Why the Doha Round negotiation wasnt concluded until today

Explain why the Doha Round negotiation has failed to be concluded until today.
The Doha Development Round or Doha Development Agenda (DDA) is one of World Trade Organization (WTO) efforts to liberalize international trade which was commenced in November 2001 with the objective of lowering trade barriers around the world. This allows countries to increase trade globally; permitting free trade between countries; to open agricultural and manufacturing markets and expand intellectual property regulation. As of 2008, talks have stalled over a divide on major issues, such as agriculture, industrial tariffs and non-tariff barriers, services, and trade remedies. The members of Doha Round are consisting of the developed nations which led by the European Union (EU), the United States (USA), and Japan and the major developing countries which led and represented mainly by India, Brazil, China, and South Africa. The Ministerial Conferences and related negotiations have taken place in:
1. Doha, Qatar (2001)
The main issues discussed were the Singapore Issue which comprises the new rules on investment liberalization, competition policy, government procurement, market access, and control on trade and any form of ‘red-tape’ including e-commerce. The Singapore Issue was agreed by the industrial countries at WTO Ministerial meeting in Singapore in January 1996 without negotiating with the developing countries. Furthermore, it also links to the Non- Agricultural Market Access (NAMA) with the method of reducing tariff rates of manufactured product. Besides that, the issue regarding the liberalization and removal of subsidies for agriculture particularly by industrial countries that are reluctant in reducing or removing subsidies caused the failure of agreement.
2. Cancun, Mexico (2003)
The Cancún ministerial collapsed after four days for several reasons such as both the European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy and the United States government agro-subsidies could not come to an agreement with the other countries concerning their subsidies in agriculture sector. Furthermore, the developing countries also rejected the Singapore Issue that erodes country sovereignty. Moreover, the government of the developing countries did not have freedom in drafting and implementing development policies for the people welfare and national interest.
3. Geneva, Switzerland (2004,2006, 2008 and 2009)
It failed in 2006 because of farming subsidies and lowering import taxes. The developing countries were “instructed’ to reduce tariff rates to the level which will harm the domestic industries. However, USA wanted the developing countries to open up their agricultural market, eliminate special treatment given to local industries, and eliminate special safeguards mechanisms (SSM) but yet they themselves reluctant to open agriculture market. Furthermore, the chance of success in this agreement is getting smaller as the Trade Act of 2002 expires in the year of 2007. The broad authority granted will pass to the US president George W. Bush and this will increase the dominant power of US and this would create conflicts between the interests between developed and developing countries.
4. Paris, France (2005)
France disagreed to cut subsidies to farmers, while the US, Australia, EU, Brazil and India failed to come with agreement relating to chicken, beef and rice. Although most are minor points, trade negotiations are facing more problems when dealing with major issues. The ‘delaying tactics” played by EU were charged to be the reason threatened to spoil the round.
5. Hong Kong (2005)
Industrial countries remain unfair towards the developing countries opening up the agriculture sector, services sector, and manufacturing goods. Besides that, the rules that proposed for countries brought negative impact or so called “industry injury” in opening economy to rectify matter which the possible sectors including textile, clothing, sugar, leather products that known as sensitive products. For instance, the Malaysia government opens up the textile market if deal with the agreement. However, in one or two years later, due to the openness of the textile market might hurt domestic textile industries in Malaysia. This is so called the industry injury as it brings negative impact or backslides to local Malaysia textile industries. Hence, the government can increase tariff rate for temporary to protect key industries before exposing them to foreign competitions as what Japan and South Korea did it successfully.
6. Potsdam, Germany (2007)
In June 2007, due to the disagreement on opening up agriculture and industrial markets in various countries and cutting rich nation farm subsidies, the agreement again broke down. The main countries involved in this were the US, EU, India and Brazil.
There are several reasons which result in why the Doha Round negotiation has failed to be concluded until today. First of all, the failure to agree on special safeguard mechanism (SSM) during Geneva 2008 which aimed to protect poor farmers by allowing countries to impose a special tariff on certain agricultural goods when there is a rise in import rise or fall in the price. Under SSM, the United State and EU protect their productions and their domestic markets by giving high subsidies. As a result, the United State farming community enjoys very low cost of production and their products are extremely cheap. The tariff on agriculture products of developing countries have to be reduced and they are only allowed to increase the tariff if their import is rose above 40%. In spite of this, India opposed the policies because it proposed to use such mechanisms when imports of agricultural products and food reached a 10% increase, while the developed countries wanted that these mechanisms triggered at a 40% increase on import. This would possibly caused millions of agricultural workers to have suffered the negative outcomes of this liberalization. Many developing countries support India’s position because India represents the strong voice expressing many poor countries which concern on the livelihoods of millions of small farmers in the developing countries and they want to protect their infant domestic markets. However, United State refused to accept the safeguards proposed by India and this results the Doha Round failed to be concluded because of the disagreement over the special safeguard mechanism (SSM) issue.

