste/forum/culture-and-tribe

______________________________________

3. DESIGN CRITERIA (not finished yet, still need to add more to some parts, proofread and reference correctly)

The design criteria section will analyse the features of designing a water storage/harvesting system that are deemed to be the most important for/to the people of Timor Leste.  It is important to consider the Timor Leste community, and the area that the water system will be used in, when developing the design criteria. This is because the end design should ultimately meet the needs of the Timor Leste community.  Forming design criteria allows individual designs for water storage/harvesting systems to be critically evaluated, weighted and reviewed based on the most important characteristics of the design. Each of the design criteria will be ranked on importance, through being assigned a certain priority, as not every design criterion will be equivalent. Criteria associated to the durability and the cost of the system are given a high priority, whereas criteria related to the volume of water the system can hold are given a lower priority.

Design criterion 1: Climate resistance: The design must be able to withstand Timor Leste’s wet and dry seasons without requiring any significant repairs. Timor Leste’s harsh climate is split onto a wet season and a dry season.  During the wet season, it rains torrentially, sometimes leading to flash flooding; and the dry season high temperatures and significant amounts of time without rain. Thus, it is essential that the water system can withstand harsh climate conditions, mainly torrential rain and harsh temperatures.

Design criterion 2: Cost: The cost to manufacture and purchase the water system should be considered. Much of the Timor Leste community live off just ___ per day (REFERENCE). Thus, it is important to attempt to keep the cost of the water system as low as possible to ensure that it is affordable for individuals to be able to purchase. Affordability can be considered as how much the community and individuals are able and willing to pay for the water system without great financial pressure.

Design criterion 3: Locally sourced materials: The materials that the water system will be manufactured out of must be considered. The aim is to construct the water system using mostly locally sourced materials, allowing for only 4 components to be sources elsewhere. Locally sources materials can include, but are not limited to; bamboo and other wood; leaves; cloth; clay and dirt; rocks and stones; cement and metals that can be purchased from stores in Dili (https://www.ewb.org.au/explore/initiatives/ewbchallenge/ptl/ptl-design-areas/ptl-infrastructure-construction); plastic bottles; and other recycled materials. Using locally sourced materials will not only encourage buying materials off local farms and businesses, but it can also create jobs for locals. As the materials will be readily available, locals will not have to rely on imported materials to construct the water system, allowing the Timor Leste community to be independent in the construction of the water system once educated and trained to do so. Using locally sourced materials will also result in the design being cheaper to manufacture and construct.

Design criterion 4: Permeability: the final design must not leak. As water is such a precious resource in Timor Leste (https://ewbchallenge.org/1-water-access-and-quality), it is essential to retain as much of it as possible. Thus, if the final water system leaks it is impossible to do so, and the design must be reconsidered.

Design criterion 5: Locally manufactured: The aim is for the community to be completely independent from outside help in the manufacturing and construction of the water system, once educated and trained as required.

Design criterion 6: Ease of use and repair: The water system should be simple to use and easy to repair within 1 day, using the skills available in the Timor Leste community.  Basic training from skilled operators may be required to equip locals with the necessary skills to use and repair the design. Any repairs or maintenance of the design that should be required, should be able to be done so using provided, or locally sourced equipment. It is understood that over 40% of the Timor Leste adult population cannot read or write (https://www.globaleducation.edu.au/2387.html), thus, any manual that should be required, should include pictures. The design should be reparable by locals without aid from higher skilled personnel. It becomes inconvenient for locals when a design cannot be easily repaired in one day, as it can possibly reduce their access to water.

Design criterion 7: Volume: as mentioned before in Design Criteria 1, Timor Leste can go for long periods of time without any rain fall, therefore it is important for the community to have continue to access water during these times. Consequently, it is important for the water system to be able to store large enough amounts of water to be able to last until the next rainfall. It is estimated that locals use ____ daily, and it can rain as little as 30 ml per month in the dry season, thus the water system should be able to store ___ L of water. This design criterion has been ranked as a low priority because locals have access to a communal tap, meaning it isn’t essential for the design to have the ability to store ___L, as there is still some access to water.

Table 3.1 shows the design criteria for a water storage/harvesting system. Each criterion is numbered from one to seven to allow easy referral throughout the report. Each criterion is also ranked in terms of their priority, with essential at the top of the table, to low priority at the bottom. Due to Timor Leste having a harsh climate, the design must be robust and durable to be able to withstand these climatic conditions without needing to be replaced or requiring significant repairs. Therefore, Criterion 1, Climate Resistance, has been ranked as essential. Criterion 2, Cost, has been ranked as high priority due to the low economic status of the Timor Leste community. It is important to keep the cost to a minimum, ensuring that the end design is affordable. Criteria 3, Locally sourced materials, and 4 Permeability, have also been ranked as a high priority, as using locally sources materials assists in keeping the cost of the design to a minimum and assists in creating jobs, and because it is important that the final design must not have any leaks. Criteria 5, Locally manufactured and 6, Ease of use and repair, are not as fundamental other criteria, such as climate resistance or cost for example, but will improve the overall design. Thus, they have been ranked as a medium priority. Although it would be favourable for the design to be able to store ___L or water, it is not a necessity, as the Timor Leste community still have other means to access water. Therefore Criterion 7, Volume is ranked as low priority.

Table 3.1: Design criteria for water system design:

 

Criteria

Priority

Description

 

1

Climate resistant (robust and durable)

Essential

The design must be able to endure torrential rain, harsh sun and heat conditions for a minimum of 2?? years, without needing significant repairs or to be replaced.

2

Cost

High

Must cost under $40??? To manufacture and buy.

3

Locally sourced materials

High

Must be mostly made out of locally sourced materials. No more than 4?? components of the design can be sourced elsewhere.

4

Permeability

High

The final design must not leak.

5

Locally manufactured

Medium

Locals must be able to manufacture the end design (after training and education are provided) with zero help from professionals.

6

Ease of use and repair

Medium

Locals must be able to use and repair (in a day) the end design (after training and education are provided, and with operation/maintenance manuals) with zero help from professionals.

7

Volume

Low

Must be able to store a minimum of _____ Litres of water.

[1] https://dfat.gov.au/geo/timor-leste/Pages/timor-leste-country-brief.aspx
 

Assumptions, research design and data collection strategies

Chapter 1 Introduction
The purpose of this assignment is to offer a critical analysis of the underpinning assumptions and research design and data collection strategies and the practice of academic research. Two research papers are chosen for the purpose of this analysis. The first paper is a quantitative study and the second paper is a qualitative study. They are as follows:-
Shafer, W. E., Fukukawa, K. and Lee, G. M. (2007) ‘Values and the perceived importance of ethics and social responsibility: The U.S. versus China’, Journal of Business Ethics, 70 (3), pp. 265-284.
Tsoi, J. (2007) ‘Stakeholders’ perceptions and future scenarios to improve corporate social responsibility in Hong Kong and Mainland China’, Journal of Business Ethics, pp. 1-14.
The main reason for selecting these two papers is that they both report upon the area of corporate social responsibility, which is the focus of my PhD. Within the field of corporate social responsibility (CSR), there has been considerable research discussing the relationship between values and perception with the attitude/behaviour of businesses towards CSR. These values are considered quantifiable and thus have been measured quantitatively using scales developed by authors such as Forsyth (1980), Singhapakdi et al.(1996), and Vitell and Patwardhan (2008). Interviews have been used to bring forward the values that are deemed important by stakeholders, and were explored qualitatively by Fukukawa and Teramoto (2009), Siltaoja (2006), and Lähdesmäki and Siltaoja (2009).
The two papers selected both looked at cross-cultural values and perceptions, however, they utilise different methods of investigation. This difference could provide a good basis for comparison, in terms of philosophical assumptions, research design, and the method of data collection.
The analyses will begin for each paper with an introduction of the research aims, followed by the epistemological and ontological position, the research design, followed by analysis of its research methodology, the alternative research design and lastly, conclusions from this discussion will be provided.
Chapter 2 Review of Quantitative Research paper
2.1 Research Objectives
This study by Shafer, Fukukawa and Lee (2007) examined the values and the perceived importance of ethics and social responsibility on managers from China and the U.S. The authors used scales instruments to obtain quantitative data in order to make inferences on whether the managers’ nationality and personal values have effect on their ethical perception.

