Processes of Cultural Diffusion

World has now become a global village. By global village what we mean is that everything is available to every person through the process of free information flow (Ascher, 2010). Globalization has brought everything closer and that has happened through cultural diffusion. Now to understand what cultural diffusion is, we first have to have a fair idea over what is diffusion. Secondly there is well defined process through which a culture is diffused in other cultures and makes it mark. This culture diffusion affects international business to the core because when we say that globalization have made its presence felt in the global economy, we see that it is there because of culture diffusion in different ways. This has also lead to come sort of cultural imperialism which we shall discuss in length in paragraphs to come.

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Culture diffusion happens when non material and material culture travels to another culture (Wise, 2008). How this happens is a million dollar question which needs to be answered correctly and to the point. To have a profound knowledge over how it happens we go to the basics of it which is culture hearth. Now culture hearth is a place where civilizations first began and then they spread to different areas. Nowadays culture hearths are considered to be in those countries which are well developed and whose culture gets diffused to other developing countries because they have to be in tandem with each other so to have a good and viable trade. If we talk by considering the present world and international trade, we see that this cultural diffusion has spread many cultural straits wherever they got a chance to get diffused. Sometimes this spread is so rapid that no one can find out its origin, timing and spread. There are two different ways in which a culture is diffused to another culture; one is acculturation and another is Assimilation (Howes, 1996). Both are the ways in which culture is diffused in another culture. In acculturation what happens is that some cultural traits of strong cultures are being taken up by weak cultures like in ancient times we see that Spain had some cultural traits which are taken from Aztecs. Similarly if we see examples in the modern world we observe that a very common greeting ‘hello’ is also a cultural trait which is being taken by many cultures as a greeting by default. Why that happened so? Because it has its roots in western world and as West dominated for the last two centuries, all the trade, rules and policies were being written and implemented by Western countries which influenced weak cultures to adopt the greeting and many other things which now we call globalization.
On the other hand, another way in which a culture can be diffused is through assimilation. In assimilation what happens is that cultures are intertwined with each other in such a way that it is hard to distinguish between where its origin had been. Lets for example when Arabs came to Indian Subcontinent, the Indians had nothing than a piece of cloth worn up to their knees with an open jacket as their vests but Arabs brought a new culture of a full length suit of cloth covering whole body. Now after centuries the Mongols and the warriors from Afghanistan brought minor changes to the original dress which made people easy to carry, walk and most of all made it best attire which can be used for combat purposes also. End result was that the whole thing got assimilated with each other so quickly that there was little difference left between what people wear in Arabian countries mainly the natives of Arab Emirates and the people wear in subcontinent. It specially pertains to the dressing of men.
Other thing which effects diffusion is the cultural barriers, time and distance delay and lastly physical barriers (Rauth, 2004). Cultural barriers includes things which are not acceptable to other culture at any cost for example Mc Donald came up in India with its different burgers mainly in beef but as Indians hold cow as sacred, they do not go for it so Mc Donald have to introduce veggie burgers instead of beef as local cultural barrier never allowed any assimilation or acculturization to take place. In time and distance delay, diffusion is hampered because time and distance which it would take to reach another culture would be more and then would become less futile for example Eskimos who live at poles, their cultures and way of living is different from us and still they are yet to have culture diffusion (Howes, 1996). Time and distance delay is somewhat linked with the physical barriers also which also helps in making things bad for cultural diffusion to take place for example the terrain which is very tough to pass would obviously make things worse for people to travel hence making it hard to diffuse a culture or similarly a sharp weather change would also create a physical barrier for culture diffusion to take place as it would be difficult to take things from one culture to another as culture traits differ from each other or not even close to each other.
That culture is diffused either in expansionary diffusion or relocated diffusion (Said, 1994). We have seen that expansionary diffusion have taken place in most of the places in world where West culture is being adopted by the elite and now it is being transmitted to the lower end of the population. This sort of diffusion is known as hierarchical diffusion in where the spread of a new culture takes place from top to bottom. Example of this is the coffee shops like star bucks, which had no concept in south Asia but they are brought by Westerners who came here for business purposes. They first inculcated the trend in elite and now it is being adopted by every person as it have has transformed many old kiosks for betel leaves and cigarettes into coffee shops. Similarly blackberries; many corporate customers have this gadget in their hands which is attracting other upper middle class people to have it too so to have some satisfaction. Other types include relocation diffusion which happens when people take their innovations with them to a new place like for example Jews. Jews in Europe were really good in scientific knowledge and due to their astuteness they were being victimized and were sent to concentration camps. When after the world war they relocated themselves in different parts of the world, they went with their knowledge and innovations which brought a lot of prosperity around the globe. Another example of it can be AIDS which spread through relocation diffusion as disease is carried by one person who migrates to another society with having a different culture.
Now as diffusion is discussed at length, we now see that whether cultural imperialism can be established through cultural diffusion? Yes to some extent I would agree to it because in international business when there is trade and goods flow from one place to another, it not only takes a new product across the borders but also takes its culture to another place. In other words level of diffusion depends on the factors discussed above and also on a culture being strong as to the culture where it is being diffused as being weak (Hobson, 2010). Like for example the trend of suits around the world, from where it came? It came and assimilated in our culture because it was being followed by a strong culture or in cultural hearth which is American and Europe and from there it diffused to all parts of the world. Men’s formal suiting’s, as we all know, have such an importance that now if a south Korean business tycoon needs to do a deal with his Indian counterpart to open up a microchip factory in Delhi, they would be following their own business rules and formalities but their attire would be formal and would follow the strong culture’s dress code which is to have a formal dress suit. Moreover the casual dress in China, a decade ago was not jeans and a tee shirt but now they have taken the affect of American culture as it diffused into their society but why? Because more than 70 percent of china’s trade is bound for America so Chinese have adopted some practices of American culture which shows us that yes there is diffusion of culture but that does not proves cultural imperialism at any point; people went towards tee shirts and jeans because they were easier to handle, according to the young generation, as compare to traditional safari suits for men and traditional Chinese for women. Apart from this, cultural diffusion does not reflect cultural imperialism for example whole world is following more or less same accounting principles so the rules of debit and credit are same so to imply that it is a product of a particular nation or it is a part of any culture would be a gross mistake. Yes it’s true that methods of accounting were first brought up by Chinese but significant changes were made throughout.
 

Cross Cultural Pragmatic Perspective For Classroom Teaching

Introduction
Cross-culture pragmatics, as a new subject of language study, is based on the developments of pragmatics theories. It hybrids Anthropology, Translation, Communication, Sociology and Pragmatics together and gets wide influence on future language study. Scholars from different countries are always focusing on the problems which language learners always made in their second language using to compare with their native language comprehension. Cross-culture pragmatics is the study of interrelationship communication between people who are from different culture backgrounds. So behind the language usage differences is the huge diversity of cultures which influence the actions and thinking of people.
Core Definitions
Pragmatics is the study of meaning in context. It deals with particular utterance in particular discourse and situation and is especially concerned with the various ways in which many social contexts of language performance can influence interpretation. In other words, pragmatics is concerned with the way language is used to communicate rather than the way it is structured.
Cross-culture pragmatics developed since 1950s in America when Chomsky¼ˆ1957¼‰ developed his grammar-based approach to language acquisition. Lado (1957) had published his book “Linguistics Across Culture” which can be considered as a milestone to cross-culture pragmatics. It shows the differences between this new subject and comparative linguistics. In his view, comparative linguistics should focus on the differences among languages especially give a systematic comparison of the target language, native language and their culture to get the relation from meaning and distribution. Individuals tend to transfer the forms and meanings and the distribution of forms and meanings of their native language and culture to the foreign language and culture – both productively and when attempting to speak the language and to act in the culture and receptively when attempting to grasp and understand the language and culture as practiced by natives. From then on, others like Charles Morris considered that the study of language should be parceled into syntax, semantics and pragmatics while certain researchers at least in the past have seen pragmatics as a fuzzy area, possibly not deserving of being categorized as a separate and main field. (Thomason,1973¼š162).

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Thomason (1973) thinks that the status of pragmatics is much less clear, if such a discipline exists at all, it is very under-developed . The definition of culture may be ambiguous with some considering it largely related to ethnicity while sociologists and others (Dash, P.2003) consistent to Stern (1992) may see it as inclusive of social groups, some of which may be independent of ethnic consideration ( Dash, P., 2004).
Failure is an irreplaceable notion in cross-culture pragmatics from which linguists could get valuable evidences to investigate the language communication and analyze the reason of pragmatic failure. That which is related to cross-cultural failure is referred to as pragmalinguistic failure whereas that which has a non-cultural basis due to the social relationships and positions between individuals is referred to as sociolinguistic failure (Thomas, 1983¼š99).
Leech (1983) analyzed the different importance of politeness applying into cultures and the informative intent or the sentence meaning, and the other the communicative intent or speaker meaning. The ability to comprehend and produce a communicative act is referred to as pragmatic competence which often includes one’s knowledge about the social distance, social status between the speakers involved, the cultural knowledge such as politeness, and the linguistic knowledge explicit and implicit (Kasper, 1997).
Foreign language learners are easily to put their own culture to the target language learning which constantly causes pragmatic failures and thus affects the effectiveness of trans-cultural communication. Thin (1984) writes in his book that, “literal meaning has little, if any relevance to the use of spoken language in social life.” Just (2001) further investigates, “much of what we state about others, we have not derived from their statements but from their behaviour.” From their point, interpreting pragmatic failure could not ignoring the cultural basis and social belief. Green (1996) especially demonstrated that the “central notion is that pragmatics must include belief, intentions (or goal) plan and act.” Differences in the way of speaking with different languages are profound and systematic, and…reflect, and can be explained, in terms of… differences in cultural traditions, cultural values, and cultural priorities( Wierzbicka 2003:21).
It will lose its meaning when language learners use their language without their belief and innate cultural comprehension. The verbal expressions of the language will also fade and lose their vivacity.
Cross-pragmatics communication failure
It has be beard in mind for all the teachers of pragmatics in their classroom teaching that it is most important cross-cultural risk of pragmatic pitfalls for a certain group of learners who are really in it. For this concern, language teachers especially L2 teacher should be careful to explain the difference of pragmatic usage of communication to avoid cross-cultural misunderstandings. For example, Chinese put modesty as their primary politeness , for this reason , they would criticize themselves to others especially when they are praised by others. I remember an interesting conversation happened between a Chinese girl and an Aussie girl.
A: I love your dress, it is amazing!
C: No, no, it is only an ordinary dress.
Then the conversation fell into ice. It is normal for westerner especially English speaker to say “Thank you” when their dress are appreciated by others. But in this case, the Chinese girl used her chi-English thinking and directly translated her native language thinking into English to say no. The Aussie girl may think her aesthetic taste being laughed. It is ironic that it is the culture difference causes the misunderstanding.
Another example happened in students from Asian countries especially Japan, Korea and China. Teachers from western culture background may find that it is difficult to let those students to call their given name directly without using the title “Mr, MS or Professor”. These Asian countries are greatly influenced by Confucius and Mencius. Teachers and elders are respected and their authority must not be challenged. In daily conversation, this hierarchical difference would be more obvious, students or the young must use title or honorific pronouns to call the teachers or the elders. Or else they would be criticized by the public. Although they will get used to the western social manners, they still bear the cultural thinking.
The idea of number is so universal in the sense that it is readily accessible to all human beings and it is expressed in the lexical structure of all languages. However, not all languages have a grammatical category of number. As we know, English recognizes a distinction between one and more that one ( singular and plural). This distinction has to be expressed morphologically, by assign a suffix to a noun or by changing its form in some other way to indicate whether it refers to one or more than one: boy/boys, box/boxes, man/men, and person/people. The form of a noun in Chinese does not normally indicate whether it is singular or plural.
A: May is leaving Nanjing for Beijing tomorrow.
B: Don’t forget to take the two luggages with you.
Of course, it is typically a chi-English conversation. In this communication, pragmatic failure has come out. Luggage is a collection noun and also an uncountable one. The plural form of the word luggage should be expressed as two pieces of luggage. So B should say:” Don’t forget to take the two pieces of luggage with you.”
In social cultural concerning, dead is a forbidden word in Chinese culture, Chinese people always use “pass away’ or other word to replace the word ‘DEAD”. So in Arabic numbers , Chinese always avoid and unlike the figure ‘4’. Because it shares the same pronunciation with the word dead in Chinese. It is just the same as westerners unlike number 13 and thinks it unlucky. Although both of them are superstitious, they are the part of the culture. As a ordinary language learners , he has to respect it and not to judge.
Furthermore, privacy is not often be discussed in public in western countries, many English speakers may feel weird and uncomfortable when people ask them about it.
Chinese people always talk about family, marriage and job. But no offense, they just treat them as normal topic to arise the conversation. However, if the English speaker refused harshly, the conversation will be placed on iceberg. Both of the speakers will feel awkward.
In hip-pop and rap culture, as a popular music culture. The lyrics always include some abbreviation and jargons having hidden meaning which people hard to understand. Even the native English speaker cannot comprehend. Because it represents the typically Negro street culture in United States. This also can approves that within a “big cultural circle”, there always exists ‘ small cultural’. For this sake , we could know cross-cultural could not only exists between countries but different ethnic groups or other groups.
Another examples is the Japanese word ‘Sumimasen’ Versus ‘ I am sorry’. English speakers might think that Japanese apologize more frequently than they really do because ‘Sumimasen’ is always be heard in daily life. Sumimasen can be translates as ‘I am sorry’ and be uses for apology; however, it can also be used in other purposes. There seven functions of it (Ide, 1998:510). It can be used to convey sincere apologies, sumimasen was also used to express thanks, to convey a mixture of thanks and apologies, as a preliminary a request, as an attention-getter , as actual-taking device, and more ritualistically as advice to confirm what someone has sais or simply to acknowledge it. It carries pragmatic and ritualistic functions that extend beyond conveying the semantic meaning of regret or gratitude in actual discourse. So when English speakers hear Sumimasen as frequently as they say ‘ I am sorry” they think the meaning of these two words are equivalent.
Though it is unavoidable to make pragmatic failure during cross-cultural communication, we should consider how to improve the ability of cross-cultural communication since the target students are second language learners. We need to offer a few qualifications related to the issue of how to become a more competent communicator. First, the major cultural barriers to the cross-cultural communications, stereotyping and prejudice, misusing of power, culture shocks, and ethnocentrism, etc. Secondly, because communication is an activity that has a consequence, we must continually ask ourselves id we are behaving in a way that harms our communication partners. For example, do not shake your left hand with people come from India, because left hand symbolize dirt and bad luck. The most important way of how to improve the ability of the cross-cultural communication is following some basic advice such as knowing yourselves, considering the physical and human setting, seeking a shares code, developing empathy, encouraging feedback and learning about cultural adaptation, etc. All these can help improve cross-cultural communication. It has become necessary to us to improve the ability of cross-cultural communication. In my opinion, it is also a hard job for teacher themselves to improve their ability of cross-cultural communication.
In classroom teaching, teachers hope the students from different cultural backgrounds to show their difference language usage or reactions towards the same things in front of the whole class. But students who notice the intention sometimes are not willing to take the chalks which may make them feel embarrassed like the animals in the zoo. As Thomas (1983) writes, “..speaking good English does not necessarily mean conforming to the norms of the culturally hegemoic strata.” The teachers might well know different culture through their teaching, the key point is they shouldn’t bear the discriminations to certain culture. If the teacher cannot keep his neutrality, students from certain cultural background may feel hurt and inferior. Mangubhai (1997) states, ” Nonetheless, it is possible to discern certain patterns of behavior, or primary tendencies within a cultural or sub-cultural group that permit one to address learners as a group.” Grouping the students and respecting their own culture would be the fundamental rule for all language teachers.
Classroom Implications
There are some implications for cross-cultural language teachers in their classroom teaching to eliminate the pragmatic failure and cultural misunderstanding.
Foreign language teaching should be entered at all levels of linguistic knowledge – words, sentences, discourse – penetration pragmatic knowledge to enhance the ability to use language learners so that students understand the language reflected in the pragmatic rules, values and social ideas. Through the two cultures, two languages contrast, explore, and point out their differences in order to avoid linguistic pragmatic failure.
Foreign or second language teachers when they are in the teaching process should pay special attention to the custom of a particular form of language-oriented; English speech act realization and understanding of differences in speech act. In vocabulary teaching, the students are supposed not only to understand the terms of intention, but also pay attention to their cultural meaning and proper use, in particular the taboo words. In oral practice and translation practice, different usage of words and expressions should be emphasized through certain discourse and contexts.
Provide a lot of cross-cultural communication context to its recommend sources and materials relevant to the subject of the foreign cultures of extra-curricular books to enhance the learners understanding of foreign cultures and improve their practical application ability. To encourage the students to investigate the culture barrier themselves and let them to talk more with the native speaker of the target language will fasten the process of culture immersion.
In communication, language is the basic unit of discourse. Thus, the ability to foster communicative discourse on the need to develop capacity. The so-called discourse capability refers to the students master the discourse on the basis of knowledge of the mechanisms of convergence can be quickly and accurately grasp the basic content of discourse and the central idea, in-depth understanding of the communicative value of text, students with strong reading ability and listening comprehension. Can be combined with the ability to read and write the language heard of synchronized and coordinated manner.
The challenge for language teachers is to present information about culture in such a way that learners come to recognize, through nonjudgmental comparison, both the existence of their own system and that of the other language/culture. Language teachers must not only act as a good teaching instructors, administrators, evaluators, but also to act as lifelong learners and teaching the role of researchers. Pragmatic abilities as related to pragmatics, cross-cultural communication studies, second language acquisition research, foreign language teaching and other fields of inter-disciplinary issues, so the teacher must establish a ‘life-long learning concept’, lay a solid basic skills, and focus on their own knowledge structure updates. Language teachers in cross-cultural teaching background should expand the breadth and depth of their knowledge, and continuously develop their pragmatic competence in order to ensure the professional competence of adaptability, do a good job nurturing students who pragmatic competence.
Feedback plays a key role in learners’ progress in culture competence. A teacher can give feedback in the role of an L2 instructor who points out learners’ mistakes, presents correct models, or direct learners to self-correct. Alternatively, a teacher can provide feedback as one interlocutor in the interaction, who responds to the other interlocutor’s remarks and behaviors with natural conversational prompt for repetition, clarification, or self-correction (Noda, 1998).
“Performing a culture in each case should aim to create a memory focused on pleasing
the subjects of the remembering so they will want to continue the conversing” (Walker,
2000). The ability to discern others’ response and adjust one’s behaviors accordingly is
an important skill that contributes to learners overall competence in C2 communication.
Therefore, when learners’ performance is culturally incorrect, responding as an interlocutor in the interaction is one option in giving feedback. Since this kind of feedback is implicit and time-consuming, when it causes confusion or is not applicable in classroom instruction, explicitly correcting learners can always be an alternative option.
Kramsch (1991: 229) refers to it as ‘cultural competence’, and asserts that it can best be developed in a structured learning environment, here conscious parallels can be drawn, where language can be explicitly linked to its meaning in a particular sociocultural and historical context, where disparate linguistic or cultural phenomena can be brought together and attached to more abstract principles of both base (C1) and target (C2) language and culture. Teachers should continually deepen their understanding of both C1 and C2 by reading studies from a variety of sources that help identify and analyze cultural patterns in the series of isolated cultural facts which they experience or teach about.
Conclusion
As supported by the definitions by Mangubhai and Son (2003) and Hatch (1992) in respect to an utterance, its underlying meaning and intention derived from specific context represents pragmatics(Dash, 2004). Both Morris (in Thomason, 1973) and Green (1989) separate out pragmatics to semantics and it is this separation, which needs to be imparted in defining to teachers and students how to generate a real improvement in pragmatic competence.
Well-organized role play and multi-media displaying authentic and successful pragmatics usage across different cultural against the examples of more frequent cross-cultural pragmatic failure may be a start to guide the students to successful pragmatic strategies . Culture changes through times, the materials language teachers use may be out of date, the teacher could ask the students to correct mistakes and discuss it through groups to clear the misunderstanding.
In an attempt to explore the roles of cultural values and cultural themes curriculum, learners learn doing things in a culturally appropriate manner, which automatically results in a procedural knowledge of C2 cultural themes. L2 learners also develop descriptive knowledge on cultural themes and cultural values through explicitly learning information on the two.
Culture has a distinct personality; the use of language must be followed. Culture rules, in other words, culture determines thinking, decision. In this sense, the difference in language use can not be avoided. It takes time to implant the pragmatic ability only in classroom teaching. It will be a long journey for both students and teachers to experience the cultural difference in their life and process of learning. However, study the culture of target language including manners, customs and cultural formation of the correct concept will have positive effect on pragmatic competence.
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Cultural and Language Barriers in Communication