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Next, the other factor that causes Doha Round failed to be concluded is these negotiations insisted on an exchange. The developed countries would open their markets for developing countries agricultural products while the developing countries would open their markets for the developed countries’ industrial products. These negotiations are known as NAMA (Non Agricultural Market Access). If NAMA is succeeded, this would strengthen the traditional role of developed countries and their transnational corporations as exporters of high-value goods and technology and increase the risk of rapid deindustrialization of the least developed countries, while slowing down the development of the developing countries’ industrial and technological advancement. Meanwhile, this would have an adverse effect on the ability of governments to design and implement policies in order to promote industry for local capitals and small and medium enterprises (SMEs) as part of a sustainable economic development and gender equity in the long term. Under NAMA, governments agreed to increase market access commitments through a tariff reduction formula that will even out or regulating the tariff levels across products to become more standardize. High tariffs will be subjected to steeper cuts than lower tariffs, and tariffs will be cut on a product-specific basis. Besides, this is a real innovation as compared to past rounds where countries were merely required to make an average tariff cut. This allowed them to pick and choose the products on which to cut tariffs and thus allowed tariff peaks to continue. The tariff cuts promoted in NAMA would open industries to competition with imported industrialized goods, which would probably hinder the local production with serious impacts for the loss of millions of employments.
In addition, the global food and fuel crisis is another major factor that caused the Doha Round failed to be concluded. In July 2008, the price of crude oil has increased from USD80 per barrel to USD145 per barrel. The prices of wheat and rice also increased more than 50% from March 2007 to March 2008. The other countries which are already reluctant to compromise on the world trade term will be even reluctant to compromise after the impact. For example, India has to stop the export of its rice to other countries due to the food crisis. This is because the oil price is too high and this will eventually affect the food production. In contrary, US tried to encourage the production of agricultural products by giving farmers generous subsidies. These US products will then flood to the international market and worsen the domestic markets of developing countries. Moreover, reducing tariff would also reduce the income of developing countries. Consequently, the developed nations will not cut subsidies while the developing nations will not reduce their tariffs.
Furthermore, the opting for bilateral or regional free trade area (FTA) by some of the member countries in WTO also one of the factors contributing to the failure of Doha Round. For instance, a deal signed by US and Japan that the US will export rice to Japan if Japan reduces its tariffs on US rice imports by 10%. US reciprocated the deal by lowering tariffs on one of the Japanese products import. However, under the Most Favored Nation (MFN) rule, Japan will need to reduce import tariff on all of its rice importers not only to USA. This rule is deemed by many especially the developed countries as unfair because developing countries become free riders under the system. Besides, countries have the alternative of forming their own FTAs with their preferred choice of trading partner. Therefore, countries participating in the Doha Round are definitely less willing to cooperate as they feel that they have the choice of develop their own FTA later. One of the good examples would be Singapore where it signed a FTA with USA in January 2003. Singapore might deem the relatively slow developments of ASEAN as an impediment to its own growth and thus signed an FTA with US. Therefore, Doha Round still failed to be concluded.
Apart from that, the emergence of China, India and Brazil could be one of the factors that caused the Doha Round fail to be concluded. China, India and Brazil are emerging as the leaders of the developing countries recently. Their role in global trade had been increasing and US is afraid that its importance will override by these countries. Thus, US not willing to compromise in the terms under Doha Round because they do not want to give out any benefits to these rival countries.
Furthermore, there is also lack of commitment from some of the participating countries. During the Cancún 2003, it was questioned whether some countries had come to Cancún with a serious intention to negotiate. In the view of some observers, a few countries showed no flexibility in their positions and only repeated their demands rather than talk about trade-offs. The rich countries are never committed into helping their poorer counterparts but just interested in their own benefits from trades. Developing countries want to gain more profit and want to protect their infant economies by implementing high tariffs. As a result, Doha Round failed to be concluded because the members of the countries refuse to mutually accommodate each others’ requests.
In conclusion, Doha Round has failed to be concluded until today because most of the countries are interested in own benefits than helping another countries. In fact, developed countries are shielding their agricultural sectors too much while developing countries are less interested in opening up their industrial goods markets. For instance, the most recent round of negotiations which was held from 23 to 29 July 2008, broke down after failing to reach a compromise on agricultural import rules. After the breakdown, major negotiations were not expected to resume until 2009. Nevertheless, intense negotiations mostly between the USA, China, and India were held in the end of 2008 in order to agree on negotiation modalities. However, these negotiations did not result in any progress. Thus, in order to achieve the main objective of Doha Round, the self-interested mentality should not exist. Therefore, it is not easy to create a successful conclusion for Doha Round and that is why Doha Round still failed to be concluded until today.

