Analysis of Group Dynamics and Success in Small Group

 The purpose of this assignment is to analyze two key concepts of group dynamics and how these relate to success in small groups. The key concepts that will be examined through empirical peer-reviewed articles are group formation, structure and leadership. The objective is to examine how these concepts relate to the experience of the group. The group consists of four members from York University. Member A (the author) is a 39-year-old, female psychology student, member B is a 24-year-old psychology student, member C a 24-year-old, chemistry student and member D is a 24-year-old, Kinesiology student. The group’s name is “Minds in Motion” and their slogan is “Motivated Mission for Success”.

Group Formation and Structure

Collaboration

It is a common belief that group work enhances the performance goals of groups; however, research by Sio, Kotovsky, and Cagan (2018) supports the negative effect of interaction, specifically with verbalizing ideas compared to individuals performing on their own without verbalization. Sio et al., (2018) conducted their experiment by involving 156 participants who were asked to solve 20 verbal puzzles. Participants were split into three randomly assigned groups. These were the “think alone quietly” group, the “alone thinking aloud group” and the “verbalizing pair group” (interacting group) (Sio et al., 2018). The scope of the experiment was to prove that hearing ideas of others actually reduced the variety of ideas. The word problems were presented on a computer monitor and the groups were given specific instructions on how to solve the problems. The “think alone quietly” group entered their answers independently. The “think alone but aloud group” had to verbalize all their guesses while solving their problems and the “verbalizing pairs” had to verbalize their answers to help the other member (Sio et al., 2018).  Their scores were determined by the cumulative responses of speed and accuracy over the test period (Sio et al., 2018). The results indicated that the “think alone” group had better results than the ‘think aloud” and “verbalizing in pairs” group (interacting group), thus supporting the finding that verbalizing during groups hindered performance (Sio et al., 2018).  This research supports the outcome of Minds in Motion’s first group exercise. Member A (the author) and member C were the only participants present on this day. The group had limited ideas and left with the assignment incomplete. When member A (the author) had time to think alone, away from the other group member, she easily came up with the group name and slogan. In-line with Sio et al.’s (2018) research, there was no need for verbalization between either members of Minds in Motion in order to complete the exercise successfully.

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In 2018, Sanyal and Hisam were interested in finding out if teamwork significantly impacts performance. Along with teamwork, the impact on work performance of leadership, trust and appraisal were also studied. The researchers used an in-depth descriptive research method to conduct their experiment. The researchers designed their own questionnaires, that were simple and to the point of their study. How does leadership, trust, appraisal and teamwork effect work performance (Sanyal et al., 2018)? These were sent to 100 participants from Dhofar University, ages 26 and above.  The questionnaires were based on a rating scale and could be ranked. Quantitative data was used to analyze the data collection. The correlation data revealed that teamwork, leadership and performance appraisal did in fact have a significant impact on work performance. Team work was found to be the most significant independent variable (Sanyal et al., 2018).

Similarly, Minds in Motion worked collaboratively throughout this experience and produced significant results by receiving full bonus marks for all assigned exercises. Minds in Motion were organized and structured when composing the work assignments. Members always listened to each other and provided positive criticism in order to get the assignments done in an effective and timely manner. This aligns with Sanyal and et al.’s (2018) findings that teamwork leads to higher results in work performance.

Social Support

Social media has become a platform for social support for many around the world and in 2018 researchers Nick, Cole, Cho, Smith, Carter and Zelkowitz looked at the benefits associated with this medium on individuals’ well-being. The sub-scales of social support measured were esteem/emotional support, social companionship, informational support and instrumental support (Nick at el., 2018). The researchers designed an on-line self-report questionnaire for 1090 college participants ages 18 to 23 and community participants ages 18 to 42. The self-report measures for the on-line questionnaire was similar to in-person social support scales (Nick at el., 2018). The researchers adapted their questions based on the Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors and Interpersonal Support Evaluation List. Using the Beck Depression Scale, the results indicate that, similar to in-person support, online support provided a buffer against adversity (Nick at el., 2018).

Minds in Motion’s experience with online social support was also significant. On day one, member B was suffering from a family emergency and left class just before the group work was assigned. Member A (the author), who was responsible for uploading the assignment that week, decided to include Member B on the social media app Whats App which became the platform of communication for the group. Member A (the author) was empathetic to member B’s family circumstance and provided encouraging and caring support to her. Member B was appreciative and returned to the group feeling motivated to contribute to the tasks given. These circumstances support the findings of Nick at el.’s (2018) study in which emotional support in the form of empathy can be given over social media while producing a positive effect.

Also in support of emotional support being the main form of support experienced in Minds in Motions is the 2015 study of Rackow, Scholz and Hornug. The researcher’s objective was to determine if emotional or instrumental support was more effective on the self-efficacy and physical exercise of 223 participants with a mean age of 34.6 years of age (Rackow et al., 2015).  In the intervention group a sports companion would provide both types support to the participants. They were then were given daily questionnaires over an 8 week period. Emotional support (for example empathetic, encouraging) was assessed using the Berlin Social Support Scale. Instrumental support (for example offering help) was assessed using a sub-scale of the Berlin Support Scale (Rackow et al., 2015). Self-efficacy was assessed with the following introduction: “After having started engaging in physical exercise regularly on a long-term basis, how confident are you that you will succeed in doing so?” (Rackow et al., 2015).  Physical exercise was examined using International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The results indicated that social support had a greater impact on self-efficacy but not on physical exercise. Instrumental support did not impact either (Rackow et al., 2015).

In 2018, Deetjen and Powell conducted an experiment to discover whether emotional or informational support was more prominent on an on-line support group for patients with various medical conditions. The patients ranged in age from 37 to 96 and 40 612 posts were examined. The data was classified through a Naiivee Bayesian classifier which is a technological system designed to identify emotional and informational support messages (Deetjen et al., 2018). The results determined that 58% of the posts were classed as emotional. For example “I am sorry that you are uncomfortable right now” compared to 42% as informational “I have the most success with this type of product” (Deetjen et al., 2018). This research also support Minds in Motions experience of emotional support being the most used form of support throughout their time spent together.

 Norm Development

The transition from storming to norming is an essential transition into the development of a group’s cohesiveness and Hod and Be-Zvi (2015) investigate this by conducting a case study within a semester-long course at an Israeli University. Their goal was to design collaborative learning norms in a class-room setting. Micro-level data from face-to-face conversations were collected from audio, video and written documents from 14 students aged 25-54 (Hod et al., 2015). Interviews were conducted before, during and after the experiment to gain insight on their experiences. The group experienced tension early on when one of the members made a remark about another person’s minority status and another decided to write “no comment” as their contribution to the group assignment. When asked why they did this, the student ran out of the room. One of the students felt that the group was not collaborating or being supportive. She proclaimed this to the group which sparked motivation for change and the group began discussing their conflicts (Hod et al., 2015). The researchers report their findings by analyzing their data as development of the group occurred over the course of the semester. They discovered that the group needed to break down their discussions, share ideas and give constant feedback to each other and this became an essential part of their group norms (Hod et al., 2015). The group needed to experience the conflict stage to be able to break down the barriers to be able to transition into the stage of building collaborative norms that led to the success of their assignment (Hod et al., 2015).