Cultural and language barriers to effective business communication in manufacturing and construction industries in the city of Charlotte of North Carolina and ways to overcome them the last decade.
The foreign-born workers in the city of Charlotte have been expanded and they are increasingly becoming a vital part of the community and local workforce. While many foreign-born workers have assimilated into the workplace, others make an effort to overcome cultural and language barriers that exist. In my opinion, it is in the best interest of employers to better understand and help bridge the cultural and language divide as more foreign-born workers stream into the workforce. Being proactive in helping break down these barriers can reduce costly, on-the-job accidents caused by workers not fully understanding safety rules or operational procedures, improve employers’ ability to recruit, hire and retain workers; and increase workers’ productivity.

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According to U.S Census Bureau from the article “Foreign-Born Population in the United States” the author argues that like other metropolitan areas around the country, Charlotte-Mecklenburg has experienced significant increases in foreign-born residents and workers over the last decade. In 1990, the U.S. Census Bureau reported that approximately 3.5% of Mecklenburg County’s population was foreign-born, or around 18,000 people. While official 2000 Census data on the foreign-born population will not be released until late 2002, preliminary Census information reveals a 162% increase in Mecklenburg County’s Asian population between 1990 and 2000 and a 570% increase in the Hispanic/Latino population. Together, these two population segments accounted for more than one-quarter (28.2%) of the county’s overall population growth during the decade.
Immigrants from other regions of the world are also rising in number, further diversifying Charlotte-Mecklenburg’s population. According to the 2000 Census, approximately 21,000 non- Hispanic or Asian immigrants were living in Mecklenburg County in 2000. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools reports that over 84 languages are now spoken within the international student population. The Census Bureau projects we will continue to see increases in our foreign-born population over the next several decades, particularly Hispanic/Latino residents. The number of new Hispanic residents is expected to increase at a rate of 10 million people every 10 years nationwide. According to the Bureau, the western states will likely see the largest increases, followed by south and southeastern states. North Carolina currently ranks 9th among all states in the number of Mexican-born residents. (U.S. Census Bureau, 2000)
According to the web site www.charlotteworks.org “In some cultures, a social hierarchy often exists that can create “bumps” in communication in the workplace. For example, in many countries, women are subordinate to men. Working in an American business, women from these countries may feel uncomfortable or violated in some way. In contrast, males with such cultural backgrounds may not adapt well to working equally with females or having female supervisors”. (www.charlotteworks.org)
This opinion indicates that there is a difference between males and females, men and women about the perception of roles and status that each of them can adapt in the workplace. This understanding of interaction between sexes and roles assigned in various cultures can be very important for employers to take it into account.
According to the journal article “Language management in multinational companies the author argues that body language says a lot, but it can be interpreted differently in the world. For example most Americans typically signal “no” in shaking their heads, but people from dome countries raise their chins”. (Alan J. Feely, Anne-Wil Harzing 2003, p.37)
I think body language is very important for the workplace to be adapted. Several people have different kinds of elements in body language such as shaking their heads and hands, raise their chins and also eye contact. Cultural differences in non-verbal behaviours are a common source of misunderstandings and conflict in the workplace. For instance, many westerners like to make eye contact, interpreting it as an indication of interest and honesty. They also show friendliness through relaxed body language. If these behaviours do not happen, it can be interpreted as shiftiness, coldness and disinterest. However, in some cultures, averted eyes and non-demonstrable behaviour are a sign of courtesy and respect. Being aware of these nuances will help you to reduce negative impressions in inter-cultural communications among your staff. All these reactions have different meanings from people who come from different cultures.
According to the newspaper article “International relations the journalist says that in many cultures religion dominates life in a way that is often difficult for Americans to understand”. (Network World, p.47)
I believe that is very difficult for Americans to understand religion differences that occur among cultures. For example, workers from some Muslim cultures may want to pray three times a day in accordance with theirs values and beliefs. There may also be religious holidays on which people of certain religions are forbidden to work or need to follow certain customs. For some of them maybe is a way of life to respect all these things and also these differences need to be respected from others, and the needs associated with religious commitments understood and sensitively negotiated within the workplace. Clear communication on both sides about these issues is to be encouraged, where possible and not ignored.
According to the book Intercultural communication for Business the author argues that “hygiene and grooming, as well as attire can vary from country to country and culture to culture. (Elizabeth A. Tuleja, 2005; p55)
Some people may wear attire such as a headdress as part of their customs and beliefs. So, to remain true to all this tradition workers may want to continue to wear this dress in the American workplace. Employers may view this as inappropriate or unsafe but is part of their culture to dress like this and it must also be respectable from their supervisors or employers. It is particularly problematic in businesses in which workers wear uniforms. In another example, immigrants from India, Turkey or other countries may use spices in their diets that are emitted through the body. American workers can interpret this as dirty or unhygienic. Employers have to handle these issues sensitively and proactively to avoid unnecessary conflict and distress. Thus, the personal appearance is another factor that is very important on the workplace and entails differences among various countries and cultures.
Clearly it is the responsibility of immigrant workers to learn English and adapt to the cultural norms in the American workplace. However, this can take time. Employers have much to gain from helping their workers bridge the cultural divide. Too many employers expecting immigrant workers to figure things out for themselves, which doesn’t work in many cases. Nor is it a wise business decision. The benefits to employers of investing time and resources in helping immigrant workers adapt to the workplace include increased productivity and performance, greater trust and loyalty among workers and improved safety. This can translate into higher business profits in the long run.
So, human resource professionals have to offer some tips or suggestions for employers who want to strengthen and retain their immigrant workforce.
Employers have to learn as much as they can about the culture of the people they are dealing with, particularly if they employ several people from the same cultural background.
According to the journal article “Overcoming Cultural and Language Barriers in Facilitation and Training the author argues that getting to know a person’s culture is a first step to getting to know them as individuals”. (Anthony Griffin, 2002, p.37)
Thus, employers have to respect individual differences, abilities and personalities. Even though people may share a common language or culture, it doesn’t mean they are alike, any more than all Americans are alike. Stereotyping discounts individuals and can limit options for them in the workplace.
An other suggestion for employers can be to provide an orientation program for new hires that addresses some of the cultural differences and language barriers. This can help head off confusing or potentially unpleasant experiences for international employees. Moreover, employers can consider having co-workers serve as mentors or coaches to help new workers adapt to the culture and vocabulary of the workplace. Furthermore, when employers working with immigrants, have to refrain from using jargon or slang that might not translate well. They have to choose words that convey the most specific meaning and stick to one topic at a time.
According to the book “Hiring and Managing a Culturally Diverse Workforce the author argues that when employers have to train immigrant employees, make sure they understand their training material and why it is useful to them”. (Brian K. Linhardt, 2000; p.53)
Employers can use techniques such as graphics or demonstrations to illustrate points whenever possible. Often the lack of effective training tools and qualified instructors can leave immigrant workers out of the training loop and limit their opportunities to enhance their skills and advance in the workplace.
Also, employers have to never assume that their communication with the workers with limited English-speaking abilities has been understood. It will be a good idea for them to ask for feedback or for demonstration, particularly when employers are training the workers.
According to the magazine article “Cultural Sensitivity Makes Good Business Sense the journalist argues that employers have to recognize the broad ethnic diversity that exists within groups.” (HR Magazine, p.67)
These groups might be Hispanics or Asians. Employers don’t have to assume that everyone shares common cultural backgrounds or languages just because they came from the same region of the world. Someone labeled “Hispanic” may come from the mountains of Chili, a large Central American city or a rural village in Mexico. The same is true for immigrants from the many different Asian countries where cultures and languages vary widely.
In addition, employers have to be patient with their workforce. A thoughtful supervisor or co-worker can make all the difference in helping and prevent feelings of inadequacy and embarrassment when a person cannot express him or herself clearly or fully.
Moreover, employers can recruit bilingual managers and supervisors to server as the communication link between cultures and engage co-workers to serve as translators while people are learning English.
Also, if there is a large number of people in need of learning English, employers can help and educate those people to learn English as a second language. The lessons can be taught during the lunch hour or other times during the day. To do so, it is important to create a safe environment for learning. Helping people learn English is a way to build trust and loyalty.
According to the book “Bridging Cultural Barriers for Corporate Success the author argues that employers have to help workers take care of their basic survival needs” (Sondra Thiederman, 1991, p.89)
For example, helping them find transportation to and from work can reduce fears of the unknown and build trust and loyalty with the worker. Companies can have cooperation with the city of Charlotte and make contracts to provide vanpool vans to transport a group of immigrants workers to and from work at little cost to the companies or the workers. Other ways to help may include assisting workers establish credit or file income tax returns, which can seem to be monumental tasks for someone who doesn’t know the system.
Furthermore, employers have to provide sensitivity training to native workers in the company to make them more aware of and sensitive toward the different cultural differences.
Needless to say, that employers have to promote immigrants when appropriate, not only to give people more opportunities, but to show other immigrants that they can advance if they prove themselves. It is a reward for them to be promoted and also a fair system of the workforce evaluation.
The first source describes and gives a demographic evaluation of the foreign workforce in the city of Charlotte. The following four sources deal with the cultural and language barriers in the workplace. On the web site the factors that have been described are roles and status. Each culture has its own social hierarchy and that feature affects communication in the workplace. On the other hand the journal article describes the characteristics of body language. Body language can be interpreted differently among different cultures in the workplace. Each culture has different meanings and codes which are derived from body language. Apart from the web site and journal article, the newspaper article rely on religion. Religion is a very important part of people’s life and for some cultures is actually a way of life to depend on it, and so that has an impact to the workplace environment. The last source that has derived from the book mentions that different personal appearance has to do from various countries and cultures. So, inappropriate or unsafe attire in a workplace environment can provoke the behavior of employers or supervisors.
The last four sources describe the ways in which employers can help bridge the cultural and language divide in the workplace. On the journal article the author explains that employers have to respect individual differences, abilities and personalities in order to have a better idea about the person’s culture and also get to know him as individual. On the other hand, according to the book “Hiring and Managing a Culturally Diverse Workforce” the author explains the importance of the training of immigrant employees and how must be implemented in order to understand the immigrants the training material and why it is useful for them.
Apart from the journal article and the book, the magazine article rely on the ability of the employer to recognize the broad ethnic diversity that exists within groups. Employers don’t have to assume that everyone shares common cultural backgrounds or languages just because they came from the same region of the world. The last source that derived from the book “Bridging Cultural Barriers for Corporate Success” mentions that employers have to help workers take care of their basic survival needs, such as helping them find transportation to and from work in order to feel more comfortable.
The amount of information that each source describes may not be so much but the authors of each source explain the topic in depth. Each of the author mentions one characteristic that is relevant for the topic and can all be explained more with examples in every day life. Furthermore, the kind of information that each of the source contains has to do with the opinions and personal views of the authors that are derived by personal experience, research and professionalism about topics that occur in contemporary business society.
I believe that the subject is very clear and is helpful to me to understand the topic, so to provide the appropriate details and explanations to cover the subject and analyze the thesis statement in order to fulfill the purpose of the topic.
All language and cultural barriers may not have such dire consequences, but they can contribute to a lack of productivity, mistakes being made or general lack of trust between the employer and workers, all of which could be avoided if communication were clearer. Even if workers can speak English fairly well, the lingo, slang or jargon that is commonly used by Americans or is specific to different industries can create difficulties for foreign workers. We take it for granted that everyone knows what we are talking about. Not knowing these terms does not imply a person isn’t smart or capable, but he or she simply may not have learned the words or jargon that are commonly used by others on the job or in everyday conversation.
In my opinion, I believe that it depends to the employer to help the foreign workforce to adapt more easily in the new culture for them, the American culture. In addition, the foreign workforce has to try to do their best but mostly it is in the best interest of employers to better understand and help bridge the cultural and language divide as more foreign-born workers stream into the workforce.
Because ethnic diversity is part of the new reality of the American workplace, it is important for the business community, workforce educators, trainers and other human resource professionals to gain a better understanding of and sensitivity to language barriers and cultural differences among workers from all backgrounds. Such understanding and sensitivity will help employers increase recruitment, hiring, retention and advancement of immigrant workers. Ultimately, it will help businesses remain competitive by maintaining a stable, productive and safe workforce.
 