Hospitality Strategies at Marriot Hotel, Doha

Marriot Hotel, Doha

The Doha Marriott Hotel demonstrates the best in business hotels, coupled with high standards and quality in hospitality. The hotel is located close to the Doha International Airport, and is a prized milestone on the coastline of the country. The hotel offers for a great bargain an exceptional site for commercial meetings, social events, and comforting weekends, and bids remarkable visions of the Doha skyline. The hotel has two distinct buildings: The Tower Building and The Executive Tower. It has a well-equipped business center and an executive lounge. The hotel opened in 1972 as the first five star hotel in Qatar. The hotel was last refurbished in 2004. It is owned by Katara Hospitality.

The Concept of Hotel Service

The emergence of the hospitality sector globally has highlighted the importance of service and service quality in the segment. In the current scenario, the hotel sector is in facing a situation that is progressively moving the industry towards a service-based concept. This is creating a challenging situation for the organization operating in the hospitality industry. The hotel operators need to design a service that meets or surpasses the expectations of its customers. Consequently, hotels service providers must have awareness about not only of customers’ requirements but also of what they actually experience during their service encounters as most customers reach the hotels with certain expectations. The consequent behavior of the customer, though, may be formed by a variety of factors which include but are not restricted to the environment of the hotel, the ambiance, the staff, the purpose of the visit of the customers, etc. Recent research also suggest that customers’ expectations are constantly updating during their stay in the hotel and the final evaluations of service quality is comprehensively based on the new expectations rather than on the expectations held before the encounter began (Goldstein, Johnston, Duffy, & Rao, 2002).

The services in the hotel sector today are more of a tedious package that defines the entire experience of the guests than just a simple service of facility of stay. Richard Normann (Norman, 2001) differentiates between core services, the big benefits the customer is looking for, and peripheral services, the little things, or added bonuses that go along with the big benefits. Similarly, Albrecht and Zemke (Albrecht & Zemke, 2001) differentiate between the primary service package and the secondary service package: Primary service package is the center piece of the service offering. In case of hotel industry, hotels provide the primary service of lodging. It is the basic reason for being in business. Secondary service package: It is the support, supplement service, which adds value to primary service package. All of these secondary service features provide ‘leverage,’ that is, help build up the value of the total package in the customer’s eyes.

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The Marriot Hotel provides excellent service to its customer. It provides a bouquet of secondary services with the primary service of lodging. The hotel has a total of 362 rooms & suites on 11 floors. There are 190 Standard Rooms, 119 Executive Rooms, 51 Executive Suites, and 2 Presidential Suites. The rooms are spacious and comfortable. The rooms come with a package with High speed internet access, Complimentary in-room Wi-Fi, Flat screen televisions, Mini-bar, Cable/satellite TV with international TV channels, Complimentary in-room tea and coffee.

The secondary services that the hotel provides include but are not restricted to Laundry Valet, Hair Salon/barber, Concierge Services, Gift Shop/newsstand, Rental Car Desk (class), Bank on site (Qatar National Bank), Complimentary coffee in lobby until 9am and 24 hrs. room service.

How Marriot Doha does deliver hospitality and hospitableness?

The traditional understanding of hospitality and hospitableness was restricted to ensuring wellbeing of the guests. But with the passage of time, the concept has expanded to emotional experience than otherwise. The modern commercial hospitality involves a financial transaction whereby hospitality is offered to guests at a price, and would be withdrawn if the payment could not be made (Ritzer). The concept of Hospitableness is socio-psychological. The existing literature highlights the various layers of hospitality

Layers of Hospitality (Source: Tasci & Semrad, 2016)

The Marriot, Doha has a big staff that helps in delivery of hospitality and hospitableness. The hotel has a big infrastructure with a total of 362 rooms & suites on 11 floors. There are 190 Standard Rooms, 119 Executive Rooms, 51 Executive Suites, and 2 Presidential Suites. It has six restaurants which provide food delicacies from around different part of the world. The rooms are well maintained and clean. However, the temperature in the room was not maintained. The rooms are suddenly too cold when unlocked and checked in. However, it gets better after a little while but the management should do something about it.

