How Does Corporate Crime Challenge Conventional Definitions of Crime?

Corporate crimes are categorised as a beneficiary conflict of interest rather than harmful. Erin Sheley (2018) approaches the types of corporate crime as ‘over inclusive and under inclusive’. An ‘’employee engaging in sexual violence, and intending to benefit the corporation lets the corporation off the hook for liability for sexual violence’’ according to Erin Sheley (2018). I will be examining corporate crime in Canada and US. After, how corporate crime should not be handled by deterrence but by increasing social responsiveness and whistle-blowers. Also, exploring theorists like Baucus and Dworking, with involvement of some famous cases of Enron, WorldCom and Bernad Madoff known as ponzi scheme. Lastly, cyber-crime fraud and bribery themes will be explored by numerous case studies.

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Corporate crime is becoming ‘’less criminal and more lucrative in Canada’’ according to Patricia Adams (2017) and the main one is corruption crimes. The method of approach to be applied by the federal government is to introduce deferred prosecution agreements (DPAs) under which corporations agree to pay fines and promise to fix their harm. This method is also widespread in the U.S. under the Obama administration, whose Department of Justice had selected it as a preferred method of dealing with corporate crime. The deferred prosecution agreements allows the government to avoid costly trials and instead make the companies pay fines for the harm caused and the government departments get to keep the money, and track other illegal action takers. This method helps the government to punish companies effectively, but it also indicates how they should focus on punishing the individuals criminally at fault, instead of the whole corporation. On the other hand, the government is aiming to decriminalize corporate crime by exchanging criminal charges for cash and compliance. (Patricia Adams, 2017)

Furthermore, Milton Friedman’s theory on corporate crime about how crime can still occur even where an organisation is achieving its targeted goals, individually or in groups indicates how, it’s difficult to decide whether to punish the members or the whole corporation. This creates a connection to his theory, on how corporate crime should not be handled by deterrence through negative sanctions or by training in organisation ethics but by increasing social responsiveness. As the spread of social responsiveness would enable people to care for the environment and their organisations code of practice and obey by the policies and legislations. In addition, the well-known theory of Merton about whistle-blowers should be increased as it would help the members of the organisation to easily report any criminal issues in the organisation. (H.G. van de Bunt.,1994: 11-20)

Moreover, a written whistle-blower policy would protect the organisation from civil and criminal lawsuits. Therefore, actively encouraging whistleblowing from all employees in their organisations. Also, all organisations should be independently investigated, and whistle-blowers should be given the option to remain anonymous. (Dominic Peltier-Rivest., 2018: 784-794)

Baucus and Dworkin’s theory on corporate crime in 1991, defines it as ‘’trust violators’’ and refers to crimes committed either by a corporation, i.e. a business entity having individuals or groups acting on behalf of a corporation. There is also a connection with this theory and the Ponzi scheme and Enron, WorldCom and Bernad Madoff are the types of some famous cases of the Ponzi scheme involved in corporate crime. The case on Bernad Madoff is the main one and it’s about an individual who misrepresented himself and his company to commit corporate crime known as Ponzi scheme. Lastly, Ponzi scheme is a type of corporate crime that traps victims to investment funds and then pays those victims a premium or interest from the money that is paid by successive investors. (Normah Omar., 2016: 257-272)

Moreover, the numerous cases involved in corporate crime include serious cyber-crime fraud cases that occurred in the UK and the first reported conviction in the UK is based on a phishing scam that involved David Levi, who was convicted of fraud at Preston Crown Court in 2005. Levi had obtained £200,000 by auction account details and bank details and was sentenced to a term of three years’ imprisonment for fraud. After, Levi was sentenced for 12 months for perverting the course of justice for targeting customers and persuading them to disclose their bank account details. This case was than reported to Daily Telegraph and Levi and his gang sent emails purporting to come from the auction site and advertised high-value items for sale and took the proceeds of such sales. (Jonathan Fisher QC., 2008: 198)

The other case is a type of bribery and it’s a method of making a payment or giving a reward to a person in office or a position of power to induce them to act in a corrupt manner for the benefit of the person making the payment or giving the reward. The solution created for bribery in the corporate sector, is the BA method and the effectiveness of the BA is likely to be enhanced by its extraterritorial reach such that UK companies committing bribery overseas would face prosecution back in the UK. Moreover, there seems to be two categories of bribery which is public and private companies and there seems to be a differentiating approach between the two in the old laws in the UK. Furthermore, Stuart Green argues that public and private are distinguished on grounds that those who hold public office have duties that are qualitatively different from those held by employees of private firms. (Jonathan Mukwiri., 2015: 16-27)

Additionally, in a 2013 study of corporate crime by Steffensmeier, Schwartz and Roche, gender differences in terms of the magnitude of damages and character involvement were examined by the gendered crime framework. This study had taken place on 7 geographic regions, Canada, China, the European Union, Oceania, Middle East, the UK and the USA. The study was based on 5,441 reported fraud cases by Certified Fraud Examiners over a 10-year period time from 93 nations, using ordinal logistic regression methods to test the likelihood of women committing corporate crimes when controlling age, position, compensation levels and education. The results highlighted that women are three times as likely than men to engage in crimes of asset misappropriation and the most prevalent corporate crimes. It involved 87% of all frauds internationally and awaiting investigations of specific geographic regions, Canada (OR3 = 3.26), China (OR3 = 4.8), the European Union (OR3 = 2.18), Middle East (OR3 = 3.83), Oceania (OR3 = 4.11), UK (OR3 = 8.05) and the USA (OR3 = 2.2). The outcome provided the women with the opportunity to get a place professional careers, but also to engage in corporate crime and the Uniform Crime Report data indicated a narrowing gap of genders offending in financially motivated crimes. (Theresa Hilliard., 2018: 811-837)