Saudi Arabia and the UK: Cultural Differences

Cultural Differences
The Variance of the countries and peoples is the culture of customs and traditions, and every country has its particular culture, whether if it is in the East or West. A culture of community is meant by patterns of social behaviour such as customs, believes, literature, arts, history , heritage, language, dress and everything relates to that sort. These cultural elements are combined to form a society characterized by special type to signify it from the rest of other communities. Not only that, but also, the culture of the community is thought of its members and determined its orientation.Unfortunately, only few people understand and appreciate cultural differences of other countries. In fact, they are unaware of the differences until they face the reality of a total different society, then they suffer from the inconvenience and conflicts of such customary habits.
For further understanding, I will discuss in the following paragraphs cultural similarities and differences between Saudi Arabia and United Kingdom.
The main similarity between the two countries, they are both kingdoms, however UK is headed by a queen (Elizabeth the second) while kingdom of Saudi Arabia headed by king Abdullah. UK has an elected prime minister ,who is rolling the country, while Saudi Arabia the king himself is the also prime minister and rolling the country.
Furthermore, there is an education similarity in teaching science, math and physics, while difference exists in the education system, where in UK is divided into two systems: schooling and home education, “Home education has always been common among the country’s elite. The Royal Family have all in the past been educated at home, including the current Queen, though more recently royalty have attended various public schools” (anon 2008). Since this system is common in the past years, and even today, many parents would like to teach their children at home, as that kind of education does not exist in Saudi Arabia. Another educational difference between the two countries is clear in education system. Where as in UK males and females attend school together while in Saudi Arabia males and females attend completely separated schools.

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In terms of jobs, most of Saudi women prefer to be housewives and to raise children rather than working , because family gathering and interdependence of family in the Eastern societies is very important Of the communities. On the contrary.UK women do not give accord priority to marriage and having children. Women in the UK are equal to men in employment and jobs, where is the state encourages female employment, and there are several researches in this regard, as mentioned in Turgoose and Hall research . “The vast majority of the women intend to increase their participation in work ” and some of them would like to increase the hours of work, in addition non working women would like to join the labour market. ( Turgoose and et al., 2006).
Some countries have different religion that distinguishes them from other countries. Religion of Islam is the official Saudi Arabia , and is owed by all the people of Saudi Arabia , while the official religion in the United Kingdom is Christianity, but not all the people believe in god. Recent study Crabtree (2007) showed that about 72% were Christian, and 66% of the population has no actual connection to any religion or church. And in the last quarter of a century, half of all Christians stopped going to church. At the same time, there are some similarities between the two countries, where both allow the existence of other religions through the living outside the country, in Saudi Arabia there are a lot of Indians, and western people, as same in the UK there is many foreign nationalities and allows them to perform their religious rites freely.
For religion, every religion has its special celebrations. Muslims in Saudi Arabia have special occasions such as Ramadan, Hajj and Eid. As for UK people, there many occasions to celebrate, such as Charismas, new-year day, Easter, Labor Day, and so on.
Every occasion has its own special food that distinct it from rest of the events. In Saudi Arabia, Ramadan has a distinctive cuisine, such as “kabsah”, “sambosa” and other special food. In UK, Christmas and new year day are famous for “turkey dinners”, Easter characterized by its eggs.
Another common difference, Transport in the UK has more advanced than Saudi Arabia, where they are using buses, trains and underground add to cars and vehicles. However, in Saudi Arabia cars is the only means of mobility and there are few buses, also there is only one Train station linking the capital Riyadh with Dammam city. But there are advanced studies on the establishment of many of the trains in the future, which is a joint project for construction of a railway link between Jeddah and Makkah and Madinah called “The Haramain High-speed Railway (HHR)”, as it mentioned in the article (2009).
In conclusion, it is clear that multiplicity of similarity between the two countries cultural aspects, there are some differences .It is noted that the culture of people in any country varies from one to another, and it is related to history, climate, religion, and some other un-seen factors. Cultural differences between countries exist, but due to usage of the new technology and with globalization and the spread new media tools, we will learn a lot of other country’s culture even if we are unable to visit it. Fast and easy transportation and modern technology facilitate people contacts which spread well under standing for other people cultures. By doing so, minor differences become smaller with time.
Being open minded, and neglecting minor cultural differences, will bring different people together, which may result in spreading peace and more understanding between people of same planet EARTH.
References
Anon (2008) A short history of Home education [online]. home-education. Available from: http://www.home-education.org.uk/article-history-of-he.htm [Accessed 22 August, 2009]
Anon (2009) ” Haramain High-speed Railway Saudi Arabia Architecture” [online] .e-architect . Available from: http://www.e-architect.co.uk/saudi_arabia/haramain_high_speed_railway_stations.htm [Accessed 24 August, 2009]
Crabtree, V. (2007) Religion in the United Kingdom Diversity, Trends and Decline [online].vexen. Available from: http://www.vexen.co.uk/UK/religion.html [Accessed 24 August, 2009]
Turgoose, C. & Hall, L. (2006) Encouraging an increase in the employment of women returners in areas of skill shortage in traditionally male industries [online] University of Sheffield. Available from: http://www.berr.gov.uk/files/file28572.pdf [Accessed 23 August, 2009]
Bibliography
Hofstede, G. (2008) Cultural Differences in Teaching and Learning [online] . FUHU conference on Education and Training in the Multicultural Classroom Copenhagen. Available from: http://fuhu.dk/filer/FBE/Arrangementer/Denmark%20Unlimited%20080508/FBE_geert_hofstede_teaching_learning.pdf [Accessed 21 August, 2009]
Vaara, E. (2000). Constructions of Cultural Differences in Post Merger Change Processes:A Sensemaking Perspective on Finnish-Swedish Case [online] Helsinki School of Economics and Business Administration. Available from: http://www.management-aims.com/PapersMgmt/33Vaara.pdf [Accessed 20 August 2009]
 

Cross Cultural Marriage Essay

The world is an interesting and a diverse place to live in. An Intercultural Marriage is a union of two people involving numerous cultures and backgrounds. When two various cultures combine together, there may be significant challenges they have to face. Each race ensures there own culture. A culture may differ from one to another due socially transmitted behaviour patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought. Culture is a system of shared beliefs and values and is constantly evolving and changing around the world. The presence of intercultural marriages and intimacy is clear and expanding in societies throughout the Culture may consist of shared language, religion, or ethnicity. America is one of the greatest multicultural and multiracial societies in the world at the moment. Nevertheless, this may come across as a shock to most people but as lately as 1966, 17 states in the United States actually had laws against the interracial marriage and all of the states regulated marriage between whites and other races in the country. Discriminations against miscegenation are usual nowadays. Despite the significant number of intercultural marriages in the U.S today, mere empirical research has been done to determine the nature of these marriages (Ngye & Snyder, 2000) and marital satisfaction.