The second layer involves taking care of entertainment requirements of the customers. The entertainment needs are targeted more for higher level needs of socializing, education, and self-actualization by providing various entertainment products and services which might include but are not restricted to TV, pool, sports facilities, social activities, and playgrounds. The Marriot, Doha is well equipped to provide such facilities. The hotel has complimentary in-room Wi-Fi, flat screen televisions, mini-bar, cable/satellite TV with international TV channels. It also has a tennis court, private sandy beach, private marina and dive centre exclusively for its customers. It also provides sauna, boxing hall facility and Jacuzzi with Outdoor swimming pool. The hotel also has a health club with cardiovascular equipment and free weights. Therefore, the hotel is well equipped to take care of entertainment requirements of the customers.

The next layer includes taking care of various services during the stay of the customer. It starts with the reservation of a hotel room. The Marriot Hotel, Doha has an average occupancy rate of about 70%. This is a very comforting figure keeping in mind the existing competition in hospitality sector of Qatar. The reservations in The Marriot, Doha can be made through three distribution channels:

Hotel e-commerce: The consumers today are increasingly demanding for a quick, simple and inexpensive mean when purchasing and receiving products or services (Tan & Dwyer, 2014). The accessibility of various online agencies of third-party online travel service companies such as Agoda, Booking.com, Expedia, etc, including the hotel website have provided consumers a comprehensive and comparable board of information such as price, the availability of hotel rooms to enable consumers to make the best purchase decision. Marriot Doha has more than 65% of its reservation through online services. The hotel provides a competitive rate structure on various third party website. The hotel offers various discounts and competitive packages to lure the customers. The deals can also be customized as per the requirements of the customers.

Direct Walk-ins: This category of guests includes the people who come directly to front desk to look for rooms. Due to increase in popularity of internet there is a sharp decline in walk in reservations. On a general note, customers prefer to make their bookings before travelling. The Marriot Hotel, Doha has a portion of less than 2% bookings through direct walk-ins.

Travel Agencies: The travel agencies contact the hotels for group reservations. Such reservations are very common in peak tourist season. Since Qatar is promoting tourism, there is a sharp increase in proportion of such reservations. The Marriot, Doha receives about 25-30% of its overall reservations through travel agents. The hotel is also a preferred accommodation for many agencies.

The above mentioned channels contribute to major proportions of reservations in the hotel. However, the hotel also receives some reservations from airlines their working staff for routine stay as well as in case of flight cancellations and from various other institutes who request to reserve hotels for sports people, delegations of embassies, or performing-art program groups, workshop groups, and alike who travel to different location.

Customer Journey in The Marriot, Doha

The next layer involves various services provided by the hotel which are interred linked to each other in a very tedious manner. A well administered service operational functional hotel is essential for a good customer experience (Siguaw & Enz, 1999). The major operations department of The Marriot, Doha includes but is not restricted to front office, housekeeping department, kitchen, restaurant, maintenance, safety and security, etc. The customer experience begins at the front desk where the customers are pleasantly greeted and welcomed to the hotel. They are warmly checked in and the formalities are taken care of. The rooms are allotted as per the customer specification and requirements. The customers can choose their size of beds and if they would prefer a garden facing, pool facing or beach facing room. The hotel also provides free parking service and also special parking lots for disable customers. The hotel also provides various convenient services like currency exchange, visa services, flight confirmations and secretarial support.  The hotel also has six restaurants which provide a variety of food. The restaurants are The Corniche: Mediterranean Restaurant, Asia Live: The South East Asian Restaurant, Salsa: Tex- Mex Restaurant, Taj Rasaoi: Indian Restaurant, JW’s Steakhouse, Pearl Lounge: Club and Lounge, and The View: Pool Side Restaurant.

However, the customers at the hotel have provided some common feedback for the hotel. The hotel offers the shuttle service to and from airport but however, the timing of the service is not very certain. The Corniche Mediterranean Restaurant is little tight on space. The furniture in the restaurant can be rearranged to provide more space for movement of the people and for the privacy of dinners. Also though the hotel is 46 years old, the building and the interiors of the hotel are well maintained. However, there are some pieces of furniture and some corners of the hotels which are old and outdated. The staff should dispense with those pieces.


Customer Interaction in The Marriot, Doha

What market does the organization serve, business or otherwise, local, national or international?