Minds in Motion started off as a three-person group for the first two weeks and the members were not sharing experiences or communicating openly. On day one, member C nominated member A (the author) as the group leader. Member A (the author) declared that she would be the leader this time but not every time. Further to this conflict, the group did not contribute to the group assignment during the first two classes and left early. Once a new members joined, the group began discussing the assignments in more details. Minds in Motion started to break down the topics and divide the work between members. Wednesday became the norm for the group to collaborate their ideas online and then choosing which content would be submitted on Friday. Each week a new member would volunteer to be the leader and submit the group work. Although there were no insults uttered by members of Minds in Motion, there were weeks of unsupportive conflicting behaviors that were overcome with open dialogue that ultimately developed the functioning structure and norms of the group.

Leadership

Leadership Styles

In 2017, researchers Shaveling, Blaauw and Montfort were interested in determining what role leadership styles, gender homogeneity and team characteristics had on influencing group performance. A sample of 134 participants, with a mean age of 45 from the Netherlands’ police department were given self-report questionnaires assessing their supervisor’s leadership style. The Charismatic Leadership in Organizations questionnaire was used to evaluate the leadership styles of being either performance-based, transactional, charismatic or empowering. The team characteristics that were examined were psychological safety, heedful interrelating, policing experience and knowledge of team scores on performance. Team performance was based on the performance records maintained by the Ministry of Security and Justice (Schaveling et al., 2018). A mixed regression analysis suggested that charismatic, empowering and transactional leadership, homogeneity and a team’s awareness of their score improved team performance (Schaveling et al., 2018).

The research by Schaveling et al., (2018) partially aligned with the experiences of Minds in Motion. Member D displayed a charismatic leadership style by facilitating the contributions of the members by splitting up their responsibilities which allowed the group to focus on the overall completion of the task in a shared-cohesive and timely manner. This aligned with the definition of Schaveling et al.’s 2018 study of a charismatic style that provides members with a sense of working on a shared task together as well as focusing on organization. Member C would commonly indicate her worry of not understanding the course material and assignment instructions.  Member A (the author) led the team with empowering messages “You got this!” assisting member C in becoming self-assured and praising member D for his intriguing ideas during class discussion on the effects of social media and self-actualization. There was no evidence of transactional cost and benefits leadership (Hod et al., 2015) within Minds in Motion.

Choi, Kim and Kang designed an experiment in 2017 to determine the impact of transformational leadership vs. shared leadership styles. They developed surveys for 500 participants working in insurance and financial companies. The surveys were given at time one and time two. The survey used to evaluate transformational leadership was a 12-item Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire; “My leader encourages me to go above and beyond” (Choi et al., 2017). The shared leadership measure was a 13 item questionnaire based on the Small (2007) questionnaire and the perceived team effectiveness was evaluated with a 9-item input/output questionnaire; “the team meets its commitments” (Choi et al., 2017). Based on multiple regression analysis the results indicated a significant relationship for transformational leadership and performance whereas shared leadership positively related to planning effectiveness (Choi et al., 2017). Similarly, Minds in Motion experienced transformational leadership in encouraging members C to give it her all where she was able to produce material for the group work each week.

Gender Differences in Leadership

In 2018, Wille, Wiernick, Vergauwe, Vrijdag and Trbovic sought to determine if gender differences in leadership existed in high profile executive positions and to what extent personality traits differed. They used a sample size of 577 executive (43 males and 143 females) and assessed personality using the Business Attitudes Questionnaire which includes 25 work-related personality scales based on the Big Five traits model (openness, contentiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism) (Forysth 2014) and a five-compound personality assessment related to professional work (ambitiousness, critical, results orientated, strategic, autonomous) (Wille et al., 2018).  Based on the standardized mean differences of the assessments the results indicated no significant gender difference in conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism or the compound personality traits (Wille et al., 2018).  

Minds in Motion consisted of one male and three females that displayed no significant gender differences in leadership styles emerging among them. Member A (female author), B (female) and D (male) displayed assertiveness, strategic thinking and decisiveness. Member D and member A (the author) commonly initiated splitting up tasks and motivated the group to do their share of the task assignments (assertiveness). Member A (the author) frequently analyzed the task and decided on the best approach to answering the questions (strategic thinking). Member B was always quick to make decisions based on group discussions (decisiveness). Member A (female author) and male-member D both displayed conscientious traits by planning ahead and being the first to post on the group’s message boards. Member A (the female author), female-member B and male-member D all displayed extraversion by being talkative, energetic and enthusiastic during classroom and on-line interaction. There was no evidence of neuroticism by either gender within Minds in Motion.

Task-Orientated vs. Relational Leadership

In 2018, researchers Odermatt, Konig, Kleinmann, Nussbaumer, Rosenbaum, Olien and Rogelberg were interested in the effectiveness of task-orientated and relational-orientated leadership styles. They recruited 322 employees who participated in 55 team meetings from a variety of employment sectors. To assess the leadership behavior of the supervisors a Leadership Description Questionnaire consisting of 12 items on a five-point scale were given to the respondents (Odermatt et al., 2018). Satisfaction of the meeting was also measured using a self-report questionnaire indicating whether the meeting was “boring, stimulating, annoying, enjoyable, satisfying or unpleasant” (Odermatt et al., 2018). Standard deviation scores did indicate a significant correlation between relational-orientated leadership styles and satisfaction. Therefore, leaders exhibiting open communication, fairness and eliciting equal participation had higher ratings than task-orientated leaders who elicit structure and goal driven styles (Odermatt et al., 2018). This aligns with the experiences of Minds in Motion’s leadership styles of member A, B and D who exhibited friendly, open communication and generated group participation. However, during times of strict deadlines such as the group challenges that occurred during class, it was necessary for member A, B and D to use task-orientated styles to stay focused and complete the task on time.

The purpose of this assignment was to analyses two key concepts of group dynamics and how these affected the success of the group. In regards to group structures and formation, Minds in Motion developed group norms as they worked through a brief storming/conflict stage (Forsyth, 2014). They posted on-line every Wednesday and sat in the back of the classroom every week. The group collaborated well together and provided emotional support to one another, typically through online communication. In terms of leadership, the main leadership style the group encountered was charismatic and transformational styles with no gender differences in these styles. Based on the circumstance the group experienced both task-orientated and relational-orientated leadership which contributed to the success of the group. In order for Minds in Motion to work more cohesively in the future it would be recommended that the group have more face-to-face interaction to determine the what extra benefits this may produce.

References

Choi, S., Kim, K., & Kang, S. (2017). Effects of transformational and shared leadership styles on employee’s perception of team effectiveness. Social Behavior and Personality, 45 (3), 377-386.

Deetjn, U., & Powell, J. (2016). Informational and emotional elements in online support groups: A Bayesian approach to large-scale content analysis. American Medical Informatics Association, (23), 508-513.

Forsyth, D. R. (2014). Group Dynamics (6th Ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Hod, Y., & Ben-Zvi, D. (2015). Students negotiating and designing their collaborative learning norms: A group developmental perspective in learning communities. Interactive Learning Environments, 23 (5), 578-594.

Odermatt, I., Konig, C., Kleinmann, M., Nussbaumer, Rosenbaum, A., Olien, J.L., Rogelberg, S.G. (2017). On Leading meetings: Linking Meeting Outcomes to leadership styles. Journal of leadership & Organizational Studies, 24 (2), 189-200.

Rackow, P., Scholz, U., & Hornung, R. (2015). Received social support and exercising: An intervention study to test the enabling hypotheses. British Journal of Health Psychology, 20, 763-776.

Sanyal, S., & Hisam, M.W. (2018). The impact of teamwork on work performance of employees: A study of faculty members in Dhofar University. Journal of Business and Management, 20 (3), 15-22.

