Review of Culturally Responsive Learning Environments

Focus for the Review

This review will focus on culturally responsive learning environments and relate it to the well-being and the different cultures of the children/families.     

Rationale

Early childhood teachers need to be culturally responsive when teaching in early childhood services today. Te Whāriki our early childhood curriculum asserts that “Children are more likely to feel home if they regularly see their own culture, language and world views valued in the ECE setting. It is therefore important that whānau feel welcome and able to participate in the day-to-day curriculum and in curriculum decision making” (Ministry of Education, 2017, p.31). New Zealand is a bicultural country and is increasingly becoming more diverse. According to the education council (2017, p.4). It is becoming more important for immigrants that having a “’place to stand’ comes with an expectation that they will live here in a way that respects the commitments of Te Tiriti o Waitangi and the position of Māori and tangata whenua.” 

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The education review office (2018, p.23). has identified that poor educational “‘the absence’ of educational guidance and thoughtful planning resulted in poor educational practices with low quality interactions between the learners, teachers and parents, and instructors not reflecting on their practice or evolving a culture of perilous investigation.” In relation to this I personally feel that culturally responsive practices need to be reviewed to consider increasingly diverse population. This would allow children and families who are not born in New Zealand to have a sense of belonging and have their well-being be catered for. Regarding early childhood education young children and families, should feel that they have a place that should involve centers that are non-judgmental to ensure that they feel comfortable in the setting.  The early childhood program needs to be respectful and provide care for every child, so that they become confident in their own culture. This would encourage children to “understand and respect other cultures” (Ministry of Education, 2018, p.10). I think this should be a priority topic for the Education Review Office to investigate. Culturally responsive practices fit well with the strands and principles of “Te Whāriki.”  

Educators have an important role in children’s lives as “culturally competent: developing increasing proficiency in the use of te reo and tikanga Māori and able to form responsive and reciprocal relationships with tangata whenua” (Ministry of Education, 2017, p.59). This can help build up a significant impact on children’s lives. Grownups working with by means children should have knowledge of Māori definitions of health and well-being and a thoughtful understanding of what the concepts mean on the practices of the centers, that the educators work at. “Located in Aotearoa New Zealand, this vision implies a society that recognizes Māori as tangata whenua, assumes a shared obligation for protecting Māori language and culture, and ensures Māori are able to enjoy educational success as Māori” (Ministry of Education, 2017, p.6).The grown-ups and teachers should have a knowledge of the different cultures, so that they all can share what they do, what they eat, and share as a community so that they can all belong.

The Education Review Office did an article called He Pou Tataki (2013) in which it delivers possessions for both “ERO and services to use during reviews. The information contained within this document reflects ERO’s commitment to the provision of high-quality early childhood education for all children in Aotearoa New Zealand” (Ministry of Education, 2013, p.1). The Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi) stays a significant part of our New Zealand and Māori culture to the same extent as it is the foundation in New Zealand, and this is a guide for us as educators in the cultural background. The three p’s in this text states “participation, power and partnership as those three words show what the treaty is all about, for teachers who are learning in New Zealand, or those who have travelled to live in New Zealand and do not know about the Treaty” (Ministry of Education, 2013).

Tataiako is a report that outlines “cultural competencies for teachers of Māori learners is about teachers’ relationships and engagement with Māori learners and with their whānau and iwi” (Tataiako, 2011, p,1). This report shows diagrams and examples of what you as an individual teacher needs to read the standards and need to follow it, for example graduating teachers need to “demonstrate respect for hapu, iwi, and Māori culture in curriculum design and delivery processes” (Tataiako, 2011, p.8). During a guest lecturer presentation, External Evaluation in Early Childhood services at VUW. Collins (2019) talks about how quality teachers need to show respect about the code of conduct, and the evaluations about ERO evaluators. “It requires to be fair, impartial, responsible and trustworthy, as it the case for every professional, ERO evaluators which face ethical issues daily as they engage in practice. The way in which evaluators respond to these ethical challenges is an important influence on ERO’s integrity. The code of conduct mentioned above is under section 57 of the state sector act 1988, these are very important key points to know as we educators need to know how the Education Review Office works and know that what they do is important” (Collins, 2019).

Context

Over past years that I did my teaching in multiple centres that I attended for my teaching experience at. I had many different team members come in and out of the room for different reasons because of the roster and who was on their lunch break, as well as non-contact time, due to so many changes the centres that I have been to. I felt a time I was unsettled due to so many teachers swapping and changing that made me feel all over the place,  where the teachers pointed me to where I needed to go, as well as forgetting that I was a student teacher sometimes and asked if I could go to an area, outside or inside to watch on my own till they realised that I wasn’t allowed. “The rich cultural capital which Māori learners bring to the classroom by providing culturally responsive and engaging contexts for learning” (Ministry of Education, 2011, p.12). Some children may not understand much, English as it may be their second language, but teachers should be seeking ideas from parents to allow this change of environment. We should be allowing parents to give their input, so that they can encourage what they feel and should be able to open up in everyday environments and what needs to be involved to make this happen, so they feel included, respected, honoured and welcome because that fosters all the Te Whāriki strands and principles mentioned above. As the centres I worked at showed that they were following Te Whāriki strands and the principles to allow everyone that attends, even the parents to feel that they belong.    

Overview of Research

With a focus on alternative ways of fostering this aspect of well-being “Te Tiriti o Waitangi is a foundation document of Aotearoa New Zealand and guides education with regards to participation, power and partnership for Māori as tangata whenua and non-Māori as signature of the treaty. The treaty provides a driving force for revitalisation of Māori language and culture” (Education Review Office, 2013, p.7). Education Review Office has mentioned that we need to “better serve an increasingly diverse population, leaders and teachers need to have general sociocultural knowledge, know about second-language acquisition, and the ways in which socioeconomic issues shape educational achievement, as well as specific knowledge about the languages, cultures, and circumstances of particular learners” (Education Review Office, 2018 p.18). The Early Childhood Education environment is crucial in shaping the learning futures of children, particularly for those children who come from poorer backgrounds, because unfortunately in New Zealand, Māori are highly represented in a lot of negative statistics, for example, education, justice, and health to name a few. Therefore, early childhood education teachers have the power to positively change lives if they can engage with whānau, even if they come from quite different backgrounds themselves. Early childhood education environment is crucial in shaping the learning futures of children, particularly for those children who come from poorer backgrounds, because unfortunately in New Zealand, “Leaders and teachers respectfully validate te ao Māori, and create opportunities for whānau Māori to voice their views” (Education Review Office, 2013, p.30). “Therefore, Early Childhood Education teachers have the power to positively change lives if they can engage with whānau, even if they come from quite different backgrounds themselves” (Ministry of Education, 1996, p.28).

When I was looking back at one of the documents, I have read last year which I found helpful was about the “Iceberg” that has been shown visually which is an outline for unpacking the hidden assumptions about culture that are more difficult to access. “They do this by identifying three issues common to all cultures: relationships with people, relationships with time and relationships with nature” (Terreni & McCallum, Considering Culture, p.2). Teachers are likely to find concrete examples of cultures and use art as an expressive way to be culturally respectful. There are many other exciting things which can also be done. Some of these things are those such as facial expressions and types of language we use can be different. When we investigate what the next generation of teachers would look like and, what they must provide and have with them as the way of learning they need. “Te Whāriki, the early childhood education curriculum, which is an expression of biculturalism and provides a strong basis for teachers and leaders to promote aspects of Māori language and culture in early learning environment. Te Whāriki must be embedded within all services” (Ministry of Education, 2013, p.33).

my topic I have picked for this research is cultural respectful learning environment for New Zealand. What can we as teachers as well as the parents can learn from and do to allow this research to take place? The early child curriculum of NZ emphasizes the “critical role of socially and culturally mediated learning and of reciprocal and responsive relationships for children with people, places, and things. Children learn through collaboration with adults and peers, through guided participation and observation of others, as well as through individual exploration and reflection” (Ministry of Education, 1996, p.9).We can all start from what we have gained to make it go forth from the data we are wanting to collect. How could we support the documents that we are using to help us with the research and how we can find the information for culture and its impact on the wellbeing of children in our centres, and how we as teachers can make sure that we are providing a culturally respectful learning environment, for every child’s well-being and drive to learn about what will be fostered when the culture and identity is embraced.

“These concepts were embraced by the wider early learning sector and continue to frame our thinking today. The trust has also made a strong contribution to this revision, expanding earlier text to become Te Whāriki a te kohanga reo” (Ministry of Education, 2017, p.2)

Indicators

This review is to be undertaken in early childhood centres across New Zealand that will cater for 15-30 children, aged 2-5 years. The focus of this review is such a broad yet important topic to discuss. This shows to see and allow changes, and to work towards the indicators. Many indicators can be found within Te Whāriki which include what we see in the children’s learning. But as educators doing this review, is that we need and want to see, in order to know that we have done well in implementing change, and that the future improves for ourselves and others that is crucial. The Teaching Standards and Tataiako are going to be key indicators for this review. “Designed for teachers in early childhood education (ECE) services and in primary and secondary schools, it will support your work to personalise learning for and with Māori learners, to ensure they enjoy education success as Māori” (Ministry of Education, 2011, p.4).

The period to surround for this review will need to be argued and decide upon the surrounded teaching team and parents. The review will have been successful when the experts are able to show that they have developed their skills and put into action for the new techniques and ideas and have overall made a more culturally respective learning environment.

Conclusion

In summary we will first prepare our review by asking the questions which are available to us in Nga Arohaehae Whai Hua/self-review Guidelines for Early Childhood Education (Ministry of Education, 2006, p. 65). We will regulate our focus and the key indicators of our achievement, and the time frame of when we will be starting this review process. We should plan out the resources we may use in addition to the facts we aim to accumulate by the way of the converse template for our review documentation (Ministry of Education, 2006).

In the gathering stage we will draw on relevant literature, such as Te Whāriki, Titiako, observations and whānau voice. The whānau voice will come from formal and informal conversations, comments of learning stories that centres make available and surveys for the families to fill out. The professionals should make sure they were/are providing a culturally responsive learning environment. The heart of teachers can make sure that we are providing a humble learning environment. Similarly, we will gather the voice of the children through documentation of our observations and interactions (Boyd, 2019).

The third stage of our review is to collate and build a sense of the data and knowledge we have collected, throughout our research so that we can have a conversation as a group which will allow us to understand what the issues are from our data. (Boyd, 2019).

