WaveSub WEC Devices Site Resource Characterisation and Assessment

Site Resource Characterisation and Assessment for Deployment of an Array of WaveSub WEC Devices.


The project is a part of the group proposal for the deployment of a 50MW array of Marine Power Systems’ WaveSub devices at one of the three sites: AMETS, Pembrokeshire Demonstration Zone and WaveHub, with consideration of the potential device power generation and relevant site wave resource. Some background knowledge on state of marine renewables industry as well as the device description and technical specification is provided for better understanding of this area. The chosen methodology for power calculations and utilization of wave roses is explained and justified, followed by demonstration and discussion of results – bivariate scatter diagrams, wave roses and omnidirectional power calculations. With other relevant factors in mind, a recommendation is given with regards to which site will be most appropriate for WaveSub array deployment in terms of available site wave resource. The overall results are made WaveSub device-specific as it incorporates assessment of sites followed by application of WaveSub power matrix.
 Note: This report contains and utilises WaveSub power matrix, which is considered sensitive information. Parts of this report cannot be viewed, referenced and shared beyond persons, who signed the Non-Disclosure Agreement with Marine Power Systems.


IPCC released a report in 2018 in which almost a hundred scientists all around the world provided the proof of irreversible changes, caused by CO2 emissions. The changes include change in weather, that can be demonstrated by the increased temperatures during winters, rising sea levels, loss of certain ecosystems and their inhabitants, and increased levels of air pollution. In order to avoid the changes, the report calls for global warming reduction to 1.5°C (above pre-industrial levels)[1]. The report links back to climate strategies and emission targets, set out in different countries as well as in European Union, which outlines numerical goals, such as Greenhouse gas emissions, electricity and heat consumptions and share of renewable energy, compared to fossil fuel production[2]. Incidentally, the global warming reduction goals are currently at 2°C in the EU climate action plan. In order to achieve the set-out goals, multiple changes are needed, including social, economic and technological. A move towards solely green sustainable energy is required over the next few decades. Examples of renewables include solar, biomass, geothermal, wind and recently growing marine renewable sectors. Marine renewable technologies have had different extent of success over the past years. Although total offshore wind capacity is expected to reach just under 30 GW in 2020[3], total installed tidal capacity doesn’t exceed 10MW and wave energy converters seem to accumulate to under 1 MW total capacity[4], both capacities measured at the start of 2018. The main issue with wave energy converters (hereafter WECs) is technology. There seems to be no technology convergence for optimal design of a WEC[5]. EMEC defines some of the main types of WECs: Attenuator e.g. Wavenet; Submerged Pressure Differential e.g. WaveSub; Bulge Wave e.g. Pelamis, Anaconda[6]. However, more than 100 devices have been presented with tens of different operating principles with no superior type identified.

Renewable wave energy technologies are still immature. Nevertheless, ocean and sea energy is endless; majority of WECs are submerged, therefore not affecting the seascape. Most WECs are based on simple physical principles and contain standard manufacturing components. The device discussed in this report is WaveSub, which operates based on pressure differential principle. A pressure differential is induced by sea waves rising and falling above the device, moving the top part, as shown in Fig. 1. The electricity is then generated by the fluid that is pumped by change in pressure[7].

WaveSub has been in in development by Marine Power Systems (hereafter MPS) since 2008.

Figure 1. Submerged Pressure Differential diagram. It illustrates the full motion that induces electricity. Credit: emec.org.uk

Project Description

This project consists of site selection and array design and assessment for deployment of a 50 MW array of WaveSub WECs on one of 3 proposed sites:

WaveHub (England, near Hayle town)[8]

Located 16km offshore from Hayle, with total area of 8km2 split equally among 4 berth and depths ranging from 51m – 57m.

Installed export capacity – 30MW upgradable to 48MW.

Pembrokeshire Demonstration Zone (Wales, near Pembroke Dock town)[9]

Located 15-21kms off the South Pembrokeshire coast, with total area of 90 km2 and depths of 50-62m.

Installed export capacity – 30 MW per connected device/array, maximum of 90 MW.

AMETS (Ireland, near Belmullet town)[10], which consists of 2 sites:

Belmullet Berth A, located  about 16km out from Belderra Strand, with total area of 6.9 km2 and average depth of 100m.

Belmullet Berth B, located about 6km out from Belderra Strand, with total area of 1.5 km2 and average depth of 50m.

Installed export capacity – 10 MW.

Device specification

The technical specification is provided by MPS via project briefing and subsequent emails.

The device consists of 3 floats (see Fig. 2).

Its physical dimensions are 120m x 35m.

The rated power of a single device is 4.5 MW.

Self-protection mechanism for conditions when significant wave heights exceed automatically lowers the device onto the bottom and ceases all WaveSub electricity generation.

Minimum water depth for the device deployment is 50m with no max depth specified.

Spacing between 2 devices is expected to be 5 reactor length all around the device, from the central point of each device as shown in Fig. 3.




Figure 2. Depiction of a WaveSub full scale device, its mooring systems and electrical connection cable. Picture is taken from MPS video presentation of the WaveSub device.

Figure 3. The illustration of the spacing between WaveSub devices; not to scale. WaveSub drawing credit: Alice Walpole, project team member.

Project management and organisation

Initial recommendations on work load separation was provided in the project briefing as follows:

Financial factors

Societal support

Legal implications

Engineering constraints

Logistical aspects

Technological development

Thus, the project team of consultants chose their topics according to their area of expertise, with some amendments of the above suggested subject areas. This report contains resource characterisation and assessment aspect of the project, as it is a vital indicator of projects financial and technological success. In the latter case, the project testing will be incomplete if the array will be tested in very mild conditions, as opposed to the conditions it is designed for. In addition, storm protection technology must be tested, which is a key feature of WaveSub compared to other WECs.

Gantt chart and meetings.

In the first couple of weeks Nathan Collins and I produced a Gantt chart (Appendix 1), which we used to visualise key milestones and subject groups. It had very limited success due to inability to estimate everyone’s workload and couldn’t quantify the duration of research and calculations for their subject. That led to abandonment of the chart and introduction of progress presentation for each group meeting. Each consultant from our group would update everyone else about their findings and progress in their respective field prior to the start of each meeting. Compulsory meetings were held weekly on Monday, from 15:00 to 18:00; additional computer cluster meetings were held on demand on Friday mornings 10:00-12:00, which mostly the Engineering/Technological/Resource Assessment consultants used to work with software.


This section will provide methodology which ensures consistency and accuracy in definition, estimation and analysis of the wave resource.

The main aim of this section is to measure and describe the wave resource available for the device in each of the 3 proposed sites (by deriving site bivariate distributions of occurrences corresponding to the sea states defined by Hs and Tz), wave direction for array orientation (by presenting wave rose diagrams) and provide the estimation for power generated on each site (by combining the bivariate distribution and WaveSub power matrix, provided by MPS ).

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The suggestion for resource characterisation methods was provided by Equimar project. Dr Daniel Conley recommended looking into deliverables documents, specifically into Deliverable D2.2: “Wave and Tidal Resource Characterisation” [11]. It provides relevant guidance on producing bivariate distribution matrices and wave roses using software. The document was taken as a basis for this research. The software used for producing the diagrams is MATLAB.

The required raw data was collected from wave buoys. The raw data required for above described analysis is as follows:

Significant Wave Height (Hs)

Mean Wave Period (Tz)

Peak Wave Direction

It should be noted, that for purpose of site assessment and comparison on fair and equal basis, year 2017 is chosen for acquiring data and calculating power. The fact that it is the previous year during the time this report is written provides reliability and sense of present data, which should represent more accurately the site resource in several years when the WaveSub array should be deployed. Such statement is made based on the comparison of 2005 historic deployment data[12] a few kilometres to the west from PDZ WaveRider buoy, when it was considered to represent current PDZ conditions. It showed to vary when compared to November 2018 PDZ WaveRider data and to the 2017 data that is used in this report for approximation of PDZ site conditions.

Power Calculations

The wave heights and mean periods can be used to calculate site’s energy flux (i.e. power). All 3 sites are described as deep water, because depths at individual points are more than half of corresponding wavelengths[13]. In deep water the wave power level is calculated:

Equation 1. Omnidirectional wave power equation for deep water.


Pw  – Wave power (omnidirectional)

ρ    – Water density

g    – Gravitational acceleration

However, instead of approximating power generation for each site, it is possible to predict the exact value of power generated by a specific device in a given time period by creating a bivariate diagram and multiplying the frequency by device power at that specific sea state, provided in WaveSub power matrix. Therefore, the equation for evaluating total power output becomes:

Equation 2. Specific omnidirectional wave power output equation for WaveSub.

Where,Pw           – Wave power (omnidirectional)

PWaveSub – Value for power from WaveSub power matrix
              – Frequency of specific sea state occurrence from site bivariate diagram (%)

i,j              – row and column numbers for a given sea state.

Wave direction

Wave direction and corresponding wave heights are represented by wave rose diagrams, which serve multiple purposes. Firstly, it can be used to calculate directional power, as some WECs conversion efficiency will depend on how unidirectional waves are. Waves coming from adjacent directions to the main one would only generate a fraction of power compared to main direction waves. However, this requires knowledge of how much WaveSub device power generation falls off depending on incoming angular waves, which was not provided. Thus, only omnidirectional power is used in calculations and resource assessment. Wave direction is fundamentally required to align the array to most incoming waves to achieve maximum power generation, thus essential for array design. Secondly, wave direction is necessary for coastal process impact assessments, which is discussed by Enno van der Linde as a part of this project.

Wave rose diagrams were available for all sites apart from PDZ, for which it was manually created.

Data quality and potential sources of error

The three types of raw data discussed earlier are obtained from wave buoys. The data quality and availability, however, is not the same for each site.





Name of the buoy


Seacams2 PDZ

Belmullet B

Belmullet A

Type of buoy





Data availability

Whole year, every 30 min. Downloaded from: www.channelcoast.org

Past 2 days, every 20 min. Downloaded from: www.cefas.co.uk

Buoy was active from 05/02/2018 until 18/11/2018.

Whole year, every 30 min, Downloaded from: oceanenergyireland.ie

Depth of the buoy (m)





Location of the buoy*




Table 1. The illustration and comparison of buoy type and buoy data available for each site.

*Pictures are available in full size in Appendix 2

Note: The location is indicative of how accurate the buoy represents the average data of the site. In all three cases the buoy is deployed at depth greater than 50m (see Table 1 above), which indicates appropriate data for evaluation of sites for WaveSub, which can’t be deployed shallower than 50 m sites.

Lack of data at PDZ and estimation methodology

The PDZ wave buoy had insufficient data for power calculations and resource assessment. This is because:

The wave buoy did not collect data for a full year and had no data for previous years.

The wave buoy did not collect any winter seasonal data, although that is the season when WECs tend to produce highest power output due to highest waves and longest wave periods.

The wave buoy data collection was ceased on 18 November 2018.

Therefore, an estimation method was required to assess suitability of the site in terms of energy resource. The wave direction from PDZ wave buoy suggested clear majority (>97%) of waves coming from southwest, as will be presented in the results section of this report. Therefore, a collection of data from buoys upstream and downstream was considered. A buoy 45 km directly downstream from PDZ wave buoy was chosen as it matched the criteria, as shown in Fig. 4. This buoy is deployed at Scarweather Wavenet site and has a whole year of data for every 30 minutes[17], identical to type of data found for WaveHub and AMETS.