On the other hand, corporate crime is seen to be considered as a dysfunction of value networks and how they are seen as neutral factors in the way corporate crimes are committed. Clinard and Yeager 1980, believes that economic pressures and other sector-based and institutional factors is likely to have a key role in the corporate environment that attracts unethical and illegal practices. According to Yeager 1986, it is also thought that organizations mirror the basic elements of their environments and the perspective adopted by DiMaggio and Powell 1991, in their institutional theory is based on the same principles and viewpoints. (Michel Dion., 2009: 436-445)

Finally, several authors like Vaughan emphasizes that in order to clearly understand corporate crime, there are three levels to be considered and those are (macro-meso-micro). This theoretical framework distinguishes between three categories motivation, opportunity and controlling. The other authors that that supports this theoretical framework include Coleman, Shover, Bryant, Kramer and Michalowski. The macro level is when motivation and the culture of the organisation is examined; on the meso level, economic pressure on corporations to set ambitious targets is measured, on the micro level, individual managers with neutralizations to break rules to attain these goals are challenged. (Br J Criminol., 2012: 1033-1050)

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To conclude, the findings suggest that corporate crime can be due to ambition and organisation competitions, therefore deterrence is considered not to be an appropriate method. The employees should instead be motivated through social responsiveness and whistle-blowing policy as this would enable the whole corporation to ensure their organisations operate ethically and in accordance to the laws and regulation procedures. 

 

Reference List

Websites:

Journal article:

Br J Criminol. (2012) The oven Builders of the Holocaust. 52(6) pp. 1033-1050.

Dominic Peltier-Rivest. (2018) The battle against fraud: do reporting mechanisms work?. 25(3) pp. 784–794.

H.G. van de Bunt. (1994) Corporate crime. 2(1) pp. 11-20.

Jonathan Fisher QC. (2008) The UK’s faster cheque payment project: a bonanza for cyber-crime fraudsters. 23(4) pp. 198.

Jonathan Mukwiri. (2015) British law on corporate bribery. 22(1) pp. 16-27.

Michel Dion. (2009) Corporate crime and the dysfunction of value networks. 16(4) pp. 436-445.

Normah Omar. (2016) Corporate crimes in Malaysia: a profile analysis. 23(2) pp. 257–272.

Theresa Hilliard. (2018) The gendering of fraud: an international investigation. 25(3) pp. 811-837.

Bibliography 

Books:

Gobert, J. J. & Punch, M. (2014) Rethinking corporate crime. Cambridge: CUP: Originally published; London: Butterworths, 2003.

Said, R. (2014) Ethics, governance and corporate crime: challenges and consequences. (1st edn.) s.l.: Bingley, England: Emerald.

Slapper, G. & Tombs, S. (1999) Mapping and Measuring the Extent of Corporate Crime in Corporate crime. Harlow, Essex: Pearson Longman.

Tombs, S. & Whyte, D. (2015) The corporate criminal: why corporations must be abolished. London: Routledge.

Conventional Approaches To Strategic Management

The aim of this essay is to critically analyse and evaluate the application, validity, limitations and uncertainties of the conventional approaches of strategic management in this rapidly changing business context. It briefly outlines strategic management as it is traditionally taught, studied and practised and how organisations determine what strategies are apt within various business environments. In keeping with the goal, the essay disputes the validity and applicability of the traditional approach in today’s deconstructing situation where the opportunities and challenges make any kind of logical strategic planning fail. Through the arguments stated in this paper, a combination and a right mix of prescriptive and emergent approaches is essential and needs to be incorporated in the strategic management process for continuity. Thus conventional approaches with its pros and cons, still prevail in today’s economic business context.