Schaveling, J., Blaauw, S., & Montfort, K.V. (2017). Predictors of group performance in police criminal investigation department: The role of gender homogeneity, leadership and team characteristics. J Police Crim Psych, 32, 358-368.

Sio, U.N., Kotovsky, K., Cagan, J. (2018). Silence is Golden: The effect of verbalization in group performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 147 (6), 939-944.

Small, E. E. (2007). Shared leadership: A social network analysis (Doctoral dissertation). University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA. Retrieved from https://trace.tennessee.edu/utk_graddiss/305/

Wille, B., Wiernik, B.M., Vergauwe, J., Vrijdags, A., & Trbovic, N. (2018). Journal of Vocational Behavior, 106, 220-235.

 

Supply Chain Management, Relational Dynamics and Strategic Intelligence for Sustainable Business

Supply Chain Management, Relational Dynamics and Strategic Intelligence for Sustainable Business

 

Contents

Executive Summary

Introduction:………………………………………………..3

Actors in supply network management and role they play in sustainable business practices…..3

Customer

Retailers…………………………………………………5

Manufacturers……………………………………………..5

Provider…………………………………………………6

Relation  between Firms and Support Structures for Innovative Sustainable Practices……..6

Value creation……………………………………………..6

Network fundamentals…………………………………………6

Financial strategy……………………………………………8

Strategic intelligence……………………………………………9

Business intelligence………………………………………….9

Competitive intelligence………………………………………..9

Knowledge management………………………………………..9

Conclusion………………………………………………..10

Bibliography:……………………………………………….10

The report is aimed at studying, analyzing and understanding the present industry standards of execution of supply chain management using Samsung electronics Ltd. (a multinational technology company)’s supply chain as an example.

Any supply chain has a number of actors who play a crucial role at every step in the supply network. Well distinct role and possibility of every performer goes far  in smooth application of the supply network for any business.

Different strategies  investors and value creation association etc. at the point when assembled lays a solid substance of the vital thought of any business. The strategic insights assume an essential job for line among policy and business which additionally advises how to go for competition in the focused marketplace by applying business knowledge intelligences.

The level of working and the productive development of any business relies on inner and outer support erections. Additionally, the division of  association examines the current market importance, innovative developing challengers and creation or services appraisals.

The principle objective of the report is to understand the key ideas in inventory network, the jobs different performers play in the store network, and genuine task of production network administration in any random business. Likewise it intends to clarify the key help structure for any sustainable business insight to be in front of competition.

The structure of the report is as follows:

The management of supply chain is the mixture of different procedure which incorporates producer, dealer, client, transporter and so forthn.  Figure 1, demonstrates that store network can be distinctive according to the organisation prerequisites. The combination differs in size and extension, client needs, topographical nearness and item. It is innocuous to express that no two supply chains are really comparable, there may be different role for same participant in each.

Figure 1  Supply chain management model of Samsung Electronics Ltd (samsung.com, 2018)

In Figure 1 above the total supply network of Samsung electronics comprise of suppliers of various parts, the manufacturers or assemblers of final product, the logistics, the venders and the end consumers. The system is complex and it sees how individual key performer assumes an imperative job in finishing the coordination and entire store network circle

Customer

Almost all the supply chains focus on end user demand for planning activities. End user may be a retailer, consumer, or other business entity depending upon if it is a consumer product supply chain or industrial supply chain. For example, a lot of Samsung’s sales come from sale of consumer products (home appliances) and mobile phone handsets in various parts of the world. (Venkateshwar, 2017)

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Retailers

Retailers are middlemen which work as a link between manufacturers and end consumers. Samsung have a huge number of retail outlets and individual retailers selling its products worldwide. Also a good amount of sales come from sales of products on online platforms (own or third party). Retailers provide shelf space, assistance in financial transactions, customer support and also act as a first point in after sales services.

Distributors and wholesalers are also an important link in the supply chain. These are the businesses involved in buying and stocking large quantities of merchandise from manufacturers and then distributing it in small batches throughout the retailer network. They help in building a local network of retailers and distribution/introduction of product at a local scale.

Manufacturers

Manufacturers are the entities which transform raw materials in to usable products. It may be done through production from basic raw materials (making of LCD screens from scratch) or assembling of different components sourced from various suppliers (assembling of a smartphone using a number of components supplied by a number of other manufacturers)

Producers are in charge of development stock, arrange and build the requests which impact the plan and activity of the inventory network.

Suppliers

Suppliers produce raw materials or manufacturer individual components for a device. (CSCMP CSCMP, 2014) a number of Samsung subsidiaries, other manufacturing units, small business enterprises are involved in manufacturing components for Samsung products. Samsung works only with Eco Partner-certified suppliers so that the environmental impact can be easily assessed and managed. (samsung.com, 2018)

Value creation, Network sustainability, and financial strategy are the important features for sustainability.

Value creation

Creating value for consumers in the form of better (design/efficiency or NPD) products, and for investors in the form of increase in the stock price is main aim of any business entity. It ensures smooth incoming of orders/sales and at the same time ensures the availability of investment capital for future operations. (Hillstrom, 2018)

Samsung started as a small trading business in year 1938 and expanded into food processing, insurance cloths, security and trade within 30 years. It started its electronics business in late 1960s; it also has shipbuilding and construction business. Mobile phones, home appliances and semiconductors are the main source of company’s income. It has brought a number of new technologies and products into customer hands and the stocks have been roaring continuously. (Wikipedia, 2018)

Network fundamentals

System basics are helps in the stream of business inside an association or among various associations. It is vital to obviously characterize the scope and obligations of a person in the business or different provision structures in order to have long term sustainable business practices.

Following table shows scope and responsibilities of different departments in an organization:

Department

Responsibilities

Human Resources

Hiring and retiring

Employee Data

Employee relations and disputes

payroll

Facilities

Infrastructure

Workplace facilities

Cleaning

Parking

Research and development

New product design and development

New technology

Innovation

Management

Market analysis

Advertisements and promotions

 

Stakeholders relations

Dispute management

Supply chain management

Security

Building and personnel security

Data and intellectual property security

Legal

Abiding by law

Legal aspects of business policies

Legal disputes

Securing licenses and intellectual property rights

patents

Finance

record keeping

taxation

income and expenses

Marketing

market analysis

advertisements/ promotions

media

Sales

managing order fulfillment

inventory control

stock keeping

after sales services

Table 1. Different departments and their roles in a business

Apart from the support structures within the organization, a business entity also need support from external sources, for example a logistic partner will be needed to transport merchandise from one place to other and to deliver direct sales to end consumers. For online help of their merchandise they require a different IT accomplice. Calculated accomplice and IT accomplice go about as an outer system structure for running end to end business. (Reckitt Benckiser Group plc, 2006)

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Financial strategy

Key Financial administration refers to exact positioning, usage and organization of an association’s monetary resources for achieve its motivations as a business concern and return most outrageous incentive to speculators over the time goes on. Strategic Financial management includes accurately describing an association’s business targets or objectives, individual and evaluating its accessible or potential resources, and devising a plan for using funds and other capital assets to accomplish its objectives. (Investopedia, 2018)

Samsung takes a one of a kind financial strategy to increase sales and improve organization’s image.

Financial strategy of Samsung includes series of strategies that incorporates comprehensive range of organization’s expenses.