Market segmentation is the process of dividing a market of potential customers into groups, or segments, based on different characteristics. The segments created are composed of consumers who will respond similarly to marketing strategies and who share traits such as similar interests, needs, or locations. It is an important concept for hotel revenue management as it allows the management to target and market to a variety of consumer groups with different behavior with an offer that matches their needs and budget level. Relevant market segments for the hotel are still the foundation for setting a good and correct pricing strategy. The market segments are mainly defined by the different booking behaviors and the price sensitivity of a hotels’ customers. This allows the management to uniquely price each segment according to the type of customer. In addition, market segments allows to specifically define and bundle sales and marketing efforts according to any trends and movements that can be derived from the analysis of those segments. The ultimate goal with that is clearly to work towards an ideal market segmentation mix for the hotel. It is essential strategy to help identify different trends of the business which include length of stay, day of weeks stays, total revenue per room, total revenue per client, booking lead time, percentage of cancellation, and no show ratio.

The current market segmentation of the customers of The Marriot, Doha was studied with access to the various datasets by the organization. It was concluded that the hotel caters to a variety of customer bases as depicted in figure below:

The majority of the customers of the The Marriot, Doha are local residents who are travelling for some personal or business matters. The six special restaurants of the hotel provides a buffet excellent dining opportunities for the local people. The next major source of revenue for the hotel is the wedding, businesses and other social events. The hotel has three party halls which can h old social events. The Al Fayrouz Hall is the biggest which can hold upto 400 guests for a banquet plated function and about 800 guests for a standing reception. The next big party hall of the hotel is known as Al Ruwaq which can hold 300 guests for a banquet plated function and 700 guests for a standing reception. The Al Maha Executive is the smallest which can hold only upto 74 guests for a banquet plated function and upto 90 people for standing reception. The hotel provides unique options for the various social events. The arrangements can also be customized as per the requirements of the host. The hotel has various set up equipment and customary services to make any event a memorable experience. With expect to that the hotel also has various meeting rooms to suit the business requirements of its customers. It can be a perfect venue for hosting social events and business meetings.

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The hotel has about 17% of its revenue from the international visitors. The hotel is a convenient choice among the international travelers due to its location near to the airport. However, there has been a recent fall in the international tourist in the country due to political blockage. Therefore there is a decrease in the revenue from international travelers. The hotel receives the smallest revenue from the national travelers. The share is only about 6%.

Who are the organization’s main guests/customers and what is their role in the service process?

The main guests of the hotels are the local residents. They come to enjoy the various recreational facilities. Most of the people come to enjoy themselves at the private beach, marina and the dive centre. These customers are more popular on weekends and on holidays. Most of them come with their families for a good family time where children can play on the beach or in children’s area, and adults can follow their hobbies like walking on beach, fishing, diving, etc or maybe for spa services. The customers are expatriates which are working in Qatar. A lot of local families also come to enjoy such activities. The involvement of such customers is low in the service process. The products are standardized and in most of the cases hotel staff is not required.

The spa service of the hotel is very popular. The Saray Spa includes the rich customs that stem to historic times. It offers time-tested remedies, and consists of cures and services which provides the guests a universal experience. The facilities are separately maintained for men and women.

The hotel is also popular among international tourists because of its close proximity to airport. These travelers are in the country for leisure, business or sometimes they are also in transit to their next destination. The hotel also provides visa services for such customers. The customer involvement in service process is moderate. They are involved in making choices of the services they need and provision of certain services require customer purchase.

The hotel also acts as a host for business activities and meetings. These services require customer input and customization in various scenarios. In such a case, the customer involvement is high. The hotel has hosted various business conference, workshops, meetings and conclave over the period of time. In fact, such meetings of various scales are very common.

The hotel is also a popular destination for various social events as well. These events include the lavish wedding receptions, festivals and other personal occasions. The involvement of customers in such events is usually very high. They are involvement in every step of the event involing decoration, stay, food, etc.

What are the key service processes that add value for the guests/customers?

The importance of delivering great service to the customers is well emphasized in the existing literature. In fact, 97% of global consumers report that customer service is important in their choice of and loyalty to a brand, 76% say they view customer service as the true test of how much a company values them (Economy, 2019). In 2013, Cornell Hospitality presented a report from PKF Hospitality Research that showed guest satisfaction is heavily influenced by service factors such as employee attitude and the pacing and order of services provided (Withiam, 2013).

The Marriot, Doha provides various key service processes that add value for its guests. The hotel staff works tirelessly to make the experience of their customers a memorable one. The staff is well trained and well equipped to deal with various situations. The rooms are well maintained and customized as per the requirements of the customers. The preference of the customers is always taken into consideration while allocating the room. The six restaurants in the hotel provide a delightful dining experience to its guests. The hotel provides excellent health and spa facilities separately for men and women. The Saray Spa incorporates the rich customs and embraces Arabic design elements and offering time-tested remedies. The spa consists of cures and amenities that provide guests with an holistic experience. The staff in these facilities is well trained to provide the customers a relaxing experience. The staff works efficiently to minimize the service time. However, the management is always open for critical feedback for improving their services. The customers are encouraged to provide reviews for various services.