The closing stage is to plan on what we will do to implement our conversation, monitoring our changes for an episode, in which we should be able to do an instant discovery of our findings of our review and will be more of a culturally responsive environment for children in the early childhood education subdivision (Ministry of Education, 2006).

References

Education Council. (2017, June). Our Code Our Standards. Retrieved from https://teachingcouncil.nz/sites/default/files/Our Code Our Standards web booklet FINAL.pdf

Education Review Office. (2012, February). Partnership with Whānau Māori in Early Childhood Service. Retrieved from https://www.ero.govt.nz/assets/Uploads/Partnership-with-Whanau-Māori-in-Early-Childhood-Services-Feb-2012..pdf

Education Review Office. (2018, April). Responding to language diversity in Auckland – ero.govt.nz. Retrieved from https://www.ero.govt.nz/assets/Uploads/Diversity-of-language-in-Auckland.pdf

Ministry of Education. (2013). Ka hikitia: Accelerating success, 2013-2017. Wellington: Te Tāhuhu o te Mātauranga.

Ministry of Education. (2018, July). Licensing Criteria for Early Childhood Education & Care Retrieved from https://education.govt.nz/assets/Documents/Early-Childhood/Licensing-criteria/ECE-Licensing-Booklet-Early-Childhood-Aug2018.pdf

Te whatu pōkeka: Kaupapa Māori assessment for learning: Early childhood exemplars. (2009). Wellington, N.Z.: Published for the Ministry of Education by Learning Media.

Boyd, I. (2019). Internal Evaluation in an ECE centre: Paparangi Kindergarten.

Collins, S. (2019). External Evaluation in Early Childhood Services. TCHG 361, Professional Responsibilities in ECE, Week 5. Retrieved from https://blackboard.vuw.ac.nz/webapps/blackboard/execute/content/file?cmd=view&content_id=_2410043_1&course_id=_103976_1&framesetWrapped=true

Education Review Office. (2013). He Pou Tataki. Wellington New Zealand: Education Review Office.

Ministry of Education. (2006). Nga Arohaehae Whai Hua: Self-Review Guidelines for Early Childhood Education. Wellington New Zealand: Learning Media.

Ministry of Education. (2011). Tataiako: Cultural Competencies for teachers of Māori Learners. Wellington, New Zealand.

Terreni, L., & McCallum, J. (n.d.). Considering Culture. Providing Culturally Competent Care in Early Childhood Services in New Zealand. Part 1: Considering Culture. Retrieved from https://www.victoria.ac.nz/education/pdf/consideringculture1.pdf

Ministry of Education. (1996). Te Whāriki, He Whāriki Mātauranga mō ngā Mokopuna o Aotearoa, Early Childhood Curriculum. Wellington, New Zealand: Learning Media.

Ministry of Education. (2017). Te Whāriki: He whāriki mātauranga mō ngā mokopuna o Aotearoa: Early childhood curriculum. Wellington: Ministry of Education.

 

Centering Culturally Sustaining Pedagogy in Teacher Education

Abstract
Currently, children from various ethnic backgrounds and cultures are attending schools in the United States. However, newly graduated teachers are not prepared to teach children with different cultural backgrounds of their own, leading to deficit perspectives towards students of color (Hill, 2009). Teachers entering their careers with this limiting perspective can embody implicit biases throughout their teaching, which has a detrimental impact on students of color and their quality of education. This perspective can also reinforce inequities and sustain privilege within groups of students (Ladson-Billings, 1995). That being said, a teacher’s pre-service education is crucial in creating teacher mindsets that embrace a culturally sustaining pedagogy. This research intends to explore how current pedagogies and curriculum for pre-service teachers can be improved to inform teachers towards a social justice mindset.

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Throughout this research, it is explored how teacher education programs are formed in relation to academic content and pedagogy. Analysis from researchers indicate that a social justice pedagogy must be integrated throughout a teacher education program to provide accountability for teachers in creating a culturally sustaining mindset. This can be supported through meaningful field experiences, provided if mentor teachers are adept at explaining concepts and scaffolding teachers to success. Pre-service teachers also need a space to critically reflect on their self-identity in relation to its influence on students. The implications of this research indicate that these facets of social justice education will create teachers that are more prepared to help students of color succeed in schools.
Teacher Curriculum and Pedagogy
Teacher education programs have certainly evolved over last few decades. Although more universities are implementing social justice education into their teacher education programs, more empirical research is needed to explore its effectiveness (Mills & Ballantyne, 2016). Lee Shulman (1986) and his work pertaining to Pedagogical Content Knowledge is used frequently in teacher education programs to balance academic content and pedagogy instruction. Shulman himself questions “how can a successful college student transform expertise in subject matter in a for students can understand?” (p. 8) This is an even more loaded question when placed in terms of cultural relevance (Ladson-Billings, 1995). For teachers that are not well-versed in cultural responsiveness, students that come from various cultural backgrounds unfortunately are thought of as students who have deficits that must be fixed. Teachers are expected to learn about multicultural education however, the integration of multicultural education within teacher education programs varies across the United States (McDonald, Bowman, & Brayko, 2013). Despite this, there needs to be more than one course about multicultural education, as one course does not provide an adequate amount of time for one to develop an in-depth understanding of culturally responsive teaching (Bennett, 2012).
Researchers are now looking at past frameworks of teacher curriculum and pedagogy, while reframing it to suit the increasing need to develop teachers’ understanding of equity and social justice. For example, Dyches and Boyd (2017) used Shulman’s initial sources of teacher knowledge and created the framework called Social Justice Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (SJPACK). This framework consists of three domains: Social Justice Knowledge, Social Justice Pedagogical Knowledge, and Social Justice Content Knowledge. The first domain, Social Justice Knowledge, reiterates the importance of the teacher’s knowledge of systems of oppression, privilege, and domination, knowing that these issues are exacerbated by everyday actions for students of color. The second domain, Social Justice Pedagogical Knowledge (SJPK), is how a teacher makes decisions from classroom management to learning strategies to maximize student learning in ways that have students thinking critically not only about the academic content but how students can apply their activism outside the classroom. Culturally accessing pedagogies is a crucial part of SJPK in that teachers must be intentional about how they respect and integrate students’ cultures, utilizing students’ funds of knowledge in the curriculum. The third domain, Social Justice Content Knowledge, is the teacher’s understanding of how traditional forms of content, standards, and language project a sense of power and privilege. The culturally responsive teacher will still present traditional content but in a way that responds to students’ emotional needs and motivations.