This covers defining out financial objectives and goals, recognizing assets, engaging into financial decision making, examining information and following fluctuation among planned and real outcomes and deciding the explanations for the difference. The financial strategy of Samsung rotates around the correct ways to deal with a perfect financial management with long term prospect. (Marketing Slides.2018)

Strategic intelligence comprises of combination of various types of academics which makes collaboration between organisation intelligence, competitive intelligence, and knowledge management to give value‐added data and information toward settling on organizational strategic decisions.    (Pellissier, & Kruger, 2011)

Business intelligence

Business intelligence (BI) includes the procedures and innovations utilized by undertakings for examination of business data. BI innovations give chronicled, current and predictive perspectives of business operations. (Techtarget, 2017)

Competitive intelligence

Competitive intelligence is the gathering and investigating noteworthy data about competitors and the market to shape a business strategy. Its point is to pick up everything there is to know about the competitive environment outside your business to settle on the best decisions about how to run it. (Investopedia, 2018)

Knowledge management

Learning administration is the route toward making, sharing, using and managing the data and information of an association. It refers to a multidisciplinary way to deal with accomplishing organizational targets by making the best operation of information. (Investopedia, 2018)

Actors play an important role in management of supply chain. Operations and profitability of any .business relies on inside and outside help structures. Various business strategies help businesses understand the current ongoing market trends and formulate plans and policies to counter competition run business efficiently.

Strategic intelligence helps gather information about market, competition and manage intellectual property efficiently. It also helps to recognizes changes to be made in the existing policies of an  business in order to recover itself in the modest market, increasing profitability sustainably.

Samsung.com. (2018). Supply Chain | Sustainability | Samsung India. Retrieved from https://www.samsung.com/in/aboutsamsung/sustainability/supply-chain/

Venkateshwar, k. (2017). Samsung case study. Retrieved from https://www.slideshare.net/KUMARVENKATESHWAR/samsung-case-study-73439489

CSCMP CSCMP, H. C. (2014, 01 10). informit. Retrieved from informit: http://www.informit.com/articles/article.aspx?p=2166717&seqNum=3

samsung.com. (2018). Supply Chain | Sustainability | Samsung India. Retrieved from https://www.samsung.com/in/aboutsamsung/sustainability/supply-chain/

Hillstrom, L. (2018). Value Creation – strategy, organization, definition, school, company, business, and competitiveness. Retrieved from https://www.referenceforbusiness.com/management/Tr-Z/Value-Creation.html

Wikipedia. (2018). Samsung. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samsung

RB. (n.d.). Retrieved from RB: https://www.rb.com/

Investopedia (2018). Strategic Financial Management. Retrieved from https://www.investopedia.com/terms/s/strategic-financial-management.asp

René Pellissier, J.‐P. Kruger, (2011) “A study of strategic intelligence as a strategic management tool in the long‐term insurance industry in South Africa”, European Business Review, Vol. 23 Issue: 6, pp.609-631, https://doi.org/10.1108/09555341111175435

Impact of Population Dynamics in Canada

Impact of the current population dynamics in Canada and the best strategy/ strategies to adapt to the current situation

The population of Canada is aging, and fronting population decay in spite of near record high migration levels. This demographic tendency has substantial consequences from a public policy perspective, in relations of economic evolution, public expenses and social organization. Canada, through a total fertility rate (TFR) of about 1.5, is not unaccompanied in facing this encounter; other developed nations are previously addressing the problems related by an age structure categorized by intensely growing numbers of elder people and dwindling numbers of kids and employed age citizens. Most developed nations identify this demographic encounter and numerous have applied a variety of policies to decrease its scope as well as alleviate its potential influences. Within North America the condition is slightly unique. The United States has a comparatively great fertility rate, soaring just below the replacement level of 2.1; frequently imitating a very great fertility rate aimed at Hispanic Americans, in addition stable settlement. Mexico’s fertility degree is well above replacement as well as has a newer population generally. Canada has had a fertility percentage beneath replacement level ever since 1972 however has an impartially high settlement rate. Maximum Canadians, if they are conscious of the matters at play, undertake immigration will take overhaul of the challenges related by an aging populace such as a lessening work force and rising dependence ratio. Rendering to Figures Canada, Canada’s population is getting old rapidly and senior citizens will outstrip kids in about an era. Population forecasts for Canada’s main metropolitan areas moreover highlight how present fertility and immigration tendencies will mark cities very contrarily. It has been predictable that through 2051, 10 out of the 26 main cities in Canada will have increasing populations, whereas 12 will perceive population decay. Of the metropolises predicted to be minor, it could be as little as half their present size. And developing cities will be newer and more varied. Since in Canada labor represents nearly two-third of the revenue share, the anticipated slowing in labor force growth increases important labor market as well as economic growth challenges (Annabi, Nabil et. al. 2009).