Who is involved in these processes and how does the company manage these processes?

The hotel has a big staff of about 450 people who work in various shifts to make the experience of their guests as a memorable one. There are several departments which cater to specific needs of the customers.  For example, the front office department is usually the first and last point of contact for a customer. The department is responsible for making the customer feel welcoming once they arrive. The customer usually contacts the front desk if they need anything and the front desk usually coordinates them to the required department. The housekeeping department works over the clock to make the hotel area clean and sparkling. They maintain the rooms and hotel compound. The food and beverage department is responsible for all the restaurants running in the hotel. The department is responsible for the quality of food and drinks served. The Marriot, Doha also has a separate department for business center. There are employees who are separately in charge of secretarial support, visa arrangements, currency exchange, etc. There is a separate staff for recreational services like the marine services having a different team and the spa service has a different team. There is a separate team for organizing social and business events. Therefore the hotel has a well trained staff to manage various processes.

What are the three groups of Evidence of Service from a guest/customer point of view?

The concept of service marketing in modern era has its 8 P’s of marketing with physical evidence is one of the essential concept in hospitality service marketing (Morrison, 2010, p. 392). Physical evidence consists of of the essentials that are infused into a service to create it as noticeable and rather reckonable. It also aids in the location of the brand and for pursuing the right segment of customers. The current assignment uses the following tools of physical evidence in marketing mix in The Marriot, Doha:

Ambiance: The term refers to the look and feel of the hotel. It includes factors like include temperature, colour, smell and sound, music and noise which consciously or sub consciously help in experiencing a service. The various reviews and feedback about The Marriot, Doha indicates that the guests are overwhelmed by the beautiful lobby and reception area. The lobby gives the guests a warm feeling. The rooms are spacious, comfortable and beautiful. The spa of the hotel is very well designed so that the customers can relax. The each area is beautiful and very well maintained. The exterior of the building has a nice glossy finish. However, a lot of the customers have complained that a lot of fixtures and furniture is outdated. Some customers even would love to see new carpets. Such recommendations should be implemented soon by the management. The hotel should have a renovation soon as the last time it had one was in 2004. Also, some people have reported that they would like to have some more activities in the lobby. Though the lobby is huge and beautiful, it can have some activities for the guests.

Spatial Layout: The spatial layout and functionality are the way in which the set up or equipment are organized. This aspect was studied more in terms of social and business meetings organized in the hotel since they are the ones who are most impacted by it. The customers who attended the business events while I studied for the assignment reported that they were impressed by the equipment support provided by the staff. The hotel could meet most of their requirement. It offered variety of packages to choose from which could fit almost any budget. The social events were also well organized. The halls of the hotel were big enough to hold some of the big gatherings.

Corporate Branding: The corporate branding may be a part of promotion, branding and use of corporate communications also plays an important role in physical evidence. The Marriot, Doha is a jewel in the crown of Katara Hospitality who proudly owns the hotel. However, according to the customers there were some aspects which do not suit the image of the hotel. Some customers expected better service since the hotel is The Marriot and has a prestigious name in the hospitality sector. The staff should be more trained and well equipped to deal with customers. Further, the building should be renovated soon to suit the status of The Marriot.

Service Blueprint for Marriot Hotel

A service blueprint shows the service map of an organization. It portrays the service system and helps different people involved in providing the services their roles and most importantly their position in the process. It depicts the service process, the point of contact with the customer and the evidence of service. It breaks the service into different components so that it can be analyzed how the service is executed. It can be helpful in enhancing customer experience and is particularly useful at design and redesign of the service.

In case of The Marriot, Doha, the service blueprint will indicate customer actions, onstage employee actions which are visible to the customer, backstage employee actions which occur behind the screen to support onstage activities, and the internal support processes. The service component will also point to line of direct interaction between customer and hotel, line of visibility meaning all service activities that are visible to customers from those that are not visible, line of internal interaction that shows behind the screen activities to support onstage activities.

The service blueprint can be used by service marketers for creating better customer experience, human resource department for empowering human element in providing service, and operations managers for rendering quality service and managing points of failure.