Figure 4. Depiction of relative locations of PDZ WaveRider and WaveNet Scarweather buoys. Obtained from www.cefas.co.uk.

After comparison of wave heights and wave periods, an amplitude vs offset method was chosen. It is assumed that waves from PDZ buoy travel towards east continuously, losing in wave height and wave period amplitudes. So, based on average Hs and Tz for each site during 24-hour period between 16-17 November 2018 an offset for height and another offset for amplitude was added to WaveNet buoy values to simulate PDZ WaveRider. The result was visualised and assessed on credibility as Appendix 3 depicts.

The estimation, therefore, was considered appropriate and every WaveNet buoy Hs value was corrected by “+1.192” and Tz value by “+1.462” (difference between the original buoy data averages). This leaves a relatively large margin for error, as the average difference for an entire year is estimated based on 24-hour data. This is a case where data is missing and will require further observations to gain a full range of reliable data in order to improve accuracy of the site resource assessment.

Results and Discussion

Bivariate Diagrams

A set of bivariate energy diagrams created for WaveHub as an example is provided below in Fig. 5 and Fig. 6, but all individual diagrams for each site are showcased in Appendix 4 for comparison. They are histogram-type diagrams that display % occurrence of particular sea states. As an example, the WaveHub diagram illustrates that the most common sea state is Hs = 1-1.5 m and Tz = 4-5, which occurs in 9.53% out of all present waves. Darker colours indicate higher % occurrence. Wave power curves were provided to indicate the wave resource available at certain sea states. Note: power curves do not extend further than Hs=10m, as anything above is considered to be storm conditions at which WaveSub will produce no power.

Figure 5 Bivariate annual energy scatter diagram for WaveHub site. Created in MATLAB using WaveHub buoy wave data.

Figure 6 Bivariate winter seasonal energy scatter diagram for WaveHub site. Created in MATLAB using WaveHub buoy wave data.

From the comparison of Fig.5 and Fig.6 it can be inferred that winter period provides better wave resource than annual average value. Therefore, winter season diagram is often produced alongside annual diagram to demonstrate how effectively power will be generated during the best wave climate season for WECs, expressed as Capacity Factor.

In addition, a general trend can be seen from the diagrams that more power can be produced at sea states, which approach right upper corner, increasing Tz and Hs. This tendency is confirmed by wave power equation that shows that wave power is directionally proportional to Hs2 and Tz (eq. 1). Likewise, comparison of the 4 site bivariate diagrams in Appendix 4 suggests AMETS sites to have greater wave resource annually and seasonally due to higher occurrence of waves with large wave height amplitudes and longer wave periods. The bivariate scatter diagrams provide the % occurrence (
) for individual sea state cells for final power calculations.

Power Matrix

Power matrix is sensitive information provided by MPS under individually signed Non-Disclosure Agreement (NDA) terms of every member of this project. It represents instantaneous power that one WaveSub device can generate at a certain sea state.

Figure 7. WaveSub Power Matrix, provided by MPS. Number in each cell is power (in kW) that the device can produce at that sea state.

It can be suggested why bivariate diagrams alone can’t be used to represent available wave resource for a WEC device: the earlier diagrams indicated just the trend of increase in power with increase in Hs and Tz, whereas the power matrix (Fig.7) indicates that power eventually falls off with long wave periods. In addition, the survivability mechanism means that the power during Hs above 10m will not be produced as also seen in the matrix above. This table provides
values for Eq.2 calculations. In addition, the matrix defines device rated power as 4.5 MW.

Final Power calculation

With all variables in Eq.2 defined, it can be used for final power calculations, which will rank the sites from lowest wave resource to highest.





Pw for one WaveSub device would be deployed at the site in 2017 – annual (MW)





Pw for one WaveSub device would be deployed at the site in 2017- Winter seasonal (MW)





Capacity Factor – annual (Pw/Prated)





Capacity Factor – Winter seasonal (Pw/Prated)





Total annual power would be generated in 2017 (GWh)





Table 2. WaveSub device power calculations.

The results from the Table 2 are mostly representative of the site resource bivariate diagram trend. AMETS had the highest resource, whilst WaveHub showed the least potential. Similarly, if WaveSub would be deployed in AMETS A it would generate double electricity of the number if it would be deployed at WaveHub. The annual power generation gives a clear indication of the site ranking:





Likewise, the Capacity Factor is the highest for AMETS A, indicating high efficiency of the device converting energy on the site. Usually due to calm sea conditions during Summer period, Winter seasonal Capacity Factor is taken to represent the device. Taking in comparison a similar, 5.9MW capacity device (but with a different electricity generation principle), Wave Dragon can work at 0.43 of its full capacity [i.e. Capacity Factor = 0.43]. On the other hand, a technology which resembles WaveSub principles closer – Platoon Power Converter(PPC), operating as a point absorber, can only achieve 0.095 Capacity Factor. PPC has capacity of just above 3.6 MW[18]. Therefore, all sites considered in this report provide a considerable Capacity Factor for the device, with AMETS A showing outstanding value of 0.71 for Capacity Factor.

The power calculations above provide omnidirectional power output for the device, whereas the direction of the waves and the spread of directions will affect the true value for power output.

Wave rose diagrams

As discussed in methodology, these diagrams provide visualisation of wave climate at each site and how close to unidirectional waves are. All diagrams are available in full size in Appendix 5.

                            WaveHub                     PDZ

                           AMETS B                              AMETS A

Figure 8. Wave Rose diagrams for each site. The length of each cone represents the occurrence of that wave direction, compared to other wave directions present on the spectrum. References are provided in Appendix 5.

From the wave rose diagrams (Fig. 8) it can be suggested that depending on WaveSub sensitivity to different wave directions, AMETS sites power output will be affected the most by the spread in wave directions. Similar scenario will be applicable to WaveHub to some extent. Conversely, PDZ omnidirectional power should be almost identical with the true power output due to virtually no spread in incoming wave directions.

Conclusions and further recommendations

Relevant information from project team members

AMETS B can currently fit only 2 devices due to area restrictions

AMETS A and B can currently fit only 2 devices due to extraction capacity limitation to 10 MW cable.


Omnidirectional annual power output indicates an advantage of deploying a WaveSub device at AMETS sites, with preference for AMETS A. Winter season Capacity Factors are outstanding for AMETS but comparison to other devices suggests that WaveHub and PDZ Capacity Factors can be considered to be average or even above average for WECs. Due to immaturity of wave renewable energy industry it is difficult to assess Capacity Factors, as there is no same principle commercial device similar to WaveSub that can be used to draw a comparison between devices. Furthermore, it is difficult to assess the impact of wave direction spread on true power generated, so these results and conclusions rely heavily on omnidirectional power. From wave resource perspective, AMETS shows the best results. However, considering an array of 10-11 devices will be required to achieve around 50 MW of power total, it is currently impossible to use AMETS to achieve 50 MW. Therefore, only PDZ and WaveHub are currently viable if no changes will be made to electrical infrastructure for both AMETS sites and site expansion for AMETS B.


Therefore, recommendations, based on the results of site resource assessment and assessment of other factors by other consultants on this project, are presented below:

Currently with the given site and electrical infrastructure conditions, PDZ and WaveHub are the only options.

Due to multiple approximations for PDZ site and very similar winter capacity factor, WaveHub would be the recommended site.

If annual wave data for PDZ site will be acquired from SeaCams2 WaveRider buoy or otherwise, both sites will need to be compared for wave resource again to make a choice between the two sites.

If electrical infrastructure will be upgraded in AMETS from 10 MW to 50MW+, AMETS A will be the preferred choice for WaveSub array deployment in terms of wave resource. 

Further work

Acquire wave data for PDZ site.

It is recommended to undertake assessment of how wave directional spread affects power generated by the WaveSub device.

Effect of this report on the group report and group presentation

Array design and coastal processes impact assessment will be based on some results of this report.


Appendix 1

Gantt Chart, developed By Nathan Collins and Philipp Shitarev. Its purpose is tracking everyone’s progress with regards to each project team member.

Appendix 2

Location of wave buoys with regards to site perimeters. It illustrates how accurate wave buoy data represents site average data.

WaveHub buoy

PDZ buoy

AMETS buoys

Appendix 3

Hs and Tz comparison between PDZ and Wavenet scaled buoys. There is little difference observed between the amplitudes in both estimations.

Appendix 4

Site specific bivariate annual and winter diagrams, produced in MATLAB and used for power calculations.




Appendix 5

 Wave Rose diagrams for each site. For AMETS and WaveHub the rose diagrams were downloaded from relevant reports, whereas PDZ was drawn using wave direction data gathered by Scarweather WaveNet buoy.

Downloaded from www.channelcoast.org.

Produced in Excel using Scarweather WaveNet directional data.

Both wave rose diagrams are taken from oceanenergyireland.ie

Literary Devices Found Within the Play Hamlet by William Shakespeare

A literary device is a technique an author may uses in order to express a particular message without explicitly stating what is meant. Literary device can also add to the meaning and embellish the text which makes it more interesting for the readers. Literary devices are used in order to add depth to the writing and to create more interest. Extensive examples of literary devices can be found within Shakespeare plays. Some example of literary devices includes soliloquies and irony. Both of these literary devices are heavily used throughout the play Hamlet. In Shakespeare’s Hamlet, the use of literary devices such as soliloquies and irony, develop the idea of revenge throughout the play and allow the reader to have a better understanding of the emotions and thoughts of the characters.

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Irony is a contradiction or incongruity between, appearance, expectation and reality. Irony can also be considered a rhetorical device that conveys a message that is clear to the audience but unknown to the character. Several types of irony exist, including situational, verbal and dramatic irony. Situational Irony can be defined as irony involving a situation in which actions have an effect that is opposite from what was intended. Verbal irony is when one thing is said but it is actually supposed to signify another and, dramatic irony is irony that is inherent in speeches or a situation of drama. All of these types of irony can be found within the play Hamlet. Shakespeare effectively uses all of these types of irony throughout the play in order to develop the idea of revenge throughout the play and allow the reader to have a better understanding of the emotions and thoughts of the characters.

Situational irony occurs many times the play. During Act V Scene II, Hamlet hits Laertes with a sword first and he dies because of the poison since their swords were unknowingly switched. It would be expected that would hurt Hamlet first since he is a better-skilled swordsman. However, Laertes dies due to being poisoned first because the sword that was intended to kill Hamlet was used on him. Dramatic irony also occurs many times throughout the play. It is the form of irony which is the most prominent. In Act III Scene IV, Hamlet is the only one who can see and hear the Ghost when it appears in Gertrude’s bedroom.

“HAMLET/How is it with you, lady?/QUEEN GERTRUDE/Alas, how is’t with you,/That you do bend your eye on vacancy/And with the incorporal air do hold discourse?/Forth at your eyes your spirits wildly peep,/And, as the sleeping soldiers in the alarm,/Your bedded hair, like life in excrements,/Starts up, and stands on end. O gentle son,/Upon the heat and flame of thy distemper/Sprinkle cool patience! Whereon do you look?”(3.4.132-141)

This passage displays dramatic Irony since Hamlet is the only one who can see and hear the Ghost. The other characters in the play are not aware of this Ghost but the audience does know about it. Earlier in the play, the castle guards and Horatio could see the Ghost as well but, Hamlet is the only one who has ever spoken to it. The Ghost may choose to appear only to Hamlet. Hamlet’s the only one who can see the Ghost here because it’s a figment of his imagination, which would mean that Hamlet has broken down and has lost his mind.