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Demographics are accurately at this interval of individual as well as collective interests (Demeny. 1986). The sum of children to have, in addition where to exist, is enormously personal queries; however the society likewise has an interest as these behaviors impact collective happiness. The number as well as structure of its affiliation is of pure interest to the entire society, and there is a genuine source for inter-personal impacts in favor to the related behaviors which are far away from virtuously private. What might we propose as a populace policy for Canada, in the logic of an idea of the favored demographic future as well as a debate of the means to transfer in that direction. In my opinion, this might instigate by two elements: (1) the compensations of some population development or at least evading decline, as well as (2) sluggish rather than speedier aging. Considerable demographic development can be frugally useful, or at minimum it has been in the historical, but evading decline is perhaps more significant from a financial point of vision (United Nations. 2000). Decay would mean numerous extra investments and problematic adjustments of numerous kinds, and it would comprise mainly noteworthy aging. On the further hand, environmental influences point to the difficulties of high growth. Though population growth could inspire more ecologically friendly consumption as well as technology, there is no evading the straight multiplier of population extent on ecological impact, specified our principles of living based on great use of energy and additional forms of harmful consumption (Daly. 1999). In the background of doubts associated with ecological questions, the sensible course of act would be to pursue to diminish the impact (LeGrand. 1998).
In relations of specific constituents, fertility is the vital for both growth as well as aging. There is evidently limited impending for influence in respect to fertility, certain would say there is nothing. Still, reflections on nations that have principally low fertility, for example in Southern as well as Eastern Europe, propose that these very little levels arise when women have prospects in education as well as the labor force, however the family remains customary. If women have to engross the family work, particularly once there are kids, they are mainly focused on to highlighting their parts in the paid work range, where prospects are more equivalent. Fertility in a contemporary society might be made constant by strategies that would support families, irrespective of family type, decrease gender dependences in families, and apt a better allocation of earning and caring actions among males and females (Beaujot. 2000). This would not probably bring fertility beyond replacement; however it may permit more individuals to have the children that they initially envisioned. That is, we should pursue to remove the obstacles to childbearing over better partaking in the costs of kids by fathers and the wider society.
Mortality is informal since lengthier and restored lives are a extensively shared value. As designated earlier, in a period of deferred degenerative as well as hybristic mortality, main are the threat factors and management. It points to the significance of constant public education on risk factors, laterally with developments in treatment. It likewise points to the numerous other bases for drawback that discourage persons from enchanting control of their lives. Other threat factors are ecological, where more exploration is required, but there is substantial evidence on the influence of environmental excellence on population wellbeing. In effect, there is additional information on the effect of atmosphere on populace than the effect of populace on atmosphere. However here again, the more danger is the deficiency of political drive to accomplish from the exploration in a policy path.
Whereas immigration objectives work quite well, there is requisite for more debate on the basis for fixing these objectives in terms of together number as well as composition. Yet the Immigration Legislative Review (1997) perceived that, for numerous, sums of immigration were not an “interesting topic” as well as that the significant problems were not just figures. The costs as well as remunerations of migration towards the receiving society requisite fuller exploration, particularly in terms of the discrepancy costs and profits to diverse interests and fragments of the society. For example, it is determined in Sweden that by evading the inexpensive solution of guest labors, the society was encouraged to mark more space for females in the labor force, counting policies that would permit labors to have children. Whereas immigration is esteemed in terms of getting diversity, abundance, pluralism as well as contact with a wider world, population regeneration that is markedly based on immigration rather than fertility resources much change as well as possibly less probable for socializing novel members into a shared society. If one contemplates immigration in relations of pressures from exterior of Canada, one mode to grip these pressures is over higher immigration, laterally with fair trade as well as international support. Evidently, higher immigration is of attention to persons who are pursuing to transfer to Canada, and it is frequently of attention to sending societies. I would approve by the Economic Council of Canada (1991) that the situation for migration should not be completed in demographic or else economic relations, however in socio-cultural relations. Whereas immigration somewhat decreases aging, it is an overstatement to say that migration will correct the age arrangement. Likewise, immigration perhaps conveys net macro-economic remunerations, counting a source of labor market regeneration, however internal contemplations are more significant to macro-economic development. As an alternative, the case for migration requests to be made in relations of pluralism, ethnic dynamism, humanitarian apprehensions, and candidness to a wider world. Therefore the level as well as composition of migration essentials to be centered on a political judgment concerning the kind of society that we dearth to shape. We need to develop a civilization that will have virtuous adaptive capability, by being together diverse as well as cohesive. Hence the judgment is neither demographic nor financial, however in terms of the type of immigration that will exploit the occasionally contradictory components of diversity in addition to cohesiveness.
That leaves worldwide migration, where the strategy basis is best recognized. Whereas the instant demographics of immigration are rationally well proven, the part that these should show in defining immigration levels is far fewer vibrant. There are the small term remunerations to the labor market, laterally with the short term expenses of incorporation, but the long term profits of a bigger population rests on the comparative weight given to financial and ecological considerations.
In Europe, Asia as well as Australia the reactions to their condition have been diverse. Every nation has engrossed on specific policy responses to multifaceted issues. Most have selected to focus on increasing or upholding a fertility proportion adjacent replacement levels though also paying thoughtful attention to labor market problems such as growing the labor force addition of women as well as other under-represented assemblies, and later superannuation ages for workforces. Some, maximum notably Australia, have likewise looked towards immigration to decrease the probability of reductions in population extent or uncontrollable ageing tendencies. The lessons from additional industrialized states comprise the significance of having a mix of strategies in place to ensure a maintainable population base. Associated to these reactions in other nations, the Canadian approach is different. In Canada, comparatively little consideration has been paid to matters of sustainable population and nothing has been remunerated to problems of fertility rates exterior the region of Québec. The Canadian strategy response has been mainly engrossed on immigration as a basis of development for the labor market and as an extenuating feature for ageing inclinations (McDaniel, Susan, A., Julia Rozanova. 2011). More lately some consideration has been engrossed on other labor market strategies, mainly exploring ingenuities around later superannuation for Canadian workers. The region of Québec has applied more clearly pro-natalist strategies including cash incentives as well as, more lately, general childcare.
We might agree or disagree on these particulars; however the broader difficulty is the absence of an established basis for strategy that would pursue to endogenize population. Observing at the Australian case, McNicoll (1995) discovers that there are numerous impairments to population strategy in liberal democracies. In addition to the absence of a political source for long-term forecasting, the stress on individual well-being, and the lack of consideration to scale, there is likewise a propensity for “government to perceive its electorate only in terms of systematized groups as well as its role that of judging competing statements” (p. 18). In the Canadian situation, Pal (1993) has analyzed in what way numerous “civil society” assemblies, frequently set up by the state, are likewise pursuing rents through the political structure and might control plans based on explicit interests. It would seem that these benefits narrate less to the population as an entire, than to precise apprehensions similar to those of family, feminism, atmosphere, wellbeing, multiculturalism or immigrants. That is, the possible components to discussion of population plan are engrossed in distinctive political dominions and they are accordingly reactive to separate relatively than common benefits. Some of the components would even be in contradiction of any discussion of population plan. There is abundant room for further investigation. We requisite to improve our considerate of the trends in the constituents of population change in directive to have additional secure bases for the forecasts assumptions. Canada essentials further analyses of the inferences of both the actual as well as the potential demographic modification. We likewise need further discerning on the policy side of the developing demographics. In heartening demographers to contemplate of policy, I am encouraged by Canadian basic democratic alignment to count everybody equally in the entire population. Whereas there is scope for those who think of the benefits of specific assemblies, like the elderly, kids, women, visible subgroups, families, or else immigrants, there are likewise compensations to looking at the entire population, and its well-being, counting everybody equally.
Bibliography
Annabi, Nabil, Maxime Fougère, and Simon Harvey. 2009. “Inter-temporal and Inter-industry Effects of Population Ageing: A General Equilibrium Assessment for Canada.”LABOUR: Review Of Labour Economics & Industrial Relations23, no. 4: 609-651.Business Source Complete, EBSCOhost(accessed March 12, 2015).
Beaujot, Roderic and Judy-Lynn Richards, 1996. “International Equity in Reforming the Canada Pension Plan,” Policy Options 17(9).
Daly, Herman, 1999. “From empty world economics to full world economics,” in P. Demeny and G. McNicoll, The Earthscan Reader in Population and Development. London: Earthscan Publications, pp. 270-78.
Demeny, Paul, 1986. “Population and the invisible hand,” Demography, 23 (4): 473-488.
Economic Council of Canada, 1991. Economic and Social Impacts of Immigration. Ottawa: Economic Council of Canada.
Immigration Legislative Review, 1997. Not Just Numbers: A Canadian Framework for Future Immigration. Ottawa: Minister of Public Works.
LeGrand, Thomas, 1998. “Croissance de la population mondiale et environnement: les enjeux,” Cahiers Québecois de Démographie 27 (2): 221-252.
McNicoll, Geoffrey, 1995, “Institutional impediments to population policy in Australia.” Australian National University, Working Papers in Demography No. 53.
Pal, Leslie, 1993. Interests of State: The Politics of Language, Multiculturalism, and Feminism in Canada. Montreal: McGill-Queen`s University Press.
United Nations, 2000. Replacement Migration: Is it a Solution to Declining and Aging Populations? United Nations: Population Division.
McDaniel, Susan, A., and Julia Rozanova. 2011. “Canada’s Aging Population (1986) Redux.”Canadian Journal On Aging30, no. 3: 511-521.CINAHL with Full Text, EBSCOhost(accessed March 12, 2015).
 