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Communication style and interpersonal relationships are fundamental aspects of culture and can vary dramatically from one culture to another. There may be language and communication barriers. It is noteworthy to remember that everyone on this earth has culture, not just those clusters that are considered ‘civilized’. The majority of culture is unseen, below the surface. For example, when a Russian man marries an Italian it is not only the differences in native language (Russian vs. Italian) and religion (Eastern Orthodox vs. Roman Catholic) but also a host of cultural differences associated with such factors as expression of emotion, conflict expression and management, the role of the of family of origin in raising children (Sullivan & Cottone, 2007). The beliefs and values that lie beneath the surface can be the most difficult to change when it is necessary. (Progressive Scholar, 2010) Interracial marriages are not always intercultural marriages, as in some countries, for example, in the United States, people of different races can share the same cultural background. (Source – Wikipedia, Last access 17th August) it is easy to comprehend why it is difficult to let go of a tradition or expectation. It isn’t easy to deal with the legacy that we’ve all grown up within our ethnic, religious and socio-economic backgrounds.
Though it seems to be a very romantic love story, in the beginning, the truth is, it can be very challenging and frustrating in real life. And it is simply not about being racist, marriage has a deeper meaning to it, which dwells in understanding it, is possible to have extremely strong and natural negative feelings surrounding an interracial relationship or a marriage even though you’re not considered as racist. Legal or not illegal the question is should interracial marriages be encouraged? The union between two different cultures altogether will give space to different experiences and opportunities in life, but most difficulties in the marriage life where it is concerned. Adoptions to a different culture altogether maybe not turn out to be an easy task.
Individually ethnic and cultural variances put pressure on the marriage itself. With two diverse cultures, a family often has struggled with understanding the differences between the families. Most of the time, such differences are not even recognized and unexplained. At this position an even larger problem with intercultural marriages. It is easy to look at why it is difficult to let go of a tradition or expectation. It isn’t easy to deal with the legacy that we’ve all grown up within our ethnic, religious and socio-economic backgrounds. Numerous cultures will consume different marriage laws, customs and also parental disagreements which will lead to disputes. There will be lower material satisfaction, higher divorce rates due to logistics. Language barriers, different traditions and society’s disapproval of these factors will lead to higher failure of the marriage. Hence, a union between two cultures should not be encouraged due to the factors mentioned above.
The report will consist of three major factors which are mainly focused on miss- contribution towards an inter-cultural marriage. Initially how the marriage is affected by the cultural shock, diverse of marriage laws which can lead into disagreements plus adaptation to various cultures and environmental factors. Secondly, the society’s points of view, Spouse facing discrimination due to colour and differences, if he/she is beyond the racial divide. The last point will conclude of dissipation of culture. The report contains information based on various countries and issues with diverse cultures marriages.
2.1 ADAPTATION TO A DIFFERENT CULTURE
The main intention of getting married is to emotionally, spiritually and physically unite men and women together, as husband and wife, it is a commitment made in the presence of God, and is valid until death. Intercultural marriages are often influenced by external factors that can create a confrontation and disagreement in relationships. Different cultures endure vastly diverse moral, ethical and value foundations that influence their perceptions of individual, family and societal lifestyle. When these fundamentals are operating alongside the foundation of different cultural roots, as in intercultural marriages, problems and disagreement oftentimes occur.
It takes an effort to combine two cultures successfully, and a willing attitude to learn from both partners. The first argument against intercultural marriages is the cultural shock (adaptation to a new culture). When considering an intercultural marriage either one of the partners have to get introduced to a new culture. Ideally, both have to get used to each other’s cultures and laws to survive the marriage and this will create a lot of problems in the process. For an example – A non-Muslim marrying a Muslim will have to obey to certain laws in Islam; Islam forbids marriage between Muslim women and non-Muslim men. Therefore, any partner will have to convert and obey Islamic rules (sound vision, 2010). In the case of Muslim men marrying Jewish and Christian women, the situation is different.
While Islam does allow this, Muslim men marrying Jews and Christians need to remember that living in the West, if they end up divorcing, the children will almost automatically be given to the mother. The converting process from one religion to another and adapting to new laws will create massive problems that will even end the marriage. Additional wrinkle in U.S. Muslim family law practices stems from the structure of authority in Islamic jurisprudence since there has never been an official church certifying individuals to speak on behalf of the religion, the field is open for any dedicated Muslim to seek to act as imam and lead a community (Quarishi & Syed- Miller, 2001) therefore, non-Muslims have a very rare chance of winning and surviving in the marriage due to different laws in different cultural laws.
Moving on, Intercultural marriages have contrasting differences between traditions and cultures. Although a few studies have looked into this aspect, cultural differences also stimulate marital conflicts, particularly in intercultural marriages. In fact, the quantitative study of Takano (2002), pointed out that 19% of the marital discords in interethnic couples involved in his study are attributed to cultural differences.). Couples that enter a cross-cultural marriage bring into their relationship vastly diverse assumptions and expectations about marriage and family life.
Many of these assumptions flow out of the values, unspoken rules and belief systems that permeate their primary cultures. These unspoken values have become so much a part of their lives that they are almost hidden from view. For an example, the way of celebrating Christmas is different in Germany rather than America (J). In fact, many of these cultural differences do not surface until after the couple is married. However, New experiences and new culture altogether may interest an adventurous spouse as its a unique once in a lifetime experience and the difficulties greatly depend on how religious and culturally bond the families are.
Not all think out of the box, New strange land, parents and language may cause distress at the beginning of the marriage life. One spouse will live in the country of origin and the other will be a stranger in a strange land the pleasantness maybe fall apart after sometime when trying to fit into a different family, culture. Marriage and customs differ from one country and another culture.For example, Indian marriage customs are varying from marriage customs of Chinese traditions. In Japan the Japanese bride to be painted pure white from head to toe, visibly declaring her maiden status to the gods. There are two choices of headgear exist. One which is, the watabōshi, is a white hood, the other is called the tsunokakushi, serves to hide the bride’s ‘horns of jealousy.’ It also symbolizes the bride’s intention to become a gentle and obedient wife. During the period of the traditional wedding days, there would be a tilak ceremony (where the groom is anointed on his forehead), a ceremony for adorning the bride’s hand then cover the feet with henna (called mehendi) accompanied by Ladies’ Sangeet (music and dance) and many other pre-wedding ceremonies. Hence, marriage traditions, customs and beliefs may clash due to the above points mentioned so far.
Religion runs deeper since they practice their faith and it is a part of their cultural identity that they want to hang on to. The accurate, customs and special days associated with the religion remain significant to them. The regarding the worship of the children will matter some religions deny the validity of all others and insist on conversions or demand that the children should be brought up in that religion. A couple might face difficulty in deciding on this above point and the spouse form the other religion may feel inferior and down. For example, Orthodox Judaism teaches that the family must repudiate (sit shivah for) a child who marries a non-Jew: Islam demands obedience to God’s law only as revealed by Muhammad, and also requires that a Muslim marry a fellow Muslim. The Catholic churches until recent years insisted that a non-Catholic partner sign a prenuptial agreement to raise any Catholic children. Particular Christian sects preach that all outsiders are damned to eternal fire and prohibit any marriage to people of different faith. At this specific point, the problem may occur with the faith plays a major role in decision making this is if the partner is intensely religious.
As they approach each other’s separate territory, there is a new language, new customs and a new standard of “normal” to be learned. While culture a certain behaviour might be accepted, here it might cause native offence. This sought of marriage is similar to a foreign alliance, with two separate people coming together and discovering the heritage and history of the other.
2.1 Disapproval from parents and rejection from society
No man is different from the other; every human being is created equal. Some optimists believe it’s the mind of one that creates all the boundaries. But over the time when people get used to one way of living, it is likely that they maintain the trend, generation after generation, this is where culture plays a role. Once you are used to that play it is very hard to get rid of it or adopt a different ‘style of living’. Culture is a total of the inherited ideas, beliefs, values, and knowledge, which constitute the shared bases of social action (Collins Dictionary). So as these practices are a significant and unique part of a group of people at a particular period, they are no longer equal anymore, one would be different from the other from the thoughts and beliefs. Intercultural marriages go beyond the racial divide, Which will lead to discrimination by people around them and which may make it uncomfortable to family and parents Interfaith, intercultural and interracial marriages are subject to special stresses and strains beyond those experienced in most marriages. Issues are apparent from early in the relationship. Differences often emerge during wedding planning, and these can involve the expectations of partners’ families of origin about the wedding ceremony, etc. Child rearing can also bring religious, cultural and/or racial issues to the surface as decisions about religious practices and education are confronted for the first time. (Patricia S. & Gregory A., 2003)
Disapproval from parents for a cross-cultural marriage is customary. Parents should play a major role in their children’s marriage set up. As a matter of fact, the parents fear to risk the life of their unmarried children who might face discrimination from the partner’s family members. There may also be communication problems if they speak different languages. And It is typical of parents to want their children to find a spouse from there own religion and culture, just to make life easier, and this a better place to live. There are situations where they decide to migrate to the spouses country, which Is living far away from there own family. The parents of an interracial couple usually feel that they have been lowered by their children. A cross-cultural communication in a marriage should respect differences. In marriage you just don’t marry another you interconnect with another family as a whole.Intercultural marriages can also include people from different races getting together, a situation where there are much more complicated issues when it comes to marriage. (the cultural difference is greater).
On the contrary, there is intercultural marriages present within the country like in India, The culture of India is an amalgamation of these diverse sub-cultures spread all over the Indian subcontinent and traditions that are several millennia old.Religiously, Hindus form the majority, followed by Muslims The Republic of India’s state boundaries are largely drawn based on linguistic groups; this decision led to the preservation and continuation of local ethnolinguistic cultures. Thus, states differ from one another in language, culture, cuisine, clothing, literary style, architecture, music (Wikipedia)
Another problem is that many of the couples have to encounter is societal disapproval. We have to cope up with our society in spite of our own opinion. The society, on the other hand, considers intercultural marriages as straying from traditional values. A Society is an organization of people who share a common cultural and social background. (Oak, 2007) The consequences of marriage affect every aspect of society. It occupies the most intimate aspect of personal privacy and personal love and reaches the pillars of the sacred institutions of a culture. Marriage is the pillar of society, but it is also the pillar of government, business, and the military. (Wood, 2010) There are mere open-minded people who would give all the support they can, there will always be others who would make the couple feel unwelcome. The most abusive treatment would come from other children. During courtship, many of the racial differences might have overlooked, but after marriage, the couple might find t difficult to make adjustment as each group practices a different way of life. Another discouraging occurs when the couples try to participate in social organizations. Although society’s disapproval will not affect the couple as seriously as parental disapproval, it is still an issue that cannot be ignored. (http://www.megaessays.com/viewpaper/25504.html). Sure as it is multicultural marriage requires a lot of sacrifices.
We have to cope up with our society in spite of our own opinion. The society, on the other hand, considers intercultural marriages as straying from traditional values. A Society is an organization of people who share a common cultural and social background. (Oak, 2007) The consequences of marriage affect every aspect of society. It occupies the most intimate aspect of personal privacy and personal love and reaches the pillars of the sacred institutions of a culture. Marriage is the pillar of society, but it is also the pillar of government, business, and the military. (Wood, 2010).
In this global world nowadays people are becoming accepting more than they used to, and less ignorant. In the eyes of the person who is getting married this may no longer matter as love has no boundaries. It really does not. Maybe our soul mate is from a different country and religion altogether. Marriage is a union of two who are in love. The relationship depends on the person in them. Care and trust are more important than what the persons religious or cultural background is. There will also be less discrimination amongst races.
Nevertheless, There comes a point where it really does matter, because a marriage needs to be maintained throughout with commitment and understanding, it is a bond that is virtually irrevocable. In order to be more comprehensive, it is excelling if they have a grip on what it is, even better having practised the same. Parents agreement for a marriage would be very important and as it is a blessing from them indeed in the years ahead, many face this problem, because parents do not think like the present generation does. Also the society holds the view that a marriage is the stability provided by a life-long promise of remaining together which makes marriage the institution most suited to rearing and socializing the next generation of members, a necessary task if the society’s norms, values, and goals are to be maintained and if the society itself is to be is to be immortalized (M White, 1995). Each culture has its own way of communicating, arguing, eating, sharing, and showing affection. Most cultures remain intact by passing along their nuances, habits, and sayings for hundreds of years, with only slight variations occurring within each generation. (Henshaw, n.d)
2.3 Culture dissipation
There are numerous cultures available throughout the world. People around the globe are similar in their essential humanity: we communicate with each other, we sustain ourselves with food, and when we sleep we often dream. Yet we speak different languages, eat different foods, and dream different dreams. These are what we call the cultural differences. (Jervis. N, 2006). Let not scores of men/women abandon their culture and disappoint there parents and family in any way. All religions that accept or desire converts have had to adapt themselves to the cultures where they spread or they would not have been accepted. (Jervis. N, 2006) In the new era, as intercultural marriages are present, dissipation of culture is on the increase. As people migrate, get married to people of different culture and religion, there will be less who maintains the traditions ethics and values that they are nurtured with. These differences like religion, ethics etc. affects the spiritual stability of the marriage in an unforeseen manner. Why is culture so important? In a society, groups of people are interactive and interpersonal. In order to understand the groups to which one belongs, it is important to recognize the various cultures or habits and traditions within each group. It makes for a better understanding between diverse groups. (yahoo-ask answers) Let’s get this through, cultures are constantly changing. The attitudes, values, goals the practices that characterize each society. Technological innovation and contact with other cultures may cause these to change dramatically.
An intercultural marriage is one of the causes for cultures to go extinct. And it promotes cultural discontinuity. Cultures do changes, they are never static. The responsibility of us to maintain it .also some convert from one religion to another after an intercultural marriage due to the influence of the new environment this may not always be good. After the marriage the spouse most probably the female might not experience the same traditions and ethics in the new family. There will be no one to maintain its cultures are connected to language and traditions and religions.cultural continuity is important, continuity requires that a culture stays the same – that’s impossible – just that certain central aspects of a culture, such as particular beliefs or traditions, remain (gorigirl, 2009)
On the other hand, some people believe an intercultural marriage does bring about many cultures together and ensures freedom, unity in the society and traditions should be revisited because if not women nowadays will be locked up in kitchens like in the 16th century. Cultural diffusion is good. Less racial discrimination because no one is neglecting anyone due to cultural barriers. It will also help over racists’ minds of few. No boundaries for love will make life easy for couples from different cultures
We will always love our traditions and respect it as a part of us and would love to even teach our kids the same way. But with intercultural marriages sacrifices have to be made. Intercultural marriage is a perfect example of the creative destruction that, when successful, leads to both great innovation and happy, meaningful lives. Every marriage consists of the creation of a new family culture -but with intercultural marriages, each individual is bringing a completely distinct culture and set of traditions to the table to be combined. (gorigirl, 2009) Misbelieving in cultures will give a person no direction and sense of identity and uniqueness; people will become less traditional, religious because of the influence of many cultures and will also lead to language death. Part of our culture is language and it affects the cultural identity of the tribes or ethnic groups. They will not stick to one culture and would adjust according to there ideas as the culture is destroyed (mixed) and ignored by them. People would be less civilized after some generation as they are not nurtured according to one way of living, they will easily adapt to any change which maybe gives them no identity.
3.0 Conclusion
Diversity and unity amongst people are the best, But this world is not perfect. A relationship is hard to maintain. Especially an intercultural or interracial marriage as they have to face new challenges every day, there are many hurdles they should overcome. Family and society perceptions matters. Unity is a good thing and discrimination should be lessened but miscegenation is always not the solution to reduce or top discrimination, it should come within our selves and not with due to the respect of a relationship as if it is so, it might fade after sometime when the spark of the love is faded. Many difficulties should be overcome by a success of an intercultural marriage like maintain a family. The shared beliefs and values of people should not leave them after some time, it should always in them, an intercultural marriage is affected by the cultural shock, diverse of marriage laws which can lead into disagreements plus adaptation to various cultures and environmental factors. Language barriers and different traditions they are nurtured by people. Spouse facing discrimination due to colour and differences, if he/she is beyond the racial divide and dissipation of cultures occur. Sometimes the differences of each other may be too hard to handle over time also let not let go of our religion and beliefs and values due to a marriage, as our future generations need a proper culture to adapt to and to be brought up properly. Let not our own traditions breakdown.
6.0 Recommendations
As intercultural marriages are faced with many barriers, due to family issues and adaptation to the culture. A marriage is not easy to maintain and its more challenging as its an intercultural marriage.As in this modern era people should be more accepting and diverse.

Parents should be more attentive about the unmarried children’s desires, think more out of the box and support them throughout regardless of the cultural barriers. They should focus more on the person and the character and not judge them by the race or religion that person belongs to.
Pre-marriage counseling would help to smoothen the beginning of the marriage, due to the differences
Avoiding conversions to other and have faith in what they always believed in and not to change because of a marriage.
Parents should always give there blessings to a marriage no matter how much they like it or not, because it does affect the couple emotionally and psychologically
The society should be more accepting to differences
They couple should get together and spend more time each of their family’s and the places they were bought up , for the spouse to feel comfortable and less strange in adopt to changes
Family and relatives should always help and support the couple throughout because it’s a tough challenge they have to face.
Extra attention should be given to the differences and weak points of the couple so they can work on it before things go out of hand.as it is very much possible due to the differences in each other
For traditions and cultures to be continued till today people should be more rational and moral.

Supplementary research can be done on areas like impact on:
Family life, Impact on children, nature of intercultural marriages.
As these areas are not covered in the above repot, these will help expand the topic into further branches
Recommended areas to research on: – Advantages of intercultural and marriages in the new era.
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Gorilgirl, ( 2009), “Broken Traditions? Intercultural Marriage and Cultural Continuity”, 13th of july 2009, Available: http://gorigirl.com/broken-traditions-intercultural-marriage-and-cultural-continuity.Last accessed on 16th of july 2010
Myers; Jane, E.(2005) , “Marriage satisfaction and wellness in India and the United States”, 22nd of March 2005, Available: http://www.accessmylibrary.com/article-1G1-133015418/marriage-satisfaction-and-wellness.html.HYPERLINK “http://www.accessmylibrary.com/article-1G1-133015418/marriage-satisfaction-and-wellness.html.Last”Last accessed on 22nd of September 2010.
Nancy J, ( Ph.D).(2006) “What is a culture”, (N.d)Available : http://www.p12.nysed.gov//ciai/socst/grade3/whatisa.html.HYPERLINK “http://www.p12.nysed.gov//ciai/socst/grade3/whatisa.html.Last”Last accessed on 19th of September 2010.
Romano, D(2006), “Intercultural marriage, prmoses and pitfalls”, 8th january 2006, Available: http://www.amazon.com/Intercultural-Marriage-Promises-Dugan-Romano/dp/187786451X. Last accessed on 26th of july 2010
Tiergert, V.” Difficulties faced by intercultural relationships” (2008)Availble : http://www.helium.com/items/1957887-difficulties-faced-by-intercultural-relationships. Last access on the 1st of September 2010
 

Social, Historical and Cultural Contexts

Contextual Studies

The purpose of this investigation is to identify key social, historical and cultural contexts within the Victorian and Edwardian era. In order to provide the reader with a realistic overview of this time, we will investigate different cultural contexts, trends and their influencers. This will include cultural influences, political factors and product availability. It will also include information about cultural difficulties and it will discuss societal factors. This information will be used to discuss how the hair and makeup culture was influenced, at that time. The writing will be a compiled list of research, which will be gathered from a range of credible sources. Sources such as books, websites and journals will be used to enhance the knowledge of this era and to generate information. From this research, an image/person will be chosen and will be created into a real-life model for the remaining study. The eras specifically researched will be the Victorian era, which runs from 1837 to 1901. In addition, we will research the Edwardian era which runs from 1901-1910.

In the era when Britain emerged as one of the most powerful nations to trade in the world, it was Queen Victoria that took her reign as queen throughout the decade (Matthews, 2008).

Throughout the Victorian and Edwardian period, women developed a style influenced by Queen Victoria. (Victoria , 2016) The heavy white make-up and bright roses of the last century were a thing of the past throughout these eras. Attitude towards make-up in the 18th and 19th century was more known to be negative than positive. Queen Victoria herself, thought heavily painted faces and bright make-up was vulgar and more suited for actresses and prostitutes. The look throughout the decade was mainly more subtle with a pale complexion, the pale complexion and fragile look was a sign of nobility. Thus, giving the impression that you were well off and did not need to work outdoors. (Matthews, 2008)

Figure 1 Victorian  make up 1 https://vintagedancer.com/victorian/victorian-makeup-beauty-guide/

Figure 2 Victorian and Edwardian make up https://www.beautifulwithbrains.com/beauty-history-cosmetics-in-the-edwardian-era/

In order to achieve their pale complexion, women would use products such as zinc powder or bismuth blended with chalk or carbonate of lime. This, of course, depended on how much money you had. The most advertised brands available at that time were Saunders face powder. This product was available in pure white shades and in a more delicate roseate hue to impart a pleasing and healthful appearance. (Komar, 2016)

Starch was also another very popular ingredient in making Victorian facial powders, as you could also mix this with all this powder with essential oils to create a perfumed powder. (Fleming, 2012)

This powder was known as violet powder, this product was one of the least harmful cosmetics. Perfumed face powders were tinted with the shade of delicate pink or rose flesh coloured powders, which created an effect which was not too far from a modern-day foundation.  Despite there being quite a negative stigma concerning cosmetics, Victorian women liked to add a subtle colour to their pale complexion. This was known as cheek and lip rouge. Cheek rouge added a rosy complexion, bringing colour to the cheeks. This was applied with the hairs foot or a Swans down puff. Upper-class women could afford to buy popular cosmetics and would have used one of the most popular brands of the 18th and 19th century, which

Figure 3 Vintage boudoir http://www.vintagelingerieblog.com/vintage-makeup-tutorials/history-in-makeup-vintage-products-from-victorian-era-through-1970s/

was known as Circassian bloom (shown in Figure 4). Even though the rouge was subtly applied the product was viewed as vulgar by some publications do to the fact the cheeks portrayed a look for women that showed excessive drinking. (Beautiful with Brains, 2010)

Figure 4 Victorian  make up 2 https://www.pinterest.co.uk/pin/384143043201489720/?lp=true

Towards the late 18th century, the attitude towards cosmetics started to change, this was mainly down to popular actresses at the time such as Sarah Bernhardt she inspired women to wear more make up in public due to her own beauty routine. In the year of 1909, Gordon Selfridge in Oxford Street, London, instigated placing cosmetics on counters, inspiring women to attempt to apply cosmetics before buying them. Before you knew it, beauty counters, like we know and use today, were born and very soon, additional shops followed suit. (Matthews, 2008) (Beautiful with Brains, 2010)

Even though the rouge was subtly applied, the product was viewed as vulgar by some publications due to the fact the cheeks portrayed a look for women that showed excessive drinking. (Beautiful with Brains, 2010) (Downing, 2012)

Victorian and Edwardian hair

Figure 5 Victorian and Edwardian  hair https://www.flickr.com/photos/lovelornpoets/5312237423/sizes/z/in/photostream/

As we start with the Victorian style, womens hair in this period was often thought to be one of her most respected possessions and assets. The overall style was wide-ranging quite a bit throughout times of Queen Victoria’s reign, from simple middle partings to intricate pieces made from human hair being in style. Bonnets, Combs, pearls used as accessories,  each had their spell in the attention throughout the 1800s. Hair was long in the Victorian age. Tremendously long, as shown in Figure 5. Cuts were not precisely a thing yet for women. They did infrequently trim their split ends but long hair was regarded as being ultra-feminine and a much more desirable look.