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The American and Chinese managers are assumed to differ in their personal values and subsequently this should be reflected from their responses to the “Perceived Role of Ethics and Social Responsibility” (PRESOR) scale. The authors provided the relevant background information and built up the reasoning for their hypotheses. The first hypothesis was that managers from China would believe less strongly than American managers in the importance of ethically and socially responsible conduct to achieve organisational success. The second hypothesis was that both American and Chinese managers’ personal values are believed to have significant impact on the responses to the scale. These hypotheses seem to correlate strongly with the research objectives which are to determine that there is variation in response due to cultural differences.
2.2 Epistemological and Ontological Assumptions
It is likely that the authors based their research on moral philosophy which “refers in particular to the principles of rules that people use to decide what is right or wrong” (Ferrell, Fraedrich and Ferrell, 2005:19). This paper seems to indicate that the principles of rules of managers of different cultures are likely to differ and thus ethical decision-making would vary. The authors provided examples of other empirical research to support this notion. The assumption that personal values can influence ethical decisions shows that the research is likely to infer an ontological assumption of realist, whereby reality is seen to have an existence independent of the activities of the human observer (Blaikie, 2007:13). As the research strives to compare values and perceptions, these elements are thought to be measurable and quantifiable; seemingly leaning towards the empiricism position in which the key idea is that knowledge comes from observing the world (Blaikie, 2007:19). The authors employed deductive research whereby the “hypotheses formed are tested to determine if the statements can be supported” (Sekaran, 2003:31), which is a typical research approach of empiricists. Taking possibly the stance of positivists, these values are assumed measureable, and are thus thought to form the social reality that these values affect the perception of corporate social responsibility amongst the managers from these two countries.
2.3 Research Design
The intention is to establish the differences in personal values, by using large quantities of data, which would be representative of the overall population of American and Chinese managers. This suggests that there are two assumptions, that values are measureable and that it is possible to generalise the population from the sample. In order to generalise, a considerably large amount of data is required, thus a survey research instrument was employed.
The PRESOR scale developed by Singhapakdi et al. (1995) was used. The reasons that the PRESOR scale was chosen over the cultural dimensions formed by Hofstede (2001) were argued; examples of the latter in other research were shown to be inconsistent and inconclusive in its directional impact, thus making theoretical predictions difficult. The use of PRESOR scale in other research was exemplified and seemed to have established the reliability of its measurement. The PRESOR scale was explained further in the introduction of the paper. Thirteen out of sixteen original items were selected and the authors justified this by stating that only these thirteen items had significant factor loadings in the Singhapakdi, Scott and Franke (1999:25) study. These items were grouped into two categories; the Stockholder and the Stakeholder views. The Stakeholder View reflects the importance of ethics and social responsibility to organisational survival and success, whilst the Stockholder view indicates that organisational success depends on more than just profitability and obligations to the stockholders (Axinn et al., 2004:104)
In the methodology section, the Schwartz value instrument and a demographic questionnaire were mentioned as being used together with the PRESOR scale. There was little mention of the reasons the Schwartz scale was used and how it was applied. It was only later in the appendix that the items considered in the Schwartz scale was provided in details. A clearer explanation could have improved the clarity of the paper.
The research design employed the use of two research instruments (PRESOR scale and Schwartz value instrument) as means for data collection. The sample of practising managers from the two different countries was given the same survey to complete, thus the responses could be compared on that basis. The results from the analyses were then compared against the hypotheses formed, affirming or not affirming the hypotheses. This process is typical of the deductive approach (Blaikie, 2007:70).
2.4 Data Collection
The sample consisted of 311 practising managers, enrolled part time in selective MBA programmes in the U.S. and China. The participation was voluntary and the scales were completed as an in-class exercise. The authors acknowledged potential problems from this sample selection. The first is that, although the MBA programmes in these two countries appear to be comparable, the sample may have confounded the effects of national differences and MBA programme differences. Secondly, the sample was not randomly selected as the authors had asked their students to complete the scales in-class. The authors did not provide further justification for these two problems and thus this is believed to have weakened the external validity of this investigation (Bryman and Bell, 2007:204). Aside from this comment from the authors, there was very little mention of the validity of the measurement which makes it difficult to make further discussion on this. The basis of their selectivity and the criteria in which these programmes were said to be comparable, were also not provided in details. The details of its comparability may have helped clarify and strengthen the validity of the selection criteria, as well as making the paper more understandable.
Considering the objectives of the research, in which the authors seem to be looking at making generalisations on the affect of personal values, there is a need to collect large quantities of data. The survey method seems to be appropriate as surveys are easy to distribute to large number of people and costs can be kept to a minimum (Bryman and Bell, 2007:195). This relates to external validity, which is “about generalisability of results beyond the focal study” (Easterby-Smith et al., 2008:87). In this paper, external validity was not discussed; however, it is likely that the results are meant to be applicable for the context of China and the U.S. only.
The authors stated the limitation of which the participants can not be assumed as representative of the broader populations of managers in these two countries, due to the fact that the MBA programmes were selective in nature. The research took consideration of the possibility that the age and experience differences of their sample might affect the results, and thus these factors were examined for significance. The scale was translated to Mandarin Chinese and later back-translated with resolution of discrepancies, to take account of the language difference. These examples seem to reflect on the effort of the authors in ensuring that the results are not significantly affected by other variables. In order to test the dimensionality of the PRESOR scale, a principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation and Kaiser normalisation was applied. This is typical of a quantitative study where factor analysis is usually applied as part of the research design.
In terms of research replication, this research had provided considerable amount of information which would possibly allow other researchers to perform similar research. The items from the two views (Stockholder and Stakeholder) of the PRESOR scale were provided in details. In addition, the authors also mentioned the calculation method used, such as the use of mean values and the Univariate Analysis of Covariance models (ANCOVA). The only exception would probably be the PRESOR scale itself, whereby the questions that were asked and the choice answers were not explicitly given, which might mean that future researchers might find it difficult to replicate the research and might even have to approach the authors or Singhapakdi who developed the scale.
2.5 Alternative Method
The authors mentioned that more in-depth examination using qualitative design of investigation such as interviews would perhaps be more revealing. It is agreed that qualitative measure would allow insights into the importance of ethics to managers, and the various ethical issues that managers prioritise. The researchers are more likely to obtain a richer data of the decision-making process of managers, at the same time; they would be able to achieve the research objectives. The researchers can make use of semi-structured type interview which will allow better control of what questions need to be asked, and to ensure that the objectives of the interview are achieved as well (Bryman and Bell, 2007:474), if time and costs are constraints.
There are also other alternatives methods to obtain qualitative data that would have fit this research, such as the use of focus groups. Focus group interviews allow researchers to observe the behaviour of the American and Chinese managers as they interact with each other. It would be possible to see the differences in reaction to ethical issues much more clearly, when these managers are given, for example, the same ethical dilemma, and they are required to rationalise the problem and come up with solutions. This method might be more useful than questionnaire surveys, particularly in that the values of the American and Chinese managers could be brought out through the way they respond and react to ethical problems, the problem-rationalisation process, and the degree of attention paid on a particular problem. Similar to the interview method, this would be considerably more costly to conduct, and it might even be more costly than doing interviews, however, the researchers would gain not only in achieving the research objectives but they would also attain a better understanding of the effects of personal values in ethical decision-making.
However, if the goal was only to establish that perception of CSR differs between diverse cultures, the research design would have fit the purpose. This is because the data collection strategy used (questionnaire survey), allowed the authors to obtain considerably response for generalisation. A questionnaire survey would also have been more cost-efficient and less time consuming, especially for cross-cultural studies.
Chapter 3 Review of Qualitative Research paper
3.1 Research Objectives
In this second paper, this qualitative study aims to make apparent the perceptions and views of the future scenarios from stakeholders within the garment industry in Hong Kong and Mainland China. The underlying intention was to seek consensus and common ground, on a local and regional level to help companies develop an appropriate CSR strategy, to improve the state of corporate social responsibility and in the long run, to achieve sustainability in the region.
The main objective was stated as “by engaging with major stakeholders, to identify the local and regional supply chain stakeholders’ perceptions and expectations” (Tsoi, 2007:1). Typical of a qualitative study, generalisation is often not the objective of the study (Bryman and Bell, 2007:410). This is apparent from this study as the author had mentioned that the sample may not be sufficient for generalisation for the entire garment industry, however, it is “relevant to garment businesses involved in export-orientated activities” (Tsoi, 2007:1). Tsoi (2007) used an inductive approach to identify the perceptions of stakeholders by conducting interviews.