Figure 1. SJPACK (Dyches and Boyd, 2017)
Although SJPACK has not yet been fully integrated into teacher education programs, it is a fresh, new take on what could be in the near future. It is also an excellent starting point for current teachers who need a social justice framework to utilize when planning curriculum. The website Teaching Tolerance (2016) has also provided a list of Social Justice Standards for primary grades up through twelfth grade for teachers to use and reframe their lessons in terms of identity, diversity, justice, and action. Another framework that has been rethought in recent years is Ladson-Billings’ Culturally Relevant Pedagogy (1995). Ladson-Billings warns of the danger of cultural mismatch, stating that schools and their power structures have the potential to reproduce social inequalities. She states that culturally relevant teachers must have high expectations for all students, demonstrate a connectedness with all students, and that teachers be flexible and fluid with the formation of knowledge. Her work has also been connected to its implications in incorporating multiliteracies in the classroom. Smolin and Lawless (2010) assert that a culturally relevant approach should also include students’ digital identities and experiences to build upon their unique funds of knowledge.
Although Ladson-Billing’s piece was a landmark in framing social justice education, Paris and Alim (2014) stated it is overdue for an updated perspective. For example, even the term “relevance” does not carry enough prominence in its goals to support students of color. Paris and Alim (2014) offer the concept of culturally sustaining pedagogy, to focus on sustaining the outcomes of the challenges to social justice education. In doing so, we must distance ourselves from deficit approaches that aim to have marginalized communities become like the dominant group, which causes them to lose their heritage and cultural traits to gain a quality education. Paris and Alim (2014) also state that teachers must sustain cultural traditions, as well as adapt to  the fluidity and ever-changing ideals of the culture of young people within communities. A culturally sustaining pedagogy must be incorporated through each course taught in a teacher education program, in order for teachers to question their own roles in maintaining a cultural pluralistic society that values students’ funds of knowledge and moving away from a monolingual and monocultural environment (Paris, 2012).
Impact of Field Experiences
Teachers need to be taught to care for students and form meaningful relationships with them. Teachers also need to learn how to appreciate and see the wealth in students’ funds of knowledge and use that to frame the curriculum (McDonald et al., 2013). Gonzalez, Wyman, and O’Connor (2011) assert that “learning about students and their communities is as important as learning about subject matter and content” (p. 482). In order to do so, pre-service teachers need to “see” students, which is key to building relationships with children and their families, fundamental to teaching from a social justice perspective, and central to high quality teaching. Doing so allows teachers to make concrete notions of students and communities that may seem abstract from coursework. For teachers to gain a sense of the diversity that exists in schools, meaningful field experiences can be a valuable part of a teacher education program. (Mcdonald et al., 2013).
Through multiple studies, pre-service teachers have shown a developed sense of cultural awareness by participating in a field experience during their program. McDonald et. al (2013) had participants at University of Washington interact with children and families at Community-Based Organizations (CBOs). Not only did participants get to have one-on-one interactions with children and staff, but they also got to see the workload students took home with them and how their schooling impacted children outside of school. It was clear that interacting with children had a profound impact on some candidates, but the study highlighted how important it is certain factors play into a candidate’s experience.
One aspect that was instrumental to a candidate’s experience were the directors and mentors involved in the CBOs. One candidate, Claire, was able to deepen her knowledge about the students and families involved in her CBO, due to program’s director providing Claire with background information about specific families, preventing Claire from forming assumptions. Another candidate from the study, Margo, was guided by her mentor teacher, Jessica, and invited to participate in practices at the CBO and was explained why certain aspects of their routine were important in building a community. Margo seized these opportunities to learn and was given feedback and support, which was notably absent from another candidate’s experience. Dallas was another closely followed candidate in the study who although was placed in a similarly structured CBO, did not experience the same deep understanding of community as Margo. Dallas’ mentor, Rosaline, was not as adept of conveying her knowledge to candidates, which restricted Dallas’ learning opportunities, affecting his ability to reflect upon his practice during school assignments.
Bennett (2012), another researcher focused on field experiences, was able to offer a similar example of how one-on-one interactions are a fundamental part of a field experience.  Each of the participants had little knowledge of culturally responsive teaching before starting their field experience. All of the participants developed a greater understanding of culturally responsive pedagogy after their experience was over. However one group of participants demonstrated deeper knowledge and were more self-aware.  Part of the reason why Group A was able to develop deeper knowledge and self-awareness was because the participants had more one-on-one interactions with students than Group B, being able to form personal relationships with specific students and reflect on the impact of those relationships.
On the other hand, Vass (2017) studied the impact of detrimental mentor relationships in Australia. Vass explained that in Australia participants thought of communities they worked in as very segregated. Participants were faced with multiple barriers in their field experiences, one of which being that their mentor teachers had established deficit perspectives of students. One mentor teacher introduced a student to a participant as “low-ability.” Another participant, Alice, found that her mentor teacher undermined her efforts to see the wealth of her students’ cultural knowledge and instead enforced assimilation into a White dominant curriculum. Participants also mentioned the barriers within the strict curriculum, despite the ever-growing diverse populations in Australia. Vass stated the power struggle between participants and mentor teachers and explained participants had a lot to lose by speaking up against their mentor teachers, doing so creating barriers to their success in completing the program.
Either way, there is not always a set standard for how field experiences are implemented and how mentor teachers are vetted. It implies that there needs to be specific training for mentor teachers to employ specific social justice standards and know how to navigate situations in which participants experience cognitive dissonance, when their prior knowledge does not match their new knowledge. This is crucial to helping teachers challenge their prior beliefs in order to form new understandings of diversity and think more positively about their students’ cultures and beliefs (Bennett, 2012).
Critical Reflection
According to Dyches and Boyd (2017), “Reflection, then, is a key component of agency because it requires teachers to channel their social awareness to catalyze change for their students.” In other words, the ability for teachers to self-reflect is a crucial part in developing a social justice mindset. Being able to do so helps teachers identify implicit bias, which can greatly affect their view of students and contribute to deficit perspectives towards groups of students. Howard (2003) explores the components of critical reflection and emphasizes its importance in teacher education programs. He states that teachers must be prepared to participate in discomfort and look deep within themselves before attempting to see their students. According to Palmer (1998), “we teach who we are” and without knowing our own perspectives and de-centring our points of views, we will contribute to the underachievement of groups of students.
Howard (2003) explains that teacher educators must provide spaces for pre-service teachers to explore their prejudice and uncertainty and be able to facilitate conversations about race and culture. Howard even created a course titled “Identity and Teaching,” focusing on pre-service teachers’ self-identity in relation to race, social class, and gender. Instructors of the course had to undergo a three-day workshop to be prepared to discuss these complex topics.
Hammond (2014) also identified three tasks every teacher must work through to uncover implicit bias and prepare to work with diverse students: a) identify your cultural frame of reference, b) widen your cultural aperture, and c) identify your key triggers. By identifying your own cultural frame of reference, you are accepting your own cultural identity and being aware of the space you take up through that identity. Widening your cultural aperture allows you ask questions about your culture and examine your deep cultural values and how they intersect with what influences your teaching. Identifying your key triggers allows the teacher to manage their own emotions, which influences’ students’ mood and productivity. All of this is crucial to teachers’ continual self-reflection and needs to be implemented in teacher education programs. Using Howard and Hammond’s work, if all teacher education programs had a course or incorporated topics from this course, pre-service teachers would have multiple opportunities to participate in critical reflection and be able to apply this during their field experiences and coursework.
Conclusion
Although there has been research about culturally sustaining pedagogy and adopting a social justice perspective for pre-service teachers, these frameworks have yet to be implemented nationwide, nor are they a requirement for all teachers. However, with our diverse populations of students and fluidity of cultural customs among young people, it is necessary for teachers to be educated in these frameworks. Pre-service teachers must also interact with diverse children and families through field experiences, be mentored by capable educators that are adept at explaining cultural customs and their importance, as well as p be provided with spaces to self-reflect about their own cultural identities.
It is implied from this research that not only could pre-service teachers greatly benefit from this work, but educators could also benefit from trainings about culturally sustaining pedagogy, incorporating funds of knowledge, as well as participating in critical self-reflection. With the continued research in regards to social justice and teacher education, it is hopeful that more universities will adopt a social justice approach and embed it throughout their programs. Pre-service teachers will greatly benefit from developing a deep understanding of culture, equity, and power structures and applying their knowledge to helping their students of color, who are the furthest from educational justice.
References

Bennett, S. V. (2012). Effective Facets of a Field Experience That Contributed to Eight Preservice Teachers’ Developing Understandings About Culturally Responsive Teaching. Urban Education, 48(3), 380–419. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042085912452155
Dara Hill, K. (2008). A Historical Analysis of Desegregation and Racism in a Racially Polarized Region. Urban Education, 44(1), 106–139. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042085907311841
Dyches, J., & Boyd, A. (2017). Foregrounding Equity in Teacher Education: Toward a Model of Social Justice Pedagogical and Content Knowledge. Journal of Teacher Education, xd68(5), 476–490. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022487117705097
Gonzalez, N., Wyman, L., & O’Connor, B. H. (2011). The Past, Present, and Future of “Funds of Knowledge.” In B. A. U. Levinson & M. Pollock (Eds.), A Companion to the Anthropology of Education (pp. 481–494). Hoboken: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Hammond, Z. (2014). Culturally Responsive Teaching and The Brain: Promoting Authentic Engagement and Rigor Among Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.
Howard, T. C. (2003). Culturally Relevant Pedagogy: Ingredients for Critical Teacher Reflection. Theory Into Practice, 42(3), 195–202. https://doi.org/10.1353/tip.2003.0031
Ladson-Billings, G. (1995). Toward a Theory of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy. American Educational Research Journal, 32(3), 465. https://doi.org/10.2307/1163320
Mcdonald, M. A., Bowman, M., & Brayko, K. (2013). Learning to See Students: Opportunities to Develop Relational Practices of Teaching through Community-Based Placements in Teacher Education. Teachers College Record, 115(4). Retrieved from https://www.tcrecord.org
Mills, C., & Ballantyne, J. (2016). Social Justice and Teacher Education. Journal of Teacher Education, 67(4), 263–276. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022487116660152
Palmer, P. J. (1998). The Courage to Teach. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Paris, D. (2012). Culturally Sustaining Pedagogy. Educational Researcher, 41(3), 93–97. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189×12441244
Paris, D., & Alim, H. S. (2014). What Are We Seeking to Sustain Through Culturally Sustaining Pedagogy? A Loving Critique Forward. Harvard Educational Review, 84(1), 85–100. https://doi.org/10.17763/haer.84.1.982l873k2ht16m77
Smolin, L. I., & Lawless, K. (2009). Using Multiliteracies to Facilitate Culturally Relevant Pedagogy in the Classroom. In D. R. Cole & D. L. Pullen (Eds.), Multiliteracies in Motion (1st ed., pp. 173–187). New York: Routledge.
Teaching Tolerance. (2016). Social Justice Standards. Retrieved December 9, 2019, from https://www.tolerance.org/frameworks/social-justice-standards
Vass, G. (2017). Preparing for Culturally Responsive Schooling: Initial Teacher Educators into the Fray. Journal of Teacher Education, 68(5), 451–462. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022487117702578

 

Is Adorno & Horkheimer’s Concept of the “Culture Industry” Culturally Elitist?

It has been argued that Adorno & Horkheimer’s concept of the “Culture Industry” is culturally elitist, and an overly pessimistic account of the role of the mass media for culture. Do you agree?

 

Max Horkheimer was born in February 1895 and deceased in July 1973. He was a German sociologist and a philosopher, known to have been the director of the Institute of Social Research, a member of the ‘Frankfurt School’ and one of the founders of critical theory.

Theodore W. Adorno was born in September 1903 and deceased in August 1969, he also was a German philosopher and an official member of the Institute of Social Research. The two philosophers mentioned are founding members of the ‘Frankfurt School’ (Frankfurter Schule) which was a school of social theory and critical philosophy. During World War II, the collaboration of Adorno and Horkheimer begun with their book Dialectic of Enlightenment published in 1944. In this book, they strictly criticize what they call the ‘Culture Industry’, a term used and preferred to ‘Mass Culture’ which they consider misleading and suggesting that the masses are the true producers of this culture, when in fact they are considered the victims. Adorno and Horkheimer are the first to use this terminology. This essay will demonstrate with examples and theories, the definition of ‘Culture Industry’ and if is it an overly pessimistic account of the role of the mass media for culture.

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Firstly, if we were to think of the definition of ‘Culture Industry’ in economics, it refers to all the companies and enterprises producing goods according to the industrial methods. These goods are to have essential values which lies in their content, such as films, music, books… Having said that, the philosophy and sociology of Culture has a critical dimension and opens up doors to the vision of ‘Culture Industry’ and the media. According to Adorno and Horkheimer, the ‘Culture Industry’ is an “enlightenment as mass deception” a system formed by film, press, radio and television. Their main focus was on the power and the hegemonic ideology authorized through the mass media. They argue that each of its sectors is “the monotony and uniformity of present culture” (Adorno and Horkheimer) aiming to supress originality and create a standardised version of it. The ‘Culture Industry’ robotises production and distribution, it can be explained in terms of the rise of technology, because nowadays technology is intended for a large number of people and therefore requires means of production providing standardized and identical goods in order to meet identical demands. Presumably, production standards are based on the needs of consumers. Although, in reality, technical rationality is the rationality of domination, and that is the coercive character of alienated society (Marx). The spectators are considered like the alienated worker in Marx’s theory, whose condition consists in the fact that he lost all functions and all critical capacity. His consciousness becomes in the era of mass media a machine that performs ‘standardised operations’. The rise of technology has led to mass production and the productions of the ‘Culture industry’ are considered nothing more than commodities. They argued that today’s capitalist society has only one purpose which is the interest of profit. The charge against the media is indeed extreme, they blame them for making the public look ‘passive’, reduced to absorbing all the material presented to him. The media would turn citizens into objectified and dehumanised consumers. The agreements between the categories and the phenomena are no longer the will of the subject, but rather the ‘consciousness of the production team’ whom draw and construct for the consumers, in their place, the frames allowing them to seize reality. Adorno and Horkheimer argue that even self-identity, which is built within the circle of intimacy, is affected by the media world, and would be no more than ‘a product determined by society’, constantly being what the so called ‘Culture Industry’ imposes on him. Individuals are being forced into the system, they become “links”, “machines” with no control, not more than “devices”.