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In any business venture, strategy is a vital factor for the efficient functioning, growth, development, continuity and success of a firm. It aims to achieve a set goal and embarks a direction for the future. Organisations require collaboration, cautious planning and the mindful implementation of planning. To maximise the effectiveness of strategies and to ensure the smooth functioning and success of the business, they have to be managed skilfully. So what is strategy? What role does strategic management play in this global economic world? The word “strategy” has been implicitly used in various ways even if it has been conventionally defined in only one. It is widely accepted that there is no single or universal definition of strategy, however the various descriptions of strategy allows people to manoeuvre and manipulate through this difficult pitch. Mintzberg(1994) defines strategy in 5 different ways.
Plan – A consciously intended course of action to ensure objectives are achieved.
Ploy – Basically a subset of plan and is a trick intended to outsmart or overcome an opponent or a competitor.
Pattern – Series of action which involves consistent behaviour over time which may or may not be intended.
Position – Locating the organisation within a environment.
Perspective – It is conceptual as well as cultural and is concerned with how an organisation itself sees and perceives the business environment.
The above 5 P’s may be applicable in vastly different areas and can also be interrelated.
Johnson & Scholes (2008) defines strategy as “the direction and scope of an enterprise over the long term; which achieves advantage for the firm through arrangement of resources within a demanding environment, to meet the needs of the markets and accomplish the expectations of the stakeholders”.
The process of strategic management includes analysis of the internal and external environment, formation of strategy, implementation of strategy, and evaluation of strategy. The theory of strategic management is analysed within an integrated model of context, content and process. There are two approaches for organisational change: The Prescriptive Approach which works best in a stable environment and Emergent Approaches which is used in an unpredictable fashion. These approaches are the widely known strategic models and must be examined thoroughly within the context of the fast paced, highly competitive and increasingly dynamic business environment.
The prescriptive approach, also known as deliberate strategy is a traditional approach to strategic management. It is a deterministic and systematic plan of action designed to achieve a specific goal for the long term. It is usually the responsibility of the top management to establish lucid strategic directions through analysis and evaluation and then implement them through the successive layers of the organisation. Porter(1996) states that competitive strategies are about an intended course of action of being different from the rivals and differentiating yourself in the eyes of customer by doing various unique activities which add value and by positioning yourself competitively in the environment. Porter maintains that deliberate strategies are intentional and planning ahead is important and should be formulated and articulated by leaders in a predictable and controlled environment to achieve the goals and objectives. Porter also states that trade-offs and operational effectiveness are an integral part for sustainability.
Conversely, Mintzberg (1994), one of the biggest critics of prescriptive approach developed the emergent approach to strategic management. He states that in emergent strategies the final objective is unclear and it a process of evolution, adaption, alternation and continuity. Emergent strategies are more successful in this chaotic world as they are unintentional and are the result of impromptu response to unforeseen situations which emerge over time. For example, Sam Walton, the founder of Wal-Mart, decision to open his second store in a rural area rather than a big city, for convenience of logistics and management efficiency was a fantastic winning emergent strategy. Also as there was less competition and people would travel to buy products which offered value at the lowest prices, made the business successful.
An emergent strategy increases flexibility in times of turbulence and allows the firm to respond to opportunities and make the most of the threats. Mintzberg argues that the emergent strategies are the result of constant learning, adjusting and experimentation of different variables. Many of the world discoveries have happened accidently and would not have taken place if it was dictated by formal planning of strategy. On a negative note, as the emergent strategy is not a systematic and linear process, formulation and implementation occur simultaneously which would lead to slow, messy and jumbled development. Brews and Hunt points out that overdependence on emergent strategy can lead to underperformance of the organisation.
On the other hand, deliberate strategies are planned and put into action, however due to the unrealised and unpredictable changes in the business environment; most of the planned strategies are not implemented.
SWOT gives an insight on the internal and external factors which are helpful and harmful for achievement of a specific objective of an organisation.
PESTLE is an analysis of the macro environment in which the firm operates.
VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS points out the primary activities which are directly related to production of products (eg logistics, sales) and the secondary activities (eg Human Resource, technology) which are not directly involved in production, but are essential for the efficiency and effectiveness of the process. It defines the core competencies of the firm and its helps to figure out the competitive advantage over cost and its competitors by adding value to the various activities.
PORTER’S 5 FORCE framework is an simple but powerful tool to understand the context in which the firm operates and analyse the attractiveness and economic performance of an industry which would lead to more sustainable financial returns to the stakeholders. According to Porter’s bestselling book Competitive Advantage, the forces that influence the profitability of an industry in a business environment are the entry of new competitors, the bargaining power of suppliers, the threat of substitutes, the bargaining power of buyers and the rivalry amongst existing competitors.
The above four are important tools in the strategic management process.
Porter states that strategic management is all about plotting a way through the mesh of threats and opportunities mounted by external competitive forces.
The uncertainty, chaos and instability that characterise global market contest any kind of predictibilty, which is a requisite base of many a traditional process of strategic management (Pitts, 2000). Brown & Eisenhardt (1998) states that “traditional approaches to strategy often collapse in the face of rapidly and unpredictability changing industries”. The technological advances have accelerated the process of communication and globalisation has expanded significantly. The shift and restructuring in government policies and the recent terrorist attacks have impacted companies. The challenges of formulation and implementation of strategies within a framework where global catastrophic events have an undulating effect on local market conditions, has been underestimated by management, according to researchers. Trends in the biophysical ecosystem has changed and threatened humans and other species in various geographic areas. Events such as the terrorist attack on the twin tower building in New York on September 11, 2001, or the Tsunami in Japan has an undermining effect on the global financial markets.
The rational approach to strategic management which is a top down approach helps to resolve the complexities of a firm in its stable environment. It is considered as a logical and continuous process which involves defining the mission and setting long term objectives, systematic and exhaustive analysis of the competitive environment, creating and evaluating alternative strategies, implementing the various strategies and finally monitoring the performance. Ansoff(1965) states that it helps to organise complex activities and employ a greater control over various business units which leads to domination of marketplace. This approach is founded on the idea that firms are adapted to cope with changes in their environment by taking rational and comprehensive decisions (Chaffee, 1985).