In Act I Scene II of the play Hamlet, the character Hamlet says “A little more than kin, and less than kind.”(1.2.50) This is an example of verbal Irony. Hamlet is expressing that he is now more than just a nephew to Claudius, he considers himself his son. However, hamlet also expresses the fact that they are not morally the same. In Shakespeare’s Hamlet, the use of literary devices such as soliloquies allow the reader to have a better understanding of the emotions and thoughts of the characters.

A soliloquy is a long, often repetitive passage spoken by a single character. It is a literary device used in dramas and plays in order to reveal the innermost thoughts, feelings and emotions of a character. Commonly seen in the play Hamlet the soliloquies allow for, the character of Hamlet to reveal his thoughts and feelings. Often, during Hamlet’s soliloquies, he reflects on the significance of his life, of his desire for revenge and, his plans to kill Claudius. Shakespeare’s soliloquies give the audience, the opportunity to better understand the character’s thought process. Here it is explained in the book Language of Drama written by Keith Sanger, the significance of soliloquies.“This unique dramatic device allows the character to detail their innermost thoughts, revealing more than could be gathered from the action of the play alone. It’s as if we are eavesdropping on them talking to themselves; they might be making some kind of statement or engaging in an internal debate.”(Sanger, 44) This demonstrates the importance of soliloquies within the play Hamlet. In the play, Hamlet attempts to kill Claudius twice, once with a poisoned rapier and once with a poisoned drink. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are inseparable. “Hamlet arranges for the players to perform something like the murder of his father and then delivers his own soliloquy in which he formulates the plan as if for the first time. Even the enveloping action is characterized by repetition.”(Maguire, 81) Here Laurie McGuire explains in her book Textual Cultures: Text, Contexts, the importance or repetitiveness within soliloquies and how they effectively allow the characters to explain their emotion and thoughts, she even gives a situational example. The first soliloquy found within the play shows Hamlet’s deep affection with his beloved father. It also puts a light on the character of the king who had died, it explains he was a loving husband and respected father. (act 1, scene 2)

“…But two months dead! — nay, not so much, not two:/So excellent a king; that was, to this,/Hyperion to a satyr; so loving to my mother,/That he might not beteem the winds of heaven/Visit her face too roughly. Heaven and earth!/Must I remember? Why, she would hang on him/As if increase of appetite had grown/By what it fed on: and yet, within a month..“(1.2.123-128)

After hearing or reading this soliloquy the audience will truly be able to understand Hamlet’s emotions and thoughts. In Shakespeare’s Hamlet, the use of literary devices such as soliloquies and irony, develop the idea of revenge throughout the play and allow the reader to have a better understanding of the emotions and thoughts of the characters.

Throughout the play Hamlet by Shakespeare, there are a variety of literary devices use. Irony and soliloquies are some of the literary devices which are used in particular. Irony is used numerous times in order to give the reader insight on what is going on. This allows for incite to what can happen in the future or what has happened in the past. The irony in this play ultimately revolves around Hamlet and his plan to achieve revenge with Claudius. In the play Hamlet by Shakespeare the use of literary devices such as soliloquy and Irony, develop the idea of revenge throughout the play and allow the reader to have a better understanding of the emotions and thoughts of the characters.


Sanger, Keith. “Unit Four: The Shakespearean Protagonist.” Language of Drama, Taylor & Francis Ltd / Books, 2000, pp. 43–52. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=lkh&AN=16881777&site=lrc-plus.

Maguire, Laurie. “W. W. Greg as Literary Critic.” Textual Cultures: Text, Contexts, Interpretation, vol. 4, no. 2, Sept. 2009, pp. 76–87. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=lkh&AN=47436167&site=lrc-plus.


Magnetic storage devices

Magnetic storage and magnetic recording are the term that refer to the storage of data on a magnetized medium. Magnetic storage uses different patterns of magnetization in a magnetizable material to store data and is a form of the non volatile memory. Using one or more read/write heads the information is accessed . Magnetic storage stores data by magnetizing microscopic particles on the surface of the device, whether it’s a disk or it is a magnetic tape. There are several typesof magnetic storage devices such as: Hard Disks, Floppy Disks, and Tapes. They can use Random Access or Sequential Access memory. Some magnetic storage devices can be moved from computer to computer and some can’t. Some of them can be easily broken, and some are not, but most are sealed with a protective case.
Magnetic storage media and devices store data in the form of tiny magnetised dots. These dots are created, read and erased using magnetic fields created by very tiny electromagnets.
In the case of magnetic tape the dots are arranged along the length of a long plastic strip which has been coated with a magnetisable layer (audio and video tapes use a similar technology).
In the case of magnetic discs (e.g. floppy disc or hard-drive), the dots are arranged in circles on the surface of a plastic, metal or glass disc that has a magnetisable coating.
Oberlin Smith was the first one to publicize magnetic storage in the form of audio recording on a wire in 1888. He filed a patent in September, 1878 but did not pursue the idea as his business was machine tools. The first publicly demonstrated magnetic recorder was invented by Valdemar Poulsen in 1898. Poulsen’s device recorded a signal on a wire wrapped around a drum. In 1928, Fritz Pfleumer developed the first magnetic tape recorder. Early magnetic storage devices were designed to record analog audio signals. Computer and now most audio and video magnetic storage devices record digital data.
Magnetic storage was also used for primary storage in a form of magnetic drum, or core memory, core rope memory, thin film memory, twistor memory or bubble memory at old times. Unlike modern computers, magnetic tape was also often used for secondary storage.
Magnetic recording classes
Analog recording
Analog recording is based on the fact that remnant magnetization of a given material depends on the magnitude of the applied field. The magnetic material is normally in the form of tape, with the tape in its blank form being initially demagnetized. When recording, the tape runs at a constant speed. The writing head magnetizes the tape with current proportional to the signal. A magnetization distribution is achieved along the magnetic tape. Finally, the distribution of the magnetization can be read out, reproducing the original signal. The magnetic tape is typically made by embedding magnetic particles in a plastic binder on polyester film tape. The commonly used magnetic particles are Iron oxide particles or Chromium oxide and metal particles with size of 0.5 micrometers. Analog recording was very popular in audio and video recording. In the past 20 years, however, tape recording has been gradually replaced by digital recording.

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Digital recording
Instead of creating a magnetization distribution in analog recording, digital recording only need two stable magnetic states, which are the +Ms and -Ms on the hysteresis loop. Examples of digital recording are floppy disks and HDDs. Since digital recording is the main process nowadays and probably in the coming future, the details of magnetic recording will be discussed in the rest of the project using the HDD as an example.
Magneto-optical recording
Magneto-optical recording writes/reads optically. When writing, the magnetic medium is heated locally by a laser, which induces a rapid decrease of coercive field. Then, a small magnetic field can be used to switch the magnetization. The reading process is based on magneto-optical Kerr effect. The magnetic medium are typically amorphous R-Fe Co thin film (R being a rare earth element). Magneto-optical recording is not very popular. One famous example is Minidisc developed by Sony.
Domain propagation memory
Domain propagation memory is also called bubble memory. The basic idea is to control domain wall motion in a magnetic medium that free of microstructure. Bubble refers to stable cylindrical domain. The information is then recorded by the presence/absence of bubble domain. Domain propagation memory has high insensitivity to shock and vibration, so its application are usually in space and aeronautics.
Magnetic Storage Devices:
The read/write capability of computer disk drives requires the relative motion of a magnetic media and a read/write magnetic head. Physical contact between the media and the head occurs during loading and unloading cycles. Tailoring the mechanical properties of the media and the head has become critical in order to minimize damage and loss of data. This application note is focused on the mechanical properties of the head slider. The tested head sliders are composed of an Al2O3-TiC composite with a thin 10 -20nm diamond-like-carbon protective overcoat. As shown in Figure 3, the slider surface is composed of two phases, Al2O3 and TiC. The Hysitron Tribo Scope was the first instrument to report hardness differences for two material phases used in head sliders. The TriboScope is a quantitative depth sensing nanoindenter that can be interfaced with a scanning probe microscope to provide
This imaging capability distinguishes between phases in a composite material, making it possible to select the phase in which the indentation is to be performed. Once theindentation is performed, the surface is imaged a second timeto characterize the indent. The applied force and the penetration depth of the indenter into the surface are measured simultaneously.
The lighter regions in theimage correspond to the TiC phase while the darker regions can be attributed to the Al2O3 phase. The insets in Figure 1 show the indentations made in each phase. Both indentations were performed at the same peak applied force of 50µN.
Types of magnetic storage devices
There are basically two type of storage devices

Removable storage devices
Fixed storage devices

Fixed storage devices
Fixed hard drive
A hard-drive built into the case of a computer is known as ‘fixed’. Almost every computer has a fixed hard-drive.
Fixed hard-drives act as the main backing storage device for almost all computers since they provide almost instant access to files (random access and high access speeds).
Removal magnetic storage devices
Portable Hard Drive
A portable hard-drive is one that is placed into a small case along with some electronics that allow the hard-drive to be accessed using a USB or similar connection.
Portable hard-drives allow very large amounts of data to be transported from computer to computer.
Many portable music players (such as the iPod classic) contain tiny hard-drives. These miniature devices are just not much bigger than a stamp, but can still store over 100MB of data!
Magnetic Tape
Magnetic tape is a large capacity, serial access medium. Because it is a serial access medium, accessing individual files on a tape is slow.
Tapes are used where large amounts of data need to be stored, but where quick access to individual files is not required. A typical use is for data back-up (lots of data, but rarely only accessed in an emergency)
Tapes are also used and in some batch-processing applications (e.g. to hold the list of data that will be processed).
Floppy Disc
A removable, portable, cheap, low-capacity (1.44MB) storage medium. Floppy discs are random access devices used for transfer small amounts of data between computers, or to back-up small files, etc. Access times are slow.
Almost every PC used to have a floppy disc drive. These are obsolete now, having been replaced by higher capacity technology such as CD-ROMs, DVDs and USB memory sticks.
Zip Disc
A removable and portable storage medium, similar in appearance to a floppy disk, but with a much higher capacity (100MB, 250MB or 750MB).
Zip discs are random access devices which were used for data back-up or moving large files between computers.
Another obsolete storage device, zip discs were a popular replacement for floppy discs for a few years, but they never caught on fully before being superseded by cheaper media like CD-ROMs and CD-Rs
Jaz Disc
A removable and portable storage medium based on hard-drive technology, with a large capacity (1GB or 2GB).
Jaz discs are random access devices which were used for data back-up or moving large files between computers.
Discs were expensive to buy and not very reliable.
Like the Zip disc, this system never really caught on and was superseded by far cheaper and more reliable and cheaper technology.
The Zip system is based loosely on Iomega’s earlier Bernoulli Box system; in both systems, a set of read/write heads mounted on a linear actuator flies over a rapidly spinning floppy disk mounted in a sturdy cartridge. The linear actuator uses the voice coil actuation technology, related to modern hard drives. The Zip disk uses smaller media (about the size of a 9 cm (3½”) microfloppy, rather than the Compact Disc-sized Bernoulli media), and a simplified drive design that reduced its overall cost.
This resulted in a disk that has all of the 9 cm (3½”) floppy’s convenience, but holds much more data, with performance that is much quicker than a standard floppy drive .The original Zip drive had a data transfer rate of about 1 megabyte/second and a seek time of 28 milliseconds on average, compared to a standard 1.44MB floppy’s 500kbit/s (62.5KB/s) transfer rate and several-hundred millisecond average seek time. Today’s average 7200RPM desktop hard drives have average seek times of around 8.5-9ms.
Early generation Zip drives were in direct competition with the Super Disk or LS-120 drives, which held 20% more data and could also read standard 3½” 1.44MB diskettes, but they had a lower data transfer rate due to lower rotational speed. The rivalry was over before the dawn of the USB era.
Higher capacity Zip disks must be used in a drive with at least the same capacity ability. Generally, higher capacity drives also handle lower capacity media. However, the 250MB drive writes much more slowly to 100MB disks than does the 100MB drive, and it’s unable to perform a long (i.e., thorough) format on a 100MB disk. The 750MB drive cannot write to 100MB disks at all, though they are the cheapest and most common of the three formats.
The retroreflective spot differs on the three media sizes such that if a larger disk is inserted in a smaller capacity drive, the disk is immediately ejected again without any attempt being made to access the disk.
Current usage
As of 2007, common uses of magnetic storage media are for computer data mass storage on hard disks and the recording of analog audio and video works on analog tape. Since much of audio and video production is moving to digital systems, the usage of hard disks is expected to increase at the expense of analog tape. Digital tape and tape libraries are popular for the high capacity data storage of archives and backups. Floppy disks see some marginal usage, particularly in dealing with older computer systems and software. Magnetic storage is also widely used in some specific applications, such as bank checks (MICR) and credit/debit cards (mag stripes).
A new type of magnetic storage, called MRAM, is being produced that stores data in magnetic bits based on the GMR effect. Its advantage is non-volatility, low power usage, and good shock robustness. However, with storage density and capacity orders of magnitude smaller than e.g. an HDD, MRAM is a niche application for situations where small amounts of storage with a need for very frequent updates are required, which flash memory could not support