According to the two philosophers, the media is an overly pessimistic account of the role of the mass media for culture, it is the fall of the modern man, the defeat of the thoughts of the man. The media seems to be completing the movement of “self-destruction”. Disagreeing with Kant in the Dialectic of Enlightenment (1944), they think that it is not the subject that has become powerful, but the domination and power that overgrew it all: “Kant’s formalism still expected a contribution from the individual, who was thought to relate the varied experiences of the senses to fundamental concepts; but industry robs the individual of his function, its prime service to the customer is to do his schematizing for him. (…) it is in fact forced upon the latter by the power of society, which remains irrational, however we may try to rationalize it.”

Furthermore, the ‘Culture Industry’ nevertheless remains the entertainment industry. According to Horkheimer and Adorno, this entertainment, which in our society no longer requires effort, the individual thinks less. Due to mass production, today’s art no longer provides real and impactful messages through it, it’s only produced for “the interest of profit”.

Only the most profitable, conformist and competitive artists can broadcast their work: “But what completely fettered the artist was the pressure (and the accompanying drastic threats), always to fit into business life as an aesthetic expert” – Adorno and Horkheimer. To survive and exist, the artist must conform to social norms and constraints, the ‘Culture industry’ excludes anything new or out of the ordinary. Serious art and entertainment are not opposed, they are just considered two different goods produced by the same culture industry: “Amusement under late capitalism is the prolongation of work. It is sought after as an escape from the mechanized work process, and to recruit strength in order to be able to cope with it again”. The philosophers argue that human activity is characterized by “the automatic succession of standardized operations” in both leisure and work. Cultural entertainment becomes a stultification to everyday life and the intellectual effort is avoided for the spectator who must think for himself.

In his analysis of capitalism, Max Weber argues that it would develop only as a disenchantment and rationalization of society. This rationalization being then understood in the sense of the calculation to all human activities. Capitalism has become planetary today, and it seems that the process described by Weber has come to an end. Now, as a result of rationalization, this term seems be “downfalling” into the most worrying irrational. It procreates spiritual misery from which reason has disappeared as the reason for hope: as Kant put it: “reign of ends”: as the disappearance of any horizon of expectation, of any religious, political, or libidinal belief, whether loving, subsidiary or social, constituting of  solidarities which no society is possible, what Aristotle called the “philia”. The absolute disenchantment strikes particularly those who think they have nothing to expect from the development of hyper industrial societies. These desperate are “desperados”, and they will be more and more numerous. But to have nothing to wait means just as well to have nothing to fear, which is also the meaning of the Greek Elpis: expectation that carries both hope and fear. In despair, there is no fear and repressive mechanisms which try to lessen the effects of the loss of authority that is also the loss of mind, because they are less and less effective. Because ultimately, they generate more and more the opposite of what they are made for, in extreme forms, and totally irrational, that is to say unpredictable. Therefore, the society we live in today is seen to be capitalist and consumer driven. However, Adorno and Horkheimer focus on traditionally neglected issues. The bourgeoisie philosophy is content to dissert on the aesthetic in an abstract and pompous way. Marxism refuses to evoke “the ideological superstructure” which would be only a simple reflection of the material production. Adorno and Horkheimer offer a real critical reflection on culture.

The both philosophers show the influence of culture on everyday life. Entertainment helps to impose social practices and a standardized imagination. This ‘culture industry’ is not a mere harmless setting but conditions a form of passivity and artificialisation of human existence. Culture does not allow individuals to express their desires and creativity but reduces them to the status of consumers condemned to passivity. The Frankfurt School highlights the different forms of social conditioning and the colonization of everyday life by market logic. The phenomena described by Adorno and Horkheimer have only intensified since their critical analysis of 1947. The cultural industry has become globalized and extends to all areas, from music to cinema. The leisure market is accompanied by cultural globalization. The phenomenon of standardization of the commercial civilization crosses all the continents.

On the other hand, Adorno and Horkheimer do not take into account the emancipatory potential that can come from popular cultures. There are forms of counterculture that develop in the margins of market logic.  Their movements express an imaginary challenge to the existing order. But, like the punk movement, the counterculture becomes another stall in the cultural industry. However, the history and revolt expressed by popular cultures cannot be denied. For example, the media provides impactful social movements which raise awareness for sensitive causes online, such as, #Blacklivesmatter, Say her Name, #JesuisCharlie, Occupy Wall Street… Secondly, popular culture is not only this steamroller of the market standardization described by Adorno and Horkheimer. Even in a campaign of merchandise like Hollywood, can come out creative and original works. Above all, there is an ambiguity in the reception of cultural works. Films and music offer a dry fantasy most often reduced to the importance of individual success and very little happiness. However, music, movies or TV series can also express a challenge to the social order.

To conclude, Theodore Adorno and Max Horkheimer argue that the concept of “Culture Industry” is culturally elitist, and an overly pessimistic account of the role of the mass media for culture. Both philosophers state that this concept causes a standardisation of society, it leads to humanity being more imitators rather than thinkers and creators. Society becomes passive and the people of society are considered the victims of this “culture industry” dominating the human brain and developments. However, research shows that Adorno and Horkheimer neglect the positive impacts in which popular culture had on society, due to the rise of technology having not only negative influences.

References

 

Adorno, T. and Horkheimer, M. (1997). Dialectic of Enlightenment. Verso, pp.Chapter The Culture Industry: Englightenment as Mass Deception pp. 120-167. [Accessed Jul.2019].

Blunden, A. (2019). Frankfurt School: The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass Deception. [online] Marxists.org. Available at: https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/adorno/1944/culture-industry.htm [Accessed Jul. 2019].

C.J.Stoddart, M. (2019). Ideology, Hegemony, Discourse: A Critical Review of Theories of Knowledge and Power. [online] Pdfs.semanticscholar.org. Available at: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f66b/93d70a3ba41d23704c25d24f0e1a82935d0e.pdf [Accessed Jul. 2019].

Culturalstudiesnow.blogspot.com. (2017). Culture Industry explained simply (Adorno and Horkheimer). [online] Available at: http://culturalstudiesnow.blogspot.com/2017/10/culture-industry-explained-simply.html [Accessed Jul. 2019].

Durham, M. and Kellner, D. (2012). Media and cultural studies. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. [Accessed Jul.2019].

Kidd, D. (2016). Social Media and social movements. [online] Research gate. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/307626329_Social_Media_and_Social_Movements [Accessed Jul. 2019].

Miège, B. (2019). The cultural commodity – Bernard Miege, Nicholas Garnham, 1979. [online] SAGE Journals. Available at: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/016344377900100307?journalCode=mcsa [Accessed Jul. 2019].

Singh, A. (2019). Summary of Theodor Adorno’s ‘culture industry’. [online] Academia. Available at: https://www.academia.edu/11426676/Summary_of_Theodor_Adornos_Culture_Industry [Accessed Jul. 2019].

Žižek, S. (2019). The Sublime Object of Ideology. London: Verso, p.Chapter 1: How did Marx invent the Symptom? [accessed Jul.2019].

 

Importance of Culturally Appropriate Health Policies

Explain the importance of culturally appropriate health policies.
Lederach (1995) defines culture as “the shared knowledge and schemes created by a set of people for perceiving, interpreting, expressing, and responding to the social realities around them” (p. 9). Damen (1987) notes that culture can be defined as “learned and shared human patterns or models for living day-to-day living patterns and include thoughts, styles of communicating, and ways of interacting”. This incorporates sociocultural factors such as race and ethnicity, nationality, language, gender, sexual orientation among others.