Due to incapacity of predicting the future, this approach is very linear and unrealistic and is based on the thinking and assumptions of the upper level management. In a complex and unstable environment the values and the role of mainstream strategies are still unclear and may lead to more complications rather than solutions. It may weaken the flexibility of the firm to cope with prospective changes taking place in its environment (Wally & Baum, 1994). In Mintzberg(1994) opinion, rational methods of strategic management leads to inflexibility, encourages excess bureaucracy and confines creativity and spontaneity.
On the contrary, Ansoff(1991)argues the fact that conventional strategies are much more effective than a trial and error process when it comes to collecting and analysing relevant data and aligning the firm with its internal and external environments. Porter(1996)maintains that mainstream strategies can cleverly play a vital role in determining a suitable strategic direction for the firm. It can significantly help companies to avoid expensive errors and survive and sustain in a highly competitive environment (Aram & Cowan, 1990). Adopting the conventional strategic approach, would help in ensuring a systematic assessment of numerous plausible options, encouraging creative thinking and ideas, enhancing internal interactions and communications, increasing motivation and commitment of staff, identifying pertinent opportunities, ensuring coordination of organisational activities and anticipating potential change.
The size of a firm is a factor of high importance when it comes to adopting strategies. Often, strategic planning and management is considered a major tool for large enterprises. Due to its complexity, a comprehensive strategy is needed, as compared to, small and medium sized firms. In (Mintzberg, 1994)opinion, smaller firms operates in less complex environments and their internal operations and procedures are manageable by a smaller hierarchy, hence they abandon the formal strategy process. Smaller businesses would do well if they adopt emergent strategies especially in turbulent periods.
The conventional strategies are based on a sole quantitative purpose and are very cold and give little or practically no consideration to human factor (Muchinsky, 2000). It fails to utilise people as the competitive advantage of the firm. Due to the traditional approaches to strategy, many organisations fail to realise the potential of their people, inspite of the rhetoric claim that people are the firm’s real strategic asset (Gratton,2000). Truss(1999) argues that a healthy organisation can be formed by incorporating humanistic principles and by aligning strategic human resource management with the rational conceptualisation of strategies, thereby evoking behaviours necessary to individual growth and effectiveness of the organisation. Along with the Human Resource of a firm, leaders too play a central role in achieving people based competitive advantage in modern organisations. The conventional approaches to leadership either is transactional – reward the employee in exchange of desirable results or contingent – identify leaders based on the circumstances of the firm and execution of specific strategies(Landrum, Howell & Paris, 2000). Eisenbach, Watson & Pillai(2000) states that these approaches are insufficient and advocates transformational leadership as the apt approach. Guest & Schepers,( 1997, p 37) considers a transformational leader as a person who brings about change by formulation of a vision for the future and means of realising this mission by communication and necessary action. A leader’s vision should also consider the essential interests of the key stakeholders of the organisation along with the employees needs such as growth and motivation (Ford & Ford,1994). Beugre(2006) states that a transformational leader should exhibit individualised attention, positivity, encourage logical thinking and inspire the followers for team unity. Steve Jobs of Apple and Bill Gates of Microsoft are classic examples of transformational leaders who have achieved momentous success with a articulate vision which have persuaded their followers (Giladi, 2000).
Participation of share holders in formulation of strategies is crucial. Freeman (1984) defines stakeholders as “any individual or group who can affect or is affected by the achievement of an organisation’s objective”. It is intended to explain and guide the structure and operation of the established organisation. Many traditional strategy tools have ignored some shareholders, sidelined others and constantly traded off the interests of others against preferred shareholder group. This approach may be suitable in stable environments. However, in a dynamic, volatile and fast changing business world, the limitation of this approach becomes increasingly evident. Integration of shareholder interests into the very rationale of the firm and exploring, managing and balancing relationship with shareholders must be managed in a lucid and strategic fashion to ensure long term success of the firm. Incorporating value based management system, understanding morality and ethics play a significant role in the enhanced performance and profitability of the firm in the long run. Ansoff(1965) contrasts that stakeholders might be a barrier on the objective and actions of the enterprise and might constraint the development of the firm.
With the advent of the 21st century and the emergence of digitisation, globalisation and new technology traditional strategic tools like value chain analysis, Porters 5 forces, have become less useful. In today’s varied business world, there is a need for strategists to develop more comprehensive and reasonable measures for better performance and must consider a wider array of industry organisations, bases of competitive advantage and higher level of complexity and uncertainty. As the industry conditions progresses or changes, strategies should also evolve.
Scenario Analysis differs from the traditional approach and is a contemporary approach to strategic management which analyses the possible future events by taking into consideration alternative plausible outcomes that the future may unfold. It is not about predicting or projecting the future but a means of learning and improving our understanding of the long term global effects of the current trends and their interrelation considering the uncertainties and volatilities in the business context; which helps a company to make flexible long term plans. The traditional approaches rely on the notion that the future will be very similar to the past and present and works in a relatively stable environment, however scenarios help managers to prepare for the future and improve their decision making ability by stimulating “out of the box” thinking. The well known example of this methodology would be of Royal Dutch Shell, who by implementation of scenario planning was the only energy company to survive and sustain the oil price crisis in the 1970s. Scenario techniques if combined with other approaches can
In summary, the traditional approaches to strategic management provide a structured and orderly approach to decision making in the strategic making process. These approaches still constitute a basic indispensable and feasible framework; however it is not sufficient alone for the profitability of a firm. Contemporary strategic approaches should be incorporated in the base model to make it more entrepreneurial and adaptable. Though the dynamic approaches can prevent control over action and may jeopardise a lack of direction, it considers the uncertainty of the future and emphasises on the flexibility of reaction to enhance the functionality of the organisation in this fast growing, turbulent and uncertain world. In essence there is no “one size fits all” or best approach to strategy. The organisations should adapt and align the conventional strategies such as internal and external analysis with the real time techniques to ensure continuity and facilitate organisational and individual learning. The management should seek the best way of combination, customisation and balance of elements from both the approaches for survival and sustainability in this tumultuous world. Rather than using the approaches individually and in isolation, they should complement each other in order to handle the intricacies of the business and still succeed over the changing conditions.
 