Figure 6 Victorian and Edwardian  hair https://www.flickr.com/photos/lovelornpoets/5312237423/sizes/z/in/photostream/

Edwardian hairstyles tended to be a soft fluffy look, with a loose fluidity about them even though the hairstyle mainly consisted of being large and often padded to create the bulk and size fashionable during this period. Quite often fuzzy, especially if Marcel tongs were used on a regular occasion. The style was dressed actively away from the face, with a curled fringe which was seated on the forehead. The crucial hairstyle for the Edwardian women was the pompadour.

 

 

Figure 7 Victorian and Edwardian  hair https://www.flickr.com/photos/lovelornpoets/5312237423/sizes/z/in/photostream/

The shape of a pompadour is a high, rounded and curved away from the head. The pompadour could be dressed in a variety of styles, it could be straight or have a  or be curled. It could be simply brushed up within a bun, softly curled coils, chignons and fuzzy fringes.

 (Matthews, 2008) (Beautiful with Brains, 2010) (Boardman, 2001) (Downing, 2012) (H&MUA Team, 2012)

Figure 8 victorian and edwardian  hair 2 http://hair-and-makeup-artist.com/womens-edwardian-hairstyles/

Throughout the Victorian and Edwardian period, society was divided into three classes – the upper class, the middle class and the lower class. The upper-class society were wealthier than of the other classes and mainly consisted of aristocrats, nobles, dukes, the royal family luxury’s attending tea parties and balls. Queen Victoria was a big influence during the Victorian era for women, and for the more wealthier ahistorical, could afford to look more refined women who could afford this look class  could also afford to buy makeup products from manufacturars such as circassian  bloom  wich was very popular at the time, instead of combining substances to make make  them.

The style we can see from images of the upper class women such as

fine fabrics, dignified dresses, bonnets and petticoats corsets. They

 would be lavish expensive, made to impress but also came with many

subtle reminders of the upper class woman’s place. It was at this point in the 19th century that women’s clothes in the upper classes  started to be

more sexualized. Women’s clothing exaggerated the hips, breasts and

derriere not only to make them seem more attractive, but to separate

these wealthy ladies from the world of work.

Middle class women may have been less rich as their nobles, but still

tried to mix in upper class circles. Women belonging to the middle class

 were still expected to take education, acquire to help in the family

business and try and marry into a wealthier association.

As we come to the lower classes, the demise of the classes starts to

really show as extreme poverty and hygiene was rife. Women were

forced to take jobs such as prostitution, labouring or any activity that

 involves physical strain. As a result, the style of these women was more

practical, hard wearing and generally worn. Hair was rarely washed and lice was more widespread. (Beautiful with Brains, 2010) (Boardman, 2001) (Fleming, 2012) (Komar, 2016)

Key female icons of the 18th century

Key icons during this historical period include such women as Elizabeth Gaskell, Queen Victoria, Elizabeth Garrett Anderson and Emmeline Pankhurst.                                             

Queen Victoria was a very influential lady, not only in her aristocracy as queen but with Victorian women alike for her style and porcelain skin she paved the way for the less is more make up look of the 18th century with pale complexion.   She was also a keen activist of the British Empire. She celebrated and supported British involvement in the Boer War.  Also her dignified involvement to preside over the growth of the British Empire, which was to reach across the globe. Although her popularity dipped during her time as queen towards the end of the 18th century, she became an outstanding royal for pride and British realism.

(Pettinger, 2014) (Victoria , 2016) 

Elizabeth Gaskell

Elizabeth Gaskell (shown in Figure 10) was a powerful female novelist. Her publication of Mary Bartons tale of Manchester life identifies the  social classes at the time and was critically  frowned upon for her sympathy towards the lower class workers and their treatment from there masters.  Her honesty and observation in her books growing up in Victorian Britain critically acclaimed her as one of the most inspiring females at the period. (North & South, 2004) (BBC, 2014)

Figure 10 Icons https://gaskellsociety.co.uk/elizabeth-gaskell/

Elizabeth Garrett Anderson

Elizabeth Garrett Anderson (shown in Figure 11) was the first women of medicine  to qualify in England. She opened a school for women to practise medicine and gallantly paved the way for women’s medical education in Britain. Born in Whitechapel, London, a sibling of 12 She was given a good standard of education and wanted to become a doctor after meeting a female practitioner Elizbeth Blackwell and being inspired. She moved to the united states  and  became the first female doctor to graduate in  the United States.

Figure 11 Elizabeth Garrett Anderson

Emmeline Pankhurst

Emmeline Pankhurst (shown in Figure 12) was perhaps one of the most influential women of the 18th century and progressing into the Edwardian decade. Setting for the drive for change with how women were treated and, upon this, demanded women had the same rights as men. She was born on 14 July 1858 in Manchester. Her family were very wealthy, and both her parents were politically active. Growing up in the Victorian era, she began to notice how different women were treated to men and strived to change this. In the year 1903, she set up a union called the Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU).

Figure 12 Emmeline Pankhurst

Emmeline Pankhurst was a innovator  for women’s rights and remembered  for her hard intensively hard work with the WSPU to help fight and give  British women the right to vote.

The female silhouette 1850-1910

In the middle of the 18th century, the female silhouette was a very distinctive hourglass figure with small tightfitting waists and dome-shaped skirts which continue to grow ever larger.  Women’s skirts would domed like a bell shape this and the corset, were very popular this portrayed a very dainty and feminine ideal on the most current and essential look through the mid-1850s. The crinoline was a petticoat this was typically made out of horse hair, material which held the gown from the Body skirts of this stature gives the waste an even smaller magnitude. An example is shown in Figure 13.

In 1865, the first signs of the change in silhouette were gradually starting to be more visible women became more active and additional gores were added to the skirts to provide better movement. Dresses were longer in the back. The goring because the lower part of the lady’s skirts to loosen the fashion of the dress hard perfect trains behind it this made the lock elegant for the drawing room but were not very practical for walking around the dirty streets. Examples are shwon in Figures 14 & 15.

As we head towards the 1870’s, this cerise bodice was introduced the body’s were extended very tight around  the hips dresses such as fashionable ballgowns were being made more around the front this new style  of dress many Victorians seem to object as they considered this style of dress to be more sexualised. Almost comparing them to undergarments. By the late 1870’s, the skirts were designed so long that women started to wear false skirts underneath, tea gowns started to all be popular and women could weigh these without halving the agony of wearing tight corsets.

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As we come to the end of the 1890’s, jackets and skirts were more masculine due to women becoming more active and this would allow more room.  The tiny waist silhouette that remained through out this decade was even more enhanced with wearing a swiss belt and a figure hugging corselet,  corselets unlike the standard corset style, were worn outside the clothing this look achieved a such a small waist that it is known that the average style waist at that time was a mere 22 inches. This is shown in Figure 16.

As we enter a new decade into the Edwardian era, the ‘s’ bend coreset was introduced (as shown in Figure 17) and started to become more popular than the previous style of Victorian wear.  This type of garment propelled the hips backwards and the chest forwards creating a more pigeon  shaped silhouette, this  high wasted fashion stayed popular into 1910 but the ever changing silhouette  continued to evolve as the years progressed in towards the middle of the Edwardian period. After the first world war Dresses started to become less fitted a more simplistic look was created and with that came more freedom. (Royal Albert Hall, 2018) (Matthews, 2008) (Vintage Fashion Guild, 2018)

The great exhibition of 1851

In the middle of the 18th century, with queen Victoria and prince Albert firmly mapping their reign on Victorian society, things began to change. Not only for a new ideal but one of prosper and hope, especially for the middle class of the time new jobs and more work meant more exciting times ahead.

The great exhibition of 1851, set in London’s Knightsbridge, was the inspiration of prince Albert, this was to become one of the  most historical events Britain had seen.

Figure 19 https://www.rct.uk/collection/407143/the-inauguration-of-the-great-exhibition-1-may-1851

Figure 20 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protector_lock#/media/File:Crystal_Palace.PNG

At that time, England was experiencing  a manufacturing rise this set the scene for a great exhibition, for industry trades and of all nations to attend.  After the  industrial revolution Britain wanted the world to know their success, to show off and celebrate their new industrial design technology. There was a average of 15,000 contributors and a display of over 10,000 objects. The great exhibition was on a colossal platform, not just for technology but influential for art, education , international trade and tourism seen a massive increase.  Housed within the crystal palace, this grand design and structure was a vast array of glass and cast iron was the brainchild of architect joseph Paxton who took his ideas for this spectacular building, came  from the water Lilly Victoria, a lily that can support huge leaves.  The crystal  palace also featured fountains and waterfalls, the highest at 250 feet.  From the time of May 1851 to October of 1851 its been accounted, that a figure of 6 million visitors passed through its doors and a profit of 186,000 pounds and not a loss as once thought predicated.

Visitors included factory workers sent by their employers, countrymen school children, the elite from around the world even queen Victoria herself was a frequent visitor. Travel agent Thomas cook made it affordable and possible for more people to visit the great exhibition by organising trains to London for one shilling.

(Picard, 2009)

The arts and crafts movement of the late 1800’s

Towards the late 1860’s and 1870’s, Britain needed a new approach towards architecture and design. In its preceding  years, machine production was damaging both social conditions  and the standard of manufacturing goods. The Arts and Crafts movement was produced out of an increasing and  a desire to understand that as a nation and with in its society it needed  to adopt a different adaptation  of ideals in relation to the manufacturing  of objects.  It needed to  develop products that not only had more honour, but which were also made in a decreased  dehumanising way. Structured forwarded more by a set of ideals than a inflexible style, the movement took its name from the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society, a group founded in London in 1887, by illustrator Walter Crane. The main objective of this was to show off the grand gesture of the artistic work in a more public form. (Grange, 2002)

 

“Fine art is that in which the hand, the head, and the heart of man go together.” John Ruskin, ‘The Cestus of Aglaia, the Queen of the Air’, 1870.

The idea of good design was linked to their notions of a better society. This outlet of a society in which the worker was not dehumanized by the appalling working conditions, that could be found in the factories of the late Victorian century, taking more pride in his technique and skill. The rise of a purchaser class coincided with the rise of manufactured consumer goods.  the goal was to create design that was… ” for the people and by the people, and a source of pleasure to the maker and the user.” Workers could produce beautiful objects that would enhance the lives of ordinary people, and at the same time provide decent employment for their crafts.

Famous designer’s such as John Ruskin and William Morris, were responsible  for pioneering roles in the Gothic Revival style of architecture. Ruskin was the vigorous soul driving the Victorian Gothic Revival, a dynamic combination of religious evangelism and architectural dedication that overthrew two centuries of Renaissance classicism with pointed arches, stained glass and encaustic tiles. Today, Pugin’s work is being reviewed as designers learn once again to cope with colour and remarry architecture to the arts and crafts. To the public at large, however, he remains all but overlooked.  William Morris   was the most  influential designer on the Arts and Crafts movement. The visual and social vision of the Arts and Crafts movement resulting from ideas he developed in the 1850s with a  students at Oxford, who’s mutual  love of Dreamy literature with a promise to social improvement      (Glancey, 1994)

The Pre-Raphaelites                                                            

The pre-Raphaelites are among the best known of all English paintings, and yet they have sometimes been dismissed as Victoriana or sheer distraction.  Directed by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, William Holman Hunt and John Everett Millais, the Pre-Raphaelites campaigned against the art formation of their day and were dedicated to the impression of art’s  potential  to change Victorian society.

Their uncompromisingly fundamental style, stimulated by the purity of first renaissance painting, challenged settlement, incited criticisers and engrossed spectators. Numerous famous Pre-Raphaelite paintings are included, including Millais’ Ophelia and Maddox Brown’s The Last of England, composed with less accustomed works. In variation with preceding surveys, that important role of the Brotherhood that took part in the early expansion of the Arts and Crafts movement and the co-operative ideas of the  designer, William Morris. They were also Inspired by the philosophies of John Ruskin, who advised artists to ‘go to nature’, they alleged in an art of sincere subjects treated with supreme practicality. Their major themes were initially devout, but they also used themes from literature and poetry, particularly those dealing with love and death. They also explored modern social problems.

(Barringer, et al., 2012) (TATE, 2018) 

Post impressionism& Art nevou

To describe Post-Impressionism, it is a term used to define the responses in the 1880s against Impressionism. Led by, Paul Gauguin, Vincent van Gogh ,Paul Cézanne and Georges Seurat. They disallowed Impressionism’s worry with the impulsive and naturalistic interpretation of light and colour. They preferred a symbolic content, official knowledge and structure. Comparable to the Impressionists, though they worried the inauthenticity of the picture. They also believed that colour could be independent from form, as an emotional  carrier of meaning. Both Impressionism and Post, include some of the most well-known works of  art such as van Gogh’s Starry Night. Impressionism and Post-Impressionism remain to be some of the most well-known and adored artistic actions. (Richman-Abdou, 2017) (Manet, 2017)

Art nouveau

Art nouveau is a celebrated skill of art, it become a wide spread design  internationally. You will recognize the whirling paintings if you have stayed in France or studied the  pictures, capturing the mood at this political time from the 1800s to 1910 . (LeBourdais, 2016)

Although it was not England that industrialized the same drive as its neighbours in Europe, it still contributed massively to its development. First in England before descending into Europe ,it was named Jugendstil in Germany and as followed Sezessionstil in Austria,  Stile Liberty in Italy,  Modernista in Spain. Art Nouveau was collected by a gallery in Paris that displayed ample amounts  of this work. (Augustyn, 2019) (Bedoyere, 2005)

Charles Ashby’s guild and school of handicraft helped revolutionized the design in Britain, their effects alongside the political backdrops of the arts and crafts movement the time, were powerfully felt throughout Europe. (Bedoyere, 2005) (Philinthecircle, 2014)

It was and is a decorative style of art that thrived in Europe and the United States. Art Nouveau’s  use of a long, sinuous, organic lined design and was seen often in  architecture, interior design, jewellery and illustration. It was a thoughtful attempt to generate a new style, free of the derivative historicism that subjugated the majority of the 19th-century art and design.  (Mackingtosh, 1999) (Bedoyere, 2005)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

Vincent Van Gogh

Vincent van Gogh was the eldest of six, the third of three siblings to be involved in art. He was inspired in by his country surroundings and his mother who was a skilled amateur artist. His flare for art became more predominant in secondary school. Between 1869 and 1876, he was an apprentice at Goupil and Company’s chain of art galleries and achieved an excellent standard, being promoted to their London branch. In the Years of 1880 to 1886, he became a established artist, he adopted the colours and the brushwork of the impressionists but he strayed away from this approach by working and being inspired by the artist Pissarro, catching on to the movements in Paris making his own personal statements in his pieces.  He had become one of the leading figures in post impressionism  a new alterative direction. His work inspired the artists of the 20th century, but sadly he was never able to fully enjoy any of his success.    His work is nearly always portraying a coarse beauty and bold colours and emotional honesty.   He unfortunately suffered  from  mental disorders and died at the young age of 37 taking his own life . (Hardy, 2003) (Forrest, 2002) (Liddell, 2001)

Art deco

Art Deco design was modern, representing the majestic time of a new style in a continuing in the modern world. It functioned as a trademark,  of femininity during a time when women were  stereotyped to be the main consumers of the house hold, Art Deco-inspired consumerism helped shape the image of femininity that would dominate the American imagination for decades to come. In films of the middle and late 1920’s the Jazz Age, with flapper girls, extravagant parties. It truly was a glamorous time a era that embraced technology. This is a key to separating the factors between Art Deco and the Art Nouveou.