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The WHO (2014) notes that “health policy refers to decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society. An explicit health policy can achieve several things: it defines a vision for the future which in turn helps to establish targets and points of reference for the short and medium term. It outlines priorities and the expected roles of different groups; and it builds consensus and informs people.” It is a truism that a community or society is a complex construct with individuals who can be hurt, who have varying needs and respond differently to any intervention initiative. This signals the need for health policies to be crafted in a culturally appropriate manner in order to impact individuals and his community.
Studies have shown that culturally-appropriate health policies produce valuable results and assist in driving the accuracy of diagnosis, improve the likelihood of acceptance and adherence to the recommendations made and could possibly prevent or minimize the inappropriate use of health care facilities like clinics, hospitals and diagnostic centers. Experts have concluded that a modifications in health care delivering systems that are culturally oriented will promote quality improvement and should be applied at all levels of planning and execution. It is also suggested that a culturally appropriate health policy will have the effect of assisting in the reduction of any racial, ethnic or social health disparities. In this regard, effective communication must be an important consideration. In order for any policy to effective they must be enunciated and disseminated in a clear, simple and precise manner. The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) (2010) notes that an operational plan moves a static prevention policy from being mere words written on a piece of paper into an effective and affective construct ready for action.
Cultural appropriate health policies speak to the affective and contemplate the ability of systems to deliver patient care to a population or society having diverse values, beliefs, and behaviors and eliminating any disparities in health care. Although policies that improve the quality of care have both direct and indirect cost they can be used to improve quality and improve behavior at the level of the individual. It is also known that a society where the population is healthy has a higher propensity to generate wealth and wellbeing.
Explain how one can develop a policy so that it gets the support of the community.
Public health agencies worldwide are engaged in formulating policies and developing strategies to promote health within populations. Population health begins at the community level where smaller sub-groups can be targeted and engaged. However, to effectively execute strategies, support from stakeholders, including the community, is pivotal. An important consideration then is how promote the view of the strategy being ‘our policy’ rather than that from an outside, disconnected entity.
Before formulating the policy, a thorough research of community dynamics is important.
Campbell (2010) explains that anthropology is vital to public health practice. Such research provides information which will fuel the understanding of a community’s cultural beliefs and ideology regarding health related issues and practices (pgs. 76-77). Knowledge of community beliefs and practices can better guide policy makers in formulating health interventions that will be more accepted and supported by community stakeholders.
According to Pittet (2001), a major factor contributing to change resistance and compliance is ignorance. People are more likely to accept something they have been involved in and can associate with. Stakeholders should be educated as to the health problem that exists in the community and why change is necessary. Involvement from these grass root stages will promote greater acceptance policy as community members will see that addressing the problem is the responsibility of individuals and the community as a whole.
Resistance is possible at any stage of the change process. Therefore, open and continuous communication should be fostered with the community. Rabinowitz (2014) purports that fostering community support for health policy is a continuous process. New information at every stage, from formulation to implementation, should be shared with the community. Additionally, community stakeholders should be actively involved in the specific health interventions governed by the policy. Additionally, publicly lauding the successes of the interventions will draw further support from even sectors that initially against the program.
Explain how you might engage the community to be part of the voice when developing a policy
Health policy comprises methods put in place by health agencies to promote a particular health outcome (Cherry & Trotter Betts, 2005). The health care system consists of a number of forces acting to impact the system for their interest. These forces include political entities as well as private and public sector groups that have the capacity to impact the health care system and influence the health policy-making process.
Policy specialists advocate that political interface occur when individuals participate in the decision making process and cooperate in actions to improve said process. Mention must be made of the numerous stakeholders who have an interest the outcome of a health care policy who employ different means of activism to shape the health system. Public policy is described as a governmental act which embodies a response to health needs.
According to Gregory, Hartz-Karp and Watson (2008), community engagement is a process whereby the community is involved in all stages of policy planning and formulation. With respect to health policies, community engagement implies fostering participation with community members in the development and execution of policies that will affect community health. Factors included comprise health service delivery, budgetary allocation, and wider issues affecting the health system. The community contributes meaningful and valuable input in any health related strategy. Therefore, effective collaboration with these stakeholders will serve as a major driving force behind any policy aimed at positively influencing health.
The process of community engagement requires strategic actions at several levels. These levels include information gathering, education, discussion and partnership. To effectively put in place policies to counteract sources of ill-health in a community, it is important to first uncover what health issues exist. Coulter (2009) explains that health needs assessment is a methodical technique by which the health issues affecting a population are uncovered. This facilitates consensus as to the priorities that exist which will gear the allocation of resources (p. 11). This is usually one of the first steps in health planning and community engagement and facilitates formulation and application of steps to counteract such inequalities.
Knowledge equips one with the necessary information to fuel informed action. Furthermore, active dialogue with community representatives will inevitably foster cooperation. Practical ways to secure the informed participation of the various groupings of a population being served is through small groups interactive talks, church promotion and school base interactions, spot meetings and though the development of literature and health education materials which reflect their level of health literacy and cultural norms. In developing a policy that gets the support of the community it is necessary to engage community representatives in the planning meetings whether as part of a swat or focus group or even formally as board members. This ensures ‘buy in’ by those they represent since they will have a voice at the formulation stage of the policy process.
Engagement should endeavor to uncover what will work in the best interest of the jurisdiction being targeted, aid in the achievement of the stated policy, assess what resources are needed, how those resources should be allocated and utilized in the implementation of the policy, fairness and equity and effectively how the policy reflect the values of society. When all these elements are factored in the process then the much anticipated shared value can be a reality.
It has also been noted by researchers that increasingly the population of society has become very diverse and experience huge disparities in health. As we grapple with the severe differences in race, gender, ethnicity, and negative experience in the socioeconomic status of the world community research shows that health policies affect the health behavior of individuals, their socioeconomic standing and their work environment. Health policies therefore must be carefully planned, implemented and evaluated. They must also be inclusive and seek the involvement of stakeholders.
The DHHS (2010) discloses that the U.S. health expenditure is by far more than for any other nation however, this has not demonstrated superior results. Analysts have suggested that one of the possible reasons for this unfavorable outcome might be a failure to actively involve the population in strategic planning and execution. It can be concluded that in order to develop a policy that gets the support of the community the overarching principle is a merging of the efforts of policy makers and the community individuals who must regard the policy as relevant to their needs and are able to see the benefits they offer.
References
Campbell, D. (2010). Anthropology’s contribution to public health policy development. MJM, 13(1), 76-83.
Cherry, B. & Trotter Betts, V. (2005). Health policy and politics: Get involved! In B. Cherry & S. Jacobs (Eds.) Contemporary nursing: Issues, trends & management (pp.211-233). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Inc.
Coulter, A. (2009). Engaging communities for health improvement: A scoping study for the Health Foundation. Retrieved from http://www.health.org.uk/public/cms/75/76/313/597/Engaging communities for health improvement.pdf?realName=788l5U.pdf
Damen, L. (1987). Culture Learning: The fifth dimension on the language classroom. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Department of Health and Human Services (2010). Healthy People 2010: Understanding and Improving Health, 2nd ed. Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office.
Gregory, J., Hartz-Karp, J. & Watson, R. (2008). Using deliberative techniques to engage the community in policy development. Australia and New Zealand Health Policy, 5(16), doi:10.1186/1743-8462-5-16
Lederach, J.P. (1995). Preparing for peace: Conflict transformation across cultures. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.
Pittet, D. (2001). Improving adherence to hand hygiene practice: A multidisciplinary approach. Emerg Infect Dis, 7(2), doi:10.3201/eid0702.700234.
Rabinowitz, P. (2014). Gaining public support for addressing community health and development issues. Retrieved from http://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/assessment/getting-issues-on-the-public-agenda/gain-public-support/main.
World Health Organization (WHO). (2014). Health policy. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/topics/health_policy/en/
 

Are Human Rights Universal or Culturally Specific? Evualtion of East Asia

The discussion of human rights always remains a critical and sensitive issue in the world, East Asia in particular. Controversial debates, regarding the practices and ideologies of different states, have often been raised in the region. In terms of a holistic perspective, in both the western and eastern worlds, contradiction of social principles to ideologies, and the enforcement of human rights is often found to be a mutually exclusive issue. In fact, international organizations such as International Committee of the Red Cross and UNICEF have been established to advocate human rights worldwide. Human Rights Watch (HRW), another example of recognized body, has also been prominent in the area. Also, politics has been seen to be more interconnected around the globe under globalization and advancement of technology. However, as progresses more issues, found to be the adverse problems of human rights, are put under the limelight in contemporary society. While there are recent discussions of human rights in Europe, such as the migration of refugees, more profound human rights problems have been found in the Eastern world. With the use of various examples, the main stance of the essay is that human rights are universal in nature, and actual practices of human rights in different places are to show various interpretations on universalism of human rights.

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The assumptions of the stance will be divided into three logical directions, with reference to the interpretations proposed by Anttonen and Sipilä (2015): Universalism is a conceptual idea shared by all people and practically survives together with particularism and selectivism on nation-level. The first explanation logicalizes ‘different forms of objects could still be categorized as ‘the object’. For example, forms of democracy in the world differ, ranging from every American casting their vote to their preferred president, to the representative governance of the Canadians. All these varied forms of democracy are still regarded as ‘democracy’. Second, as long as the concept of human rights exists in states, for example, supported constitutionally and legally, it will be proved as ‘universal’. Lastly, any degree, little or much, of enforcement of human rights validates the universalism of human rights. These rationales stay in line with the stance of this essay, as suggested by James (2007), universality of human rights does not entail uniformity.

In principle, human rights are, and should be universal. Based upon the content of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) introduced in 1948, the United Nations (UN) has defined human rights are inherent to all human beings who are fully entitled to these rights, regardless of race, sex, nationality, ethnicity, language, religion, or any other status without discrimination. These include right to life and liberty, to work and education, freedom from slavery and torture, opinion and expression etc. Nonetheless, different versions of agreements, regarding to practice of human rights, seem appear to challenge the universalism of the definition proposed by the United Nations.

In fact, in the Asia context, the Bangkok Declaration on Human Rights (BDHR, 1993) has provided significant insights and interpretation on the universalism of human rights, from the perspective of Asia countries. One of the most distinguished statements of the declaration is that human rights are universal in nature, which should be considered in the context of a dynamic and evolving process of international setting. The significant difference between two interpretations is that, the latter has reserved ‘buffering space’ to countries in practice of human rights. The statement implies that external factors such as the global environment, and internal factors such as the past and norms of countries, could impact the practice of human rights to a certain extent. Although the above two interpretations, from the UN and BDHR, seem superficially showing a regressive degree of universalism of human rights, the key prioritizing principle of human rights being universal in the declarations should not be overlooked. International setting, in the situation, does not erase human rights under any circumstance.

The assumption of the term ‘culturally-specific’ is extended to cultural relativism. Chin-Dahler (2010) suggested that cultural relativism, an idea to which local cultural and historical traditions which religious, political and legal practices are included, properly determine the existence and scope of civil and political and human rights enjoyed by individuals. The theory improvises that history, in regard to the process of civilization and chains of historical and political history of countries and regions, plays a prominent role over the contemporary practices of human rights. He, (Chin-Dahler, 2010) continued that Asian countries often advocate its supreme status of the regime and its leaders, and Asian values such as privileging the community over the individual and respect for authority are dichotomized against Western values such as individualism and materialism. In this case, the UDHR has had its significance in balancing cultural differences. Ignatieff (2001) emphasized that the committee of the UDHR did not treat the Declaration as a simple ratification of Western convictions but to delimit a range of moral universals from within their very different religious, political, ethnic, and philosophical backgrounds. Agreed by 48 countries around the world, the UDHR brings together a set of universal values and prevents certain split of enforcement of human rights due to cultural differences.

Cultural Relativists argue that both history and religion play a key role in resulting human rights culturally specific. The Western world has been open to human rights earlier than most of Asian countries. The treaty Peace of Westphalia in 1648 rebalanced the power of western countries and in a high degree ended the sole religion dominance of Catholicism. Constitutionalism had replaced absolute monarchy in most countries, and the intellectual Age of Enlightenment had given rise to liberalism, which then the American and French Revolution assured the valuation of human rights in western ideology. Therefore, the Western mainstream have arguably had less human rights concern. In fact, in the East Asia region, Japan remains to be a country which has less adverse problems concerning human rights. Japan has been identified as a ‘Western-constructed’ society, with Datsu-A Nyu-O, a theory explained by Kwok (2009) as to depart itself (Japan) from Asia and emerge with the Europeans, when Japan had been heavily influenced by Western countries and the US historically, could be a valid reason to the contemporary practice of human rights.

On the other hand, take China, the leading superpower in East Asia as an illustration and for comparison to the Western World. In terms of cultural and historical development, despotism and absolute monarchy ruling had long been the mainstream political ideology in China and proved to be oppressing human rights such as freedom of speech and opinions. Historical events such as the Cultural Revolution, when Mao Zedong was depicted as the ‘Father of China’, and the Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries, further reinforced the social norm of state-dominance and neglected any opposition voices. In addition, Bloom (2009) suggested the basis of all schools of thought was the advocation on which absolute monarchy should be the dominant form of government, especially Confucius, the most popular school in China. Yet in the viewpoint of a universalist, based on contemporary existing practices, historical differences remain invalid to specifically explain execution of human rights in particular regions.