3.2 Epistemological and Ontological Assumptions
Although the author did not indicate the philosophical assumptions behind this study, the author implied that by identifying the stakeholders’ perception, “the findings would help in building consensus, strengthening the implementation, and establishing future CSR framework”. This suggests that the author has an ontological position of constructionism, which asserts that social phenomena and their meanings are continually being accomplished by social actors, implying that there exists social interaction and that there is a constant state of revision of the social phenomena (Bryman and Bell, 2007:23). In this case study, the social reality of what is happening in the garment industry, in terms of its corporate social responsibility, is a social reality that was formed by the stakeholders. It suggests that the social phenomena (condition of CSR) can undergo changes, and that it is dependent on the activities of the social actors. The views of the social actors are thought to be indicative of the important issues in corporate social responsibility, within the garment industry.
This form of research is consistent with the research paradigm of the interpretivist position, as the basis of the research is that the study of the phenomena requires an understanding of the social world that social actors have constructed and which they reproduced through their continuing activities (Blaikie, 2007:124). In this instance, the stakeholders are the social actors who will continually interpret and reinterpreting their social world which can be the garment industry. The social phenomenon that the author is investigating is the current state and the future of the corporate social responsibility in Hong Kong and Mainland China. The future conception of CSR in these two places is related to phenomenology, whereby, it concerns with the question of how individuals make sense of the world around them (Bryman and Bell, 2007:18). In this case, it can be viewed as the way stakeholders make sense of the state of corporate responsibility in the region.
3.3 Research Design
The author relied on a qualitative method, specifically, the face-to-face semi-structured interview, which indicates the leanings of the author in “conducting a naturalistic inquiry in real-world rather than experimental or manipulated settings” (Ritchie and Lewis, 2003:4). For qualitative studies, semi-structured and unstructured interviews are commonly used as they provide rich, detailed answers and taps into the interviewee’s point of view (Bryman and Bell, 2007:474). As the focal source of data was the stakeholders themselves in this study, this seems to infer that the research design is based on the interpretivist view that the “social phenomena can only be understood and be investigated from the inside” (Blaikie, 2007:125). The author identified major stakeholders possibly with stakeholder theory, stating the assumption “that multinationals see stakeholder consultation and management as an important communication tool in identifying and interpreting the needs of salient stakeholders” and as such would enable “the development of a common language for CSR and subsequently the development of proactive CSR strategies”. This correlates with the stakeholder approach of Wheeler et al. (2003:19) who stated that “value creation at the highest level requires an ability to build value-based networks where all stakeholders see merit in their association with and support for a business”. In this instance, it is likely that the stakeholders were deemed to be important in the future direction of CSR in the region, and this was the reason that stakeholders were chosen as source of data.
The author mentioned that these interviews conducted in 2004 and 2005 may no longer be relevant, since there were major developments in 2008. This might have made the interviews slightly outdated however; there should not be many changes to the overall aims of the stakeholders and thus the outcomes of this research would remain valid. However, as an alternative, the author could have applied longitudinal design which “represents a distinct form of research design than is typically used to map change in business and management research” (Bryman and Bell, 2007:60). The longitudinal design would not only serve the purpose of this study, but it would also allow insights into the factors that cause change to the perception. With this sample, it is possible to use cohort study, whereby “the cohort is made up of people who share a certain characteristics” (Bryman and Bell, 2007:61), since the stakeholders have a stake in the garment industry. However, longitudinal research may require a lot more preparation, could be time-consuming and thus it could be more costly.
3.4 Data Collection
With regards to the methodology, the interview questions that were used for this research was not provided. As this was a semi-structured interview, it would have been useful if the author had provided general information on how the questions were formed, and the structure of the interview questions as this would provide an indication of the depth of the interviews, and hence the validity of the research design.
For the sample, 25 representatives from academia, the business organisations, the non-government organisations, trade association, and government officials were identified. The response rate was 84%, in which 21 out of a total of 25 representatives of these organisations agreed to be interviewed. It was mentioned that the reason for such a high response rate, was that the author had contacted the interviewees on a one-to-one basis. Furthermore, the interviewees were also guaranteed anonymity. The sample, thus, appears to be extensive and is representative of the various stakeholders that are vital in the garment industry.
3.5 Alternative Method
The intention was that the “findings would help in building consensus, strengthening the implementation and establishing the future CSR framework” (Tsoi, 2007:1). The author might have meant that having collected all the different views from these stakeholders, the author would be able to determine the consensus of how CSR should be developed and how CSR should be like in the future. However, it is doubtful that a consensus could have been obtained using this method of analysis. The interviewees, although were representative of the garment industry, each one a vital stakeholder, there was no real interaction between these stakeholders, and thus, the consensus that is meant is only based on the researchers’ understanding from the interviewee’s responses. Stakeholders are thought to be able to reach a better compromise through discourse, with different sides arguing for the validity of their point as well as ensuring that the interests of the group or association that they represent are taken account of (Bryman and Bell, 2007:511). While it is understandable, that there is a strong possibility that it could be costly to get all the interviewees to sit together through a discourse, nevertheless there are alternatives which might be more useful for the purpose of this investigation, given that the objective is to reach a consensus amongst the stakeholders. With this reasoning, the research design could improve by firstly conveying the findings of the interviews to all of the stakeholders interviewed, and follow up with another interview to see if there were changes to their views.
Alternatively, the author could use the method of focus group interviews. With this method, Merton et al. (1956) (in Bryman and Bell, 2007:511) stated that the “accent is upon interaction within the group and the joint construction of meaning”. Focus group interviews could provide a platform for the interviewees to interact and to establish a joint construction of what it means to strengthen CSR and also determine what future scenarios should and could be like. With regards to selecting a suitable size for the focus group, it is recommended by Bryman and Bell (2007:517) that the typical group size should be six to ten members, whilst Sekaran (2003:220) recommends a size of eight to twelve members. The reason that the focus group interview method was recommended was that the interviewees would be encouraged to express their opinions argumentatively, which would then allow the researcher to gauge the degree of importance of certain issues and how much flexibility the interviewees might have to reach a compromise with others. There are of course possible pitfalls using the focus group method, in that some interviewees might be dominant over others, and thus the opinions of those less dominant might not be heard, but these effects can be reduced to a minimum level by having a good moderator (in Bryman and Bell, 2007:511). The one-to-one interview method could still be more advantageous compared with the focus group interview, as the time and monetary costs of conducting a one-to-one interview would probably be considerably less and thus be more manageable especially if there was only one researcher, as was with this case study.
In this case study, it seemed that a quantitative design would actually be difficult to apply, and it would also be inappropriate for an investigation on the perception of CSR as a business concern. Taking the example of using a questionnaire survey with closed-ended questions, it is very likely that the respondents would answer that they are very concerned about CSR, as that might be perceived as the correct response, thus creating social desirability bias to the results. Furthermore, with a questionnaire survey, the researcher would not be able to pin-point all the various future scenarios for CSR in Hong Kong and Mainland China, even if it was possible, the list of future scenarios might be too long to be practically manageable. Another issue would be that in making assumptions of the future scenarios that are deemed significant to the stakeholders, it would be problematic as the researcher might risk missing out relevant information. Therefore, it would be difficult, from these reasons, that a quantitative design would not be suitable for such a case study.
Chapter 4 Conclusions
In summary, the two papers reflect significant differences in their research approach. This was seen through the objectives of the research, the underlying assumptions of the research philosophy and the conceptualisation of research design and the data collection. There is certainly much to learn from these two research papers, both had given valuable information on the differences between quantitative and qualitative methods, as well as offer guidance on the selection of research method and how to go about utilising these methods. The research designs, as shown in these papers, are dependent of the research objectives and the designs are also influenced by the epistemological and ontological assumptions made. Even though the philosophical positions of the researchers were not made explicit, however, the likely positions can be assumed. These papers have also shown that the advantages and the disadvantages of the different methods of investigation, and they need to be considered to ensure that the best method is chosen for the purpose of the research.
In these two papers, the method of investigation is distinct, one was a qualitative study and the other was a quantitative study, however, this does not necessarily mean that a mixed method of investigation can not be used. In fact, (Bryman and Bell, 2007:646) suggested that triangulation can be applied, in which “the results of an investigation employing a method associated with one research strategy are cross-checked against the results of using a method associated with the other research strategy”.
 