(Fischer, 2003) (Pacitti, 2014) 

Table of Figures

Figure 1 Victorian  make up 1 https://vintagedancer.com/victorian/victorian-makeup-beauty-guide/

Figure 2 Victorian and Edwardian make up https://www.beautifulwithbrains.com/beauty-history-cosmetics-in-the-edwardian-era/

Figure 3 Vintage boudoir http://www.vintagelingerieblog.com/vintage-makeup-tutorials/history-in-makeup-vintage-products-from-victorian-era-through-1970s/

Figure 4 Victorian  make up 2 https://www.pinterest.co.uk/pin/384143043201489720/?lp=true

Figure 5 Victorian and Edwardian  hair https://www.flickr.com/photos/lovelornpoets/5312237423/sizes/z/in/photostream/

Figure 6 Victorian and Edwardian  hair https://www.flickr.com/photos/lovelornpoets/5312237423/sizes/z/in/photostream/

Figure 7 Victorian and Edwardian  hair https://www.flickr.com/photos/lovelornpoets/5312237423/sizes/z/in/photostream/

Figure 8 victorian and edwardian  hair 2 http://hair-and-makeup-artist.com/womens-edwardian-hairstyles/

Figure 9 Queen Victoria

Figure 10 Icons https://gaskellsociety.co.uk/elizabeth-gaskell/

Figure 11 Elizabeth Garrett Anderson

Figure 12 Emmeline Pankhurst

Figure 13

Figure 14

Figure 15

Figure 16

Figure 17

Figure 18

Figure 19 https://www.rct.uk/collection/407143/the-inauguration-of-the-great-exhibition-1-may-1851

Figure 20 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protector_lock#/media/File:Crystal_Palace.PNG

Figure 21

Figure 22

Figure 23

Figure 24

Figure 25

Figure 26

Figure 27

Bibliography

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Barringer, A., Smith, J. & Rosenfeld, T., 2012. Pre-Raphaelites: Victorian Avant-garde. First ed. London: Tate Britan.

BBC, 2014. Elizabeth Gaskell (1810 – 1865). [Online] Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/gaskell_elizabeth.shtml[Accessed 2.1.2019 January 2019].

Beautiful with Brains, 2010. beauty in the victorian age. [Online] Available at: http://www.beautifulwithbrains.com/beautyinthevictorianage[Accessed 5 11 2018].

Bedoyere, C. D. L., 2005. Art Nevoeau. 1 ed. Fullam: Flame Tree.

Boardman, M. B. K., 2001. Victorian Womens Magazines: An Anthology. 1 ed. Manchester: Manchester university press.

Downing, S. J., 2012. Beauty and Cosmetics. 1 ed. New York: Shire publications .

Fischer, L., 2003. Designing Women: Cinema, Art Deco, and the Female Form (Film and Culture Series). 1 ed. Coliumbia: Jhon Felton.

Fleming, R., 2012. Early victorian make up. Kate Tattersall Adventures, p. 1.

Forrest, A., 2002. Van Gogh A beginners Guide. 1 ed. London: British Libary.

Glancey, J., 1994. The indpendent. [Online] Available at: https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/in-all-his-works-most-wonderful-augustus-pugins-passion-for-gothic-architecture-dominated-the-face-1422553.html[Accessed third December 2018].

Grange, 2002. Arts And Craft Movment. In: Arts and Craft movment. Rochester: Grange Books, p. 192.

H&MUA Team, 2012. Hair and Makeup Artist Handbook. [Online] Available at: http://hair-and-makeup-artist.com/womens-edwardian-hairstyles/[Accessed 3.1.2019 January 2019].

Hardy, W., 2003. History & Techniques Of The Great Masters Van Gogh. 1 ed. Hertfordshire: Eagle Editions ltd.

Komar, M., 2016. Your Beauty Routine Today Versus How It Would Look In The 1800s Will Show You How Twisted Things Used To Be. Your Beauty Routine Today Versus How It Would Look In The 1800s Will Show You How Twisted Things Used To Be.

LeBourdais, P., 2016. What Is Art Nouveau?. What Is Art Nouveau?.

Liddell, S., 2001. The tragic genius of Vincent van Gogh. [Online] Available at: https://stephenliddell.co.uk/2014/03/01/the-tragic-genius-of-vincent-van-gogh/[Accessed 3.1.2019 January 2019].

Mackingtosh, A., 1999. Modern art Impressionism to Post modernism. 2 ed. London: Thames and Hudson.

Manet, J., 2017. Growing Up with the Impressionists: The The Diary of Junie Manet. 1 ed. London. New York: I.B Tuarius&co LTD.

Matthews, M., 2008. A victorian ladies guide to fashion and beauty. First ed. Barnsley: Pen and Swords .

North & South. 2004. [Film] Directed by Brian Percival. UK: BBC.

Pacitti, M., 2014. All about art deco. Art Deco, p. 2.

Pettinger, T., 2014. Biography of Queen Victoria. [Online] Available at: https://www.biographyonline.net/royalty/queen-victoria.html[Accessed 27 november 2018].

Philinthecircle, 2014. Art Nouveau – Overview. [Sound Recording] (Philinthecircle).

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Victoria. 2016. [Film] Directed by Oliver Blackburn. Tom Vaughan. Sandra Goldbacher .Lisa James Larsson .Daniel O’Hara. UK: ITV.

Victoria. 2016. [Film] Directed by Oliver Blackburn. UK: ITV.

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Wells, N., n.d. s.l.:s.n.

Table Manners Cultural Differences

Thesis statement: All of us know that diet is very important in our daily life. It can can reflect a nations tradition and culture. However, each country in which geographical, environmental, and cultural and ethnic customs, which has a different concept of diet and dietary practices, and ultimately the formation of the differences in diet culture. Of cause, the table manners appear in our life everyday. They are witness of the history of dietary cultures for thousands of years, are the sign that a country or nation from ignorance and backward towards civilization and progress. Research achievement has a lot on the table manners, and in this passage, the author will stress on the analysis of their differences and the formation cause of the differences.

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Abstract: The different of the philosophical thoughts and the various kinds of social factors make some differences in Chinese and Western table manners. In China, a banquet, whatever the purpose, there will be a kind of form. Everyone sitting around the table and the delicacy is put in the center of the table. Not only it is a good taste, but also it is a communication medium for people. People toast each other and let food each other. It embodies the mutual respect and the virtue of humility. This way is easy to communicate with others. However, the western table manners are more cumbersome and canonical. Every people has his own service plate, no matter what dish has, they eat by themselves. Westerners drink also depend on their own thoughts, such as Whisky, Cocktails, Brandy, they can drink what they like. It embodies the respect of personal willingness. In this paper, we will talk about Chinese and western table manners and finding out the reasons. The purpose is to improve our intercultural communication ability by means of doing the research on the differences dietary culture between China and west in table manners.
1. Introduction
In the 21st century, intercultural communication has become an indispensable content in people’s life. Cooking culture and table manners play a significant role of nonverbal culture in cross-cultural communication. Because of the Chinese people and Westerners have different life styles, the way of thinking, culture, so the table manners between china and western also show a big difference. Chinese table manners have a long history, At the time of the ancient times, table manners had a quite complete system. They took an important part in the past and still have a deep influence in the modern society.
Western table manners originated in the 20 century. Italian culture came to France, table manners and menu turned to be more elegant and delicate, from that time, books of etiquette are published gradually. Today, table etiquette is still spreading in Western countries. The table manners in Western countries have influence on Chinese table manners because of the communication. In order to protect our table culture, we can make the two table manners get together, which is good for us to communicate with foreigners. So, it is necessary for us to know the differences of the two table manners and analyze the causes of the different the two table manners between Chinese and Western.
2. The importance of table manners in international cultural communication
As Chinese reform and opening quicken markedly, international cultural communication also increases quickly. We must be willing to communicate and be tolerant of views that differ from our own. Our abilities are improved according to international communication. In the society, we do many things successfully on table. For example, when we meet important person, or we have important thing, we could ask the relevant people to have dinner, and discuss on the table. So we must know the table manners. Moreover, if we have a dinner with the Westerners, we should understand the Western table manners well. Because the Western table manners is different from Chinese. On the table, no matter what country the people come from, they could feel the respect from the table manners. Today, transnational cultural communication is so frequent that table manners become more and more important. Not only the whole dining process more harmonious but also status of customers more obvious and their communication more convenient by the table manners. For foreign language learners, it is quite useful to know the differences of Chinese and western dietary culture. We can not only increase the understanding of the table manners’ culture, but also improve the success of intercultural communication, which can help to avoid misunderstandings and communication disorder because of inappropriate behavior.
3. The differences table manners between China and Western countries
3.1 The differences in arrival of time
When talking about the time, the Chinese and Westerners have different views. In China, we don’t pay much attention on the time. We don’t have specific demands about arrival time. To arrive earlier, on time or a little late are all allowed. In fact, we often get to the place where we have a dinner at a litter late time. Because most of us think the host should wait for guest and it is a way to respect for others.
The Westerners think both of the time and money are very important, so they always make time and money bonded together. There is a saying goes said that “Time is money” , and the saying goes has become deeply in the Westerners’ mind. Therefore, they cherish as far as possible, they plan and manage their time carefully. The Westerners are often filled with a sense of urgency of time. All of them have a interest that they go to some parties in free time. If the westerners have to go to somewhere to have a dinner with others, they must arrive there on time. Frequently, when they want to have a dinner at one’s home, they usually get earlier for five minutes. In their opinion, it is not very polite for you to get much earlier, maybe the hostess is so busy doing preparation for the dinner that is not suitable for you to reach at that time.
3.2 The differences in seating arrangement
Both in China and in the west, people are particular in seating arrangement of formal banquette. In the Chinese banquets, we prefer to the round table . If there is just a round table in the family dinner, it has no table order. If we join a formal dinner, our seating should comply with the rule. Traditionally, Chinese use square table and the seats, which is look towards to the door is the most important, while seats on both sides are partial seats. So, the elderly and the guests of honor or high status should sit at the seat facing the main door. Then guest of honor sit on the right of the host and deputy chief gust on the left. While, as for the dinning of less than five people, its table setting can follow those four rules: right is honor and the left is low; the middle seat is senior; the seat of facing the door is the top; flexibility arrangement.
In Western countries, people usually use long table. Host and hostess sit at both ends, and the guests of honor sit besides them. Then ordinary guests sit along with them. That is to say, the one who is more nearer to the host, the more important he is. In the informal party, it follows that women is first. Seat arrangement should treat the hostess as benchmark, and the most important guests should sit at the upper right of the hostess and the wife of him sitting at the upper right of the host. If a man and a woman have a diner, the man should let the woman sit on his right and don’t let she sit near to the passageway; anyway the man need to let the woman sit inside. When two people have a dinner, the senior sit inside.When two men with a woman, men should let woman sit in the middle place. Besides, men should remove the chairs and let women sit first. In a word, women are very important in the seating arrangement.
3.3 The differences in tableware
As everyone know people use chopsticks in China, and chopsticks are the most significant tableware for Chinese. Usually, they are traditionally held in the right hand, even by left-handed people. Although chopsticks may now be deployed by either hand, left-handed chopstick use is considered improper. Besides, there are also some rules to abide by when using it. For example, before dinner, chopsticks must be put on the right of rice bowl tidily. While after the meal, it should be placed in the middle of rice bowl, and when talking with other people, we should put down our chopsticks. It is a polite action to others. When take food for others, we ought to use the public chopsticks.
In Western countries, people use knives and forks. When eating western-style food, a knife should be held in the right hand and a fork should be held in left hand. What’s more, the different ways knives and forks place have different meanings. For example, you have to leave for a while when you have a meal, you can put the knife and fork separately as a triangle. The service person will not receive your plate. If you have already finished the meal, you should make the knife and fork parallelled. Bread is taken in the fingers and laid on the side of plate or the edge of the large plate. It is never taken with a fork. Butter is taken from the butter dish with the butter knife and placed on the side of plate, not on one’s bread. Well, Chinese use chopsticks and westerners use knives and forks. However, they also represent the difference between both collectivism and individualism. Westerners use knives and forks to cut food and separate it to represent individualism. The Chinese use chopsticks to grasp the entire food to mean unity and collectivism.
3.4 The differences in order of serving
Chinese order of serving: the first are cold dishes, beverage and wine; then the hot dishes; next staple food; at last the sweets and fruit. Sometimes, there are many tables, each table should be on every dish at the same time. The order of serving still keep the traditional, first hot and later cold. Besides, hot dishes should be served from the left side opposite the seat of the guest of honot. The dishes like whole chicken, whole duck, and whole fish can’t put their heads and tails toward the host seat. In the banquet, each dish like slide show, each time a dish is served. Nevertheless, there are some tips: in the wedding banquet or other red banquet, the plates on the table can be overlapped, and meaning that a good thing comes again and again. While, in the White Banquet like funeral, the plates cannot be overlapped, I think you can guess the reason.
Western serving steps are usually like that: bread and butter, cold dishes, soup, seafood, main course, dessert, coffee and fruit. When you eating the cold dishes, the soup and bread should be eaten at the same time. In Western, the cold dishes are known as appetizer dish, served as the first course to eat with an aperitif. And soup includes stains soup and cream soup. The main course has chicken, beef, fish and pork and so on. The dissert always has ice-cream, pudding etc.
3.5 The differences in having dinner on table
In China, food should be taken by the guest firstly. If you want to eat some food, you could not take too much. The men could give service to women. When you take food, you could not glance left and right and you could not choose one by one in the public dishes. If you eat with many people, you could have comity with everyone. The food which you want to eat and you can’t take, you should ask other people to help you to take. Please avoid leaving seat to take by yourself. Chinese table manners’ atmosphere is lively, people like chatting over eating. Your utterance should be elegant, scholarly and euphemistic. But talking and laughing loudly is not polite. While eating, the older is first, when a dish served, the young can’ t eat until the elder eat. Chinese table’ s atmosphere is lively, people like chatting over eating. But talking and laughing loudly is not polite. hen a person has a cough, he or she should turn his or her back. Before you have a drink, you should drink a toast to the elder and the guest.
In West, men should move the seat for women. People always talk with their neighbors when eating, they don’t talk loudly. Usually, people have a talk after the main food that the time of they eat dessert. Using the knife and folk can’t make a sound. They do not use their own utensils for others to take their food; do not cut food on a plate after a good use of all right hand fork to eat; do not put the bones and food that don’t eat on the floor or on the tablecloth, while put them on the on the plate of iceberg. Besides, the polite way is eating out the food on your plate.
3.6 The differences in leaving the table
In China, only can the master sign the end of banquet. After the master and guest leave seat, the other guests can leave. Then, the master should be to see guests off at the gate, and the guests should express their thanks to the master. If the guests want to goodbye to host in the midway of the banquet, they just say good-bye to the master or give a nod as a signal to others.
At the end of the banquet in Western countries, people should pick up the napkin from the leg, fold optionally, put the napkin on left of the table, and then get up for leaving. After having a meal, the host and hostess should leave before the other guests leave. When leaving, people should help elders or ladies to move the seats, and thank to the master when they say goodbye. If you want to be more cautious, you can thank by phone or card again.
The causes of different table manners between the West and China
4.1 The different cultural connotations
Culture will affect people’s view on things. Different country has its different culture, so it is obviously that the thinking model between China and western are different. The Chinese culture pays more attention on one’s intuition, and the Western culture leans to logic and analyze. As to the traditional of the culture, Chinese people especially believe their own intuition. They insist the experience and feeling during the thing, this phenomenon also happens in the communication between west and east. In China, thousands of cultural tradition is reflected in Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism. The Confucian thought mainly emphasized “benevolence, righteousness, propriety, wisdom, faith”; Taoists advocated “natural” and “clean”; Buddhist is advocated “merciful”, “purdue beings”, “harmony without”. From this we see that what is tasty to a host may not necessarily be tasty to his guest. Because people have different opinions about various ingredients and cooking methods. It is rather easy to misjudge what someone considers to be the best dish. Forcing a guest to eat food he doesn’t like is quite awkward. However, Western countries assert democracy, freedom, equality, and advocated personal power, put emphasis up on personal value, paysattention to individualism. We have to learn from the American literature that the theme of “American Dream” is an important indication in the American literature history. It means that Americans wish to succeed through their self-dependence and self-reliance. They believe that they are created by God and that they are endowed with special traits which will help them to become the kind of people they wish to be. So this culture connotation can also be reflected in the table cultures. They respect freedom. So there are not so many rules as in Chinese table setting. They behave freely.
4.2 The different way of thinking
Compared with western thinking model, the eastern idea is blanket and unclearly. The Chinese thought is more comprehensive and integrated. Traditional perceptual intuition thinking including the doctrine of the thought in Chinese style. The essence of the idea emphasize harmonization or even cancel with extreme solution to the problem. The Chinese psychological bias for comprehensive, logical analysis. The simple integral concept and unified way of thinking reflects our national macro understanding and the ability to transform the world. The west emphasizes analysis and partial logic thinking, and emphasizes its own characteristics. For scientific thinking of the standard, this kind of thinking mode in the real world in present multidimensional nature. At the same time, in western countries, and always put the value of the individual in important position, the principle of the supremacy of outstanding individualism.
4.3 The different behaviors regulation
Behaviors regulation means the single standard, which the society can accept. That means that something can tell people what is the right way to solve this matter and what is unsuitable to do. When different background culture people do communication with each other, they usually judge the rationality by own code of conduct. So it is inevitable for them to misunderstand others. And what’s more, it will destroy the friendship between people. For example: In China, it is kind to pat children’s head, but it is a very terrible thing in the western country. They think it is unexpected thing to a child. If you do like this, his parents will get very angry for it. And the other different thing: In China, men always smoke after they finish the meals, they think it is a kind of enjoyment. Nevertheless, in western countries, they consider this behavior is not polite to women and children and it is also a rude thing to smoke on a table. So, it is very important for us to recognize and use the different regulation behavior when we do business or have communication between foreign countries. In order to ensure the communication will be smoothly, you should understand each other’s conduct. Especially remember the forbidden things and impolite things. The best way is when in Rome, do as the Romans.
4.4 The different values
Value is the core of culture and the most appropriate criteria what is used to evaluate the behaviors, things and make choices from all possible targets by social members. Values are the reflection of people’s social existence, people in the same natural environment and social environment will have the same values. Therefore, every society and country is using their own recognized values. In the dinner table etiquette, people’s behavior is a microcosm of the national values and the corresponding behavior under the guidance of different values. In a state of ceremonies like China, emphasizes loyalty and filial piety, reflects the values of collectivism. Chinese people respect the aged and take good care of children, therefore, seating arrangements are very regular, seats not only have upper and lower grades, but also the specific seat sorting. For western countries, the individualism values occupy the dominant position and individual power of each person is reflected. This is because in the philosophy of Westerners, it tends to focus on individualism, personality development and self-expression. They think that if a person is not up to his purpose, which is not because of the destiny but their own laziness and their lack of fighting spirit. Western people put into practice individual dining system, each of them eat their own tableware and choose their own favorite food. So, in western, there will not appear the situation like eating the food reluctantly served by the hosts in China.
Conclusion
Different countries and different people have different manners. We should have a good knowledge about other customs so that they will not think us are ill-mannered. When exploring the differences in communication manners and customs, we set them mainly into three parts: manner and culture, communication manner and table manner. Considering the roots of these differences, Historical and regional causes might took the significant places. Therefore, a cross culture environment and a cross culture mind do lead to the better understanding in today’s communication. In modern society, along with the development of the open policy, it seems that the world is getting smaller and smaller so that people are very active with frequent exchanges. With the constant deepening of integration of the world, we should pay more attention to etiquette among people. In particular, the importance of the table manners is more prominent. Consequently, we should admit these differences in cross-cultural communication, and understand and respect it as well. The key of successful intercultural communication is to have a correct attitude to deal with cultural differences. It is to understand and respect other countries’ culture that is the necessary condition to avoid cultural conflict, realize equal association and cooperate successfully. So as the graduate students, we must based on the requirement of the labor market. We will enter the society later, and before this we must get the full preparation of being a good worker. Only do we learn the different culture and practice it, we could find a good job quickly and do right things during the communication. By doing this can we make our work easier to be handled. If we can understand the manners better, we can know others better.
 