A.V. Kimel, A. Kirilyuk, P.A. Usachev, R.V. Pisarev, A.M. Balbashov, and Th. Rasing, Ultrafast non-thermal control of magnetization by instantaneous photomagnetic pulses, Nature, 435, 655 (2005).
F. Hansteen, A.V. Kimel, A. Kiriluyk, and Th. Rasing, Femtosecond photomagnetic switching of spins in ferrimagnetic garnet films, Phys. Rev. Lett., 95, 047402 (2005).
GUPTA J.B, Electronic devices and circuit, 3rd edition


Statistical Analysis on the Connection between Electronic Devices and Sleep Quality


Statistics is a type of mathematics relating the collection, analysis and interpretation of numerical facts or data. [i] Statistical analysis can be used to establish if results from an experiment or investigation support the original hypothesis. Statistics are used all over the world in a variety of fields, including different industries and businesses, trade, physics, chemistry, economics, mathematics, biology, botany, psychology and astronomy. [ii] They are used to determine facts and figures and play an important role in the growth of the world.

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The purpose of this investigation is to access, evaluate and compare the data sets found in results conducted from a survey to assist in answering the question “Is there a connection between the use of electronic devices and quality of sleep?”. The year 9 students from three GAIL schools, Scotch College Adelaide, Prestige College South Africa and Woodstock School India, completed the survey. Through the use of statistics, different mathematical areas will be covered and the relationship between electronic devices and sleep will be determined.

This report will begin by analysing the data that has been collected and the processes used to collect this data. This is Part A. Part A will discuss where the data has been collected from, the type of sampling method that was used, the type of data that was collected, and whether any bias was involved. All relevant definitions will also be provided.

Part B will display and provide in-depth analysis of the data from the survey. The data will be separated into 5 distinct questions. Question 1 will look at personal electronic devices and social media. It will discuss the most common personal devices and the most common forms of social media, and the potential distraction caused in the classroom by these devices and social media. Graphs made using Excel will show visual representations of the data. Question 2 will analyse and discuss the data regarding the use of technology throughout the school day. It will discuss the mode using an Excel graph and the effects this can have on productivity in the classroom. Question 3 involves the analysis of how often students from each school spend on their devices within 5 separate time intervals. This will be shown using box plots and 5-number summaries. The differences, trends and the mean in the data will be discussed. The total average time spent on devices after school hours, the range and the interquartile range are shown and discussed. Question 4 analyses and compares the common trends of technology while students are in bed. This is shown using Excel graphs. Finally, Question 5 explores whether students feel well rested in the morning when they wake up and the reasons for this.

Part C includes analysis and further research on articles about the required amount of sleep, the impact electronic devices have on sleep and the Science behind the effects. It will summarise the articles and link them to the data.

Finally, all of the results will be summarised and assumptions and limitations of the investigation will be discussed.

PART A   |   Collecting Data



A sample is a part or a quantity of a whole, intended to represent what the whole is like. The Collins Dictionary definition is:

“A sample of a substance or product is a small quantity of it that shows you what it is like.”[iii]

Samples are used when the whole (the population) is too large to retrieve data from. In this case, the sample is the year 9 students from Scotch College Adelaide, Kristin School New Zealand. In other situations, the sample can be parts of a product (e.g. a paint sample or makeup sample), sample drawings or samples of food.

There are various types of sampling methods. In this case, accessibility sampling was used (also known as convenience sampling). Accessibility sampling is a type of sampling where the samples are selected because of their convenience and proximity. Accessibility sampling was used in this situation because the sample was easy to find and collect. It was an easy process to create the survey and for the students from different places in the world to answer the survey in a short amount of time. Other types of sampling include SRS (simple random sampling), stratified random sampling and multi-stage sampling. [iv]


Please identify which GAIL school you are from.



Select which best describes your status at Scotch.



Which personal electronic devices do you commonly use?



What social media do you often use?



Which personal device do you predominately access social media on?



During school hours, how much time do you spend on technology?



Approximately, how many hours per day do you spend on your personal device between finishing school and bed time?



Do you use your devices within 1 hour of going to bed?



Do you use your device when you are in bed?



If so, approximately, how many hours would you normally use your personal device for when you are in bed?



Which devices do you have within reach at night?



Do you check your device immediately upon waking?



Approximately, how many hours of quality sleep do you usually get during school nights?



Do you feel rested on waking in the morning?


The survey, powered by Survey Monkey, consisted of 14 questions about social media and electronic device usage in relation to sleep and wellbeing. Survey Monkey is an online, easy-to-use survey maker used globally. [v] The questions in the survey can be classified as either categorical or numerical. 

Categorical data is multiple choice questions representing characteristics. They can also be called qualitative data and yes/no data. The data where the It is data that is split up into groups and cannot be measured or counted. In this case, an example of categorical data is question 3 – “Which personal electronic devices do you commonly use?”. This question can be answered by selecting one or more of the multiple-choice answers. If the answer suited isn’t on the question, the person can choose “other”.

Numerical data is displayed in numbers, representing a time, measurement, etc. In this case, an example of numerical data is question 6 – “During school hours, how much time do you spend on technology?” This question can only be answered using time, such as “120 minutes” or “5 hours”. This involves numbers rather than a multiple-choice answer.

The questions from the survey are attached to the right, displaying whether they are categorical or numerical data.

Surveys and data can commonly be “biased”. This means that personal opinions can impact someone to act a certain way. The Cambridge definition is:

“The action of supporting or opposing a particular person or thing in an unfair way, because of allowing personal opinions to influence their judgment”.

In this situation, if the survey was biased, the questions would be encouraging you to respond in a certain way rather than being open to any opinion. This survey questions weren’t biased in any way – there were various answers to select, none which were encouraging the students to respond in a certain way. Every question either had various multiple-choice answers, including a “other” choice (categorical data) or had the option to write whichever number suitable (numerical). But, there is a big bias in the survey. The survey only considers year 9 students’ opinions from the three schools. Every Kristin School year 9 student completed the survey and skipped no questions, while the year 9 students at Scotch College did skip some. These students are a small sample of the population and the survey limits the results to these students’ opinions, rather than the results from different year levels at different schools, or even results from people of different ages/professions worldwide. Different students in year levels and schools can have different opinions, rules and expectations which could easily change the overall results. For example, a year 12 female might have different result compared to a male in year 5, or on a larger scale, a 60-year-old male will likely have different results to a 15-year-old female. This means that overall, the survey is biased. If the survey consisted of a random sample from people across the world of different ages, genders, professions and lifestyles, the results would be significantly more accurate when answering the question “Is there a connection between the use of electronic devices and quality of sleep?”.

PART B   |   Displaying and Analysing Data

Analyse the information collected regarding personal electronic devices and social media. Use graphs as a visual representation and discuss what effects this can have on productivity within the classroom? Make comparisons with at least one other GAIL school.

Q1) When analysing the data, it can be seen that the most popular devices used by year 9 students at Scotch College are mobile phones and laptops. This can be indicated by the two peaks in the column graph. The reasoning behind these results would be because a mobile phone is easily the most common tool of accessing social media and communication, and laptops is the most common tool used within the school for learning. Compared to Kristen the results are very familiar as can be seen by the spikes in the graph but what also can be seen in the graph is that Kristen has a less overall percentage of mobile phones compared to scotch.

Calculate the Measures of Centres for technology use throughout a school day and comment on the information found. How does this compare to other GAIL schools? Are there any further connections that can be made with Question 1? Use an appropriate graph to represent this data.


New Zealand


4 hours

4 hours


4 hours

3.75 hours


3.9 hours

3.51 hours

The graph displays the mean median and mode of time on technology during school hours, it shows that Scotch uses technology for around 4 hours and Kristen uses technology for about 3.5 to 4 hours during school. These graphs and results were made using equations within the application Microsoft Excel. This can have a relation to distraction within school as this technology has multiple uses including playing games and going on social media. In comparison with each other Kristen has a more consistent result within the graph where as Scotch is just a straight result other than a small difference in the mean.

Using Questions 7-11 from the survey, construct a 5-number summary and box plot for each time interval.

Time Interval 4pm – 7pm


Figure 1







New Zealand






Compare and comment on the trends identified by your results

A box plot graph displays the information in an easy and readable way. This shows that New Zealand and Australia have the same Q1 Q2 Q3, the reasoning behind this is because Kristen and Scotch are very similar in the way they teach and format the schools. Even though Q1 Q2 Q3 are the same Australias results are different as the spread is much larger than New Zealand by 50

Using excel, calculate the mean. Discuss your results.






These results display that Scotch had a higher mean than Kristen school when it comes to Technology Usage from 4pm – 7pm with a result of 92.89 and Kristen with 88.33 this shows that Scotch uses technology in this time more than Kristen does.

Calculate the range and IQR and discuss your results.

The Inter Quartile Range (IQR) is used to show the spread of all the data. This table shows that Scotch had the same amount of spread as New Zealand they have the same kind of spread and are equal in range. This would have to do with what was stated previously about how the schools are very similar in how they conduct things.