Data Collection And Data Analysis Physical Education Essay

The research method plays an essential role in addressing the research objectives with reliable and valid data. This section illustrates how and why a certain approach chosen to answer the research questions.
The methodology of this research bases on “research onion” model (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2012). The structure of this chapter follows the layers of the research onion model.
Figure 0.: The research ‘onion’ – Source: © Mark Saunders, Philip Lewis and Adrian Thornhill 2008 (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2012, p.108)
3.1. Research philosophy
Selecting the research philosophy is a necessary stage in the research process because it is important to reflect the perspective of a researcher and it also influences directly on the choice of research strategy and research methods (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2012). In business and management research, the popular philosophies includes positivism, realism interpretivism and pragmatism (Creswell, 2008; Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2012). Thus, this research should determine the suitable philosophies based on the philosophy theory and the research questions and research objectives stated above.

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Regarding the theory philosophy, Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill (2012) discuss that there are two key points of view including ontology and epistemology. Firstly, based on ontology, the nature of reality or being of researcher’s view about the positivist is objective, external and independent with social factors, but researcher’s view about the interpretivist is subjective, social constructed and changeable depend on the participants (ibid.). On the other hand, on the way of thinking about epistemology, the valid knowledge of researcher’s view about the positivist focuses on causality, ‘reducing phenomena to simplest elements’, data and facts; but researcher’s view about interpretivist concentrates on social phenomena, feelings attitudes and detail of situations and subjective meaning (ibid., p.119). These viewpoints between ontology and epistemology are difference, and each of them will impact on the way of thinking about the research process. Additionally, the pragmatist research philosophy tends to be the combination of both positivist and interpretivist.
The positivist philosophy is appropriate choice for this research owing to the research objectives to examine the relationships among measurements of an e-learning system success and the using e-learning system of students to support their KM. Regarding ontology view, the e-learning system is an objective and singular. Furthermore, collecting data to analyse the e-learning system success in this research proves that it is positivism based on epistemology view. However, investigating students’ attitude can use interpretivism but it is reasonable with positivism.
3.2. Research approach
Due to positivistic philosophy and the research questions to test theory and the prior researches discussed in the literature review chapter, this research is suitable with deductive approach. This approach includes 5 progressive stages: (1) inferring hypotheses from the theory (test relationship among variables in the e-learning system success); (2) proposing the relationships among variables in this research (e.g. users’ attitude positive impacting on system acceptance); (3) “testing operational hypotheses” (using statistical software to estimate hypotheses); (4) discussing the outcome to confirm the theory; and (5) altering the theory based on the findings (Robson, 2002 cited in Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2012, p.124-125).
Furthermore, the detailed progress of this research based on this deductive approach is illustrated in figure 3.2 (Maylor and Blackmon, 2005).
Figure 0.: The deductive approach process (Maylor and Blackmon, 2005,p.56)
3.3. Research strategy
Creswell (2008) stated that research strategy significantly influence on the direction of the research, as a result, the choice of research strategy is essential in research progress. The factors impact on the selected strategy including the research questions and objective, the choice of research philosophy, research approach and other resources such as time constraint, finance or data access (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2012).
Due to the selected deductive approach, experiment, survey, ground theory or case study are the research strategies that can be applied for this research. Experiment strategy tends to concentrate on a specific group. Moreover, case study is often used in specific research for a period of time. Hence, both experiment strategy and case study are not suitable for this study due to of the research questions. Because this study is developed on the previous researches in difference context, the ground theory strategy is not appropriate with this research. On the other hand, the survey approach is the most rational choice for this research within limited time. Survey strategy can be defined as a specific sampling from the population and the structured questionnaires are designed to test theory (Malhotra and Birks, 2007). This strategy is suitable to test the relationships between variables in research objectives using quantitative data method (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2012). In addition, this survey strategy also appropriate with cross-sectional time horizon studies (Easterby-Smith et al. 2008; Robson 2002 cited in Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2012). Alternatively, the survey strategy also has some limitations such as irrelevant or inaccurate responses of the questionnaire or possibly insufficient sample. The number of responses may not achieve the target of at least 95% of confidential level because people are not able or willing to answers the questionnaire (Girden and Kabacoff, 2010). Understanding the potential drawbacks of the survey strategy is vital that result in well preparing in data collection plan.
3.4. Research choices
Due to the selected positivistic research philosophy as well as deductive approach, the mono method with quantitative approach is the research choice of this study. Using mono method seems to be adequate because this is not ground theory and experiment research strategy. Additionally, referring the section 2.2 of the literature review chapter, the mono method with only quantitative research approach tends to be used in almost previous researches to measure the e-learning system success and to test the research model. Hence, the theory and research framework of based on previous researches are tested in this research in the context of the University of Southampton with the quantitative approach.
3.5. Time horizon
This research has been conducted in three months. Thus, it is appropriate with cross-sectional time horizon owing to time constraint. Cross-sectional researches are appropriate to study specific phenomenon at specific time while longitudinal researches are suitable to study change and development over a long period of time (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2012).
3.6. Research design: Data collection and data analysis
This section aims to describe detail about the quantitative approach to collect and analyse primary data with sampling method, questionnaire design, pilot testing, data collection and data analysis sub-sections.
3.6.1. Sampling method
The context of this research is the University of Southampton. Therefore, all students and alumni of the University who has used the e-learning system at the University can participate on this research. Due to applying survey research strategy in this research, the most suitable sampling method for this study can be probability samples. Based on the probability sampling method (another name is representative sampling), the research questions and objectives can be achieved by evaluating “statistically the characteristics of the population from the sample” (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2012, p.213). In this research, the population which is all students using the e-learning system at the University of Southampton is generalised from the sample which is the students participating in the questionnaire.
The most appropriate sampling technique for this study is simple random sampling but the sampling frame size and the cost and time consuming of this sampling technique is high (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2012). Hence, multi-stage can be used as the sampling technique to save time and cost. In the first stage of this sampling technique, the list of schools at the University of Southampton is drawn. Then, in the second stage, a simple random sample of students can be selected by chosen schools. In fact, the selected schools may be not random because it is not acceptance to help of all schools at the University to broadcast the survey to their students. This study uses online questionnaire as a result of sharing questionnaire easily via emails or social network (such as Facebook). Indeed, several schools at the University are willing to help sending the questionnaire to all their students’ email.
Higher Education Statistic Agency summary that there are more than 23,000 students at the University of Southampton in 2010/2011 (HESA, 2012). Thus, the population in this study can be more than 100 thousands because both students and alumni has been used the e-learning system at the University since at least 4 years. This research targets to achieve 95 per cent confidence level and 5 per cent margin of error. Thus, referring to figure about ‘sample sizes for different sizes of population at a 95 confidence level’, the minimum sample size is 383 (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2012, p.219).
3.6.2. Questionnaire design
Designing a questionnaire is a vital stage in data collection technique to support positivism methodology, deductive approach and survey strategy in business and management research (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2012). The questionnaire technique is used to test the reliability and validity of hypotheses proposed from research objectives and research framework (Neuman and Neuman, 2011). There are many benefits of using questionnaire technique in research. For instance, it is an effective and economical approach to collect primary data (Patten, 2001). It also provide clear result in tabular to analyse easily (ibid.). Moreover, it can be managed anonymously and asynchronously (ibid.).
The type of questionnaire in this research is self-administrated online questionnaire due to the convenience and effectiveness of broadcasting as well as preparing data. The online questionnaire is designed on the iSurvey platform which is endorsed by the University of Southampton (www.isurvey.soton.ac.uk). Because iSurvey is a high quality tool and many advantages such as no cost, secure, friendly interface, ease of use, reliability and stability, it is used to design questionnaire by almost students of the University. Following the ‘questionnaire research a practical guide’ of Patten (2011), the designed questions are clear, short, simple and avoided common errors. Due to the willing help and limited time of participants, only necessary questions are presented in the questionnaire. Moreover, the questionnaire is designed with a short time to complete (around 10 minutes).
The validity of questions in questionnaire can lead to accurate data after collecting, and the reliability means the consistence of collected data (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2012). Bourque and Clark (1994, cited in Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2012) stated three effective methods to design individual questions that are adopting questions used in other questionnaires; adapting questions used in other questionnaires; and developing own questions. Thus, rich literature review significantly supports questionnaire design with high reliability and validity because the questions in questionnaires are tested in the previous researches. Moreover, clear questions in questionnaire are recommended to discuss with others and test pilot studies (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2012).
The questionnaire is designed with three sections. The first section to ask about the basic information of participant, the most important question in this section is that “Have/had you used the e-learning system (Blackboard, Moodle, Medis, ECS, or others) of the University of Southampton?” If participant select option “No”, they will complete the questionnaire. At the second section, the questions are self-developed question to conduct descriptive statistic regarding using e-learning system of students to facilitate their KM. The content of these questions in this section is classified by attribute and behaviour. These questions based on the theory on literature review regarding e-learning system success and KM. They also have been recommended by friends who are studying PhD and have much experience with questionnaire design; and test in pilot study. The final section in the questionnaire aims to test the research framework and research hypotheses. This section includes 32 items and all adopt 5-point Likert scale (from “1 – strongly disagree” to “5 – strongly agree). All items are adapted and adopted questions used in prior researches regarding e-learning system success and e-learning system as a tool to support KM (for example, items are referred and adapted from Lin, 2007; Lin, 2007, Liaw, Chen and Huang, 2008; Liaw, Huang and Chen, 2007 ; Wang and Chiu, 2011). The scales have been tested by previous researchers as discuss in the section 2.2 and 2.4 of the literature review chapter. Thus, the reliability and validity of the instruments are high because of revealed in public papers.
Furthermore, the participant information sheet and only consent form are stated in the welcome page of the online questionnaire to introduce briefly regarding this research, researcher, research questions, contact of researcher and Ethic Committee, and a participant’s consent to taking part in the survey. Additionally, the a debriefing page is stated at the ending page of the online questionnaire in order to give thanks to participants as well as introduce briefly about this research such as research hypotheses and papers closely related to this study.
The full questionnaire is stated in Appendix 1; and the e-mails which are sent to several schools of the University and to fellow students to collect data are stated in Appendix 1; and.
3.6.3. Pilot testing and assess validity
A pilot study (pre-test) conducts a small part of sample to test the questionnaire before delivering the questionnaire to collect primary data from sample. Implementing the pilot test is crucial, especially when researchers lack of experience within designing a survey questionnaire as well as data collection approach (Yin, 2011). According to Vaus (2002), in term of pilot test, individual questionnaire items need to evaluate the variation, meaning, redundancy, scalability, not-response and acquiescent response while the whole questionnaire should test the flow, question skips, timing and interest and attention of respondents. The pilot test also aims to enhance questions in the questionnaire and it can do more than one time. Moreover, after completing the questionnaire, participants of pilot test can comment to refine the questionnaire where which questions can be misunderstood, silly or difficult (Sapsford, 2006). Additionally, the reliability and validity of items in questionnaire can be assessed with the pilot test. Factor analysis also can do in this pre-test to remove low quality items in the questionnaire (Fowler, 2008).
The pilot test to improve the questionnaire in this research was conducted two times. At the first time, the questionnaire was designed with only 2 first sections. The link of the questionnaire was sent by email and Facebook to 20 participants which are students at the University of Southampton. After that, some respondents gave much valuable feedback used to enhance the instruction as well as individual questions in the questionnaire. Because of almost self-developed questions in section 2 of the questionnaire, some questions were recommended by participants who have much experience in designing survey and statistic research. For example, in the question to ask about benefits of using e-mail function of the e-learning system, the kind of question should be changed from multiple choice questions to check box question because respondents can want to select all options. Another example is that some questions such as Yes or No questions had been improved to the open ended questions to investigate in deep why Yes or No option is selected. On the other hand, some participants who studying in English subject at faculty of Humanities at the University had contributed much valuable advice regarding the language including grammar and words choice of the instruction part as well as individual questions. Additionally, the overall appearance and organisation of the questionnaire had been commented. The time consuming to complete the two sections of the questionnaire was calculated in this first pilot test around 4 minutes. After conducting the pilot test, individual questions were changed to be clearer and easier to understand.
At the second time of the pilot testing, the completed questionnaire had been design with the final section. Because 50(+/-20) is the typical sample size at the pre-test stage, the link of the questionnaire was sent to another 40 students (Cooper and Schindler, 2010). After that, there are 32 completed answers with no missing from participants because having 02 PhD students do not use the e-learning system at the University and 6 missing answers. The alert participants if they have left any questions blank function of the iSurvey was not turned on that is the main reason of missing answers in pilot test. Therefore, this function is setup in the main data collection. From the data collection, the consistence of the multi-item scales question was tested by SPSS. This pilot data is also very useful to study data analysis in practice with SPSS and AMOS model test software. Furthermore, overall feedback from almost respondents about the questionnaire is that all questions are clear and easy to understand because the questions in the first two sections had been updated after the first pilot test and all questions in section three have been adapted and adopted from prior researches. Statistic from iSurvey administrative site, from 8 to 10 minutes is a typical time to complete the questionnaire.
3.6.4. Data collection
The completed questionnaire version, the Ethic, Risk, consent forms, the information sheet and debriefing sheet has been submitted to the Ethic committee. After approved by this committee, the questionnaire is broadcasted to students and alumni at the University of Southampton. Initially, e-mail including the questionnaire link is sent to all schools at the University in order to request a help spreading out the questionnaire to students at these schools via the e-mail system of the University (Appendix 2). Several schools (such as English, Music, Modern language at the faculty of Humanities; Law and Management school at the faculty of Business and Law; faculty of Medicine; Education, Mathematics and Social Sciences school at the faculty of Social and Human Sciences) have been agreed and helped to send the questionnaire to all their students. They replied a confirmation e-mail while some other schools sent a sorry e-mail which means cannot help to deliver the online questionnaire.
Secondly, the link of the questionnaire is shared to some Facebook fan page of the University of Southampton such as the University of Southampton Alumni, SUSU group, Southampton Management School Alumni fan page; and some Facebook group such as Vietnamese Society at the University of Southampton group; Badminton, Tennis and Table Tennis at the University of Southampton group.
The data are collected during 15 days from the 2nd of August to the 16th of August 2012.
3.6.5. Data analysis
Both descriptive statistics and inferential statistics to analyse quantitative data are used in this research. Initially, this study conducts descriptive statistics to report the averages, the dispersion, and the central tendencies of the data collected (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2012). After that, the research framework and hypotheses are tested by two-phased approach for Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) (Schumacker and Lomax, 2004; Hair et al. 2006 cited in Wang and Chiu, 2011).
In term of technology for data analysis, Microsoft Excel, IBM SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) and IBM AMOS (Analysis of Moment Structures) software are used. SPSS which is well-known computer programme widely used to carry out statistical analysis in Social Science. AMOS also is a powerful tool and easy-to-use with graphical interface design to analyse model fit. Thus, using these tools can accomplish quickly the results with the highest accuracy. However, lack of basic skills in using SPSS and AMOS software can be the problem affecting the research progress. Nonetheless, due to the booming sharing knowledge in the internet, many online instruction video clips are available on Youtube and tutorials in the internet today. Thus, these tools can be controlled fundamentally in the short period of time.
The strategy to analyse data is stated below:
Analyse the descriptive statistic in SPSS
Test the reliability of items by using reliability analysis in SPSS
Analyse factor analysis to find and delete the unnecessary items in SPSS
Conduct confirmation factor analysis (CFA) to measure research framework in AMOS
Evaluate structure research framework and calculate hypotheses in AMOS.
3.7. Summary
This chapter explained about the selected research method base on the theory, literature review and the research questions and objectives. This research is appropriate with positivistic philosophy and deductive approach. Mono method with quantitative approach is suitable choice to conduct this research. Cross-sessional is the time horizon determined for this research. This chapter also discuss detail regarding data collection and analysis with choosing sampling technique, designing questionnaire, testing pilot study, collecting data strategy and analysing data strategy.
 

Living with Buildings – Wellcome Collection

Living with Buildings – Wellcome Collection

 

The Wellcome Building located in London, England. Source: WilkinsonEyre

The impact of buildings on our physical and mental health are being explored at the Wellcome Collection Museum in the ‘Living with Buildings’ exhibition, located in London.

Living with Buildings exhibition, Thomas SG Farnetti. Source: Wellcome Collection.

The venue is a colourful space filled with art, architecture and health works. The venue interior is a beautiful mixture of different styles, which create a journey for the visitors as they move from one room to another. A dynamic staircase is also a key component that is part of the venue, which connects the ground floor to the first and second floor.