Without a doubt the human rights such as freedom of speech and press are relatively limited in China, with political-sensitive books and films being censored. However, certain extent of these rights could still be enjoyed by the Chinese. Article 35 of the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) stated that Chinese people are given freedom of speech, press, assembly and association etc. In addition, Hong Kong, positioned as a special administration region under Chinese ruling, do possess a high degree of human rights in society. The ‘’One Country, Two Systems’’ grants Hong Kong various freedoms and rights. Examples include right to vote and freedom of assembly. The former allows Hong Kong citizens to vote for their favorable candidates in free will, while the latter rationalizes the annual candlelight vigil in Hong Kong, in memorizing the June 4th Tiananmen Protest.

Reform and opening ups have been put in practice in China over the last decades, though some fundamental political issues contradicting the universalism of human rights are exposed in society. The XinJiang Re-education Camp in China has raised extensive global attention in regard to human rights. Depicted as the ‘Eastern Nazi Concentration Camp’, Bristow (2018) quoted the Chinese government that the camp is to provide vocational and employment training and allow people to reenter into the labour market. McDougall (2018) expressed that the camp acts as a tool for the Chinese government to suppress religious extremism and thus maintain social stability. The right to life also remains a controversial topic in China. The typical One-Child policy threatens human right to life in two directions: First the local officials force pregnant women to induced abortion in order to meet the target of number of new born babies as assigned by the Central government. Clarke (2015) reported that the one-child policy, under which most couples are allowed to have only one child or else face the possibility of fines, sterilizations, and abortions. Second is sexual selection, which Jiang, Yan et al. (2017) suggested that pregnant women value boys over girls under the one-child constraint, with the traditional cultural mindset of male being superior than female.

Massive population and large territorial area have been some of the profound causes that the government requires absolute power over the people such that the unitary and territorial integrity of the country can be assured, or else uncontrollable consequences might be resulted from the perspective of the Chinese government, for instance foreign powers taking a realist approach to interfere internal affairs of China. Debates concerning independence away from China, for example, Tibet and Hong Kong, pose a threat to the unitary of China. These two factors, match with the interpretation of BDHR over the idea of ‘dynamic process of the country’. Xue (2015) argued that cultural relativism in China is solely aimed to prove that Western values and models are not the only way to promote and protect human rights. Interpreting the above statement, cultural relativism and universalism of human rights could in fact co-exist.

Similar to China, many East Asia countries have had specific history which shaped the culture and the enforcement of human rights in concurrent society, and the principles are contradictory to Western values or vice versa. Some other examples from other East Asia countries will be discussed in the later part, but the theory of universalism to the practice of human rights are not necessarily mutually exclusive.

The supremacy of state and its leader has become a mutual characteristic for many East Asia countries, thus of freedom of speech and expression as human rights are found relatively limited in the region. Soviet Union has come vital in the social development of North Korea. The former had transformed the latter into a country of Stalinism during the times of Civil War. In 1950s the North Korea has started practicing Kimilsungism since the Kim’s took charge of the country, a leader-dominating ideology which replaces Marxism and Leninism and seen to be a ‘strengthened version’ of the both. Culturally the people of North Korea, have no other option but to embrace the political system of North Korea, or else facing fatal political prosecution. Being one of the most symbolic countries of authoritarianism, Reporters without Borders (RWB, 2018) ranks North Korea last in its World Press Freedom Index, with journalist in the country often facing government surveillance. On the other hand, many North Korea defectors have been criticizing the immorality and criminal abuse of their government towards the people. Human rights are poorly enforced in the country.

Nonetheless some human rights credits still exist in the country, at least on the paper. Article 5 of the North Korean Constitution entitles North Koreans with a variety of freedoms, including speech, news, demonstrations, associations, religious beliefs, employment and travel freedom, constitutionally and legally substantiate the universalism of human rights within the country. The right to life is also protected in North Korea. In addition, the validity of criticism raised the North Korea defectors towards the government remains to be debatable. Choe (2017) quoted Sung, a North Korea defector, publicly admitted her criticism about human rights towards the North Korean government was under the inducement of the South Korea. Some human rights issues in North Korea are proved to be genuine, while some might be exaggerated to vilify the country.

Symbolizing as a wealthy country in East Asia, the Singapore has also had human rights concerns from the globe. Christie and Roy (2001) quoted Lee Kuan-yew, the first Prime Minister of Singapore, urging Singaporean to fit themselves into society which opposes the American rights of the individual. Singapore has been practicing collectivism as the main society rationale and has been facing criticism over its practice of human rights in society, for instance internet surveillance and unprotection of labor rights. However, certain extent of human rights still exists in Singapore. Constitutional and worldwide agreements, such as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, had been signed and thus restrict the suppression of human rights by the government in society. Freedom House (2018), an NGO investigating human rights of countries, commented the civil and political liberties of Singapore as ‘partly free’.

ASEAN has been a key institutional figure in East Asia. Tobing (2018) argued that although the organisation insists its core principles are non-interference and respect for consensus among member states, it still commits to promote and protect human rights in the region. The ASEAN Human Rights Declaration further consolidates the emphasise of human rights in East Asia. Despite the fact that human trafficking, an issue against human rights, is seen to be active in the region, during the 27th ASEAN Summit (2015), member states were strongly requested to effectively and progressively prevent, suppress and punish all forms of trafficking in persons including the protection and assistance to victims of trafficking. The claim is further strengthened by the German Institute for Human Rights (GIHR), stating that some rights, which human trafficking breaches, including the right to life and the ban on genocide, torture, slavery and discrimination on grounds of race is binding for all states under all circumstances, proving human rights to be a universal concept.

The violating practices of human rights, which some East Asia countries conduct, do not necessarily bring to the conclusion that human rights are not universal. Tharoor (1999) viewed universalism of human rights is achieved when the practice of human rights does not fundamentally contradict the ideals and aspirations of any society and reflect universal humanity. This essay is not to justify any action which seems to violate human rights, but only to reassure the universalism of human rights in the globe. Restating in the standpoint of a cultural relativist, it is undeniable that some human rights are constrained in some parts of the world, yet the core value of universalism remains as a valid account. In contemporary global society, pluralism and multiculturalism have been blossomed with an increasing flow of information and big data. In fact, Le (2016) asserted universalist and cultural relativists could generate new insights that strengthen global and local efforts to collaboratively enforce human rights with respect to interests of different countries, as argued in above parts that both ideologies are not mutually exclusive. Different sets of thinking and ideologies have been either emerged or proposed to become human rights, such as LGBT rights. In the argument, human rights should be at first clearly broken down and clarify the formation of human rights. At any times, agreed by both universalists and cultural relativists, upholding a certain degree of human rights should always be a prioritized issue in any country in the world.

Bibliography

Anttonen, A. & Sipilä, J. (2015). Universalism: and idea and principle in social policy, pp.23

James, SA. (2007). Universal Human Rights: Origins and Development, LFB Scholarly Publishing LLC, New York.

United Nations, Human Rights of Global Issues

World Conference on Human rights (1993), FINAL DECLARATION OF THE REGIONAL MEETING FOR ASIA OF THE WORLD CONFERENCE ON HUMAN RIGHTS

CHIN-DAHLER, P. (2010). Universal human rights, cultural relativism and the ‘Asian values’ debate. East Asia Forum

Ignatieff, M. (2001). The attack on human rights. Foreign Affairs, pp. 102—116

Kwok, DTW. (2009). A TRANSLATION OF DATSU-A RON: DECODING A PREWAR JAPANESE NATIONALISTIC THEORY

Bloom, I. (2009). Introduction to Confucian Thought, Asia for Educators, Columbia University

Bristow, M. (2018). China Uighurs: Xinjiang legalises ‘re-education’ camps, BBC https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-45812419

McDougall, G. (2018). The United Nations’ Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD)

Clarke, A. (2015). See How the One-Child Policy Changed China, National Geographic https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2015/11/151113-datapoints-china-one-child-policy/

Jiang Y, Han J, Donovan C, et al. (2017). Induced Abortion among Chinese Women with Living Child-A National Study. Adv Dis Control Prev. Vol.2(1), pp. 10-15.

Xue, H. (2015). Chinese Contemporary Perspectives on International Law, p. 155

Reporters Without Borders, (2018). WORLD PRESS FREEDOM INDEX

Choe, S. (2017). Defector to South Korea Who Became a Celebrity Resurfaces in the North, The New York Times

Christie, K. & Roy, D. (2001). The politics of human rights in East Asia (1. publ. ed.). London

Freedom House, (2018). Freedom in the World: Singapore https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2018/singapore

27th ASEAN Summit (2015). ASEAN Plan of Action Against Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children

German Institute for Human Rights, Are human rights universal?

Tobing, D. (2018). The Limits and Possibilities of the ASEAN Way: The Case of Rohingya as Humanitarian Issue in Southeast Asia, KnR Social Sciences

Tharoor, S. (1999). Are Human Rights Universal? World Policy Journal, Vol. 16 Issue 4

Le, N. (2016). Are Human Rights Universal or Culturally Relative? Peace Review, ch.28:2, pp203-211

 

International Expansion into Culturally Close Countries

– Index –

Introduction 3

Internationalization 3

Culture 3

Manifestation of culture 4

Impact of culture on an Individual’s Life 4

Impact of culture on Internationalization and consumer behavior 5

Benefits of cultural understanding 5

Examples of cultural embracement by MNC’s 6

Conclusion 6

 

Internationalizing firms tend to start their expansion into culturally close countries before expanding further.

 

Introduction

In today’s business environment, companies do business not only within the country but across the national boundaries also. Different nations have significant differences of attitude, belief, ritual, morality, truth, superstitions and the endless list of other cultural characteristics. Some of the beliefs may be important to one group of people and the same may mean nothing to another. The global markets, when their products are localized, and are planned for internationalization, support for the multiple languages without changes to the core application and the products is equipped for global use. These cultural differences deeply affect market behavior. Today’s market need to be familiar with the cultural traits of the countries they want to do business with. In the century of internationalization, the making bodies of the organization need to make decision regarding political, religion, cultural, economic factors to enter into the foreign market of the same. Now we will discuss the elements and the manifestation of culture as to how the markets are sensitive to the various cultures.

Internationalization

According to the Jane Knight, the Internationalization is the essential and important activity of international and intercultural dimensions to be seeded at the institutional level. The definition of Knight covers the methods adaptation and cultural sensitivity of market. Also the rapid growth of globalization of markets has changed economical pattern to internationalization. Thus the globalization is transforming into internationalization (Susman & Gerald, 2007). When a company takes steps to increase its clientage across the country and into international markets. They also make strategy taking place between the different countries. Thus internationalization is the process of designing and building the applications which are used to facilitate the localization as culture of the particular place or country.