Strategic Management Industry Structures And Dynamics Business Strategy Essay

Introduction: Dell Company was founded in 1984 by Michael Dell. It is the world’s largest
direct-sale computer vendor; Dell Inc. is now also the leading seller of computer systems in the
world, capturing a global market share of more than 15 percent. Dell markets desktop personal
computers, notebook computers, network servers, workstations, handheld computers, monitors,
printers, high-end storage products, and a variety of computer peripherals and software. In this
part I will use Porter’s Five Forces to analysis Dell’s great success in the industry.
Force 1: The Degree of Rivalry.
The PC industry consists of a number of companies; hence the threat from industry competitors
is high. Due to the product being highly standardized and shifting costs between brands is low,
there is fierce competition which leads to lower margins and profitability in the market. The PC
industry can be described as a high competitive industry. For Dell the main competitors are IBM,
Apple, HP, TOSHIBA, Gateway etc. Dell uses several strategies to reduce the competitive rivalry
between existing players.
Firstly Dell differentiated its sales from other competitors. Dell used the direct sales strategy since
1984. To sell PCs directly to consumers, by passing retail stores and system integrators and
offering limited customer support but dramatically lower prices. For years, that direct, low-cost
sales model worked perfectly. It allowed Dell to make high margins while selling computer gear
for less than its rivals. As a result, it now holds a leading 17.9% share of the world PC market and
has grown much faster than competitors Hewlett-Packard and IBM. With thousands of phone
and fax orders daily, $5 million in daily Internet sales, and daily contacts between the field sales
force and customers of all types, the company kept its finger on the market pulse, quickly
detecting shifts in sales trends and getting prompt feedback on any problems with its products. If
the company got more than a few similar complaints, the information was relayed immediately
to design engineers. When design flaws or components defects were found, the factory was
notified and the problem corrected within a matter of days. Management believed Dell’s ability
to respond quickly gave it a significant advantage over rivals, particularly over PC makers in Asia,
which made large production runs and sold standardized products through retail channels. Dell
saw its direct sales approach as a totally customer-driven system that allowed quick transitions to
new generations of components and PC models. i
Secondly Dell provided good customer service to compete with its rivals. In 1986 the company
began providing a guarantee of free on-site service for a year with most of its PCs after users
complained about having to ship their PCs back to Austin for repairs. Dell contracted with local
service providers to handle customer requests for repairs; on-site service was provided on a
next-day basis. Dell also provided its customers with technical support via a toll-free number, fax,
and e-mail. Dell received close to 40,000 e-mail messages monthly requesting service and
support and had 25 technicians to process the requests. iiBundled service policies were a major
selling point for winning corporate accounts. If a customer preferred to work with his or her own
service provider, Dell gave that provider the training and spare parts needed to service the
customer’s equipment.
Force 2: The Threat of new Entry.
Firstly, Dell created a brand image to reduce the threat of new entries by advertising. Dell was the
first computer company to use comparative ads. Its advertisements have appeared in several
types of media including television, the Internet, magazines, catalogs and newspapers.
Secondly, Dell cuts its price or offering free bonus products in the effect to maintain its market
share. In 2006, Dell cut its price in an effort to maintain its 19.2% market share. However, this
also cut profit-margins by more than half, from 8.7 to 4.3 percent. To maintain the strategy Dell
continuing to accept the online and telephone purchase.
The brand loyalty and the low price built up a barrier of entry for the new companies.
Force 3: The Threat of Substitutes.
Other devices like PDA, handheld electronics etc. are now coming out with features similar to
PC’s. The mobilebility is the key factor of the competition. Dell generate a smaller size laptop
called “mini” which only has a 10.1 inch screen and only sells at the price under £200 which is
even lower than some of the handheld electronics. With the efficiency of mobile and the same
function, for example Wi-Fi and Bluetooth, Dell protects its market share against those
substitutes.
Force 4: Bargaining Power of Customers.
Dell built up its brand loyalty to reduce the bargaining power of customers.
First, Dell had its own system and strategy to manage the relationship with customers. Since Dell
use the direct sale strategy, customers can buy Dell’s products from the website or ordered by
phone or fax. The customers then can personalize their computer by choosing the configuration
of the computer (e.g. RAM, processors, and hard-disk capacity). On the Dell’s website from which
people can directly choose, buy and give feedback, it divided the customers into four major
groups home users, small& medium business, public sector and large enterprise. Dell then treats
different groups differently by offering the special service they need from different groups. For
instance, Dell provides special solutions and services for higher education. Such as data
consolidation and management, HPC (high performance computing environments), wireless
solution, connected classroom etc. Because of its direct sale strategy, Dell can easily track the
service for any individual buyers. All the buyer information will be stored in its system; dell can
differentiate customers and send relevant product information and services to different
customers. These special strategies in selling upgrade its brand image among customers.
Second, Dell uses the advertisements to help building up its brand image. On the website, TV,
newspaper, high street, people can easily find dell’s advertising. Those can not only increase dell’s
market activity but also increase its brand pride.
Force 5: Reducing the Bargaining Power of Suppliers.
Dell has a special understanding on the SCM (supply chain management). Dell’s strategy is to limit
the amount of supplier but pick up some outstanding supplier all over the world. Each supplier
has a very close relationship with Dell in long-term. Dell uses its huge globe market to share its
business with its entire suppliers. For instance, Dell built a assemble factory in Malaysia, its
supplier from Ireland soon built a factory in there as well in order to gain a geographic efficiency.
Dell had it’s assemble factories all over the world which relatively close to its suppliers. This will
save a lot of transport costs. The double-win strategy makes the supply chain works well. With
the double-win strategy and constant relationship, Dell will be able to ask lower price from the
suppliers and reduce the bargaining power from them.
Market part: Segmentation
Introduction: Michael Dell emphasized the significant status of customers to the company’s
business by stating “Finding ways to get close to your customers is critical to your success.” Since
different people would have different need from the computer, Dell divided its customers into
several segments by discovering special needs from each segment. In the year 1994, the
customer group was only divided by two “primary customer and normal customer”. In that year
the assets of Dell is 3.5billion USD. In July 1996 Dell launched its online website www.dell.com.
On the website primary client are divided into three segments which are large company, medium
company and government& education. Customers can easily choose and buy the products
directly with advices and helps from dell.com. The assets of Dell rocketed up to 7.8 billion USD in
that year. However in 1997, Dell continued differentiating its customer for more segments.
Government & education segment was divided to State & Local Government, Federal
Government and education. Small company and home users were also been created as individual
segments. The net revenue of Dell was 12 billion in that year.
On today’s Dell’s website, people will be able to follow the tips and choose a suitable computer in
few minutes. What’s more, customers can personalize their chosen computer by changing the
configuration of the computer (e.g. color, RAM, processors, and hard-disk capacity). With this
direct sale through different segments, Dell can start to assemble the computer once the
transaction has been made. The inventory can then be limited as low as zero. Not like Dell’s
competitors, Dell does not need many warehouses all over the world which will save a lot of
costs for the company.
Although on today’s Dell.com, customers are divided into a lot segments. However, literally
customers are differentiated into two segments; ‘Relationship customers’ in opposing
‘Transaction customers’. Although Dell intends to build and maintain a good relationship with all
customers, it also becomes clear, that the company would regard some customers more
relationship worthy than others, by analyzing customer value.
The ‘relationship customers’ are mainly large enterprise and government etc. which occupied 40%
of Dell’s entire customer. ‘Transaction customers’ are small business and home users which have
percentage of 30 among customers. The remaining 30 percentage customer is regarded as a
mixed customer.
The advantage for dividing customers in different segment is that the company would be able to
analysis how it can encourage the customers to buy its product. For individual users or small
business price is the priority. Those customers are regarded as more price insensitive. So for
home and small business users the price is slightly lower than its competitor’s e.g. HP, Toshiba
and Sony. For bigger customers such as the government or enterprise, they consider more than
the price but consequent services and supports. Take large enterprise for instance, Dell supports
a lots of specific services and solutions for running the business. Like Infrastructure Consulting
service which is basically a plan for simplifying IT infrastructure, helping reduce operating costs
while freeing up resources for new business initiatives.iii Also, Dell runs a program called ‘Dell
business Credit’iv. This is the same as a loan offered by Dell, but with no interest rate and anytime
to pay off the balance. Business without enough cash flow would like to take that program.
One of the Dell’s competitors is IBM, it has a clearly customer segmentation but different from
Dell. IBM is more focusing on Business and Industry market. In a simply word it is even more
focusing on the ‘Big customers’. Similar as Dell did for big client, but even did more specific for
the segmentation. For Dell there is no segment for industries like Aerospace, Chemicals and
petroleum. More segmentation on large customers also brings more services and solutions for all
kinds of industries. One of IBM’s famous solutions is offering the security management for
Wimbledonv. It provided the security solution for players, staff, media and spectators around the
world.
Conclusion: Dell’s market share was No.2 in 2009, IBM was far behind. But since Dell’s customer
groups is much bigger than IBM’s. In 2006 IBM sold its PC department to Lenovo, Lenovo used
IBM’s brand to product and sell IBM’s ThinkPad series. It is very difficult to compare which
segmentation is better. But for the large business users, IBM is a very strong competitor against
Dell, Its high performance computer and advanced technical solutions and services makes IBM
the biggest company for larger business and industries.
i scribd.com Dell operation
ii McGraw Hill Dell Computer Corporation
mhhe.com/business/management/thompson/11e/case/dell5.html
iii Dell.com Large Enterprise service
iv Dell.com business credit
v IBM.com Wimbledon case study
 