The exhibition features works by artists, architects and designers such as Alvar Aalto, Rachel Whiteread, Camille Pissarro, Giles Round and Andreas Gursky, in order to further explore the way in which design can affect our self-esteem, ideas, health and behaviour. These connections between us and design, may change the way buildings and our surroundings are created.

 

Paimio chair, 1930-2, Alvar Aalto. Source: Alvar Aalto Foundation.

The Paimio chair was designed by Alvar Aalto in the 1930s and was named by the Paimio tuberculosis sanatorium in Southwest Finland. The aim of this armchair was to not only be aesthetically pleasing, but to also help tuberculosis patients breathe, thanks to the angle of the seat. The chair was made by bending thin pieces of birch wood into the desired shape using a mould. 

Making chairs comfortable has always been important but I agree that this is a much more intelligent design because it can help patients stay healthy.

 

The Global Clinic, Steven Pocock. Source: Wellcome Collection.

Architects Roger Strik Harbour + Partners have created an innovative mobile clinic, called the Global Clinic. This structure has been designed to be a quick, flexible and adaptable emergency service to help Doctors working in remote locations, deliver their services safely and efficiently when needed.

The Global Clinic structure has been built from CNC cut plywood pieces, which can connect to form different shapes and change the size of the framework according to the needs of the Doctors.

This structure caught my attention because of it’s portable and functional design. I also believe that the use of natural building materials for this structure, will also have healing benefits for it’s users.

 

Landscape, Paimio by Giles Round, Thomas SG Farnetti. Source: Wellcome Collection.

This Landscape curtain was created by Giles Round in 2018. Similarly to The Paimio chair designed by Alvar Aalto, this piece was also inspired by the 1930s Paimio Sanatorium. The curtain was digitally printed and created with the idea that nature can be healing. This is the reason why the curtain is a reflection of the pine forest where Paimio is located.

I believe that the natural fall of a curtain and the long tree trunks of the trees align beautifully, creating depth and dimension. By bringing nature inside in this way, patients can now spend time in a remedial environment.   

With so many different works displayed in the exhibition, viewers will definitely leave the venue with a new perspective on the world around us. After beginning to understand that it’s a long and tough process for designers, architects and artists, to find the perfect design that ticks all the boxes.

After visiting this exhibition, I have realised that there is a real connection between our built environment and our health. This idea is clearly presented throughout this whole exhibition.

Overall, this exhibition highlights the fact that we can be affected by the built walls that surround us. We live our lives in these buildings so it’s important to keep in mind all the aspects of their creation. As the works I have looked at suggest, these built creations can affect how we work, sleep and even breathe. However, this exhibition also shows the journey through time of how some nations, such as Britain, transitioned to healthier options for our built environments, This brings new hope that healthy buildings will become our new homes.

 

Christ Church – Spitalfields

The Christ Church Spitalfields is an Anglican Church in London’s East End. The Church is open to the public most days of the week and it can also be used as a venue for private, corporate and charity events. Most of the Church has been built from cement and plaster. Stone has been used for the pedestals and columns. Brick and oak has also been used for the entablatures and lintels. Large windows both tinted and plain have been used to create interesting effects when the light hits. Overall, this Church is very unique due to the intricate details both inside and outside the building.

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The Christ Church Spitalfields was built by Nicholas Hawksmoor in the Baroque style, in the early 1700s and completed in 1729. Nicholas Hawksmoor was an English architect born in 1661 in Nottinghamshire and died in 1736 in London. He is considered one of Britain’s greatest architects due to his great works. The church was built under the Act of Parliament of 1711 which required the building of fifty new churches. Nicholas Hawksmoor designed six out of the twelve that were built, including St George in the East, Wapping (1714–29), St Anne Limehouse (1714–30), St Mary Woolnoth (1716–24) and St George Bloomsbury (1716–31).

Spitalfields is home to Old Spitalfields Market. Old Spitalfields Market is a covered market and there has been a market in this location for over three hundred years. In 2005, the Spitalfields regeneration programme was complete and this is when the new and old architecture combined to get the best of both worlds. Spitalfields is also known for it’s lively spirit and strong sense of community. The Christ Church Spitalfields is a piece of history and art still standing, which is part of the unforgotten history of the area. The area also did not lose that sense of community. The Church hosts concerts and art exhibitions. This is a safe place for people to come and connect.

The Christ Church remains loved even today by the people in Spitalfields. The Church has many services available to fit people of any age or ethnicity. People enjoy coming here to view not only the rich architectural history, but to socialise and share their talents. The Church was built as a place of worship and today, people use it for worship and so much more.

The Christ Church became very popular in 1976, after being the perfect venue for the Spitalfields Festival concerts. This encouraged more people to visit the Church and start conversations about the building itself.

In conclusion, this building has remained standing until today due to it’s great value and history. This building is not only a successful creation by Nicholas Hawksmoor, but it serves people in Spitalfields as intended. It’s beauty will always be admired and there are unlimited ways to make use of this Church in Spitalfields, where the new meets old architecture, and the sense of community is always strong.

Annotated Bibliography

 

1) STALDER, L. (2010) ‘Air, Light, and Air-Conditioning’, Grey Room, 40. pp. 84–99.

 

Summary and Readings: Climates

The lecture introduces the relationship of architecture to climates in two scales: Architecture

as the exploitation of nature, and as a secondary climate.

References:

Exhibition Review:

Building Analysis:

Sweden’s Waste Collection System for Sustainability

Sweden is regarded as one of the global leaders in sustainable waste management and in reducing carbon footprint per capita. The country is actively working to reduce its emissions of greenhouse gases, increase energy efficiency and raise awareness among the public. 52% of their trash is burnt to convert it into energy and the remaining 47% is being recycled. Only 1% is Sweden’s trash ends up in landfill. The Swedish government are taking initiatives to reduce their 1% trash and eventually make it to zero waste.

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Sweden has developed a world class waste collection system. The ideas behind this to make the people involved in the process. Now, recycling is a part of Swedish culture. Swedish communities teach their children about the recycling making sure that each and every individual takes part in the process and make sure that every citizen knows how to recycle. The locals sort out their recyclable garbage from other food waste in their homes prior to disposing it. The people just need to go the nearest recycling station which is located within 300 meters from the residential area. The recycling station has different bins for collecting the paperboard waste, aluminum cans, transparent glass, colored glass, clear plastic bottles, and colored plastic containers. It is a very effective way to make sure that recycling streams are not contaminated and also, making sure that most of the recyclables are ending being recycled. They have a very unique way of encouraging recycling; they provide incentives to people who recycle.  Swedish people earn discount coupons as a reward for using nearby recycling machines. As a result, on an average, the Swedish people visit the recycling stations at least two times a week. They have a national holiday for recycling on which children across the country pick up garbage and clean up their surroundings. Children are taught to make their own paper and learning their country’s waste policies in the schools.
 Since, recycling is a lifestyle for Swedish people. The governing bodies as well as the people have realized importance of spreading awareness and encourage the process. The most effective way to address the population is through television and public. In Sweden, famous musicians record songs and commercials to encourage people to recycle. They deposit the plastic bottles and cans to get money in exchange of it. In Sweden, people are encouraged to reuse before they can recycle their product. Reusing requires less energy as compared to recycling. Electronic items are most commonly reused item by Swedish people. As they use refurbished laptops, phones, music players, they contribute to reduce the consumption of new products which are made from new materials. As a result, the country conserves more of its resources.
Sweden prefer to incinerate the waste once collected, incinerating the waste at incineration plants provides heat in the houses of Sweden. The waste-to-energy plants burns over 50 percent of the waste generated in Sweden and the energy produced by these power plants heats homes throughout the country during the long winter months. The ash and the byproducts from the burning process is used in road constructions. Still, Sweden doesn’t create enough waste fuel the waste to energy plants. In order to keep its waste to energy plants burning, Sweden imports waste from other countries. By doing this Sweden is saving money by replacing the use of fossil fuels with waste to generate energy as well as making 100 million USD annual profit by importing the waste produced by other countries. In early 1990’s the Swedish government regulated the waste management program with its local cities but, now they regulate with the industries to produce materials which would eventually turn into waste to keep the incineration plants running. The government provide tax benefits to such companies to make the plan more financially attractive.
Conclusion
 Sweden has revolutionized it recycling policies which helps to be recognized as a zero-waste country. Along with it, Sweden has transformed the high-cost waste liability into a profitable business model through a welcoming nationwide recycling strategy. As the global energy demand continues to grow with ever increasing population, the availability of fossil fuels is steadily decreasing. With the increase in population the waste production will also increase. Their business model is based on turning trash into energy by burning it to their houses warm. By doing this they are able to stop the garbage entering into landfill. However, this has increased negative environmental impacts. Their incineration plants try to filter the byproducts before releasing in the environment, still they emit nontoxic carbon dioxide in the air. Because this process uses garbage that are generally organic, it releases the carbon from the materials in much faster rate.
 Having said that, Sweden’s waste management strategies can also be aligned in with triple bottom line. The strategy provides cleaner environment (including non- toxic co2) and cost-effective way to provide heat energy in the country. The strategy is heavily demanding the participation and encouragement of the people living in the country. The citizens are completely involved in the recycling process and are rewarded with incentives to recycle and also, incorporate the value of recycling in the young generation. And in the end, they get profits by making sure that they reduce cost by not using the fossil fuels which are much costlier than the garbage.
References

 

Methodologies of data collection

The standard and procedure of data collection and gathering can be done by formal and informal way and then, after collecting that data, you do analysis on this data and is called data collection or anthology. In this part of the research procedure, researcher uses different methods and procedures. These methods can include of interviews, surveys, Questionnaires and observation. The most difficult part after collecting the data is the analysis and presentation of this data. The data collection for this research work has been done by using Questionnaires, Interviews and observation of the self service checkout systems, customers and staffs etc.
(Saunders et al 2009)
Desk research or secondary data collection
desk research or secondary data collection, the researcher uses already available data about the proposed research topic in the form of research paper, Books, Journals, Un-published research work, Newspapers, Government websites and research articles etc. this research has already been done by the researcher on the proposed research topic and the researcher is allowed to use these material in their research with proper references to the sources to elaborate more of their proposed research problem. These secondary resources help the researcher to find out more about the research topic and those researchers individual work and experiences to further explore or investigate about the research topic. And, finally, find those research gaps and further contribute to the body of knowledge.
(Saunders et al, 2009)
Field research or Primary data collection
After doing the secondary research, researcher find out about the research gaps and need to explore it further about the proposed research problem. In this stage, researcher uses the Primary data collection methods for collecting the research data by using different methods such as Questionnaires, Observation, interviews, surveys and focus group etc. it is very important that data collected through primary data collection method should not be used by third parties and to reveal to anyone unless they have rights and permission from the authorities. As I mentioned in my previous section that the researcher uses different methods such as Questionnaires, Interviews and Observation to collect the necessary primary data. The researcher uses questionnaires to collect information from the customers about their feedback of the self service checkout system.
(Saunders et al 2009)
Qualitative data
The qualitative data is utilized to get facts and figures about the customer’s feedback and quality of the system. Thorough this type of data collection, researcher search and collect the customers reaction to the respective product or services. E.g. do they like to use the self service checkout system? Do they like this new innovative product? What is their satisfaction level according to our 5 level reaction grid? In this dissertation, researcher has used data being collected from the supermarket customer’s feedback such as ASDA, Selborne Walk shopping centre and ASDA Supermarket, Bakers arms, London. In these supermarkets, researcher has conducted his research using different interviews techniques, Questionnaires and self observation etc.