Software Defined Networking: Contrasts with Conventional Networking

Table of Contents

Assignment Cover Sheet

Abstract

Introduction

Purpose

Description

Pros and Cons of SDN

Product 1: Open Network Operating System (ONOS)

Product 2: OpenDaylight

Comparison

Conclusion

Referencing

 

The Internet has prompted the production of an advanced society, where (nearly) everything is associated and is available from anyplace. Nonetheless, in spite of their far reaching selection, conventional IP networks are mind boggling and difficult to oversee.

It is both hard to configure the network as per predefined strategies, and to reconfigure it to react to shortcomings, load and changes. To make matters significantly increasingly troublesome, current networks are additionally vertically incorporated: the control and information planes are packaged together. Software Defined Networking (SDN) is a developing worldview that guarantees to change this situation, by breaking vertical joining, isolating the network’s control logic from the fundamental switches and routers, advancing (sensible) centralization of network control, and acquainting the capacity with program the network. The partition of concerns presented between the meaning of network policies, their execution in switching hardware, and the sending of traffic, is vital to the ideal adaptability: by breaking the network control issue into tractable pieces, SDN makes it simpler to make and present new deliberations in networking, disentangling network management as well as encouraging network development.

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In this paper, I present an exhaustive overview on SDN. I begin by presenting the inspiration for SDN, clarify its fundamental ideas and how it contrasts from conventional networking, its underlying foundations, and the institutionalization exercises with respect to this novel worldview. Next, I present the key structure blocks of a SDN structure utilizing a base up, layered methodology. Also, I describe two SDN products and illustrate their comparison in terms of design features, usability and components. To wrap things up, I examine the situation of SDN as a key empowering influence of a software defined surroundings.

 

The dispersed control and transport network protocols running inside the switches and routers are the key innovations that permit data, as digital packets, to go the world over. In spite of their far reaching implementation, conventional IP networks are intricate and difficult to oversee. To express the preferred sophisticated network policies, operators of network need to design every individual network device independently utilizing low-level and regularly vendor specific commands. Notwithstanding the setup intricacy, organize situations need to persevere through the elements of flaws and adjust to stack changes. Programmed reconfiguration and reaction systems are for all intents and purposes non-existent in current IP systems. Upholding the required approaches in such a dynamic situation is consequently very stimulating.

To make it significantly progressively convoluted, current networks are likewise vertically coordinated. The control plane (that chooses how to deal with network traffic) and the data plane (that advances traffic as per the choices made by the control plane) are packaged inside the networking equipment, lessening adaptability and obstructing development and development of the network structure framework. The transition between IPv4 and IPv6, began over 10 years prior and still generally fragmented, demonstrates the veracity of this test, while in truth IPv6 spoke to just a protocol update. Because of the latency of current IP networks, another steering convention can take 5 to 10 years to be completely planned, assessed and deployed. Similarly, a fresh start way to deal with change the Internet architecture (e.g., supplanting IP), is viewed as an overwhelming assignment – basically not achievable practically speaking. At last, this circumstance has expanded the capital and operational costs of running an IP network.

Programming Defined Networking is an evolving network exemplar that offers would like to change the confinements of current network structure. To begin with, it breaks the vertical reconciliation by isolating the system’s control logic (the control plane) from the hidden switches and routers that forward the traffic (the information plane). Second, with the partition of the control as well as data planes, network switches become basic sending devices and the control rationale is actualized in an intelligently brought together controller (or network operating system), rearranging strategy requirement and network (re)configuration and advancement. A disentangled perspective on this engineering is appeared in Figure 1. Emphasize that a consistently centralised automatic model does not hypothesize a physically unified framework. Actually, the need to ensure satisfactory dimensions of execution, versatility, and dependability would block such a solution. Rather, generation level SDN network structures resort to physically dispersed control planes.

Figure 1: Simplified view of an SDN architecture.