Calculate the total average time spent on a device after school for a Scotch student




Time Spent on Electronics



These graphs display the time spent on electronic devices from 4pm to 7am by scotch students. This shows that most kids spend time on electronics from 4pm-7pm and 7pm-10pm this shows a consistency. Another consistency is that of the last 2 results that show 7.45% of kids use electronic devices from 1am-4am and 2.73% use devices from 4am-7am. The final result that hasn’t been mentioned yet would be the kids from scotch using electronics from 10pm-1am, this is a very different percentage compared to the other 4 results this would be described as an outlier. An outlier is a figure/data/result that is marginally different from the other figures/data/results. The reasoning behind only Scotchs results being turned into a graph and not Kristin school is because it displayed the best example of the two of an outlier within data.

Analyse and compare the common trends of technology use whilst in bed. Make comparisons between a Scotch student and students from other schools.

This graph displays Scotch and Kristen’s average time spent on devices whilst in bed these two results are very different from each other and have a very wide ranged spread. In comparison scotch students spend almost an hour on their phone in bed. Whereas Kristen school spend about 37 minutes. This data complies with the data shown above, the previous data displays the time spent on devices until the average times of going to bed. Whereas this graph and data shows time spent on devices while in bed, this makes it back to the research question that students can’t get to bed and be well rested when on their devices. This idea will resurface within question C

Through the use of graphs, identify and discuss how students ‘feel’ in the morning.

These two graphs show a very useful bit of data to answer the research question. These results would come from the amount of sleep and device usage throughout the days. As can be seen their almost equal in percentage except that In the “All the time” category there is no data to be shown for Kristen school. This means that not a single student at Kristen always feel well rested, when comparing this single statistic to the other results this would be described as an outlier as it is such a marginally different result compared to any of the others, but there is more than one outlier within these results. Another outlier would be the sometimes result, this is because it almost double the amount as the next closest result. Linking this back to the other questions scotch had the longest time spent on phones whilst in bed but showing to have higher percentages of people feeling well rested.


PART C  |      Further Research


The articles indicate the recommended average amount of hours needed to get a good nights worth of sleep and shows results for multiple age groups. This article also displays how important sleep is to us and why its so important to change how much sleep we need it continues to speak about what the reasoning for teenagers having such a large desire to stay up late and stay on the devices. Another article to be discussed is ‘https://www.sleepfoundation.org/articles/why-electronics-may-stimulate-you-bed’ this article goes on to talk about the science behind sleeping and what reasons there would be for not wanting to go to bed and wanting to stay up later, it talks about the hormones within people that affect their sleep pattern, it also states ‘The more electronic devices that a person uses in the evening, the harder it is to fall asleep or stay asleep.’ This is because the bright lights within the screens and the colours cause your brain to become more alert and therefore more active eventually equalling you to be more awake this goes for child and adult age does not matter the result is still the same.


PARAGRAPH 1: Summary of your results.

Within the entire folio it is clear to see that there is a link to device use and sleep patterns, this is displayed using neat and readable graphs and data. Within part A it was established that the data was from a survey given out to a single year of multiple schools. Students were given the results and told to display any links shown between the survey questions and if the students felt well rested and were also told to compare to at least 1 other school

Within part B, all survey questions were discussed and connections were made to determine if the use of technology has any effect on the quality of sleep. Firstly, it was established that the most common form of technology was a laptop as it is compulsory in the two schools chosen to be compared but in a very close second was a mobile phone this would be because of how common, efficient and useful these devices are for everyday life.

Within part C a news article on how devices affect sleep pattern is analysed to show a professional point of view of what is trying to be discussed, it is a much more in depth version of the results shown as it goes in to hormones and the human brain where as this folio did not contain anything to do with hormones and brain activity

Identify all assumptions – each must be linked to its potential limitation

Assumptions made throughout the making of the folio would be the possibility of some people taking the survey as a joke and not completing with correct answers making the data not accurate and creating some possible outliers. Another assumption to be made would be the possibility of graphs being created incorrectly due to technical errors via the graph making software.

[i] Definition Of Statistics 2018, Business Dictionary, accessed 23 August 2018, .

[ii] Statistics In Different Fields 2018, MathZone, accessed 23 August 2018, .

[iii] Definition of Sample 2018, Collins Dictionary, accessed 14 August 2018, .

[iv] Types of Sampling 2018, accessed 14 August 2018, .

[v] SurveyMonkey 2018, accessed 14 August 2018, .


Issue of Removing GPS Tracking Devices Off Sex Offenders

Case Study: Missouri to Remove Hundreds of GPS Monitoring Devices Recently Put on Sex Offenders

Step 1:  Background

 In St. Louis Missouri, there are hundreds of sex offenders who were forced to wear ankle monitors in order to track their locations. According to the passage, the Missouri Department of Corrections Board of Probation and Parole installed roughly “360 GPS ankle monitors on sex offenders” (Allen & Sawhney, 2019). The usage of the GPS locating monitors became part of the new security requirements; even though the extensive location monitoring had not been a condition in the sentencing guidelines. Board officials explained to the offenders the new requirement was part of a newly revised Missouri criminal code that would go into effect on January 1st(Allen & Sawhney, 2019).  If the offender had pleaded guilty, or had been found guilty on, or after August 28th, 2006, they would be the primary subjects for the added security measures. The prior uses for these GPS monitors were for more high-risk offenders of a limited class.

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 The recently developed security requirements pertained to offenders who had previously completed their mandated supervision. This new requirement was the basis of a lawsuit that was filed against the Department of Corrections. The offender referred to as D.G. in one of the court hearings in which County Circuit Court Judge, Daniel Green, agreed to sign an order that would temporarily put a halt to the state enforcing the GPS locating requirements on sexual offenders whose cases had already passed through the court system prior to the date of January 1 (Allen & Sawhney, 2019). This preliminary injunction essentially games all of the legal parties’ time to discuss and examine the new restrictions.

 According to the passage, the department had “30 days to remove the GPS monitoring devices” specifically on certain subjects who, at the time, were not being supervised for life and those whose crimes occurred “on or between the date of August 28, 2006 and January 1, 2017” (Allen & Sawhney, 2019). The Department of Corrections were presented by the Atty. Gen.’s office in the case study.  Rep. Spoke to the public write clarification that the new requirements were designed and produced by individuals in Missouri legislature. He specified the devices were not created by the Department of Corrections probation and parole nor the Atty. Gen.’s office (Allen & Sawhney, 2019). Representative also stated that all of the parties had agreed to the enforcement changes of the monitoring devices.

  Another sex offender who was a participant in the monitoring device requirement, sued the state and argued that the mother turned wall did not exist when he pleaded guilty. The complainant had completed five years of mandatory probation in 2016. The date of this case study is May 22 of 2017, the subject in the case study found out about the new lifetime monitoring in March 2017. D.G.  had completed his mandatory probation a year prior to the new requirements (Allen & Sawhney, 2019). Thus, explains why the complainant is suing the state. One subject received the GPS device and when he began to wear the device, he became anxious the device may cause his employers to fire him (Allen & Sawhney, 2019).

  The new GPS monitoring device were to be utilized as an alert to notify the state officials if the offender travels near a school, Park, or other areas of exclusion (Allen & Sawhney, 2019). If the offender violates their restricted guidelines, they can face felony charges. The offender can also face felonious charges if they cut the back-strap of the device.

Step 2:  Frame the Key Issues

–          Could be GPS monitoring devices create issues with recidivism due to the stigmatization of the offenders?

–          Since the GPS monitoring devices are bulky, could this creates an issue for offenders when searching for employment or for those who are currently employed could they face losing their jobs? If so, could the parole officer or probation officer assisted the offender in searching for jobs for keeping their jobs?

–          One of the primary issues is the flimsy strap on the device, if the offender work to cut the back-strap would there be an alarm? And who would be notified? How can the court prove that’s the strap broke because the offender cut it, could the strap break by accident?

–          If an offender was already convicted for their crime, would the new requirements essentially be a form of double jeopardy?

–          In order to protect the community, could other civilians be notified of the whereabouts of a sex offender? On the contrary to this question, would this be a violation of the offender’s privacy and security?

Step 3:  Analysis

  One of the primary issues discussed in the case study is the offender feel they may lose their jobs or have harder time obtaining a job because of their ankle monitor. The monitors are harder to cover and hide thus giving away the offender’s status. The offenders are already what is stirring as a registered sex offender every year, now they have to wear a bulky ankle monitor essentially giving away to the public that they have pleaded guilty to a sex crime. On the contrary, this could be very beneficial to the public. Another key issue is the fact that the ankle monitor has a thin back-strap that can be easily cut by the offender. Now, the ankle monitor has to be comfortable enough for the offender to wear for a prolonged period of time, but it also has to be strong enough to the point where it is not easily destroyed. If the back-strap were to be destroyed, there needs to be an alarm that would go off from the device, and local lawn force meant as well as the probation officer or parole officer would need to be notified immediately. If the strap were to be broken, the GPS monitoring must still work in case the offender decides to flee. The legal issues within the case are primarily regarding the double jeopardy some of the offenders are facing. The offenders that have already pleaded guilty or are sends guilty to their crimes are now being subjected to wearing these monitors. However, the offenders have already pleaded guilty and accepted their punishments.


Step 4:  Lessons Learned, Recommendations, and Practical Applications

 In this case study, there are not many weaknesses or threats. The idea of having sex offenders wearing GPS monitoring ankle monitors seems very beneficial to the safety of the community. Rather than having law-enforcement doing checkups on sex offenders while on patrol, it can be more beneficial for law enforcement officials and corrections officials to track down the offender and make sure they are where they are supposed to be. Not only is it beneficial to track the location of the offender, the GPS monitor itself can create a psychological effect on the offender making them feel as though they need to be in the correct locations. The idea of having their location monitored all of the time, can create a heightened fear of going back to prison for violating their parole or probation agreement. The use of the GPS devices can be very practical and beneficial to the community. If an offender gets too close to a school for example the community could be notified.

 The creation of an app that allows parents or even teenagers to be notified if a sexual offender is close to their location could be very beneficial make the community members feel safe and educated. The community often feels safer when they are able to understand what is going on and essentially be included. Allowing them to be notified of a sex offender within their area cannot only reduce recidivism, but create a safer community. On the contrary, the release of the offenders GPS locations can lead to a breach of privacy and security. Of course, there is a possibility that offenders can cut their GPS monitoring devices and fully. Offenders can also find other ways to remove the device without cutting the back-strap an alarming local law enforcement officials. It is just a simple device with a flimsy back-strap that is able to be broken. One idea, could be giving the offender the opportunity to have a microchip installed in some part of the body thus making it harder for them to remove the monitoring device. If the offender elects to have the microchip installed, their parole or probation could be shortened because they elected the microchip. This microchip installation would eliminate the bulky ankle monitor that shows through clothing intense is not able to be removed or damaged.


Allen, J. M., & Sawhney, R. (2019). Administraion and Management in Criminal Justice (Third Edition ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage .


Security Measures for Wearable Devices

I have been researching the security measures that have been set in place for wearable devices such as fit-bits, apple watches, etc. My research has also been into the security measures taken for cellular phones, and wireless routers. These types of devices are extremely popular, and you rarely see someone without these things on them, or in their homes. My research investigates what types of attacks can be performed through these devices, what the companies are doing to protect users against threats, and how we can protect ourselves and our privacy. My research proves that many consumers do not realize that these types of devices pose a risk, as they believe the company would handle all security measures pertaining to the device, but I have found that is not always true.
There is a definite lack of security when it comes to IoT (Internet of Things) devices. There needs to be more awareness surrounding this issue so that consumers will no longer easily fall prey to cyber-criminals or cyber-attacks.
Cyber Security Risks with the IoT

Wearable Devices
Wearable devices are being sold with little to no security provisions.
Security for IoT wearable devices should be of the utmost importance.
What types of attacks can occur due to the lack of security provisions? 

The Integrated Circuit Metric (IC Metric) Technology

An alternative method to stored keys and as a basis for cryptographic services
Prevents impersonation attacks
Prevents spoofing attacks
Discourages cyber attackers from using these methods.

B. Micro electrical and mechanical systems (MEMs)

MEMs is a technology that mimics conventional electrical and mechanical systems at a micro scale
MEMS based sensors are being embedded into smartphones, laptops, vehicles and wearable devices

The most common MEMs sensors are the accelerometer and the gyroscope.
Internet of Things (IoT) devices are becoming increasingly popular in our lives. These types of devices include cellular phones, smart watches, health trackers, wireless routers, smart security systems, and many more.  These types of devices are often powered by sensors that gather information from their surroundings that are then relayed to cloud storage systems, not only for storage but for analysis as well. I think that we can all agree that these types of devices add so much convenience to our lives, but the real question is, what element of danger does it add to our lives? These types of devices are constantly connecting us with a world that we cannot see, a world that is full of cyber criminals, waiting around every corner for their next innocent victim.If you are using these types of devices in your home, then please be aware and make sure that you are taking the proper precautions to avoid cyber-attacks.
By connecting more devices to more networks, we are creating more risks. For example, there are more than three billion smart phones that are currently being used, and eight billion IoT devices. This scale is massive and is rapidly growing on an almost daily basis. Many of these devices are believed to be 100% safe by consumers, but unfortunately that is not the case. It is 100% necessary for the consumer to secure “the things” themselves. I do not believe that security for IoT devices is a “one size fits all” type of deal, as each device is different and will have different vulnerabilities. There are many things that would need to be taken into consideration when thinking of security measures for these devices, for example, cost for implementation of security measures, risks associated with the device, and the overall best fit for the device.

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If IoT devices are not properly secured they can face several cyber-security attacks. Examples of the types of attacks this could include are:  Physical cyber-attacks, which would be from a breach to the IoT sensors. An estimated seventy percent of cyber-attacks happen from the inside, whether that be on purpose or by pure human error. When a physical cyber-attack occurs, this means that it happens from a proximity, like by inserting a USB drive. Network cyber-attacks, which do not require actual physical access to create a major issue within your network.  These types of attackers would access your network-based devices to see what is flowing. They often insert themselves between you and your device (Man in the middle) and can steal your information. Software attacks are a common IoT security risk and these types of attacks occur when malware is installed into your devices program. This malicious type of software will send a virus that will corrupt or outright steal your data and will interrupt and “spy” on your activities on your device. An encryption attack is also another type of attack that is common with IoT devices. This attack will strike at the very core of your system. They often install their own algorithms and take complete control of your system. It is necessary that consumers take control of their devices by making sure they are taking the proper measures to secure their devices.
The use of IC metric technology has been recommended as a provision for security measures with IoT devices. IC Metric will use the feature of a device to help generate an identification which will then be used for the provision of cryptographic services. Wearable devices often operate in group settings, an IC Metric technology would generate a group identification, which would then deliver services such as authentication, confidentiality, secure admission and symmetric key generation. Cryptographers are trying to stay ahead of the game by increasing key sizes to make them computationally infeasible for an attacker to brute force the keys. Keys are stored in the system, which makes them a target for cyber-attackers. Any effort to increase key size to protect the systems is rendered useless if the system is successfully attacked and they keys are captured.  (Hasan Tahir, Ruhma) This could very well be a big part of the answer to the IoT devices need for security measures. Another widely recommended security measure was MEMS (Micro Electrical and Mechanical System) sensors.  MEMS is a technology that mimics conventional electrical and mechanical systems at a micro scale. There are a wide variety of MEMS based sensors that are embedded into smart phones, laptops, vehicles and most wearable devices. The most popular types of MEMS sensors are the accelerometer and the gyroscope. Accelerometers are made to measure the acceleration of an object, while the gyroscopes measure angular velocity. The accelerometer and gyroscope bias in sensors are used to determine the IC Metric identification of devices. The IC Metric technology will deter key theft and form a basis for cryptographic services, but it does not add to the resource demand of the target system. (Tahir, H)
In conclusion, my research on the IoT devices and their security measures was very eye opening. An estimated 27 billion things will be connected to the internet by the year 2020, while 100 new things are added to the internet every single second of the day. These numbers are huge and growing every day. I do not think that consumers are warned about security issues with these types of devices enough, including myself. Prior to my research I had never really thought about the vulnerabilities that these types of deices have. I use my iPhone, fit-bit, and laptop daily. I have almost always been wary about my phone and security measures to keep it safe, but it never really crossed my mind that my fit-bit would be storing personal information that could be used to harm me in the end. I will never look at these types of devices the same again, and I will always try to ensure that I do my best to keep all my devices secure from cyber-attackers and cyber-attacks. It really does amaze me that something like my router can be used as an attack to get my personal information. I am so thankful that I took this course and did this research, as it has made me realize there is a “cyber world” out there that we may not physically see, but it exists. I think that the makers of these devices should warn consumers in a better matter, or work harder to make security measures with the devices better.

Are Your Wearables Fit to Secure You? Researchers Outline 3 Attack Surfaces. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.trendmicro.com/vinfo/us/security/news/internet-of-things/are-your-wearables-fit-to-secure-you-researchers-outline-3-attack-surfaces
Connect the Dots: IoT Security Risks in an Increasingly Connected World. (2018, May 14). Retrieved from https://securityintelligence.com/connect-the-dots-iot-security-risks-in-an-increasingly-connected-world/
Gold, J. (2017, October 03). IoT can learn from smartphone security. Retrieved from https://www.networkworld.com/article/3229976/internet-of-things/the-troubling-lack-of-focus-on-securing-the-iot.html
Tahir, H., Tahir, R., & McDonald-Maier, K. (n.d.). On the security of consumer wearable devices in the Internet of Things. Retrieved from https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0195487
Tahir, H., Tahir, R., & McDonald-Maier, K. (2018). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5905955/
N. (n.d.). 12 tips to help secure your smart home and IoT devices. Retrieved from https://us.norton.com/internetsecurity-iot-smart-home-security-core.html
6 Trends to Get Excited About for the Future of IoT. (2018, July 19). Retrieved from https://skelia.com/articles/6-trends-get-excited-future-iot/
Cohen, M. H. (2018, October 07). The Internet of Things (IOT) Legal and Regulatory Issues. Retrieved from https://cohenhealthcarelaw.com/2016/01/the-internet-of-things-iot-legal-and-regulatory-issues/
Gold, J. (2018, February 26). Most powerful Internet of Things companies. Retrieved from https://www.networkworld.com/article/2287045/internet-of-things/wireless-153629-10-most-powerful-internet-of-things-companies.html
Montgomery, L. (2017, September 12). The Global Impact of the Internet of Things (IoT) – Now and in the Future. Retrieved from https://www.electronichouse.com/home-security/the-global-impact-of-the-internet-of-things-iot-now-and-in-the-future/


Real Time Implementation of Embedded Devices as a Security System in Intelligent Vehicles

Real time implementation of Embedded devices as a security system in Intelligent vehicles connected via Vanets.


Article Info


Article history:

Received Jun 9, 2016

Revised Nov 20, 2016

Accepted Dec 11, 2016

The fast boom of technology has made our lives easier. The number of computer based functions embedded in cars have multiplied extensively over the past two decades. These days, many embedded sensors allowing localization and verbal exchange are being advanced to enhance reliability, protection and define new exploitation modes in intelligent guided transports. An in-car embedded electronic architecture is a complex setup machine, the improvement of that particular system is related to unique manufacturers and providers. There are several factors required in an efficient and secure system along with protection features, real time monitoring, reliability, robustness, and many other integrated features[1-2].

The appearance of modern era has also expanded the use of vehicles and its associated dangers. Dangers and the road accidents take place often which causes loss of lives and assets due to the bad emergency centres, lack of safety features and limitations within devices embedded within a vehicle. A rpm-speed calculating device can be used in a vehicle such that risku situations while driving can be detected. A system with Ultra sonic sensor can be used as a crash detector of the automobile in the course of the event and also after a crash. With indicators from the device, extreme coincidences also can be recognized. .As the amount of urban automobile grows automobile theft has become a shared difficulty for all citizens. As a solution an antitheft system can be implemented using PIR motion sensors where the system can be attached to the peripheral surface of the vehicle. When these sensors are interfaced with Arduino microcontroller an efficient and reliable security system can be developed[3].


Embedded systems

Vehicle security






The excessive demand of vehicles has elevated the user risks and road injuries. This design is a system which can discover obstacles in substantially less time and that can send the basic information to the driver within some seconds producing the noise signals as alerts. The primary goal of these activities is the growth of road protection and transportation efficiency, In addition to reducing the harmful effects of transportation on the external surroundings which can even be caused due to collisions. For instance, lowering the range of injuries can in turn lessen the number of visitor jams, which should reduce the level of damage on the Infrastructure. Due to the significance of those actions for both the individual and the system [4-6].

The Dramatic increase within the traffic waft raises call for on progressive technologies which can enhance protection and efficiency of transportation structures. Street safety may be substantially stronger with the aid of the deployment of speed calculating technologies for vehicular systems, which would allow the driver to control and regulate the speed of the vehicle and thus allow the driver to maintain the speed of the vehicle within the speed limit of any particular road. This can be of immense advantage for drivers particularly driving during the night time. As the population of urban vehicles grows unexpectedly with the improvement of the purchasing power of average citizens and improvement within the economy in a country, humans are becoming concerned about vehicle theft protection, which creates greater market opportunities for vehicle anti-theft systems. Numerous automobile anti theft devices have been designed with many advanced features, however the result remains disappointing due to the fact all these devices have its drawbacks. Domestic and distant places car anti-robbery products are primarily technologically classified into three categories which are mechanical lock devices, automobile alarm gadgets, and automobile tracking systems, chiefly aiming at stopping vehicles to be broken in and driven away.

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 The most generally used mechanical lock tool is a common wheel lock, which is extraordinarily reasonably-priced but inconvenient to use and at the same time can easily be disassembled by the professionals. These mechanical devices are often very bulky to handle and often very much inconvenient. A resolution to this problem would be to use Vehicle alarm gadgets which are very common these days. This is mostly because facts show that most of the public are conscious when they listen an alarm and also this makes the resident neighbours alerted as well. These vehicle alarm systems do have a massive range as well, some well designed can reach up to distances of up to 400 meters from the source of the alarm hence making it very hard for someone to steal a car with a motion detection alarm antitheft system[7], In cities as soon as the automobile is tried to access, the police will easily be notified by the antitheft alarm sounding from the device and the location of such a disturbance hence making it impossible for anyone to steal the vehicle. In addition to this having a car alarm can add additional benefits to the system which would include a fall in the insurance expenditure for the vehicle as security is one of the major constraint that authorities look into while providing insurance to any customer vehicle. Moreover, this will totally prevent the vehicle from the major risk of being stolen. Also it would improve the resale value of the vehicle.These days security alarm devices can be connected to smart phone applications and thus the user can easily monitor the activity of the vehicle from anywhere around making it easy and convenient.