the Nature and Dynamics of Dealing with Conflict

Exploring the Nature and Dynamics of Dealing with Conflict – Individual Assessment

Results and Discussion

 Individuals have various ways of managing conflict. It has been and continuously measured by a number of different classifications and domains. Despite the wide array of conflict management strategies that one could utilize, by and large, most researches and theories merge on the Dual Concern Theory (Beersma, De Dreu, Evers, Kluwer, & Nauta, 2001, p. 646). It argues that two underlying dimensions are the basis on how we handle conflicts: cooperativeness or the extent to which one tries to do something for the benefit of another person’s concern, and assertiveness or the extent to which one only attempts to satisfy his/her personal concern. Five major styles of conflict management are identified, depending on which two-dimensional area in the plane they occupy. These styles are known as Forcing, Problem Solving, Avoiding, Yielding, and Compromising (Langton, Robbins, & Judge, 2016, p.314). 

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Furthermore, the conflict management styles in the Dual Concern Theory relates to the managerial grid of Blake and Mouton (1964), which purports that leading people and handling conflict are likewise a function of two dimensions – a high or low concern for people coupled with a high or low concern for production. These are the two grounds for the five leadership styles, represented by horizontal and vertical axes, and are used to illustrate them. Needless to say, each corresponds to one of the conflict management styles. For instance, Forcing is consistent with Authoritative management style, Problem solving is with Democratic, Avoiding is with Laissez Faire, Yielding is with Country Club, and Compromising is with Middle-of-the-Road (Van de Vliert & Kabanoff, 1990, p. 199).

The conflict management style questionnaires I answered yielded consistent results as shown above. These represent my preferences or inclinations in handling conflicts. Moreover, it demonstrates that my most preferred is Accommodating. From the Dual Concern Theory framework, it means that I am highly cooperative however unassertive (Langton, Robbins, & Judge, 2016, p.315; Kodikal, Rahman, & Pakeerrappa, 2014, p.3). My characteristics as an accommodator also include being selfless or being focused with satisfying and other party’s interest and cooperating to try to patch up conflicts (Barki & Hartwick, 1999; Dujak, Fosic, & Turkalj, 2008, p.510). Similarly, I prefer to be generous, kind, charitable, and nurturing through giving up my own interests or giving way to another person’s point of view to preserve or maintain the relationship I have with them. This is consistent with Country Club leadership style, which denotes a high concern for people and a low concern for production or task (Copley, 2008, p.7; Nikezic, Stojkovic, Djurovic, & Djordjevic, 2013, p.394; Koc, Kiliclar, & Yazicioglu, 2013, p.98). I mostly prefer to keep a harmonious atmosphere even if the task or productivity will be compromised. Nevertheless, it does not wholly mean that I do not perform. I also work hard as long as other people are both happy and secure.

 My second highly preferred conflict management style is Avoiding, which is both low in cooperativeness and assertiveness dimensions (Langton, Robbins, & Judge, 2016, p.315; Kodikal, Rahman, & Pakeerrappa, 2014, p.3) and also known as “Withdrawing”. It means that I prefer to be indifferent to the interests of whichever parties and refuse to be part of any conflicts. However, it does not necessarily imply that I allow the other party to come to a decision on my behalf.  Most of the time, I prefer to use delayed tactics, to change the subject or topic especially during confrontations, to sidestep to an issue, or to postpone any decision that may cause conflict (Elgoibar, Euwema, & Munduate, 2017; Stanley, 2004, p.27). In relation to the managerial grid, this conflict management strategy corresponds to Laissez Fair or often called as Impoverished leadership style. It has low in production orientation and relationship orientation (Copley, 2008, p.7; Nikezic, Stojkovic, Djurovic, & Djordjevic, 2013, p.394; Koc, Kiliclar, & Yazicioglu, 2013, p.98). In essence, I incline to be passive and prefer to exert minimal effort in the accomplishing the required task done or make delayed decisions. Moreover, according to Bass (2008) and Loi et al. (2009), as a leader, I prefer to not provide any motivation or satisfaction as regards to the demands of my subordinates. I choose to make them feel neglected or overlooked by leaving them and making them responsible in dealing with problems (as cited in Nguyen, Grover, & Nguyen, 2017).

 Furthermore, based from the results, my mid score or third conflict management style preference is Collaborating also referred to as Problem Solving or Integrating. It signifies that I prefer to be highly cooperative and assertive (Langton, Robbins, & Judge, 2016, p.315; Kodikal, Rahman, & Pakeerrappa, 2014, p.3). As a collaborator, my characteristics include creative, innovative, and collective. I prefer to have equal interaction and involvement together with the other party and brainstorm to come up with new, unique ideas or solutions that will both satisfy our interests or concerns. It reflects to the Team or Democratic leadership style, which gives importance to both people and production needs (Copley, 2008, p.7; Nikezic, Stojkovic, Djurovic, & Djordjevic, 2013, p.394; Koc, Kiliclar, & Yazicioglu, 2013, p.98). Having mid-inclination to this style, I still prefer to be efficient and inclusive as a leader. I value teamwork, commitment, and ideas to carry out effective results and accomplishments of goals.  In short, I prefer to achieve the team objectives efficiently and at the same time foster a strong bond with among the team members.

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 My next preference is the compromising conflict management style, which is also intermediate to the cooperativeness and assertiveness dimensions (Langton, Robbins, & Judge, 2016, p.315; Kodikal, Rahman, & Pakeerrappa, 2014, p.4). Having this as my fourth preference means that I would less prefer to engage in making deals or negotiation. Moreover, I also have less inclination to split the difference, to sacrifice something as long as the other party likewise give up something, or to arrive at solutions that only partially satisfy both party’s concerns or interests (Barki & Hartwick, 1999). In terms of the managerial grid, this strategy is related to Middle of the Road leadership style that in halfway in terms people and production orientations (Copley, 2008, p.7; Nikezic, Stojkovic, Djurovic, & Djordjevic, 2013, p.395; Koc, Kiliclar, & Yazicioglu, 2013, p.98). It denotes that I would less prefer to maintain a balance between the tasks that I need to get done as well as to my relationship with other people. I do not, however, prefer to totally uphold and commit to either of the two dimensions. With this leadership style, I have less preference to settle in suitable or average performance; because I do not exert substantial effort and only push my teammates moderately in achieving our goals. Hence, the needs of the people nor production are not totally met (Koc, Kiliclar, & Yazicioglu, 2013, p.98).