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Quantitative data
Numerical or quantitative data collection method is utilized to gauge and compute the scale of needed information. Quantitative data collection is very important step in any research work as researcher needs to find out about the average number of customers and their sampling method. This is the extremely important tool for collecting the required data in numerical form for the research work. This sort of data collection method has also been used to analyze the result and for data presentation.
(Saunders et al, 2009)
Customer survey and self service checkout system initiation
In the supermarket environment, competitors are always looking for different ways of retaining the existing customers and attracting the rival supermarket customers by offering incentives and offers to lure them to their business. Different customers have different behavior and attitude towards product or services in the supermarket. Time has gone when customer can be satisfied and retained by offering cheap products or services, instead, now, they look for more in the terms of excellent customer services and good value for their money. Supermarket or retail is in boom period, and, it is very fast moving business. Customers like to have more value and better service for the money. Retailer after doing lots of research and analysis of the customer’s expectation and wants, they decided to use new innovative self service checkout system for faster, flexible, reliability, efficiency, privacy and improved checkout system for the ever changing customer’s requirements.
Self service checkout system is a good technology for using the fast paced retail business to consumer (B2C) environment and it already has gained acceptance for the majority of the customers from around the world supermarket and especially, in the United Kingdom. As I find out about the possible future planning of ASDA supermarket in London, they intend to increase more self service checkout system than assisted checkout system in this year 2010.
ASDA has already done the Survey form the customers about the possible expansion of self service checkout system in future. As I find out from the self service checkout supervisor about this possible future expansion. He has helped me observed the customers and asked questions to the customers about the liking of the self service checkout system.
The survey I conducted among 10 customers at ASDA Supermarket and it was very obvious that they come to the big supermarket for the sack of getting good services as well as good price. The chart below shows how many percentage of the customer in the retail industry like Self Service Checkouts.
In the chart different colors shows different opinions of the customers e.g. brown color represents strongly agreed, sky blue color represent agree, yellow color represents somewhat agree, red color represents disagree and light green color represents neutral. All the bars in the chart show the level in percentage.
Q1: Do you prefer to use self service checkouts instead of Cashier?
In this chart, the bars shows the participation of the customers e.g. in question 3, 25% customers were strongly agreed, 42% customers were agreed, 10% customers were somewhat agreed, 8% customers were disagreed and 15% customers were neutral. According the above we get conclusion that despite it is new system most people use self service check out as the manager at ASDA Supermarket pointed out that it will grow 10% every year in the next 20 year and we will change all our cashier in future.
Q2: Self service check out reduces waiting time to checkouts?
In this chart the bars shows the participation of the customers. 30% customers were strongly agreed, 45% customers were agreed, 8% customers were somewhat agreed, 5% customers were disagreed and 12% customers were neutral.
The graph shows that most customers love to use the service, the first of all that is a new technology and it is natural that every ones wants to try the new technology such as if we look at computer usage. People love to use computer because user friendliness of the system. At the end, we get result that self service check system is really helpful to reduce the waiting time at self service checkout system.
Q3: Self service checkout creates a sense of privacy and anonymity?
In this chart the bars shows the participation of the customers e.g. in question 7, 34% customers were strongly agreed, 41% customers were agreed, 12% customers were somewhat agreed, 5% customers were disagreed and 8% customers were neutral. The chart shows customer use it is more secure and keep their privacy intact.
Q4: I appreciate the ability not to have to deal with anyone?
In this chart the bars shows the participation of the customers e.g. in question 8, 51% customers were strongly agreed, 39% customers were agreed, 5% customers were somewhat agreed, 3% customers were disagreed and 2% customers were neutral.
Q5: self-service checkouts (SSC) are easy to use?
In this chart the bars shows the participation of the customers as;
* 66% customers were strongly agreed
* 27% customers were agreed,
* 3% customers were somewhat agreed,
* 2% customers were disagreed and
* 2% customers were neutral
Majority of the customer at ASDA Supermarket are said it is easy to use but According to the manager of ASDA Supermarket, it depends on the customer education that we don’t have any problem with that customer who are familiar with self service checkout system. It is hard for those who never use this type of service, sometimes, they find difficult to use this system on their own without any assistance by the staff members.
Q6: Please rate your impression of what according to the following scale?

Strongly Dissatisfied

Dissatisfied

Average

Very good

Excellent

Do you find our SSC system easy to use?

Do you like to pay for shopping bags at SSC System?

Do you find our staff at SSC System helpful?

Our premises are clean and well lightened

Products and food are well arranged in the supermarket

Supermarket offers excellent value of money

Our working hours are convenient for you

Our staff are courteous and helpful to you while you are shopping with us

This survey aim is to find out how the self service check out can increase efficiency, effectiveness in the retail industry beside that the industries putting their effort to satisfy their customers in different ways by implementing some strategy that could be useful to the companies as global competition is rising between industries customer satisfaction comes hot topic .self services check out has implemented in retail industry to reduce the time of the customers the survey I conducted from the manager in ASDA Supermarket that he pointed out the good thing is this service is very quick it does the transaction very fast that is a positive point to the ASDA Supermarket it reduces the customer complaint now days most customers are complaining the time that spend in the shopping in ASDA Supermarket for instance if a customer buy one item . they have to wait maximum 15 to 20 minutes in the queue it is a big challenge in our operational level how to decrease it we are trying to expand the new service in all our store . it gives two positive impact to the company the first point it satisfies the customers the second point it saves the cost The new service is lost longer more efficiency that it helps too much in operational level it grows 10% every year like I could say 75% are satisfy like minority of the customers say it is not easy to use it is complicated even some of them don’t trust on self service check the new service might do wrong transaction it might scan the items two times and he pointed out some inexperienced customer cause some delays they face for some problem how to do transaction but most educated people love to use the new service it gives empowerment to the customer .
By long standing in queue every day as it happens in Tesco Supermarket. it is clear to understand that the new service could increase the customer satisfaction as well as it can save a lot of cost and reduce waiting time.
The Research:
My research is on the self service checkout system would involve doing some research work in the supermarket. I would like to use supermarket like as ASDA and TESCO that are very near to my residential area Walthamstow, London. Firstly, I decided to use the supermarket Morrison at Wood green, London, but, I did not get permission from management to conduct my research work by using my questionnaires to the customers and doing self observation at self service checkout system in the Morrison supermarket. I decided to go to my nearer supermarket “ASDA” to ask the manager to conduct my research work at the ASDA supermarket. Their accepted my proposal for academic research surprisingly. I convinced them that this information and data will be confidential and I will not disclose any information to anyone without their prior permission to do so. I observed customers at the ASDA supermarket by using the self service checkout system that how easy they can use the system without facing any problem and difficulty. In conclusion, I can say that older people were among the least that were reluctant to use the new self service checkout system. System performance was not as friendly as I anticipated because there were some technical loop holes in the system as customer scan the item and place into bagging area but instead of moving to next item scanning, system was asking the customer to place the item into bagging area. There was an Identification issue when customer wants to buy the Alcoholic drinks and other replacement of damaged items when there was a long queue of customer at the back of that serving customer. I observed the whole shopping time duration that vary in different mode of payment has been used.
One item shopping time duration was approximately 45 seconds per minute and it vary as number of items in the shopping basket increases. Staff at the supermarket was not very friendly by the start of my research work as they were thinking me as a management man observing their working performance and pattern, but, Luckily, I did able to convince them as I am only doing this research work for the academic purposes and not for any other use.
I enjoyed this research work as it gave me the insight of analysing and observing the customer behaviour and customer satisfaction shopping experience as stated by Prof. Phillip Kottler,
“Customer satisfaction can lead to customer retention”
 

Philosophy & Methods For Data Collection

This chapter looks at the research methodology and any limitations or potential problems in context to the researchers investigation of the leadership styles and their effects in influencing military divers’ safety perceptions, participation and acceptance of safety change within the MOD. The relevant sub-sections will specifically detail the selected strategy subscribed to in pursuit of answers to the research questions and the way in which data was gathered, analysed and utilised, and will further:

Discuss the research strategy plan and considerations;
Explain the reasons for the data collection methods adopted;
Present the framework for data analysis and the techniques chosen to achieve the research goals.

Both Bryman and Bell (2010) and Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill (2009) provide clear direction and full explanation of the layers connected with research strategy and design in terms relating to research: philosophies, approaches, strategies, methods, time horizons, technique and procedures. Figure 3-1 gives graphic representation of the ‘Research Onion’ as presented by Saunders et al. (2009, p. 108). For a researcher Saunders et al. (2009, p. 108) advocates that the philosophy adopted is an important assumption about the way the world is viewed, and will underpin the research strategy and methods chosen. Saunders et al. (2009, p. 107) quantifies that “The over-arching term research philosophy relates to the development of knowledge and the nature of that knowledge”. The researcher view for this study is subjectivist, adopting an interpretivism philosophy combined with an inductive approach.
Subjectivism is the interpretation of the meaning that individuals attach to group life occurrences; in context the researcher understands the social interaction between diving supervisors and subordinates relating to maintenance and acceptance of diving safety (Saunders et. al. 2009, p. 111).
Interpretivism is the appreciation of the differences between individuals as social players; key to this will be the researcher adopting an empathetic position to enter the group world of the research subjects to fully experience and appreciate their viewpoint as far as he is able (Saunders et. al. 2009, p. 116).
Inductive research approach (formulation of theory); adopting this approach allowed the researcher to gain a better understanding of people, and their attachment, in real world situations, whilst providing a greater degree of flexibility to allow changes to research emphasis as the project progressed (Saunders et. al. 2009, p. 126).
The objectives for this study are set within the context of a military high risk operational diving organisation and are looking to:

Identify the leadership style that best influences military divers’ safety perceptions, participation and acceptance of safety change.
Explore the military divers’ concepts of safety leadership and their understanding of the defence diving safety climate.
Examine the attitudes and perceptions of military divers’ to the organisational and technological safety changes, and the leadership of these changes.