 

 

 

The OpenFlow-empowered network gadgets or equipment like switches, routers and ports from various vendors will all be mechanized, orchestrated figured out how to be sent over the network rather than manual intercession. Also, the network unsteadiness and faults related with it very well may be ridden off by utilization of SDN instruments that can atomise and deal with the errands which are typically performed physically. In addition, a virtual network can be preoccupied from individual network benefits by programming and reconstructing it continuously. This prompts higher business advancement for the IT administrators. Moreover, the strategy articulations as well as configuration parameters are generally converted into the system framework by means of Openflow. The partner open stream based SDN decreases the likelihood of network disappointment attributable to the approaches as well as configuration settings. Furthermore, the SDN controllers give straightforward authority over network and hence designing the traffic, the executives, giving Quality of administration are dealt with over every one of the structure. The preferred position is less blunders and reliable setup represented by efficient authorization of standards. Finally, the Open Flow based SDN deals with dynamic client prerequisites. One such precedent is a video application where the goals need not be set by the client without learning of what the network can bolster however the application itself can discover data estimates that can be gotten to by the network and control it appropriately.

SDN isn’t sufficiently experienced yet to rundown out some significant hindrances. The exploration and work on SDN was started in light of the fact that individuals began the upside and the points of interest it can give. In the event that oversee a glance at networking infrastructure as a field, it has been around for over 50 years regardless we have some serious issues that are to be tended to. While Wikipedia says the period of SDN is under 15 years. Then, programming assumes a noteworthy job in SDN and programming has bugs. Moreover, with SDN, everything changes. You have applications controlling the system, policies characterizing what the underlay and the overlay arrangements should look every once in a while, systems changing progressively with the traffic and persuading this to be steady and institutionalized will take a great deal of time. Another major disadvantage is SDN security. If the SDN Control Layer is compromised by attackers, the whole network and data will be controlled by them.

 

Open Network Operating System (ONOS) gives the control plane to a SDN, overseeing network equipment, for example, switches and connections, and running modules of software applications to give correspondence service to neighbouring networks and end hosts.

ONOS gives some closely resembling sorts of functionality which includes reflections and APIs, resource allocations, and authorizations, and client confronting software, for example, a GUI, a CLI and applications for systems.

In terms of conventional “inside the box” switch operating systems, ONOS deals with whole network as opposed to a solitary gadget that can drastically streamline the configuration, deployment and management of a new hardware, software and amenities.

In case of SDN controllers, ONOS applications and platform performance like modular, extensible and dispersed SDN controller.

The most significant advantage of an operating system is that it offers a valuable as well as usable platform for software projects intended for a specific application or use case. Open Network Operating System applications as well as use cases frequently comprise of modified correspondence routing, monitoring and management amenities for SDN.

User can run ONOS as a dispersed system over numerous servers, enabling it to utilize the CPU as well as resources of memory from different servers while giving adaptation to server failure even with server disappointment and possibly supporting rolling/live upgrades of software and hardware without interfering the network traffic.

The ONOS core and kernel services and ONOS applications which are written in Java like bundles that are stacked into the Karaf OSGi container. In fact, OSGi is a component system for Java which enables modules to be run and installed vigorously in a solitary JVM. As ONOS keeps running in the JVM, it can keep running on a few basic OS platforms.

ONOS is an open source undertaking supported by a growing community of users and developers, and anyone is welcomed and urged to participate in development, discussion, documentation, as well as improvement of the ONOS framework.

 

 

The OpenDaylight Project (ODL) was declared in April 2013 which is an open source SDN project facilitated by Linux Foundation, was made to propel the Software Defined Network acceptance and make the reason for a solid Network Functions Visualisation (NFV). It was made as an industry supported and community-led open source SDN structure. The point of the OpenDaylight Project is to provide a useful SDN platform which gives clients legitimately conveyed SDN without the requirement for different devices. Moreover, vendors and contributors can convey add-ons as well as different pieces that will provide more an incentive to OpenDaylight.

Despite the Linux Foundation has the OpenDaylight Project, it doesn’t just keep running on Linux machines. In fact, it is authorized under the Eclipse Public License (EPL), frequently picked for Java-based projects. Utilizing EPL permits OpenDaylight to build its similarity with the extensive condition of libraries and outsider parts that as of now have been discharged under the EPL permit. The EPL is an affirmed open source permit, and as per the Free Software Foundation, it is a free software license.

ODL’s administration in January 2018 was moved to be under the LF Networking Fund that is a consolidated administration structure for various ventures.

 

 

In SDN, open source has been and keeps on being the lay of the land. Organizations have a few controllers to select from, two increasingly noticeable ones of which are the open-source Open Daylight (ODL) and Open Network Operating System (ONOS).

While both are associated through their connection with the Linux Foundation, there are some unmistakable contrasts between them for clients to focus on. In any case, before we inspect ODL and ONOS intently, it merits referencing different players in this field. Ryu and OpenContrail are likewise both conspicuous figures, as the Open Networking Foundation has distinguished, and the part incorporates other dynamic choices, similar to LOOM, Floodlight, Trema and OpenMUL.

Nevertheless, ODL and ONOS are significant contenders that should be viewed as next to each other. ODL versus ONOS– Carrier Grade Networks vs Cloud supplier –Unadulterated SDN versus Legacy – Academic started versus Corporate initiated.

The two, ODL and ONOS are written in Java and intended for modular usage with an adjustable framework and note that each ONOS accomplice is likewise an ODL part. Past that, there are some key highlights that separate them:

Licensing: ODL utilizes the Eclipse Public License whereas, ONOS has an Apache 2.0 permit. ONOS is somewhat more Service Provider/Cloud Provider centred.