The doha development

Doha development round
The Doha development round is also called the Doha development agenda. It commenced in November 2002 as the trade negotiation round of (WTO) world trade organization. Its main objectives are to increase trade globally by lowering the trade barriers around the world.
It began with the ministerial meeting in Qatar in 2001 then subsequent meetings took place in-
Mexico (2003)
Honkong (2005)
Related meetings took place in –
Geneva, Switzerland (2004, 2006, 2008)
Paris, France (2005)
Potsdam, Germany (2007)
The recent negotiation broke down on July 2008 which held as a failure to reach compromise on agricultural import rules.
Trade negotiation committee has overseen the talks of Doha negotiations, whose chairman is currently Pascal Lamy’s director – general. The negotiations held in existing bodies of WTO and in five working groups. Topics of negotiations are market access, development and maintenance issues, to rules and regulations, trade expansions and other issues.
Before Doha
Before Doha negotiations there were WTO ministerial conferences. First WTO conference held in Singapore in 1996 for 4 major issues-government procurement, custom issues, investments in trade, competition and trade. These issues became known as Singapore issues.
In spite of conferences no conclusion was reached, and then developed nations argued that other new trade negotiations mist include tat issues.
In 1999 it was intended to start the millennium round but due to several different events it was never started. And it was decided by working groups that it will not be started until the first ministerial meeting in Doha, Qatar in 2001.
Inbuilt agenda of 2000 on agriculture and trade in services merged with the Doha negotiations.
Doha 2001
The Doha development agenda, DDA started in November 2001,to negotiate on agricultural issues, trade in services, also gats and trips negotiations. The main objective of this round was to make the trade regulations fairer for all the countries but according to various critics system of trade rules adopted in Doha round was bad for developing countries and against their domestic trade policies.
Cancun, 2003
This meeting was collapsed after four days because of differences in Singapore issues; also few countries did not show flexibility in their operations, rather than trade negotiations they only replaced their demands and wide differences between the trade negotiations of developing and developed countries.
Geneva, 2004
The main focus of this negotiation was on market access and reduction of agricultural export subsidies. Comprise was made on negotiation of Singapore issues, developing countries played a great role in the negotiation of trade facilitation.
Paris, 2005
In was held on may of 2005 with the intentions to get the tangible progress before December of 2005.this conference was Hanging around issues like- cutting of subsides to farmers in France, issues relating to chicken, beef and rice and other technical issues.
Geneva, 2006
This was held in June 2006 but it failed to reach on conclusion about import rules and taxes, reducing farming subsidies.
Geneva, 2008
It was started on July 21, 2008 at the WTO’S headquarters but failed to compromise on SSM, special safeguard issues. Differential treatment was provided to the developing countries in the form of import volume expansions. Negotiations on these issues continued in June 2009 since the last conference.50% were the odds of success said by Pascal Lamy. This negotiation expected to last for 4 days but instead of lasting 9 days it did not reach to conclusion. There were also disagreements onn various issues like protection to Indian and Chinese farmers and African imports to te European union.
Why the Doha round matters
Over a billion of people live under poverty. The IMF and World Bank estimated that 7% growth rate is needed to achieve the goal of halving the poverty by 2015.trade liberalization is an important part of development.
Its main purpose is to provide the trade opportunities to countries and to provide more jobs and also to allow poor people to improve their lives. This can be achieved through more exports.
More exports —–high economic growth—-more stimuli to domestic reforms——faster poverty reduction.
Trade liberalization is not only the answer no doubt investments in infrastructure, health issues or education is also requires. Therefore Doha round engaged in strengthening the institutions and improving the education and health services in developing countries.
Deadlock of Doha
As stated earlier DDA was started 2001 and expected to achieve the goals by 2005.after 7 turbulent years later – after many ministerial meetings-after various mini-ministerial conferences -still we do not have an agreement.
The collapsed of negotiations occur because of rejection by US on the demand made by china and India about the usage of safeguard measures is called deadlock of Doha
The issues raised in Doha round by developing countries were the corner stone of necessary agriculture negotiations in the Doha agenda. The negotiating mandate include 2 key issues-
Reducing trade distorting subsidies
Food security and trade development
Besides the tariff reduction issues, goals were met with much resistance regarding the minimization of distortions in agriculture market. Despite this compromise by the US developing countries still willing that US should also compromise on non-agriculture products tariff and non-tariff barriers.
Important issues
It has become the most controversial issue of Doha round.2001 Doha round ended with an agreement to substantial improvements in the agriculture market-reductions of export subsides and reductions in the trade distorting support.