Culture

Different people have varied views on culture, many consider it as something a country, region, firm or something you can see , hear or touch, some have belief in ceremonies, clothing etc.

According to Hall (1976) culture is an learned behavior which is not biologically transmitted. It depends on environment not heredity.

Hofstede (1980) states that the genetic programming of the person passes the culture from generation to generations which evolves gradually in stages.

There are multiple concepts given on culture by many as –

Pattern of behavior by which the things happen to occur in an organization is culture (Deal & Kennedy)

Culture is a learned behavior which is accepted and declared compatible and passed on to the generations through shared experiences (Schein, 1992)

(Geertz, 1973) the tenets of a culture extend to the other members of group. (Mulholland 1991) defined culture as total pattern of behavior by way of belief, ethnic, national, law, customs etc. be shared and long lasting effects be transmitted to generations.

Thus we may conclude that culture as a concept encompasses every part of a person’s life. It meets all human physical and psychological needs and is continuously evolving.

 

Impact of Culture on a person’s Life

Basically, culture is the individual’s way of life. For a group of people it includes, beliefs, values, customs, traditions, heritage, language, artistic expression, etc. which affect therin behavior.

For some, one culture and ethnicity affects their behavior which might not be same for other. (Ratner 2006)

culture as an influence of behavior takes the “nurture” side of the argument about influence of culture.

By concluding we may say that culture is individual’s secret weapon which allow us to express ourselves as individuals and at the same time as a part of the group. It allows us to learn from others and to build on the efforts of others. It is the way of which all that is wonderful in the past is carried to the future.

Manifestation of Culture

Hofstede (1980) categorized culture into different categories such as Signs, heroes, rituals and values.

Signs: – Signs refer to a mark or a word used as conventional representation of an object, function or process for those who shares same culture. It allows people to go beyond what is known or seen by creating linkages between otherwise very different concepts and experiences by different cultural groups. For example hairstyles, linguistic worlds etc.

Ideals: – Person with highly recognizable character who is admired for their courage, achievements or noble qualities whether real or not becomes ideal personalities for others.

Traditions: – Traditions are the essential set of activities consists of religious or solemnly activities which contains series of actions performed according to prescribed order. Say, greeting someone, religious ceremonies and way of paying respect.

Virtue: – It creates a origin of culture. The regard that something is held to deserve. Say, what is right or wrong, natural or unnatural, good or bad etc .

Impact of Culture on an Individual’s Life

Various cultural aspects influence the formation of an individual’s cultural value system and identity. Such elements consist social culture, regional culture and family values. Each social culture is coordinated by some specific social norms which are shared with its members which enormously influence an individual’s culture as he examines various elements of personality including beliefs, behaviors and ideas. Peer pressure, conformity, obedience, leadership, marketing and socialization be examples of societal cultural influences. According to Ratner (2006), it is the elemental nature of a human being that he achieves throughout his life by observing his surroundings and other persons and reciprocate the environment accordingly. An individual possesses the natural skills to choose and pick any form of the regional culture while rejecting some other associated ideas. For example, a person can adopt a language or religion and rituals from the region where he dwells his ideology and thinking.

Implication of Cultural Marketing

Culture totally depicts the way we live and attributes of specific group of people for example the way we speak, dress-up, attitude and our learning capacity etc. So, An organization do attain knowledge about every aspects of their culture before getting into trade with them so that the product can be adequately promoted and succeed between the local customers and bring up to their expectation. The components need to be looked into are as follows:

Spoken or Written Language:

A spoken language is produced by articulate sounds, as opposed to written language which states that there are different meaning of same words in various cultures. For example, English language spoken in England is different from the English language being spoken in Rest of the world. The intermediators need to learn the language of the country they are dealing with otherwise there may be miscommunication of dialogue resultant to failure of the product or service being rendered, even for the same purpose the intermediators can hire the translators which tend to increase the expenses of the organization and also the dependency on them. (Griffin and Pustay, n.d.)

Non verbal communication includes Kinesics, Facial expressions, Pitch of voice, Proxemics but a body gesture can be explained differently by the individuals of various cultures. For example according to Eckman, Eye contact is the major source of non verbal communication in which the duration of the same is the most meaningful aspect. The length of the gaze, the frequency of glances, patterns of flixation and blink rates are all importance cues because as the liking increases, the mutual gazing is increased. (Ekman, 1969).

Third most debatable concept of culture do have a major impact on international marketing. The faith community to which a consumer belongs controls their choices and influence their buying decision. For example, During yulin dog meat festival, an ancient tradition started in 1700 BC, dog being china’s one of 12 zodiac sign given esteemed importance whereas treated as a pet in other countries. (Koetse, M. 2016).

 

CULTURAL UNDERSTANDING – being a boon.

 In the 21ST century of internationalization, cultural aspect being focused aspect of marketing strategies of different organization influence its opportunities and decisions and provide a background for various stakeholders so various cultures need to be understood for the business growth (Adler, 2002).

As said by Drnevich & paul’s (2004) synergic avenue, A favorable agreement is the one which can be designed without complexities and with cultural insight so that it can be clearly communicated with cross cultural differences. A clear view about the prevailing culture eradicates the problems of misinterpretation and protects us from negative impact on business. (Danciu, 2009).

 

Examples of embracement of cultural Diversities among different countries by MNCs:

In countries like China, many brands faced many problems from which “COKA-COLA” brand name faced pronunciation issues as it is pronounced like ‘KOOKE-KOULE’ which refers ‘A mouthful of wax candle’ so they have to give it new pronunciation ‘KEE KOU KEELE’ which means ‘joyful happiness and taste’ (Sro.sussex.ac.uk, 2019). A Automobile company named “General Motors” faced the same issue in spain with their brand name ‘NOVA’ which states ‘Do not go’ then it was converted into ‘Caribe’ which means ‘Took off’ (Ricks, D.A., 1999).

Conclusion

According to the above concept, a conclusion can be made that culture do have an influencing impact on internationalization of the firm. Cultural potentialities have made market expansion a critical phenomenon in today’s boundaries less global economy. Countries with similar culture and consumer’s perspective towards new products are more business oriented as it is easier to build relationship with international market. So, A globalized firm need to focus on the culture of the respective country in which they are trying to generate profitability from their established unit.

 

References

Adler, N. J. 2002. International dimensions of organizational behavior. Cincinnati: South Western/Thomson. 4th edition.

Danciu and Victor. 2009. Marketing international. Provocari si tendinte la inceputul secolului XXI, editia a II-a, Editura economica, Bucuresti

Herbig, P.A., 1999. Handbook of cross-cultural marketing, Mumbai: Jaico Pub.

Drnevich and Paul. 2004, The Role of the Cultural Distance in International Negotiations, Purdue CIOER Working Papers, Krammert Graduate School of Management, West Littlefield.

Griffin, R. and Pustay, M. (n.d.). International business. 7th ed. pearson, pp.140 to 147.

HALL. 1976. Beyond Culture. New York: Anchor Books/Doubleday.

HOFSTEDE. 1980. Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-related Values.London: Sage Publications.

Knight, J. 2003. Updating the Definition of Internationalization. InternationalHigher Education.

MULHOLLAND. 1991. The Language of Negotiation. London: Routledge.

Ohmae. 2005. The next global stage: The challenges and opportunities in our borderless world. Wharton School Publishing.

Ratner, C. 2006.Cultural psychology: a perspective on psychological functioning and social reform. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Ricks, D.A., 1999. Blunders in international business, Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Sro.sussex.ac.uk. (2019). [online] Available at: http://sro.sussex.ac.uk/124/1/Coca_Cola.pdf [Accessed 15 Feb. 2019].

Susman, Gerald I. 2007. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises and the Global Economy. Edward Elgar Publishing. pg. 281.

Koetse, M. (2016, June 26). Tradition or Abuse? Chinese Views on the Yulin Dog Meat Festival. Retrieved February 18, 2019, from https://www.whatsonweibo.com/tradition-abuse-chinese-views-yulin-dog-meat-festival/

Proposal for Effective Early Childhood Programs for Children with Culturally Diverse Backgrounds

Proposal for effective early childhood programs for children with culturally diverse backgrounds.

For years, researchers from various fields of study have examined early childhood

education programs in an attempt to match necessary academic and behavioral skills required to experience success in the preschool classroom (Alexander, 2015). These key components are the basis of major movements and key reforms for early childhood education (i.e., Early Head Start, Head Start, Universal Preschool) because they have been shown to have a significant impact in predicting children’s future success in their academic, professional, and personal lives (Cunha & Heckman, 2010). But what about including diversity into the curriculum of early childhood programs? While doing some research in the county that I reside in, I could not find any programs that provides cultural diversity into the curriculums of early childhood programs. A good curriculum and school should provide children with not only foundational academic skills on which they can continue to build, but a sense of belonging within their learning environment. I believe that creating culturally diverse programs into the curriculums will not only help children develop cognitive and social skills but also give them a positive attitude toward learning, hard work, and school.

State-level prospective

Florida adopted the Florida Early Learning and Developmental Standards in Fall 2017. The standards and benchmarks reflect the knowledge and skills that a child on a developmental progression should know and be able to do at the end of an age-related timeframe. The Office of Early Learning (OEL) submitted the Florida Early Learning and Developmental Standards – Birth to Kindergarten (2017) for use in the School Readiness (SR) Program and the Florida Early Learning and Developmental Standards – 4 Years Old to Kindergarten for use in the Voluntary Prekindergarten (VPK) Education Program to the State Board of Education for approval in November 2017. The standards and benchmarks can assist teachers in planning instruction and discussing expectations and growth with a child’s family. However, the disadvantage to this is it creates a cookie cutter curriculum that applies to all children and does not provide an individual plan that is tailored to a child’s cultural background. In Florida the standards for 4-Year-Olds to Kindergarten are grouped into eight domains of early learning and development requirements. They are:

Physical Development

Approaches to Learning

Social and Emotional Development IV. Language and Literacy

Mathematical Thinking

Scientific Inquiry VII. Social Studies

Creative Expression Through the Arts

By examining one early childhood daycare facility, there curriculum was designed to prepare children for early literacy and to enhance the age-appropriate progress. By following this curriculum, children are expected to meet the performance standards that prepares them to be ready for kindergarten based on the statewide kindergarten screening. The curriculum addresses the areas for school readiness that involves: 

Gross Motor Development

Pre-Scissor and Cutting

Development

Marker/Crayon and Easel Painting

Sensorimotor and Dramatic Play

Structured Construction Play

Patterning Development

Writing Development

Math, Science, Health, and Safety

Concepts in Cooking

However, there is nothing in between that is created to address diversity within the classroom.