Causes of the Chinese Cultural Revolution

Revolution refers to a fundamental change in a political organization.  It is an activity that creates fundamental changes in the socioeconomic situation [1].  Rebellion refers to resistance to change. There are a lot of revolutions and rebellion in China since 1911, which have affected the country till now. There have been successful and unsuccessful revolutions which are called rebellions in the country over the years. Examples of revolutions and rebellions in China include economic, social, cultural, and system changes. In some cases, revolution is only partial, where the economic status changes but the political system remain the same. Cultural Revolution hurts China because it led to the loss of lives, destruction of properties, and disruption of human activities. 

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To assert his authority over the Chinese government, Mao Zedong, a communist leader, launched a Cultural Revolution in 1966. He believed that current leaders were not focused. He asked young people to remove unworthy elements from the Chinese society and restore the revolutionary spirit that gave them victory in the civil war[2].  He gathered a group of people, including his wife, to help him attack party leaders to establish his authority over the government. He also put together a coalition to undertake the Cultural Revolution. He was determined to see to it that the revolution was successful. His wife, whose name is Jiang Qing, gathered a group of radicals to lead the cultural realm. Zhou Enlai was Mao’s premier who kept the country running while he focused on the revolution.  However, conflicts arose among the leaders and reflected on the performance of the initiative. Mao was concerned about middle-class who infiltrated his government and party.  He wanted to eliminate people who did not share his ideas and visions of communism.  Although he thought about starting the Cultural Revolution early, he hold it back until 1966.  Things escalated quickly, and elder people were abused and attacked.  Scores lost their lives, and Mao encouraged the movement to continue with what they were doing. He decided to rebuild the Communist Party to have control in 1968 after the country had been subjected to radicalism. Over the years, America’s streets and universities have turned into rioting grounds that point towards the return of a violent civil turmoil of the 1960s. The 1960s was a period when norms and values of behaviors broke down among American youths [3].  Many college students and young people became political activists and led the civil rights and antiwar campaigns.  Other young people separated themselves from mainstream culture through their dressing and behavior. Many people loosened their attitudes towards sexuality, and women started protesting traditional roles assigned to them by society.  They no longer wanted to be just housewives and mothers but wanted to be actively engaged in the affairs of the country. Left wing politics attracted middle-class college students who wanted to see a change in how the country was being governed. Leaders believed that universities were a natural base to promote social change. They were fighting for equality and civil rights for everyone and formed the Free Speech Movement.

Before the Cultural Revolution started, there was an exploitive system of contract and temporary workers. The system was capitalist and did not promote euqality state that Mao wanted.  He wanted workers to have permanent jobs to guarantee them consistent income[4] . Thus, the revolution was good because it fought for the rights of workers to have permanent jobs to improve their lives. Previously, state and government employees had more privileges than average Chinese person, and Mao wanted to change this to ensure equality. He believed that this system prevented the country from attaining equality of everyone.  He ordered government officials to practice productive labor to narrow the gap between classes.  Therefore, the Cultural Revolution was good because it connected the gap between government workers and the average Chinese person. However, the revolution did more harm than good. The unleashing of Red Guards of 1966 led to unanticipated problems[5].  They ignored the policy of using reason to perform political struggles against opponents.  Red Guard officials attacked intellectuals who did not agree with their ideologies without consideration. Mao hired radicals who did anything he asked, and this led to the loss of lives and destruction of properties. Moreover, universities were shut down, and the economy was disrupted. When the policy concerning intellectuals was applied, rightist intellectuals were criticized publicly. I thought that the Cultural Revolution dealt with cultural changes in China. I thought that it discussed cultural ideologies, changes, and steps taken to promote unity among the people.  Cultural Revolution affects my family’s understanding of customs and culture. Mao Zedong started the revolution to tighten his grip on power by removing old cultures, customs, and practices. Cultural Revolution affects my family’s thoughts of old cultures and their significance to our lives today.

Some people argue that the Cultural Revolution was not a revolution and should not be put on the list.  They state that although it had a massive impact on Chinese people, it was not successful in effective change[6]. Instead, Mao Zedong struggled to have power and resulted in unscrupulous means to control the government. Critics argue that it could have been a revolution if it did something successfully. Furthermore, it ended after the death of Zedong, pointing its failures. They believe that a movement should be considered a revolution if it manages to effect a long-lasting change in the society and the Cultural Revolution failed.

Cultural Revolution started in 1966. Mao Zedong started it to get rid of middle class infiltrators who did not share his ideologies on communism. The revolution had a negative impact on citizens, including loss of lives, loss of properties, and disruption of activities. Schools were shut down in attempts to give the Communist Party leader to show his power. Although some people do not think that it is a revolution, it is given its huge influence on people.  It removed current leaders from power, many people were imprisoned, the economy plummeted, and education was disrupted. It ended when the Mao Zedong suffered a stroke.

References

Barnes, T. J., (2017). Retheorizing economic geography: from the quantitative revolution to the “cultural turn.” In Theory and Methods (pp. 53-72). Routledge.

Dittmer, L., (2015). Liu Shaoqi and the Chinese cultural revolution. Routledge.

Havelock, E. A., (2019). The literate revolution in Greece and its cultural consequences (Vol. 5330). Princeton University Press.

Perry, E., (2018). Proletarian Power: Shanghai in the Cultural Revolution. Routledge.

[1] Perry, E., (2018). Proletarian Power: Shanghai in the Cultural Revolution. Routledge.

[2] Barnes, T. J., (2017). Retheorizing economic geography: from the quantitative revolution to the “cultural turn.” In Theory and Methods (pp. 53-72). Routledge.

[3] Havelock, E. A., (2019). The literate revolution in Greece and its cultural consequences (Vol. 5330). Princeton University Press.

[4] Barnes, T. J., (2017). Retheorizing economic geography: from the quantitative revolution to the “cultural turn.” In Theory and Methods (pp. 53-72). Routledge.

[5] Dittmer, L., (2015). Liu Shaoqi and the Chinese cultural revolution. Routledge.

[6] Dittmer, L., (2015). Liu Shaoqi and the Chinese cultural revolution. Routledge.
 

Cultural Differences in Nonverbal Communication

Physical appearance plays an important part in non-verbal communication. It “encompasses all of the physical characteristics of an individual, including body size , skin color , hair color and style , facial hair, and facial features”. Physical appearance “is readily observed and reveals many aspects of psychosocial function” . A person’s physical appearance reveals a great deal about that person. For that reason one needs to take care of his/her look prior to participating in oral communication, especially in business setting. For instance, a clean, neat, appropriately dressed individual conveys a positive self-image, knowledge and competence. A dirty, careless or inappropriately dressed person conveys the message that he does not care about his or her look .

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The presence of body odor, poor hygiene, and badly dressed clothing may be associated with any of the following: depression, incompetence, impaired cognitive abilities, limited financial recourses, overwhelming care giving responsibilities, impaired vision or smell, or deficiency in access to or inability to use bathing facilities . Physical appearance includes physiological characteristics, such as eye color and height, as well as ways in which we manage, or even alter, our physical appearance. For instance, many people control their physical appearance by dieting, using steroids and other drugs, coloring their hair, having plastic surgery, wearing colored contact lenses, and using make-up . Physical appearance has an influence on communication since one evaluates others in interpersonal exchanges . Based on physical qualities one may make inferences about others’ personalities. Although these inferences may have no factual basis, they can affect one’s personal and social relationships as well as decisions about hiring, placement, and promotion . It is crucial since the first impression made during interaction lasts long. For instance, if a young intelligent man who graduated from the university with distinction and wants to get a job. However, every time he would come to a job interview, he would get rejected by potential employers who would reason he doesn’t suit them. The real issue behind those rejections would be that he has a problem with the smell that comes out of his mouth.
Besides problems with the smell of the body, the color of one’s skin can also influence the outcome of communication and affect communication process. For instance, certain individuals will not communicate with persons who are of a particular race or ethnicity.  In such cases, communication will be difficult to realize, since it is a matter of choice that is already made by that person who prefers avoiding interracial communication and his opinion would be difficult to alter. There was a situation in Russia when an eleven year old school girl from Poland refused to play with a boy from Nigeria because he was black Another situation occurred in the daycare center in the USA where a small boy would not let Afro-American staff touch him as they looked “dirty” to him. Neither would he want to play with children of that race .
Different cultures have different values of physical appearance. For instance, “Western culture places an extremely high value on physical appearance and on specific aspects of appearance” . Consequently, miscommunication may occur when a person with an inappropriate appearance from a different culture will attempt to conduct a conversation with a person from Western culture, who will perceive him or her incorrectly.
The traditional African societies perceive full-figured bodies as signs of health, prosperity, and wealth, all of which are considered necessary. African Americans who support this value acknowledge or prefer women who weigh more than the ideal model for European American women or Caucasians . During intercultural communication, people will perceive each other differently and will demonstrate an attitude that they usually do in their culture. Improper usage of physical appearance in intercultural communication and setting such as a religious institution or a corporation may result in miscommunication or even violence. Hence, one needs to adjust his/her look to a setting in which s/he will interact in the hosting culture. However, paying attention only to how one looks would be insufficient if one has problems with bad smell.
Olfactics
Another aspect of the oral communication is odor of a communicator. As mentioned before, the interaction with a person who has bad smell can be the cause of failure to obtain a job. Olfactics is the study of communication via smell which is the least understood of all senses  and refers to the use and perception of smell as related to communication . Smell is a code that is almost exclusively nonverbal . It is a term for odors and scents as well as our perception of them . Smell is a very strong signal to most people, closely connected in many set of circumstances to strong emotions .
The amount of human brain devoted to olfaction is a very large portion. Odor is first detected by the olfactory epithelium in the nose, which starts a chain of events that leads to an information flow to olfactory bulb and limbic system of the brain, which pays a key role in regulating body functions and the emotions. Smell is the only sense linked directly into the limbic system, which may be evidence of its being our most basic, primitive sense . A tiny organ in the nasal cavity that responds to chemicals such as pheromones and natural substances plays a role in basic human emotions such as fear, hunger, and those which are related to sex . Smells are almost constantly processed in a holistic manner .
Most smells activate olfactory responses but there is a difference in perception of smell based on gender. Women can detect odors in lower concentrations, identify them more accurately, and remember them longer than men . Heterosexual men and women respond to the pheromones of the opposite sex with increased activity in the hypothalamus connected to sexual behavior. Lesbians respond with elevated hypothalamic activity to the estrogen -like pheromone of other women .
It is possible to recall an event that occurred months or years ago when similar smells encountered again smell as such – smells are a powerful memory aid . Hence the first impression lasts longer and that is why it needs to be good, which is why people use perfumes, soaps, and body deodorants to convey a particular image to others or to cover up natural odor which is related to hormones and DNA structures and is too a part of the olfatic code .
There are many ways in which smell is applied. One of them is in aromatherapy. Aromatherapy is the application of oils of flowers, herbs, and plants to make people feel better, which was widely practiced in ancient Chinese, Egyptian, and Indian civilizations and is widely applied today in Belgium, England, France, Germany, and Switzerland. Besides, fragrance is used in the workplace in Japan in order to enhance efficiency and reduce stress among office workers .
Another application of smell is in marketing because advertisers believe that smell is important. For instance, Mike Gatti, the executive director of marketing at the National Retail Federation stated: “A lot of retail companies use it, and its purpose really is to keep customers in your store, to create this welcoming environment and it works; it does keep people in your store longer. It helps people feel better in their shopping, and in a lot of cases causes them to spend more money.”  “Fragrance strips in magazines enable consumers to sample a perfume.”  In other words, smell is used as a method of persuasion in mass communication.
Likewise, smell refers to body odor. Certain cultures are sensitive to any body odor; others conceal body odor with perfumes and colognes; and still others find the odor of perfumes and colognes unpleasant. Generally, body odor is affected by the food one eats; interesting enough, those who eat meat have a different body odor . Since Attitudes to body odor vary considerably across cultures, they can sometimes cause problems . People will react positively or negatively to other people based on the way they smell. A person’s smell remains in another person’s long after he or she has left the room. For instance, citizens from the United States consider body odors, bad breath, perspiration, or too much cologne to be offensive. In turn, as clean as US inhabitants think they are, many cultures consider their smell offensive. Because people of the United States eat much more meat than people in many other countries, their body odor is different from those who are from other countries in which more vegetables and fish are consumed. Japanese and Filipinos are raised to be very conscious of different odors and often complain about the way US Americans smell. Although U.S inhabitants tend to be uncomfortable with natural smells, Middle Easterners and Filipinos believe being able to smell a friend’s breath is pleasing. Without knowing how culture perceives odors and how one is expected to react to odors, one is not able to behave appropriately in business environment. Lack of knowledge in the olfactics area has affected many business transaction . Here is an example how smell can affect someone’s career in intercultural communication:
A medical doctor from Saudi Arabia was completing an internship in a hospital in the southern United States. Problems arose when patients refused to have the Saudi doctor examine them. Interviews with patients revealed two problems: he ‘smelled bad’ and he breathed on the patients. The doctor’s orientation had apparently failed to include the incongruence between Arabic and U.S American perceptions of smell.  
In order to be accepted by people from other cultures, an individual needs to adopt the hygiene practices of the country he is visiting or in which he is conducting business  . Unfortunately, that medical doctor, being in the US, was proficient only in English and Medicine. He didn’t have sufficient communicative competence to avoid the misunderstanding described above.
Proxemics
Besides smell, there is a need to take a look at another aspect of communication that leads people into misperception of each other – proxemics. It is the study of personal space and how humans use distance in general. This term was first used in 1963 by an anthropologist and researcher Edward T. Hall . Proxemics relates to spatial distance between persons interacting with each other, and their orientation toward each other. Individuals generally divide their personal space into four distinct zones. Edward Hall identified four spatial zones:

Intimate space 0- 1, 5 feet. For family members and beloved.
Personal space 1, 5-4 feet. For friends.
Social space 4-12 feet. For strangers.
Public space 12 feet-and more .

Proxemics is nonverbal communication that deals with physical distance between people. When someone moves into intimate space with another person who does not want to be intimate with him/her, that person, whose personal space is trespassed, is likely to become uncomfortable and put up barriers. This situation is also known as invading the person’s space. People who feel that their space has been violated will step back or cross their arms. However, if an individual stays within the social space zone with a close friend who prefers to be in his personal or intimate space, this may result in negative feelings .
Proxemics is the communicative aspect of personal space and or territory. Everyone is believed to be encircled by an invisible zone of psychological comfort that follows us everywhere we travel. That invisible zone provides persons with a lot of nonverbal information regarding the level of trust and intimacy that an individual has for other people. Cooperation is a key factor in the street negotiation and its participant must be able to read the level of comfort of the person s/he is dealing with and must take into consideration the amount of distance that an individual needs to be comfortable while being dealt with. Knowing the dynamics of personal space will also prevent one party of the interaction from unknowingly violating their counterparts’ personal space and causing unnecessary tension.
Distance between people depends on power and authority that a person has. People who possess the most power and authority command a greater amount of personal space that they can entitle as their own. They will often distance themselves from other people of less power around them. Confident people, and people of higher status, are comfortable going straight to the center of the attention while lower status, or non-confident people, to tend to have near the exits or the back of the room .
The comfort zones vary drastically between cultures. Arabs and Americans differed significantly in proxemics, the Arabs interacting with each other closer and more directly than Americans. The differences in distance between subjects from different Arab regions were smaller than those in different American regions. Arabs interact much closer to each other. Latin Americans exhibit less closeness than Arabs, but still interact much closer than Anglo Americans. Interactants stand farther apart and the frequency of tactile contact diminishes as one goes from Central to South America.
 

Cultural Differences Between Trinidad and Tobago

You are a Tobagonian recently returned from your first trip to Trinidad where you spent two weeks. Record in your journal, the differences you have observed in the culture of the two islands. Based on your knowledge of the history of both islands, give explanations for those differences. In one entry you may also note any cultural similarities you observed.

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Today marks one week since I have returned from the wonderful island of Trinidad, which is the sister island of my homeland, Tobago. The islands are located on the northern edge of South America on the north-eastern coast of Venezuela. I have always wanted to visit Trinidad, since I have heard countless stories about the great experiences my family had there. Fortunately, I finally had the chance to create memorable experiences of my own, during a two week stay at the multi-cultural island, Trinidad. My trip started from February 24th and ended on March 9th. I arrived at Trinidad at approximately two o’clock during the day on Monday, the place was furiously heated, and the sun was scorching my skin as I waited on my Aunt to pick me up from the Port. I remembered taking a deep breathe of polluted air, yes, polluted. Usually, in Tobago the air is clean, fresh and uncontaminated, on the other hand, in Trinidad; the air seemed to be comprised of filth and pounds of dust. Nevertheless, my Aunt picked me up at half past two, and that was when my journey to the exploration of the differences and similarities of the cultural attributes between Trinidad and Tobago had begun. As a result, the cultural experiences I observed or was exposed to in Trinidad, were the language used, the education system, the tradition of ‘keeping ah wake’, the celebration of Carnival and the diversity of religion.
On the very first day of visiting Trinidad, the first cultural difference I observed between Trinidad and Tobago was the language that was spoken. On the way to my Aunt’s place, we stopped off to buy the most popular food in Trinidad, ‘doubles’. As I sat in the passenger’s seat, and waited for my aunt to buy the food, I observed the behaviour and language that the Trinidadians portrayed. Apparently, a man of the African descent has been waiting a long while for service from the doubles vendor, and this caused him to cuss out in an unpleasant manner. Also, I noticed his accent as well as the other buyers, had influences of the Indian, African, French and Spanish heritages (Chapter Five: Trinidad and Tobago – Intercontinental Book Centre, 2014). This was quite interesting to me because the dialect in Tobago comes mostly from the African heritage. Also, Patois which is a variety of Spanish and French was once widely spoken in Trinidad until the end of the 1800’s, as a result; there are various traces of the language combined in the Trinidadian Creole English. Trinidadians and Tobagonians both speak Creole English; however, there is a difference with the use of grammar and pronunciation in which Trinidadians used (Language Facts About Trinidad and Tobago, 2014). In contrast, Tobagonian Creole English was derived from the French, Dutch and Courlander settlers (Trinidad and Tobago – Speaking the Language | ExpatFocus.com, 2014), but the Tobago’s dialect is influenced predominantly by the Africans.
On the second day of my visit to Trinidad, I observed the first similarity between the two islands which is the education system. After having breakfast at my Aunt Lisa’s place, we left to drop off her daughters, Sarah and Maria to their schools. On our way there, I noticed there were a lot of schools in Trinidad, from Primary schools to Tertiary Institutes. Sarah attended a Primary school and she was in the seventh year, therefore, she would be writing her final exam soon, to gain entry into a Secondary school. On the other hand, Maria is in the fifth year of Secondary school, and she will also be sitting a final exam to gain access into a Tertiary institute. After dropping off the two girls to their schools, Lisa and I were talking about how thankful we are that Trinidad and Tobago has an education system that is free for all. Luckily, in the past, education opportunities started to expand from 1852, in the 1970’s the secondary education system was established, vocational schools were opened and primary schools were fully integrated. Hence, the British system took charge of the education system of Trinidad and Tobago in the twentieth century, and now education is available to all elements of society (Trinidad and Tobago – EDUCATION, 2014).
The other similarity I observed between Trinidad and Tobago was experienced on the fourth day of my visit, which was the tradition of ‘keeping ah wake’. I was able to experience this tradition, not only in Tobago which is my homeland, but in Trinidad as well, and the tradition of a ‘wake’ is quite the same in both countries. On Friday morning, Lisa was notified of a death of one of her neighbours, an eighty two year old woman who was very kind to her and her family. Later that day, Lisa and I got dressed to attend the ‘wake’ at the neighbour’s home. Presently, a wake is the gathering of friends and relatives at the home of the deceased. We made a contribution of coffee and biscuits to the home, and other friends and relatives brought alcohol, tea and more coffee. As I got acquainted with the other neighbours that were present at the wake, I noticed a group of men were playing cards and drinking alcohol and the ladies were drinking tea and chatting amongst themselves. I was informed that the funeral of the old woman was to be held on the Sunday; therefore, every night until Sunday, the deceased home will be ‘holding a wake’. The word ‘wake’ originated from the Old English word ‘wacu’ which is related to the contemporary word ‘watch’. After two hours during the wake, everyone gathered together to engage in prayer for the passing of the old woman. Originally, “the wake was a prayer vigil where family and friends would pray for the soul of the deceased” (Wilton, 2004). Therefore, this family was sticking with the true tradition of ‘keeping ah wake’. Although, in the past, there was a misconception that people in many Celtic countries in Europe held a wake by placing the dead body on a table while relatives gathered around drinking alcohol and watched the dead body to see if it will wake up (Wilton, 2004). Nevertheless, in Trinidad and Tobago, ‘holding a wake’ is quite common when there is a death in a family. However, the association of prayer at a wake has become less significant, and it is more associated with social interactions. Fortunately, in Trinidad, I was able to witness the real tradition of ‘keeping ah wake’.
On day eight, the second cultural difference between Trinidad and Tobago in which I experienced was the festival called Carnival. My family from Tobago always talked about their amazing experiences; however, my experience with Carnival at Trinidad was truly a disturbingly memorable one. Every year, my aunt and her family usually go to Port of Spain to look at the celebration, which comprises of colourful costumes, music, dance and public partying on the streets. We arrived at Port of Spain at approximately twelve o clock during the day on Carnival Tuesday, the sun was incredibly hot and I felt like my skin was almost blistering as I stood up to witness the display of the parade of the bands, with their multi-colour costumes on the masqueraders. In addition, they vulgarly danced along with the Soca music, which was a great annoyance to me. It was quite disturbing to see adults behave in such indecent and unacceptable behaviour in the presence of young children.
Aside from the negative feedback I have on Carnival, the only aspect I actually enjoyed were the sight of the unique and beautiful costumes. Originally, Carnival was established by the French settlers in the 1700’s and was celebrated by the upper class people. As a result, the slaves of the island mimicked the celebrations of the French, and this was spread to all the freed slaves after the abolition of slavery. Therefore, they dressed with feathers and different costumes, and celebrated their freedom on the streets, hence, Carnival was established. In contrast, in Tobago, the island’s traditions and history are embraced, while the celebration is associated with speech bands, whip wielding devils known as ‘jab jabs’ and African drumming (Trinidad and Tobago – The True Caribbean – Official Travel and Tourism Site, 2014). All in all, I disliked my experience with Carnival in Trinidad, since the celebration was not about tradition, but it was more associated with vulgarity, and disorderly behaviour.
Lastly, on the ninth day of my visit, I observed another cultural difference between Trinidad and Tobago, the diversity of religion. Trinidad is referred to as “a multi -cultural melting pot” (Trinidad and Tobago – The True Caribbean – Official Travel and Tourism Site, 2014). When I visited Trinidad, I had the opportunity to attend a Hindu prayers held by my relatives on the Wednesday after Carnival, in which Hindus gathered at a temple, to worship their Gods. I observed that women were dressed in beautifully sequenced Indian wear while the males dressed in plain white cotton cloth. The ceremony was held for two hours, and everyone clapped their hands while they sang and recite chants, and the musicians at the front were gracefully beating the drum called a ‘tabla’ together with the soft sound of the harmonium. Also, I observed that not only were Indians present in the temple, but people of the African descent as well. This particular Hindu ceremony was definitely interesting to me because in Tobago I was never able to attend any prayers other than Christian. Also, on that same day, on my way to the prayers, I noticed there were a lot of people attending Christian churches; this was due to the festivity called Lent.
Compared to Tobago, Trinidad is certainly more diverse in religion and culture, and this is mainly because of the historical upbringings and heritages. For instance, the Roman Catholics were the first religious group to arrive in Trinidad in 1498, Africans were brought to the island due to the slave trade in 1797, and in 1845 the indentured labourers consisting of mostly Hindus and Muslims were also brought to the island (Culture (Trinidad), 2014). Hence, there are still traces in the elements of the religions from the past, and represented in Trinidad. On the other hand, in Tobago, I don’t usually see people of other religions, different from Christian, because Tobago’s population remained predominantly of the African descent. Therefore, there is not diversity in religion in Tobago, as there is in Trinidad (Culture (Trinidad), 2014).
In conclusion, Trinidad and Tobago are two magnificent islands that share many similarities and differences in terms of cultures. Fortunately, I was able to experience a few of the cultural attributes of Trinidad, during my two weeks stay. Thus, on the first day, I experienced/observed that the language used in Trinidad is slightly different to Tobago’s language since the language in Trinidad is influenced by a larger variety of heritages than Tobago. In addition, on the second day I noticed a great similarity in the education system of both islands, since education is free for all from the primary level education onwards and the structure of the system is the same as well, due to the model of the British system. Also, of the fourth day I was able to experience the true tradition of a ‘wake’, which was originated by the Europeans. Alternatively, on the eighth day of my visit, I experienced the celebration of the famous Trinidad Carnival, which is more ostentatious, colourful, and indecent compared to Tobago, where the celebration is more traditional and laid back. Subsequently, on the ninth day, I realised that Trinidad is more diverse in terms of religion rather than Tobago due to the various heritages left behind in the past by immigrants. All in all, my experience of the visitation of Trinidad was quite memorable, and I am now aware of the cultural similarities and differences, along with its historical significance.
REFERENCES
Chapter Five: Trinidad and Tobago – Intercontinental Book Centre. (2014). Retrieved March 23, 2014, from Sites.google.com: https://sites.google.com/site/intercontinentalbookcentre/a-look-at-the-caribbean-and-its-people-and-culture/chapter-five-trinidad-and-tobago
Chapter Five: Trinidad and Tobago – Intercontinental Book Centre. (2014). Retrieved March 23, 2014, from Sites.google.com: https://sites.google.com/site/intercontinentalbookcentre/a-look-at-the-caribbean-and-its-people-and-culture/chapter-five-trinidad-and-tobago
Culture (Trinidad). (2014). Retrieved March 23, 2014, from Bestoftrinidad.com: http://www.bestoftrinidad.com/culture.html
Language Facts About Trinidad and Tobago. (2014). Retrieved March 23, 2014, from Amazing-trinidad-vacations.com: http://www.amazing-trinidad-vacations.com/facts-about-trinidad.html
Trinidad and Tobago – EDUCATION. (2014). Retrieved March 22, 2014, from Countrystudies.us: http://countrystudies.us/caribbean-islands/43.htm
Trinidad and Tobago – History Background. (2014). Retrieved March 22, 2014, from Education.stateuniversity.com: http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/1541/Trinidad-Tobago-HISTORY-BACKGROUND.html
Trinidad and Tobago – Speaking the Language | ExpatFocus.com. (2014). Retrieved March 23, 2014, from Expatfocus.com: http://www.expatfocus.com/expatriate-trinidad-tobago-language
Trinidad and Tobago – The True Caribbean – Official Travel and Tourism Site. (2014). Retrieved March 23, 2014, from Gotrinidadandtobago.com: http://www.gotrinidadandtobago.com/trinidad/carnival/
Wilton, D. (2004). The Elizabethan E-mail Hoax. In Word Myths: debunking linguistic urban legends (p. 74). New York: Oxford University Press, Inc.