The device that’s setup consists of a passive infra red(PIR) motion detection sensor which is attached to the system. The PIR motion detection sensor essentially calculates the Infra red light which is given out from things that are kept in its field of view. Within the PIR sensor system a pyro electric crystal is placed which would measure the heat that is given out from any object, and in case of humans the heat that’s given out from the human body. The heat energy is in fact emitted as radiations from any object. The hotter the object or a body the more the radiations or heat energy that’s dissipated from the body and these are transmitted in infra red wavelengths. Once these infra red waves enter the sensor it can essentially detect the presence of an object in its vicinity. A PIR sensor would record the movements from people around it. Once a person comes near the sensor there would be a kind of variation within the temperature that is sensed by the sensor as there would be difference between the body temperature and the room temperature. And once this difference is detected within the sensors field of range it can stimulate a change in voltage within its output which would result in producing alarm. A differential detection method is implemented by the PIR sensor. Usually the crystals and the sensors are covered by fresnel lenses which is transparent to IR waves and would prevent the chance of getting any false alarms that can be caused due to unwanted particles getting near the sensor. And also a fresnel lens can help to focus the IR waves to the sensor source. The variety of the accidents that’s occurring worldwide is increasing very rapidly but the amount of fatalities has reduced because of development of new generation devices developed by the automobile industry[8], Engineers had been chipping away on the surprising numbers of centres for a long term by designing air luggage and seat belts, more potent frame and special indoors designs to increase the protection of vehicles. However, the most effective way to secure a vehicle is to preserve vehicles from smashing into each other in the first place. To serve this purpose an obstacle detection gadget can be attached to the vehicle to prevent any kind of collision such that it can detect it way before the incident happens[9-10].

Obstacle detection gadget uses Ultra sonic sensor for distance calculation. Advanced driver assistance machine use radar because of its merits like longer detection range, angular position, variety and ensured safety. A vision primarily based sensor is implanted for detecting the obstacle and fending off collision. The two crucial parts, which is the navigation and the obstacle avoidance part are processed on the equal time growing the efficiency of the system. The important objective is to detect the obstacles present beforehand of the automobile. The device alarms the transferring car to prevent collision. In this system ultrasonic sensor is implanted for the detection purpose as they can stumble on the object from the shifting vehicle even as the distance among the automobile and obstacle is detected and the gap is also accurately measured. The obstacle detection system is interfaced with a system which would voice commands at the output such the user will be aware of the surroundings while driving and if any obstacle is found particular voice commands can help the driver to easily navigate the vehicle. This can be of immense help particularly while trying the park the vehicle in a secure location and also while driving through heavy traffic. This is achieved by connecting the microcontroller to an Arduino android shield which when connected to an Android device through Bluetooth can give out voice commands through the connected speaker [11-12].

To be able to avoid collision between the vehicles the sensor that is set up should measure the accurate distance from the obstacle and transmit the measured readings to the main component of the gadget. The ultrasonic sensor is hooked up in a manner in such that boundaries and obstacles which are present in the front side of the vehicle are being detected. The obstacles and objects which are present in the rear side is also detected by the ultrasonic sensors. One of the predominant part of this concept is to analyse any type of obstacle on the road. For instance, desk bound objects, human beings travelling that get in the passage of the vehicle can also be additionally taken into consideration as obstacles. Those objects are detected via the system and signals the car for secure and easy navigation. This brief process alerts the driver to respond very quickly. However there are a few drawbacks within the sensing technologies like failure in action in the presence of horrific weather conditions consisting of fog, snow and rain [13-14].



The Hardware requirements include :

Arduino Microcontroller



PIR motion sensor

Ultra sonic sensor

LCD Display module 16×2

Jumper cables

IR sensor

The Arduino shield

Bluetooth connected andriod mobile phone

1Sheeld Android shield for Arduino

Software requirement :

1Sheeld application for Android.

A PIR motion sensor is an electronic device that would compute the Infra red waves that are emitted from objects which are present in its field of view and thus would identify any kind of motion that happens in front of the sensor. It’s very commonly used in antitheft alarm systems which can sense the movement of people in front of the sensor. Here the PIR sensor that’s present within the main device would recognise the quantity of IR waves which are falling on the device. As a person approaches the device there would be a variation within the temperature readings between the person’s body and the surroundings and this in turn can stimulate a voltage within the device which would give out alarm as the output.

An Ultra sonic sensor or a distance sensor would calculate the distance from the source using the waves, In particular the ultra sonic waves. The sensor would release ultra sonic waves and then it would collect the reflected waves from the source. Here time is used as a constraint to measure the time between the processes of emission and reception.

An IR sensor is primarily used to sense the surrounding objects and conditions. It makes use of the Infra red waves. Infra waves would essentially record the amount of heat given out from a particular object. The hotter the body, the more the heat will be given out from it. At the same time the IR sensor can also detect the motion which would happen in its field of view. Here an Infra red LED would be the emitter and the detector would be an IR photo diode.

A buzzer is an audio signalling device and are commonly used in alarms and which would come with a particular confirmation. There can be many different types of buzzers which can be mechanical, electromechanical or piezoelectric.

An Arduino shield is a modular and compact circuit boards which would enhance and add new features to the existing arduino system. There exists certain libraries which are associated with certain arduino shields with separate functionalities.


 We make connections which include :


(I) For the RPM-speed calculation system


IR Sensor(dataPin) to Arduino(Pin 2)

IR Sensor(GND) to Arduino(GND)

IR Sensor(+Power) to Arduino (+5V)

LCD(Vss) to Arduino (GND)

LCD(Vcc) to Arduino (5V)

LCD(VEE) to Potentiometer

LCD(Rs) to Arduino (Pin 8)

LCD(Rw) to Arduino (Ground)

LCD(E) to Arduino (Pin 9)

LCD(DB4) to Arduino(Pin 4)

LCD(DB5) to Arduino(Pin 5)

LCD(DB6) to Arduino(Pin 6)

LCD(DB7) to Arduino(Pin 7)

LCD(LED+) to Arduino (+5V)

LCD(LED-) to Arduino (Ground)


(II) For the Anti theft motion detection system

PIR(GND) to Arduino (GND)

PIR(OUT) to Arduino (Pin 2)

PIR() to Arduino (+5V)

Buzzer red to Arduino (Pin 3)

Buzzer black to Arduino (GND)

LED (+ve) to Arduino (GND)

LED (-ve) to Arduino (Pin 3)


(III) For the Collision detection and avoidance system

Ultrasonic ECHO to Arduino Pin 3

Ultrasonic (GND) to Arduino Pin GND

Ultrasonic TRIG to Arduino Pin 8

Buzzer BLACK to Arduino Pin GND

Buzzer RED to Arduino Pin 6

Ultrasonic Vcc to Arduino Pin 5V



The Algorithm is given to be as following :


(I) The Operation of the rpm-speed calculation system

use pin 2,3,4,5,6,7 for lcd module

use pin 9 as sensorPin

use pin 11 as startPin

function delay(){

define int i,j

define count = 0

if (sensor > 0)

increment count

return count


function setup (){

set sensor as INPUT

set start as INPUT

set pin 2 to OUTPUT

lcd Print message (“Tachometer”)

delay 2000 microseconds


function loop(){

define int time, RPM,speed1 = 0 ;

write HIGH to LCD

write HIGH to sensor

clear lcd display

LCD Print message (“Reading RPM”)

clear lcd display

lcd Print message (“please wait”)

clear lcd display

time = delay()

RPM = (time*12/3)

speed = (RPM*0.013)

delay 2000 microseconds

clear lcd display

lcd Print speed in km/hr

delay 5000 microseconds

if (speed > 100km/hr){

lcd Print message “Warning, reduce speed”



(II) For the Anti theft motion detection system

set Pin2 as INPUT

set Pin3 as OUTPUT

if (Pin2 == HIGH){

set pin3 as HIGH

Send HIGH to Buzzer

Send HIGH to LED

delay 100 microseconds

Send LOW to Pin3

Send LOW to Buzzer

delay 100 microseconds




(III) For the collision detection and avoidance system


Ultrasonic ECHO to Arduino Pin 3

Ultrasonic (GND) to Arduino Pin GND

Ultrasonic TRIG to Arduino Pin 8

Buzzer BLACK to Arduino Pin GND

Buzzer RED to Arduino Pin 4

Ultrasonic Vcc to Arduino Pin 5V

use pin 3 as echoPin

use pin 8 as trigPin

use pin 4 as buzzer

function initiate


set echoPin as INPUT Pin

set trigPin as OUTPUT Pin

set buzzer as OUTPUT Pin


function initiate2{

declare totaltime, initialdistance ;

send LOW to trigPin

delay 20 microseconds

send HIGH to trigPin

delay 50 microseconds

send LOW to trigPin

totaltime = input pulse HIGH from echoPin

initialdistance = (totaltime/2)/30

if (initialdistance


send HIGH to buzzer




send LOW to buzzer


delay 1000 microseconds ;










Figure 2. Obstacle and collision avoidance system

The proposed system consists of three sub systems which are a Motion detection system, System for rpm and speed calculation and voice enabled obstacle and collision avoidance system. The figure below shows the overall system design.

Figure 3. The overall system design

A system for calculating the RPM which would later lead to the speed of the vehicle was computed using Arduino and IR Sensors. The value which was produced was later produced on a LCD screen which in fact can be displayed to the driver by installing it in the cockpit. To setup such a system sensors and associated components like potentiometers and LCD display segments are required. The IR sensors once interfaced with the Arduino will produce the values which can also be displayed on the serial monitor of the Arduino IDE. RPM is essentially the number of times the shaft of a motor in a minute would rotate. In the case of a vehicle it would be the crankshaft of the engine. The system is designed as such when the input from the IR sensor changes from low to high it would then compute the time difference. Once the time required for one revolution is calculated this can essentially produce the rpm of the vehicle and finally the speed is computed. In practical application the IR sensor can be setup near the wheel of the vehicle.

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To ensure the safety of the vehicle additional sensors are also included within the setup.And such a setup can create an anti-theft device. This include the motion detection PIR or the passive infra red sensor which when interfaced with arduino and connected to a led bulb and a buzzer would produce alert noises and glows warning lights once a person comes near the proximity of the sensor. The system would become activated when it would sense any kind of movement. This can be effectively be activated when the vehicle is parked in an unknown location or during the night time. To setup such a system many of the components would include the PIR sensor module, Arduino, Connecting wires, LED, Buzzer, Breadboard and 330 ohm resistors. Within the sensor a pyro electric crystal is present which would read the heat given out from a particular living being. The effect of the sensor is amplified by using component like Fresnel lens which is mounted on the system. There are two different potentiometers which are present on the sensor which would help to regulate the sensitivity and the trigger of the sensor. The module can essentially work in two different modes which are the H and the I modes. The H mode is powered by a 3.3 V power supply and it would go high when a person is detected within the range and after a certain period of time the output would go low. While within the I mode the output would go high as long as the person is in the range and it would remain as such as long as the person is in the range of the sensor.