Structure: Although a portion of its features are still being evolving, ONOS comprises of an unpredictable series of subsystems, and adaptable capacities for telecom systems. Conversely, ODL utilizes a model view control platform as well as functions off of a solid focal abstraction layer.

Focus: Open Daylight emphases on bringing legacy for instance, SNMP, BGP etc. as well as Next age Networks OpenFlow (NGN) and (Software Defined Network (SDN) together while ONOS has more concentration on performance perspectives as well as clustering to expand the accessibility and versatility normally making it of more interesting regularly to Carriers. Thus, ONOS concentrates on telcos and Carrier-grade network are included with their undertakings. In contrast, ODL has more merchants like Juniper, Cisco as well as NES than ONOS.

Target customers: The Open Networking Foundation (ONF) likewise said that ONOS and ODL, both have mixture business systems, however there are contrasts with regards to which organization is speaking to which merchants. While The Whole Stack associated to ONOS in terms of telecoms, it said ODL was increasingly intensive for data centres.

Northbound Abstractions (Intent): Open Network Operating System highlights 2 Northbound interface layers: Global Network View and Intent Framework. The Intent Framework shields the multifaceted nature of administration activities, enabling applications to demand network amenities disconnected from the particular subtleties of service processes. Developers of application can carry out their responsibilities and just need to raise operational plans while Open Daylight is going a similar way with the Network Intent Composition venture that will empower the developers to effectively portray their very own goals. Also, ODL would like to make a uniform expectation stage to coordinate numerous client aim Northbound Interfaces. Now, ODL falls behind ONOS in such manner.

Eventually, nowadays ONOS flaunts the better ancestry and will be the more grounded decision for organizations that need to drastically redesign their network systems access mode (plus or minus impediments in true encounters).

 

Conventional networks are perplexing and difficult to manage. One reason is that the control and data planes are vertically incorporated and merchant explicit. Another, agreeing reason, is that usual networking gadgets are additionally firmly attached to line items and versions. As it were, each line of item may have its own specific configuration and the board interfaces, inferring long cycles for delivering product updates (such as, new firmware) or upgrades (for instance, new forms of the gadgets). This has offered ascend to seller lock-in issues for network infrastructure proprietors, just as presenting extreme confinements to change and advancement.

SDN made an open door for tackling these long-standing issues. A portion of the key thoughts of SDN are the presentation of dynamic programmability in sending gadgets through open southbound interfaces, the decoupling of the control and data plane, and the worldwide perspective on the network by sensible centralization of the “network brain”. While data plane components wound up moronic, yet profoundly productive and programmable packet forwarding gadgets, the control plane components are presently spoken to by a solitary element, the controller or network operating framework. Applications executing the network logic keep running over the controller and are a lot simpler to create and send when contrasted with customary networks. Given the worldwide view, consistency of strategies is clear to uphold. SDN speaks to a noteworthy change in outlook in the advancement and development of networks, presenting another pace of development in networking infrastructure.

 

Kreutz, D., Ramos, F., Esteves Verissimo, P., Esteve Rothenberg, C., Azodolmolky, S., & Uhlig, S. (2015). Software-Defined Networking: A Comprehensive Survey. Proceedings Of The IEEE, 103(1), 14-76. doi: 10.1109/jproc.2014.2371999

de Oliveira, R., Schweitzer, C., Shinoda, A., & Ligia Rodrigues Prete. (2014). Using Mininet for emulation and prototyping Software-Defined Networks. 2014 IEEE Colombian Conference On Communications And Computing (COLCOM). doi: 10.1109/colcomcon.2014.6860404

Xia, W., Wen, Y., Foh, C., Niyato, D., & Xie, H. (2015). A Survey on Software-Defined Networking. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 17(1), 27-51. doi: 10.1109/comst.2014.2330903

Shu, Z., Wan, J., Li, D., Lin, J., Vasilakos, A., & Imran, M. (2016). Security in Software-Defined Networking: Threats and Countermeasures. Mobile Networks And Applications, 21(5), 764-776. doi: 10.1007/s11036-016-0676-x

Aydeger, A., Akkaya, K., & Uluagac, A. (2015). SDN-based resilience for smart grid communications. 2015 IEEE Conference On Network Function Virtualization And Software Defined Network (NFV-SDN). doi: 10.1109/nfv-sdn.2015.7387401

 

End of Conventional Oil

Oil is one of the most important fuels that are being consumed these days. Most of the industry depends upon the oil as they sue it as the fuel. The producers of oil are gaining a large amount of money after trading the oil. Thus the importance of oil is also imagined as it is considered as the black gold. It is also referred to as the blood of the earth. Thus the large amount of population that is using a huge amount of oil each year and that is reducing the reserves of oil. Due to various natural hazards like the ozone depletion the chemical reactions that converted the organic material into oil cannot take place properly and that is a hindrance in increasing the oil reserves. Thus there is a huge threat that the oil will be finished soon. There will be a huge impact over our lives with the depletion of the oil.