Special products must be exempt from cuts
Limit the number of import sensitive products
Food security and livelihood considerations
Access to patented medicines
The main issue of Doha was trade related aspects of intellectual property rights (TRIPS)
The issue revolves around-

Public health issues in developing countries
Balance of interest between pharmacy companies

Compulsory licenses for the export of pharmacy products to least developed and other member countries

Special and differential treatment
The one of the main issue as to strengthen and to make more precise, effective the special and deferential treatment (S & D).developed and developing countries gave the separate deadlines for S&D provisions.
Also developing countries argued that developed countries were negotiating in good faith on the other hand they argued that developing countries were unreasonable in making the proposals.
Implementation issues
Developing countries had the limited capacity or inadequate technical assistance that is why they argued that they have had implementation problems with the agreements reached in the earlier of Uruguay round.
They also claimed that apparel in country markets and large access for textiles did not benefit them what thy expected. Some of thee implementation issues resolved by WTO members and they directed two path approach for other remaining issues.
Reasons for Doha failure

Developing countries did not reciprocate on trade concessions

For the collapse of negotiations, technically the US was blamed for this but US felt that developing nations had not open the markets in the way they were asked to open and so there were no point in negotiating the talks.

Media attention lacking

These meetings lacked media attention. You would hardly find any information about going of these meetings because this information did not mention in many mainstream media, even not on prime time televisions and on news broadcast. May be the media was catching the conflicts in Lebanon at and not the proceedings of WTO meeting.
Some argue that democracies are expected to be accountable by an informed citizenry so it hardly matters whether media people cover this or not.

Failure since Doha started in 2001

This collapsed of negotiation were not of sudden on it were from the beginning only. Developed nations demand developing nations for using unfair ways and poor countries in turn blaming rich countries for this failure.

Negotiations and meetings aimed at a world that no longer exists

It was argued that neither the collapsed and nor he recriminations were taken as too seriously. The Doha round continuously failed in spite of pace o growth in he world economy. Negotiations-

Focused on issues that no longer exists

Required efforts for taking actions against developing nation’s unwillingness to undertake
One of the causes is that working groups focusing on same decisions to resolved the almost all issues. Therefore it was said that ‘Success requires a different rules and players for different games’.

Impasses over the agriculture result in as much an excuse as a factor of breakdown.

Is collapse of Doha a bad thing?

Its collapse may be a good thing, if it is taken that the Doha development round focused on an issues misaligned with real world. The new WTO members brought during the Uruguay round have different perceptions about economic interests and trade offs with that of older members, board of the old GATT system.
MFN clauses can one of the problems. Its main motive was to protect the smaller nation members like New Zealand and Luxemburg from larger nations like Japan and US.

Despite of MFN, like the old trading systems new emerging systems for trade preferences also looks uncomfortable.
Economic impact of Doha round
In 2001 world income increased from $40 to $60 billion
It means that less than 0.2% rise in global GDP.
Liberalizing trade lead to global gains of $90 to $120 billion per year.
Real lessons from Doha failure

It was arguing that Doha development agenda was ill-conceived from the beginning only. Its main objective was to promote economic welfare through trade-offs.but this objective was more or less based on fantasies. Therefore objects be clearly defined after considering the various factors.
Set realistic priorities

American leaders must persuade bilaterally along with multilaterally, if they want to use trade rules and policies for strategic purposes.

The trade initiatives should not be focusing on only third development nations but also on the global economy and world trading system.
The Doha development agenda objectives reflected that developing nations are becoming most important international trade players and that is why they deserve a great voice while negotiating in the meetings. Leaving aside whether equality and rights effects economic regulations and policy making, global roles of developing nations has been over stated.
Doha round should give more grant to developing nations a greater roles in negotiations.

Ways to collude DDA

OECD members will move forward

They can move forward in number of areas-
Manufacturing sectors
Product standards recognitions
Pricing of products
And range of other issues

On manufacturing tariffs there should be zero-for-zero plurilateral agreement.
World’s government’s need to develop an multilateral trade system for the preservation of benefits from trade development and growth.
Anti-democratic ways must be prune away contained in WTO rules for domestic policy making.
Rules must be designed for a single homogenized market in spite of setting terms for separate nations with different priorities.

The WTO members must be scaled back so that multilaterally treaties for public interest can serve as a floor of conduct of trade.

Some other principles
Sustainable development
High priorities should be given to subjects not negotiated
Nothing can be agreed until everything is agreed
We can say that because of this negotiating process, the geopolitical map is becoming more complex
There were increase in power disputes between national governments and negotiation procedures have become explicit with the role of international networks
It is also clearly indicated that free trade policies most of the time favored the big corporations and developing nations do not want to follow these policies.
However the IMF’S and the WTO are in setback but they still influence on economic thinking.
Now there is an undermining of global trade liberalization which act as an engine for development in earlier years.
Rethinking the multilateral trade system means giving more priority to local methods of production and to the sustainability of life and planet.