Figure 4. Blueprint of anti theft motion detection system

Figure 5. Blueprint of the rpm-speed calculation system

The Figures shown below shows the completely implemented circuit of the rpm-speedometer calculation system and anti-theft motion detection system

Figure 6. Completed circuit of rpm-speed computi ng system


Figure 7. Completed circuit of PIR motion anti-theft system

Figure 8. The overall system operation flowchart



The device was well assembled and all of the integrated sensors did respond ably to the regular tests that were carried out. The motion detection alarm system worked satisfactorily well and it was able to identify the obejcts accurately. Whenever a person approached near the sensor an alarm was triggered with warning LED lights in response to this event. The speedometer was exceptionallt functional in computing the rpm and the speed. The speed limit was set, the device was able to give out the warning signals and display it to the driver which was attached at the drivers cockpit. Once this was setup the driver was alereted about overspeeding and thus was able to fend off any kind of violations that might happen when tested in a freeway. In aditton to this to provide further safety to the vehicle, the distance sensor was able to detect the nearby obstacleswithin the range specified and then produce alarm signals using the buzzer alerting the driver about the event. This was repeatedly tested by keeping artificial objects nearby the vehicle. The results of the various tests that were carried out is shown in the figures and the tables below.


Figure 10. LCD displaying speed to the user

Figure 9. LCD displaying message reading RPM


Figure 12. Warning signal displayed by the   LCD

Figure 11. Reduce speed warning signal being displayed





Figure 14. The PIR motion anti theft motion detection system after activating, the LED is seen glowing giving out the warning signal

Figure 13. The PIR anti-theft motion detection system before activating

Table 1. The results for rpm-speedometer

Trial number

Speed limit (km/h)

Speed (km/h)

LED output













Warning singal

Table 2. The results for motion detection anti-theft system

Trial number

Object nearby

Sensor status

Alarm status


























The device that’s developed is optimal in the road in any instance, and this system consisting of many associated sensors and the microcontroller can serve as a reliable and secure safety system for any vehicle. It will be very conveneient for people living in the city as heavy traffic is quite common event in daily life. To avoid collisions of any sort, to protect the vehicle from theft, and to control the speed under the limit and to eventually experience a safe travel avoiding any collisions which might lead to accidents this would be best ideal alternative for any driver.


In future work, many more sensors can be added to this system such as accelerometer, drowsiness sensor, Tire pressure sensor, object detection camera, which can additionally upgrade the protection features making it a exemplary safety gadget.




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 [2] Y. Elhillali, A. Rivenq, C. Tatkeu, J. M. Rouvaen, and J. P. Ghys, “Embedded Localization and Communication System Designed for Intelligent Embedded Localization and Communication System,” no. July 2014, 2007.

[3] S. Bouaziz, P. Lombardi, R. Reynaud, and G. S. Seetharaman, “Embedded Systems for Intelligent Vehicles,” vol. 2007, 2007.

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[6]  F. Corno, T. Montanaro, C. Migliore, and P. Castrogiovanni, “SmartBike : an IoT Crowd Sensing Platform for   Monitoring City Air Pollution,” vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 3602–                3612, 2017.

[7] Y. Chen, Y. Tut, C. Chiul, and Y. Chen, “An Embedded System for Vehicle Surrounding Monitoring,” pp. 92–95, 2009.

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Rhetorical Devices Used in “Letter from Birmingham Jail”

Analysis of Rhetorical Devices Used in Dr Martin Luther King Jr’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail”
On April 12, 1963, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was arrested in Birmingham, Alabama for protesting without a permit. Soon after, eight clergymen wrote a letter entitled, “A Call for Unity,” which was addressed to King. The letter asserted that Dr. King’s protests should end because they promoted “hatred and violence” (Murray 2). In this letter, the clergymen condemned King, labelling him an “outsider,” whose intentions were to stir up trouble in Birmingham (Murray 1). Dr. King responded to their accusations with his own letter, which came to be known as, “Letter from Birmingham Jail.” A seminal text of the Civil Rights Movement, King’s, “Letter from Birmingham Jail,” defends the strategy of nonviolent resistance to racism, justifies the measures that brought about his arrest, and asseverates that the segregation laws against blacks in the south must be repealed. In his letter, King brilliantly employs the rhetorics of ethos, pathos, and logos to effectively convey his letter to his audience and gain the support needed for the Civil Rights Movement.

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In Martin Luther King Jr.’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail,” he implements rhetorical appeals to ethos to denote his credibility on the subject of racial injustice and discrimination. His letter starts with, “My Dear Fellow Clergymen,” (King 1). With this address, King immediately institutes his status, placing himself on the same level as the clergymen, allowing them to infer that he is not beneath them, and they are not above him. He proceeds saying, “I am here because I have organizational ties here. But more basically, I am in Birmingham because injustice is here” (King 1). With this opening, King begins to establish his credibility on matters relating to injustice. Furthermore, he establishes himself as a respectable individual in alluding to his “organizational ties” in Birmingham, suggesting he has a high standing in society. King’s quote, “because injustice is here,” demonstrates his eagerness to fight against injustice for his people, thereby warranting his need to be in Birmingham. Shortly after, King says:

 I have the honor of serving as president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, an organization operating in every southern state, with headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia. We have some eighty-five affiliated organizations across the South, and one of them is the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights. Frequently, we share staff, educational, and financial resources with our affiliates. (King 1)

Introducing himself to the clergymen in this manner is a clear utilization of ethos as Dr. King demonstrates his intellect on the subject of injustice and racial discrimination, showing that he may be more qualified to speak on this matter than the clergymen. Moreover, it serves to prove his eminence as a respected member of the United States of America.
King forces the reader to sympathize with the suffering black individuals in America have undergone through his use of pathos. Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines pathos as, “an element in experience or in artistic representation evoking pity or compassion” (Pathos). Through his disturbingly vivid descriptions of violence and brutality against African Americans, King exposes the reader to the injustice and cruelty which he has both witnessed and experienced. This allows audiences to understand the suffering which King is combatting and empowers readers to side with King’s actions as opposed to the clergymen’s. With regard to the clergymen’s claim that the Birmingham police officers were maintaining order and averting violence, King contends, “I doubt that you would have so warmly commended the policemen if you had seen its dogs sinking their teeth into unarmed, nonviolent Negroes” (King 5).  The imagery used in this quote perfectly inscribes King’s memory into the reader’s head. The words and phrases, “sinking their teeth,” “unarmed,” and “nonviolent,” force the audience to recognize the senseless brutality of the policemen. From this quote, readers come to understand the depravity of the so called “protection” the police force claims they are offering to the community. King’s appeal to pathos continues as he proposes that racism and discrimination affect all those who live with it in saying, “Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere. We are caught in an inescapable network of mutuality, tied in a single garment of destiny. Whatever affects one directly, affects all indirectly” (King 1). This puts forth an emotional appeal that everyone, regardless of their race, is worse off due to the existence of injustice. When one group of people is being oppressed, the population as a whole suffers. Success and progression are both compromised by the existence of segregation. Knowing the threat segregation and racism pose to the advancement of their society, audiences may feel more inclined to foster societal change. As a result of King’s use of pathos, readers become more sympathetic toward King and the millions of others of whom he speaks on behalf of and are also more liable to agree with the points he makes.
King further appeals to pathos in detailing the persecution African Americans have endured. This is seen in lines such as, “When you have seen vicious mobs lynch your mothers and fathers at will and drown your sisters and brothers at whim; when you have seen hate-filled policemen curse, kick, and even kill your black brothers and sisters…” (King 2 ). In utilizing parallelism, King intensifies his writing and coerces his audience into feeling what his friends and family experience. Moreover, he forces his audience’s sympathy with his incendiary language, evoking agonizingly graphic images into their minds. The combination of these two appeals to pathos causes the audience to understand King’s position along with the pain and hardships that lead him to his position. 

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In order to persuade the clergymen and citizens of America to side with his arguments, Martin Luther King Jr. presents sufficient appeal to logic and reason. To accomplish this, King uses logos. One such appeal can be seen early on in the letter where he writes, “There have been more unsolved bombings of Negro homes and churches in Birmingham than in any other city in this nation. These are the hard, brutal, and unbelievable facts” (King 1). In asserting indisputable facts that demonstrate the unrestricted use of violence in Birmingham, King not only enhances his credibility, but also adds depth to his argument as a whole. Dr. King continues to justify his cause for nonviolent protest through appeals to logos. One such appeal is seen on page three of his letter where he questions the meaning of a “just law” and cites examples in which laws were unjust. King writes, “We should never forget that everything Adolf Hitler did in Germany was ‘legal’ and everything the Hungarian freedom fighters did in Hungary was ‘illegal.’ It was ‘illegal’ to aid and comfort a Jew in Hitler’s Germany. Even so, I am sure that, had I lived in Germany at the time, I would have aided and comforted my Jewish brothers” (King 3). In this quote, King Jr. puts forth a compelling example of how laws can be unjust, discussing that it was illegal to help a Jewish person in Germany during Hitler’s rule, and how he would have handled such immoral laws had he been there. This allows the clergymen to think of what they would have done. Likening the treatment of African Americans in the United States to the atrocities committed against Jews in Germany during Hitler’s rule, King makes the clergymen consider the morality of their actions. King then justifies what the clergymen described as “extremist” actions by instancing times throughout history in which “extremist” actions changed society for the better. He questions, “Was not Jesus an extremist for love… was not Amos an extremist for justice.. was not Paul an extremist for the Christian gospel… was not Martin Luther an extremist… and John Bunyan… and Abraham Lincoln… and Thomas Jefferson” (King 4). This quote is extremely effective as Jesus, one of the individuals which he mentions, had an enormous impact on the lives of the clergymen toward whom the letter is targeted. By referencing important figures such as Jesus Christ, Abraham Lincoln, and Thomas Jefferson, King reasons that if those people were in the right, he is too. This appeal serves to show that if those who were known as “extremists” in their time were later renowned for their contributions to society, “extremist” actions are not always wrong and can even bring about important, positive change.
Throughout his “Letter from Birmingham Jail,” Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. establishes his credibility, appeals to the emotions of his readers, and uses logic and reason, all to persuade his audience to agree with his argument and assert the necessity of immediate action against the oppression of African Americans. The letter’s sense of urgency and call to action are provided by King’s use of pathos. His descriptive language, personal accounts, and incorporation of ethos and logos provide for a powerful, well-rounded argument. King successfully reveals the horrors behind the trials black individuals in America have experienced and demonstrates that what he and other civil rights activists are battling for is a noble cause both legally and morally. This is all done to achieve Martin Luther King Jr.’s primary objective–the galvanization of America to strive for a world of equality and justice for those under persecution.
Works Cited

King Jr., Martin Luther. “Letter from Birmingham Jail.” Atlantic, Apr. 2018, pp. 74–83. EBSCOhost, santarosa.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=134398805&site=ehost-live&scope=site.
Murray, George M, et al. “A Call for Unity.” Received by Martin Luther King Jr. , 12 Apr. 1963, www3.dbu.edu/mitchell/documents/ACallforUnityTextandBackground.pdf.
“Pathos.” Merriam-Webster, Merriam-Webster, www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/pathos.