Reflective Commentary

A curriculum can be used in a variety of ways to help strengthen a child’s learning environment; the first of which being to help parents, caregivers and teachers create intentional and appropriate experiences for young children based on each child’s developmental accomplishments. The second way that the curriculum can be used is for helping teachers understand what young children may be able to do, while providing appropriate and inappropriate expectations. The curriculum and the programs it adopt can also be a useful tool for enhancing the experiences of children with special needs based on the understanding that all children develop at a different rate and/or sequence and have diverse backgrounds. The curriculum should create a common language for parents to understand and teachers to ensure an enriching set of early experiences based on nurturing relationships, feeling of belongingness and active exploration. It is important for all educators to have an understanding of cognitive learning theories, and their students. An early childhood teacher who has a basic understanding of human development in general and child development in particular (Gauvain & Perez, 2015) is more likely to prepare, plan, and develop activities that are developmentally appropriate and best fit children’s learning needs. This strengthens and provides the teacher the knowledge of correct expectation for a child and the child’s family.

References

Alexander, C. P. (2015). The impact of a nonpublic school’s early childhood development program on readiness achievement (Doctoral Dissertation). Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1651611960?accountid=13946 (Order No. 1651611960).

Cunha, F., & Heckman, J. J. (2010). Investing in our young people (Working Paper No. 16201). Retrieved from National Bureau of Economic Research website: http://www.nber.org/papers/w16201.pdf

Gauvain, M., & Perez, S. M. (2015). Cognitive development in cultural context. In R. M. Lerner, L. Liben, & U. Müller (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology and developmental science, Vol. 2: Cognitive processes (pp. 854–896). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley

GreatSchools Staff (2015). Why are Standards important, Retrieved from https://www.greatschools.org/gk/author/greatschoolsstaff.

Rulemaking Authority 402.305,402.310 FS. Law Implemented 402.305, 402.310 FS. History–New 5-1-08, Amended 1-13-10, 8-1-13.

The Office of Early Learning. (2017). Florida Early Learning and Developmental Standards. Retrieved from http://flbt5.floridaearlylearning.com.

 

Holistic and Culturally Competent Care

According to World Health Organization, “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.” Holistic health care is not only concerned with the absence of disease, but with a positive state of well-being. Working in culturally diverse environment and providing quality care is challenges because body, mind, and spirit are associated and interrelated. Therefore, suffering physically illness is more likely suffering emotionally and spiritually too that are influenced by different cultural background like culture, ethnic group, race, age, gender etc. The focus of health care has expanded to multiple dimension of person and their contribution to client health or disease. High quality care should always focus on holistic approach and required culturally competent care. In nursing, also, providing care in holistic approach, culturally competent care is very essential nowadays that are affected by client’s and nurses’ cultural values, beliefs, and behavior. So, nurse need to become aware when assessing and providing care to different cultural background client that practices should integrated with respect of the client cultural belief and related to health care. (Blais & Hayes, 2016)
Latino or Hispanic in America
Latino and Hispanic population is one of the fastest growing population in the United State of America. Latino denotes to a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race. Nearly 17 % of population are Latinos or Hispanics in America and that is estimated to increase 30% by 2050 (Census Bureau Report, 2016). They have various ethnic group that comprises many different cultures, races, and nationalities. Hispanic population are highly increasing in the largest number in Texas since July 1, 2014 (250,495). California had the largest Hispanic population of any state (15.2 million) in 2015.New Mexico had the highest percentage of Hispanics at 48 percentage (Census Bureau Report, 2016). Latino populations are progressively combined into suburban and rural communities all over America. About 23 percent of Latinos in the United States live in poverty (Juckett, 2013). Healthcare providers are facing challenges in both hospital and community to provide quality care for these people due to language barrier, people with no insurance, different cultural value and beliefs on disease condition and management, illegal immigration status, mistrust, and illiteracy. So, it is very important for health care provides including nurses to know and study about Latino and Hispanic culture to provide quality care and maintain safety for theses patient.
Latino or Hispanic Culture
Family is an essential part of Hispanic culture and primary source of support. They usually have extended family including parent, grandparent, uncles, aunts and cousins. The eldest member of the family has main authority. Gender role are traditional here: male role made decision, female role hold family together and passing tradition and culture to next generation and children are taught to avoid confrontation and to be obedient to their senior. Spanish is primary language of Hispanic society, sense of personal space is close and consider less than arm length where modesty and privacy are important. Relationship between people is more important than time as well as present is more important than future. Taboo or offensive occur when directly expressed negative attitude. Direct eye contact may be not acceptable while talking to authority member within the family. Silence during the conversation mean either failure to understand or embarrassment about asking question or disagree. Religion wise, most Hispanics in the United States belong to the Roman Catholic who attend church regularly, pray to God, Jesus, the Virgin Mary, and saints. They also observe baptisms and confirmations and celebrate religious holidays, including Christmas, Easter. In holy days, some Latinos maintain home memorials and visit shrines throughout Mexico or Latin America when possible. Compare to other culture, Latino accept death and dying more naturally. Religion, faith and spirituality play a significant role in the acceptance of death.
Health Values, Beliefs and Practice
Supernatural powers are also thought to reason for disease. An example of this is “Mal de Ojo” or the evil eye. With diseases caused by supernatural forces, non-supernatural treatments are not supposed to be helpful where repeatedly find poor compliance with nontraditional treatment. Traditional Latinos believe in protective and promotive health by balancing hot and cold foods, such as treating a cold with hot food. Most of the time meal contain rice, bean, tortilla and bread. Even though including is healthy ingredients, adaptation of diet pattern of Latinos or Hispanic in America tends to be low in fruits and vegetables and high in flour tortillas, white rice, and processed foods. In pregnancy and childbirth, husband is not allowed to see his wife and new born baby until delivery is completed. Attending delivery is part of female role, generally mother attend them in labor. Hispanic Americans report fewer pain conditions compared with non-Hispanic white or black Americans, might these gaps be due to variances in pain processing, pain-coping strategies, cultural factors or a combination of these factors. Cultural Affected Common Health Issues and Practices
Both cultural and economic factors affect the access of Hispanic American to health care in the United States. Hot and cold illness in traditional medicine. Herbal therapies play a major role in Latino folk medicine

Adjustment reaction, obesity, hypertension and diabetes mellitus are common health problem in Hispanic people (Juckett, 2013)
Many Latino immigrants experience tremendous stress once they are in the United States. Emotional distress often presents with headache (Juckett, 2013).
Even though including is healthy ingredients, adaptation of diet pattern of Latinos or Hispanic tends to be low in fruits and vegetables and high in flour tortillas, white rice, and processed foods (Juckett, 2013).
Compare to other cultural people, Hispanic complain fewer pain, gaps due to variances in pain processing, pain-coping strategies, cultural factors or a combination of these factors and seeking alternative methods include traditional and nontraditional: traditional like hot team herb and massage; nontraditional like brought out dated or off label pain medicine from outside the Unites State. (Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis School of Science, 2016)
Female play supportive role throughout the pregnancy, child birth and child rearing
The elder group, those who are terminally, getting hospice care and end of life support are significantly lower that included lack of knowledge about Hospice programs, the use of Hospice services would denote “giving up hope and faith” in the life of the dying patient. (Miller, & Pinzón, 2013)
Getting lower access of care treatment due to low education level and Spanish is primary language, lack of insurance, and distrust in the provider or health care system.
Prayer and ritual may be a part of the end-of-life process for your patient and the family members. Some families may want to honor their deceased relative by cleansing the body. Autopsies and organ donations are usually resisted, especially by Catholics, but also by others. (Miller, & Pinzón, 2013)

Nurses Responsibilities While Providing Care to Hispanic patient
Nurses responsibility not only aware of cultural difference but also to integrated and respect the client culture when providing care, the nurse should know, in advance, the services that are available through the clinical facility and assist with obtaining the needed interpreter (Blais & Hayes). It is important to explore the use of alternative therapies and belief in traditional folk illnesses, recognizing that health beliefs are dependent on education, socioeconomic status, and degree of cultural changes. (Juckett, 2013). Family involvement is very important and maintain modesty, respect and privacy while providing care; older patients should be addressed as señor or señora instead of their first names (Juckett, 2013). Health issues or problem should not be talk directly with family member but, can be discussed with interpreter. Explore health related issues in different way instead of asking direct question. Hispanic culture people do not prefer direct question. If family member is involving in care of patient, discuses important issues and problems to family first then gradually disclose to patient. Cultural values are important in the process of educating families about advance care planning. (Miller, & Pinzón, 2013) The family-centered model of decision making is highly valued and may be more important than patient itself. When involving family members in the care of their loved one, ask about preferences for their involvement. Provide the necessary education to prepare the family members for any technical care they may need to give. Nurses also need to be educated on how to begin the process of advance care planning with Hispanic / Latino families in a culturally respectful and sensitive way.
Conclusion
Nowadays, transcultural nursing care is key component in Health care where nurse should provide culturally competent care maintain quality of care. Latino and Hispanic population is one of the fastest growing population in the United State of America. Many researches reflect that Hispanic people not getting adequate and significant care where they supposed to due to various reasons: different value and beliefs on disease condition and management, language barrier, illiteracy, illegal immigration status and mistrust, healthcare provider facing changes. Healthcare provider including nurse should aware about cultural difference and understand others’ values and beliefs along with integrated and correlated this to health and health care with respect.
References

Blais, K. & Hayes, J. (2016). Professional Nursing Practice Concepts and Practices (7th ed.). NJ: Pearson
Census Bureau Report, (2016). Sumter County, Fla., is Nation’s Oldest, Census Bureau Reports. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/newsroom/press-releases/2016/cb16-107.html
Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis School of Science, (2016). Psychologists explore pain in Hispanic Americans. ScienceDaily. Retrieved March 6, 2017 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/03/160315120955.htm
Juckett, G., (2013). Caring for Latino Patients. American Academy of Family Physicians. Retrieved from http://www.aafp.org/afp/2013/0101/p48.html#sec-2
Miller, S., & Pinzón, H. (2013). Nursing’s role in advance care planning for hispanic / latino individuals. Salud Uninorte, 27(1) Retrieved from https://search.proquest.com/docview/1436230082?accountid=34574