A key aspect of value to this research is the opportunity, as identified during the literature review, to bridge a gap in existing research to associate an effective leadership style, with improved safety: education, participation and acceptance of change within a dynamic and diverse high risk defence military diving environment. The people of the armed forces are the key component from leadership to subordinate, and the integration between the two will determine the success and achievement of the maritime fighting operational capability. The chosen research philosophy is proposed as effectively allowing the researcher to understand the social interaction between leadership and those they command, to gain an appreciation of the differences between individuals and the roles they perform, and to understand the values that individuals attach to safety events in the setting of a frontline operational FDG. This research is a conscious effort to assist the military command to analyse and develop safety leadership skills, and equally important, educate and encourage others, whilst gaining an understanding of subordinates perception and perspective of the military diving safety climate.
Research Strategy
In the process of framing a clear overall research plan due consideration has been given to the research project in terms of the objectives and research questions relative to the purpose of this study.
The research strategy choice is led by the research questions and objectives, the amount of existing knowledge, time constraints and the resources available, supported by the researchers’ philosophical foundation (Saunders et. al. 2009, p. 141). This research involves serving military personnel within three operational units in the organisational structure of the FDG. The research purpose is a practical investigation with the study emphasis looking at a situation in order to explain the association between effective leadership styles and subordinate participation, perception and acceptance of safety change within a safety focused organisation.

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Within the context of this study, and linking the relevancy of the research methodology to the research project objectives and questions, the researcher justifies the selection of an explanatory case study strategy as the key research paradigm. A case study concentrating on the FDG as the organisation, and the three embedded FDU’s within as the sub-units, will provide an empirical investigation of present military diving safety leadership within its real life operational context using multiple sources of evidence.
The researcher has identified the following reasons for selecting the chosen strategy as the most appropriate:
The emphasis is on studying a situation or problem in order to explain the relationships between variables (changeable military operational diving environment), Saunders et al. (2009, p. 140) explains “studies that establish casual relationships between variables are termed explanatory research”. Explanatory case studies centre on trying to find out – explain – why something happens.
Biggam (2011, p. 118) cites Cohen and Manion (1995) who describe that the case study researcher typically observes the characteristics of an individual unit (single case study) or number of units (multiple case study); the purpose of such observation is to probe deeply and to analyse intensely the different phenomena that constitute the life cycle of the unit or units. Saunders et al. (2009, p. 145) supports a case study strategy by citing Robson (2002) who defines case study as ‘a strategy for doing research which involves an empirical investigation of a particular contemporary phenomenon within its real life context using multiple sources of evidence’. Saunders et al. (2009, p. 146) advocates that the adoption of a case study strategy will give a rich understanding of the context of the research, and the processes being enacted and the ability to generate answers to research questions that seek a range of different kinds of evidence.
Ethical Review – A University of Portsmouth ‘Ethics Approval Form – Students’ has been completed at Appendix 1. Ethical implications have been considered in terms of this research strategy and the key ethical issues affecting participants regarding: safety, harm, embarrassment, stress, privacy consent, confidentiality have all been carefully covered and have been fully documented within that document. The Information Sheet and Consent Form at Appendix 3 were utilised, which clearly provides information regarding participant involvement and anonymity.
Data Collection
Two data collection techniques that are commonly used within research are quantitative and qualitative. Bryman and Bell (2010, p. 26-27) outlines that quantitative research is a strategy that emphasizes quantification in the collection and analysis of data (numeric); whereas qualitative research is a strategy that accentuates words (non-numeric). Saunders et al. (2009, p. 151) gives further explanation in that the research data collection technique chosen will be guided by the research questions, which if clearly formulated will effectively determine the method used to answer them.
A military diving organisation, operating within a high risk complex environment, has many sources of data that can be drawn from to facilitate a better understanding of the people, and their attachment, in this real world situation. Focusing on the keywords to identify, explore and examine it was decided to use a mixed methods approach which allows for different data collection techniques to establish an outcome from more than one angle (thereby offering a measure of triangulation). The emphasis for data gathering concentrated on the use of questionnaires, and researcher participant observation to collect primary data from a sample source of fifty-three personnel serving within the FDG units, giving a confidence level of 95% with a 1% margin of error. The rank range of the fifty-three personnel was CDR to AB; RN rank hierarchy structure is presented at Figure 3-2. Secondary data was sourced from organisational documentation.
The literature search strategy was conducted via the University of Portsmouth Library intranet, using the databases Science Direct, Web of Knowledge, Emerald, Business Source Premier and Ebrary e-book reference library. The key search words used and combinations are detailed in Table 3-1. Google Scholar Advance was also utilised using the same key words. The military Defence Intranet was used to source and review military reports, documents and publications. The researchers of the articles all come from reliable academic and professional backgrounds; as research authors’ they have been attributed with academic articles in credible publications on the topic and related issues of leadership and management competency.
Key Search Words: Leadership, Safety, Military, Perception, Style(s), Climate, Effective, Indicators, Commitment, Transactional, Transformatinal, Training, , Occupational, Workplace, Acceptance, Models, Health and Safety Executive, Commercial, Organisations, Passive, Participation, Change, Criteria
Framework for Data Analysis
Bryman and Bell (2010, p. 571) suggest that one of the central complications with qualitative research is that it very quickly generates a bulky, cumbersome database due to dependence on text in the form of field notes, interview transcripts, or documents. The task of framing research data for analysis is a process of describing, analysing and interpreting the collected empirical data (Biggam, 2011, p. 113). Saunders et al. (2009, p. 490) put forward the use of qualitative analysis processes such as summarising (condensation), categorisation (grouping), and structuring (ordering) of meanings from collected data, and that all of these can be used in isolation or in combination to support interpretation of data. Saunders et al. (2009, p. 491) outlines that the procedures for analysing qualitative data can be highly structured, whereas others adopt a much lower level of structure. In contrast quantitative data analysis in the forms of graphs, charts and statistics allow for presentation, description and examination of data to establish trends (Saunders et al. 2009, p. 414).
In support of an inductive research approach primary quantitative data was analysed using tabular and pie chart representation, and qualitative data by summarising and narrative thematic analysis. The data gathering process included the use of questionnaires to gather quantitative data and field notes were taken as part of the participant observations to gather qualitative data. Figure 3-3 presents the adopted quantitative and qualitative analysis process for this research project. As research developed related information and ideas were recorded by the use of interim summaries and self-memo as analytical aids.

Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis Process
Compare Findings (Literature Review)
Collect Data
Analysis Process
Group Themes and Issues
Perform Analysis (Interpret what is happening

Limitations and Potential Problems
The selection of a particular research strategy is determined as Saunders et al. (2009, p. 108) suggests by the researcher’s view of the nature of reality or being (ontology), the view regarding what constitutes acceptable knowledge (epistemology), and the view of the role of values in research (axiology).
In terms of this research project the adopted philosophy is that of interpretivism; comprehension of the differences between individuals as group players (Saunders et al. (2009, p. 119). To support this rationale and provide clarification, this research is focused on an investigation amongst individuals within an organisation and the importance of gaining a better understanding of the differences between the leadership and follower human factors and the roles that these differences play. The emphasis for the use of an inductive (formulation of theory) approach and the link with adopting an interpretivism philosophy is based on the following key aspects:
The research is value bound and the author is part of what is being researched and cannot be separated and so will be subjective (Saunders et al. (2009, p. 119)
The authors view regarding acceptable knowledge is subjective focusing on the details of the situation and the reality behind these details (Saunders et al. (2009, p. 119)
Research emphasis is on mixed method (quantitative and qualitative) data collection from a small sample with a purpose of in-depth investigation to gain an impression of what is ‘going on at the coalface’, so as to understand better the nature of the situation.
The Case Study is a research strategy that has been employed by researchers to tackle and offer an understanding of real-life issues across a broad range of study areas. Saunders et al. (2009, p. 146) suggest as a strategy the case study is considered apt in generating answers to ‘Why?’, ‘What?’ and ‘How?’ questions which as a strategy will be of particular importance for this safety research where the aim is to gain a deep understanding of the situation and the procedures being performed (Saunders et al. 2009, p. 146).
Contemplation of the rationale for this investigative project and the use of multiple method data collection and analysis techniques best fit the influences and aim of an investigative research project into real-life safety leadership and management in context to a high reliability military organisation. Bryman and Bell (2010, p. 42) suggest that “a research method is simply a technique for collecting data”, and an essential criterion for business research is that the study is reliable (dependable), can be replicated (confirmability), and is valid (credible), therefore it is vital to ensure that data collection and analysis is relevant to ensure the study is focused and concise. The time-frame associated with this research project will only permit a “snapshot” to be taken at a particular time and as suggested by Saunders et al. (2009, p. 155) a cross-sectional time horizon best suits academic research projects of this type. Consideration of the short time frame and small sample group; key to this research project’s success is therefore centred in the selection of multiple research methods with focus on empirical data collection from questionnaires and participative observation techniques to collect primary data, supported by secondary data collection from organisational documentation. Use of a mixed methods approach can yield better prospects to answer the research questions and evaluate the extent to which findings may be trusted and inferences made (Saunders et. al. 2009, p. 160).
Saunders et. al. (2009, p. 156) discuss the credibility of research findings with reference to reliability (that data collection and analysis produce consistent results) and validity (that results are actually about what they seem to be about). The selected research approach is considered to provide reliability; the researcher was mindful of the threats such as participant and observer error and bias, which could present threats to reliability. In an effort to combat participant prejudices and inaccuracy anonymity was maintained throughout, and questionnaires were completed at a selected time that as far as possible prevented external influence. To mitigate against observer partialities and mistakes accurate field notes where maintained during observations, and embedded periods where spent with each FDG unit to gain a real sense of the situation, recording actual events as they occurred rather than relying on memory. The researcher has delivered consistent and valid research which has investigated safety leadership and the concepts and perception of military divers as set out within this chapter in the context of real military missions and rehearsals; where their has been risk of equipment failure, individual error and environment issues at all times.
 