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There are some people who refer oil to the excrement of the devil or it is also considered as the black blood or the blood of the earth. Whereas there are a lot of people who would agree that the oil is the blood stream of the economy of the world. This is one reference that can have many contexts and arguments. Thus in some ways the crude oil resembles blood as when it is exposed to the air, it scabs. It is viscous and organic and moves quite easily through the pipes without creating any sort of friction. The cold oil also coagulates. The oil also supports the fungi and bacteria as it is not sterile. The oil carrying pipes might be found cogged with them growing inside. (Mills)
At times it is also referred to as the blood of the dinosaur as it has some link to the ancient living creatures. Most of the geologists have the point of view that it is not easy to support this ideology with the strong proof and there was no such link of oil with the living beings. But still there are a number of scientists that believe in the idea that the oil was formed in the water and that later converted into some organism named plankton and that was later dragged into the sea and fed by some sunbeams and then they died and buried in the sea.
We are moving form an age of cheap plentiful energy to the age of limited and expensive energy. Thus there is no alternative source for the development of energy that can replace the need of the oil or the natural gas. There is a perception that if the coal is used then we survive for decades is also not correct on the whole because that is only true when the rates of the coal do no change at all. The end of the oil does not mean that it has to dry out completely, thus it also means that if it becomes very expensive then we will not be able to use it. That will be end of the era when we got the cheap fuel and beginning of the era where fuel gets too expensive to be used. (Nersesian)
The oil exporting nations have a motive due to which they are pushing the world to be dependent over the oil and thus they are trying to do their business. Oil is the most expensive business and thus the oil trading nations tend to earn a large amount of money in this business that is why they want that the industry should be dependent over the oil so that they should earn a large amount of money.
Oil scarcity and the energy crisis will have a huge impact on our lives. Currently entire industry ranging from the domestic use of vehicles to the industrial use and the other machines are all dependent over the oil. The healthcare and the medical centers are also dependent over the oil for the transportation and other services with the oil shortage the price of the transportation and other service will increase resulting in the collapse of many industries. This this will not only kill the employment but will also close many industries resulting in the lack of education and health facilities.
The oil is completely different thing then the wheat, wheat is something that can be grown each year resulting in the increase of the amount. The amount of wheat consumed each year is met by growing it the next year. Whereas the oil that was formed in the 4 Billion years, has been used in few centuries. It cannot be grown again as these reactions do not take a day or two to generate oil.
Large amount of the engineers are working in the oil industry or industries that are very closely linked or dependent over the oil. So if the oil is depleted then the engineers will be jobless. This will highly affect their career and will cease the career opportunities for the people that are interested in this profession. (Lovins)
Oil can be replaced by some alternative sources of energy like using sticks and carrots as a fuel in the cars or the use of the carbon free cars. In the electric production where a large amount of fuel is used for making electricity, the other sources like solar energy, wind energy and the tidal energy can be used to make it. And thus the oil can be replaced but it is hard to provide an equal amount of jobs to these people as well. The most invaluable source of energy ever discovered is rubbing. When the hands are rubbed they form some energy and heat and thus it is of no much use as the energy is very less and it vanishes in a very less time.
The product that I enjoy and that consumes fuel too is a car. It is the most essential thing these days. And it costs a few thousand dollars. The cost pf the car will be way more and it might range to a few lack dollars as the cost of construction will increase to a large amount. That is why the construction cost will increase and that will increase the purchase cost as well.
The green revolution contains a large deal of fertilizers derived from petrochemicals taken out from petroleum. These petrochemicals are formed from the hydrocarbons and ammonia and thus they are easily available by the plants. Thus the green revolution has a large amount of petrochemicals as these are also not harmful for the plants and forestry.
The 9 billion people will have to find the alternative sources of food and they will have to choose the other form of food. They will have to include more fruits and vegetables in their diets that do not contain hydrocarbons. That is the only way the food demands can be met.
Without the cheap oil the engineers will find some other source of energy like coal or the gas. That will help them meet the demands of the energy needs in the world. The end of cheap oil will affect all the people and every sector in this world as everything is completely dependent on it and the engineering career will be highly affected as we will not have enough jobs to work in and the wages will also be less.
Petroleum is one of the most essential things in the today’s world. The cheap oil is the most important factor of every industry as it is used as a fuel. With the depletion of the resources of the cheap oil it has become very important that the other sources of energy should be found so that the world should keep on working smoothly. The transportation, food, industry everything is based on the oil. The countries that are trading oil prefer to increase the sale and to expand the use in vehicles. With the finishing of the oil the jobs will be reduced and the people will lose their jobs. Oil can be replaced by some alternative sources of energy and in the electric production where a large amount of fuel is used for making electricity, the other sources like solar energy, wind energy and the tidal energy can be used to make it. Alternatives to oil need to be adopted for our benefit.
Work Cited
Lovins, Amory B. Winning the oil endgame : innovation for profits, jobs and security. Snowmass, CO : : Rocky Mountain Institute, 2004. (124)
Mills, Robin M. The myth of the oil crisis : overcoming the challenges of depletion, geopolitics, and global warming. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2008. (76)
Nersesian, Roy L. Energy for the 21st century : a comprehensive guide to conventional and alternative sources. Armonk, N.Y.: M.E. Sharpe, 2007. ebook. (102)