Data Collection: A Critical Analysis

Data collection and analysis has been named “the oil of the digital industry” (The economist, 2017). With the increased use of technology both business and consumers now generate large volumes of data every day with the ‘Big Data’ technology market growing at an annual growth rate of 23.1% from 2014-2019 (Herschel and Miori, 2017). Consumer data is proving to be of great value to business enabling a deeper understanding of consumers in order enhance their customer experience and inform marketing activities (Colombus, 2016). However alike to the oil industry, the big data industry does not come without it’s flaws. The volume and scope of data now being generated raises questions concerning morals, ethics and consumer privacy. This critical essay will investigate the moral implications of data collection and how data should inform marketing activities. Example cases will be examined to draw an informed conclusion.

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The increase in technology and digitalisation of consumer culture has resulted in what’s known as ‘Big Data’ referring to the collection and analysis of extremely large sets of data (Deighton, 2018). Businesses, in particular marketers look at metrics now more than ever before (Olenski, 2018). Colombus (2016), believes the use of big data is “revolutionising” marketing and sales providing businesses with valuable information that allow managers to gain insights into future trends, improve their customer service, maximise their online reach and increase the efficiency of their supply chain. Boyd and Crawford (2012) support this in stating that the technology and techniques behind big data analysis provides a level of intelligence that can generate insights that were previously impossible. However, this named ‘revolutionary’ technological movement also brings uncertainties. The benefits of big data to businesses are unquestionable however it’s moral impact on society is less easily understood (Braschler et al,. 2019). There are concerns that the scope of big data is a major threat to individuals “freedom and privacy” (Christen et al., 2019).  That being said, the use of big data is now considered essential for businesses to effectively adapt to meet demands in order to survive amongst competitors (Cordon et al., 2019).
To understand the advance in data collection further, it is important to identify how technology is used to inform marketing activities. With the ever-increasing use of digital technology, the volume of data collected is continuously growing (Cordon et al., 2019). Consumer behaviour can now be tracked, searched and analysed through their use of social media, smart phone apps, web browsing, GPS tracking and online streaming which leave a digital record at every click (Deighton, 2018). Cordon et al (2019) explain in more detail, when an internet user visits a website, a company can determine both their geographical location from the IP address along with what web browser and device is being used. This enables the business to implement marketing “customisation” offering products or services to that consumer based on their estimated “purchasing power” and the habits of similar users (Corden et al., 2019). This portrays a clear example of the volume of information that can be collected and utilised from a consumer’s technological footprint.
Real life examples of big data initiatives provide a greater insight into the use data for business activities. Walt Disney theme parks provide a sophisticated example of the use of big data as each of their visitors are issued a ‘magic wristband’ containing radio- frequency identification (Alharthi et al., 2017). For the purposes of the visitors these provides a more personal experience with benefits such as queue jumping meanwhile for the company it provides data sets to analyse consumers purchasing behaviours, waiting time and preferences all in order to effectively enhance the customer experience (Alharthi et al., 2017). In contrast to this, Amazon displays how data collection has been used for business activities other than marketing. Amazon have similarly produced wristbands to collect data however for the purposes of tracking the productivity of their workers to the extreme that even toilet breaks are timed (Solon, 2018). Solon (2018) states the initiative is regarded as an unethical use of data collection as amazon workers are turned into low-paid “human robots”. These examples illustrate the extent to which data can be utilised for both good and bad. Businesses are producing vast quantities of data every day and have the potential to utilise this data in a moral manner to inform marketing activities and enhance the customer experience.
Understanding the accessibility and attainability of consumer data to businesses results in questioning regarding the ethics behind data collection and who else could potentially be accessing their data. Most of the excitement towards big data stems from the easiness to access such large amounts of it (Boyd and Crawford, 2011). Boyd and Crawford (2011) state however, simply because it is accessible does always not grant it to be ethical. In fact, it is stated that 50% of businesses ethical violations will be a result of the misuse of big data (Herschel and Miori, 2017). To give an illustration, a study carried out by a Harvard-Based research group collected information from anonymous profiles of 1700 college Facebook Users, unknown to them, to learn how their interests and friendships changed over a period of time (Lewis et al,. 2008). This information was passed on to other researchers for analysis who discovered that the data could remove the anonymity of the information therefore invading the privacy of the students (Zimmer, 2008). Martin (2015) highlights the issue this example encompasses, explaining that passing on consumer data can result in “secondary misuse” of the data. Individuals privacy may be compromised, or false conclusions may be drawn (Martin, 2015). There have further been cases where employees have simply copied and shared data they’ve had access to or glitches in the technology itself have resulted in leaks of consumers data (Alharthi et al,. 2017). With that being said, the benefits of the uses of big data cannot be fully disregarded due to unethical cases (Martin, 2015). Nevertheless, as data collection and analysis grows, individuals personal and sensitive information is at increased risk of exposure therefore the need to protect individuals privacy is essential (Alharthi et al,. 2017).
Misuse of consumer data puts into questioning to what extent consumers are aware of how their data is used and how businesses can be more transparent in terms of data usage. Blackman (2018) states that a study by KPMG International showed that almost half of consumers are more anxious than they were in 2017 about giving businesses their data. However, despite the increased anxiousness 75% of those surveyed are still willing to do so, in particular millennials as they see the benefits in enhanced customer experience and personalisation (Blackman, 2018). Morey et al. (2015) support this in stating that consumers appreciate that sharing their data has the potential to save money and time leading them to more personalised experiences and discounts. On the other hand, Masters (2019), states that in many cases consumers do not understand the extent to which businesses investigate consumers lives. The essential key for both businesses and consumers regarding data collection and analysis is trust (The DMA UK Ltd, 2018). Consumers decide whether to share their information with a company primarily depending on their level of trust in the business, which can be built through business transparency (The DMA UK Ltd, 2018). Christen et al, (2019) explain that transparency means individuals have the right to know what data is being collected and how it is being used. Transparency can be advantageous for the business as well as their consumers as it enables them to gain customer loyalty (Blackman, 2018). That being said, businesses have a tendency to provide their terms and conditions, on their websites, in an incomprehensible, lengthy format that often deters customers from reading or understanding (Braschler et al,. 2019). Nonetheless, transparency of business data usage means consumers are more informed when deciding whether to trust a company with their data.
There are further advantages in technology that are resulting in new moral concerns surrounding privacy and algorithm profiling. Businesses are heavily investing in artificial intelligence which has resulted in new smart devices such as Amazon’s ‘Alexa’ and ‘Google home’ created for consumers amusement and convenience (Statt, 2019). Such devices seek to combine artificial intelligence and the real world allowing users to interact more naturally through speaking rather than using the likes of a mouse or keyboard (Deepika et al,. 2019). Devices like these, along with our smart phones, use powerful audio analysis algorithms that have the ability to gather personal information simply from the sound of someone’s voice (Mcloughlin, 2018). Smart devices carry out algorithm profiling utilising the information they listen to in order to build up individual ‘profiles’ containing knowledge of “habits and preferences” (Bendle and Dawar 2018). Bendle and Dawar, 2018 state that often devices such as these, are able to predict consumers needs and wants before they themselves can, providing extremely valuable information for businesses to inform marketing activities. However, this has caused concern regarding user’s privacy questioning whether these devices are listening to all private conversations (Cuthbertson, 2019). To illustrate, a Bloomberg, 2019 report shared that employees for Amazon’s Alexa and the Google Home have been found to share recordings amongst their colleagues when they find it to be amusing. In more extreme cases, employees have turned to the police when they have listened to recordings of what they determine to be sexual assault (Day et al,. 2019). However, Google and Amazon have both defended privacy accusations stating that only “small snippets” of recordings are analysed by their experts, simply to improve voice recognition (Cuthbertson, 2019; Statt, 2019). Amazon further stated that no audio is stored unless the “wake word” is used to activate it (Day et al,. 2019). Despite of these claims, a large proportion of society remain reluctant to bring smart devices into their homes over the concern that people are listening (Day et al,. 2019). New smart devices bring an increased level of data handling and therefore an increased level of consumer concerns. To be successful smart device companies must tackle consumer fears through establishing trust. 
Fortunately, as big data has grown rapidly in the last 5 years, law and regulation are also developing at speed (Herschel and Miori, 2017; Kemp, 2018). The year of 2018 saw significant legislation being passed consisting of new requirements replacing the out-dated 1998 Data Protection Act (Solon, 2018). The General Data Protection Regulation (GDRP) was implemented in May 2018, in all EU countries giving individuals greater protection of their privacy and forcing companies to make significant changes to their data collection techniques with large fines if failure to comply (Solon, 2018). The GDRP has also been applied in the UK along side the Data Protection Act 2018 (Burgess, 2019). The new legislation encompasses various rights for individuals including the “right to be forgotten” meaning businesses must delete data if an individual no longer wishes for it to be held (Solon, 2018). Further, as mentioned earlier instead of lengthy, incomprehensible terms and condition forms, businesses are required to replace these with easy to understand consent forms (Solon, 2018). Burgess (2019), believes that “Europe is now covered by the strongest data protection rules”. This legislation marks significant improvements for the moral implications of data use. However, Coos (2018), argues that there is a concern for overregulation as the GDRP could be a burden for customers affecting the enjoyment and convenience of customised marketing. This is a key factor for businesses customer retention (Coos, 2018). Further, enforcing the new legislation within a business can be extremely costly as many must hire employees simply for that purpose (TDS, Ltd. 2018). That being said, when it comes to laws and legislation enforcing good morals and ethics concerning data usage, the pros outweigh the cons, when an individual’s privacy is at stake.
Conclusion
To conclude, data collection and analysis, otherwise known as big data, is a digital phenomenon that has grown rapidly in recent years becoming an essential tool for businesses to compete with others. The collection of data allows businesses to understand their consumer’s needs and wants, building profiles in order to inform marketing activities more efficiently. Additionally, evidence shows consumers enjoy the benefits that the convenience elements data collection provides such as customised marketing. However, it is imperative that businesses carry out their data use ethically and in line with regulations in order to protect the privacy of individuals. Evidence illustrates numerous cases where individuals privacy have been breached, data has been used for unethical purposes or secondary misuse of data has compromised data anonymity. Ethical use of data demonstrated through business transparency is beneficial for both businesses and consumers as it forms trust between the two and results in customer loyalty. Data collection and analysis is a valuable tool for informing marketing activities provided moral implications are considered.
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