  Lastly, my least preferred conflict management style is Forcing also called as Competing or Controlling, which is highly assertive but uncooperative (Langton, Robbins, & Judge, 2016, p.315; Kodikal, Rahman, & Pakeerrappa, 2014, p.4). The result means that I least prefer to be self-centered, aggressive, competitive, and overly confident. Also, I have least preference to a fight or to win while having no consideration to the other party’s concern. I least likely to incline on being fixed and firm on my point-of-views and to insist that they are always right. In relation, this conflict management strategy is reflective to Autocratic leadership style from the managerial grid. It is high in terms of concern for production however low in concern for people’s needs (Copley, 2008, p.7; Nikezic, Stojkovic, Djurovic, & Djordjevic, 2013, p.395; Koc, Kiliclar, & Yazicioglu, 2013, p.98). It means that I prefer least on focusing on the tasks or assignments and just view my teammates as vehicles to accomplish all of them.

In conclusion, undoubtedly, conflict management styles – forcing, collaborating, compromising, avoiding, and accommodating – are significant aspects of leadership styles – autocratic, democratic, middle-of-the-road, laissez faire, and country club – and, especially utile in characterization and distinction on the managerial grid. Conflict management styles from Dual Concern Theory are, indeed, compacted to the nature of Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid.

References

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Kodikal, R., Rahman, H., Pakeerrappa, P. (2014). Conflict Management Strategies – A Comparative Analysis of the Employees Working For Service Sectors. International Research Journal of Business and Management. 7(8). 1-12.

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Nikezic, S., Stojkovic, D., Djurovic, B., & Djordjevic, A. (2013). Leadership Network Blake, Mouton and Mccanse: Case Study – Leadership Styles and Dimensions in One of the Local Self-Governments in Serbia. International Journal for Quality Research, 7(3), 393-409. Retrieved from http://www.ijqr.net/journal/v7-n3/9.pdf.

Stanley, A. (2004). Leadership Styles and Conflict Management Styles: An Exploratory Study. Regent University, School of Leadership Studies. Michigan, USA: ProQuest Information and Learning Company.

Van de Vliert, E., & Kabanoff, B. (1990). Toward Theory-Based Measures of ConflictManagement. The Academy of Management Journal, 33(1), 199-209. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/256359.

Dynamics of Two Dimensional Projectile Motion

Experiment: Study of Projectile Motion
SUMMARY
Moving an object in a bilaterally symmetrical, parabolic path is called Projectile motion. The path followed by the object is called its trajectory (Boundless, 2014). Some of examples are as follows:-
Firstly, projectile is dropping object from rest position; secondly, an object thrown vertically upward is also called projectile in the end, an object which is thrown at an angle upward to the horizontal is also a projectile (providing effect of air resistance is negligible). Furthermore, in projectile object that once projected or dropped remains in motion by its own inertia and is inclined only by the downward force of gravity (Anonymous, 1996).

KEY POINTS OF PROJECTILE MOTION:
Time of Flight, T: The time of flight depends upon two things that are angle of projection and initial velocity of an object. Moreover, the vertical displacement of an object will be zero when the point of projection and return will be on the same horizontal surface (Boundless, 2014).
Symmetry: If the point of projection and return occur along the same horizontal surface means current motion is symmetrical in the vertical plane (Boundless, 2014).
Maximum Height, H: When the vertical component of velocity, vy, will be equals to zero shows the maximum height of an object. Projectile goes against gravity as it moves up, so the velocity decelerates likewise velocity accelerates downward under gravity (Boundless, 2014).
Range of the Projectile, R: Displacement in the horizontal direction is called range. Acceleration is absent in this direction and the line of range shown when gravity only acts vertically (Boundless, 2014).

As shown in this image, range of projectile is independent of the forces of gravity (Boundless, 2014).
OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this experiment was to analyze the dynamics of two dimensional projectile motion. Moreover, this was done by providing a ball with a horizontal velocity and measuring the time of flight and range. Furthermore, check the systematic errors in the data by comparing the values of vertical and horizontal acceleration.
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To follow the two dimensional motion of an object and to determine that the motion can be analyzed by considering the motion in each dimension separately.
SECONDARY OBJECTIVE: To check the existing possible systematic errors by comparing the horizontal acceleration with expected value of zero and vertical acceleration with the accepted value for g.
THEORY

Figure above is showing the experimental setup displaying measured values of initial height, range and time of flight
The ball According to the Newton’s first law of motion, there will be no acceleration in horizontal direction, unless a horizontally directed force acts on the ball. Ignoring the air friction, only force acting on the ball during flights is the force of gravity.
The range is the horizontal distance, x, between the hooter of the launcher and the place where the ball lands.
The range is given by
x = (v0 cos ø) t,
Where v0 is the initial speed of the ball as it leaves the hooter, ø is the angle of inclination above the horizontal, and t is the time of flight.
If the ball is shot horizontally (ø = 0), then the cos ø = 1 and the range is given by
x = v0 t. The time of flight will be
t = x / v0 [Equation 1]
The vertical distance, y, that the ball falls in time t is given by y = v0y t + 1/2 g t2 where v0y = 0 thus giving y = 1/2 g t2. Substituting for time, t with equation [1] will yield
EXPERIMENTAL METHOD
Equipment required:
1: Science Workshop Interface
2: A photo gate motion sensor
3: Time-of-flight timing sensor pad
4: Projectile Launcher
5: A plastic ball
6: Measuring tape
Experimental procedure:

Firstly, set up the angle that you have to launch by using the protractor; angles are 0, 30 or 60. Secondly, with the help of ramrod set the ball into the launcher. Moreover, the most important point is setting the right range that you wanted to calculate that is short, medium or long range. After that adjust the time of flight sensor pad, open the software “Projectile Motion” on computer and activate the application. By pulling the trigger launch the ball; note the reading for the time of flight from computer and then by using ruler measure the range. Take measurements three times for each range (short, medium, long range). Furthermore repeat the same process and take measurements three times for each angle (short range at 30 and 60).
QUESTION/ANSWERS

How do the values for the time of flight for short, medium and long range distances compare when the ball was launched horizontally? Also compare the values with the theoretical value of time of flight at 0.

How do the values for the time of flight in horizontal, 30 and 60 launch compare when the ball was launched (in short range)?

DISCUSSION
Object moving in both motions that is falling free under gravity and moving both in horizontal direction is called as projectile motion; both the vertical and horizontal motions occur simultaneously but they don’t depend on each other. Moreover, after inputting the diameter of the ball into Data Studio we began our first shot at angle 0 and then according to that adjusted the landing pad to start collecting data. Furthermore, during this process we were making sure that the launcher speed remains same in every shot and also its angle; there were no problems in recording the data.
CONCLUSION
Projectile motion is two dimensional motion under constant acceleration due to gravity. Moreover, it is not necessary that an object should be thrown with some initial velocity in the horizontal direction; it is clear that there is a relationship between the angle of takeoff and the distance from which ball is thrown. Furthermore, the motion of a projectile can be studied easily by resolving it into horizontal and vertical components which are independent of each other.

STUDENT’S SUGGESTION
We have learned many things from this experiment like to calculate total time of the flight of an object and the prediction of landing point of a projectile. Moreover, Projectile motion helps in hitting the target. In addition, some of the real life examples are as follows:
A golfer needs to know at what angle above the ground the golf ball should travel to reach closer to the golf pot, there are many applications of a projectile. Real life applications of projectile include bullets on a straight spinning flight, rockets, and missiles. Furthermore, football kicked off by a player, a ball thrown by a cricketer and a missile fired from launching pad, all projected at some angles with the horizontal, are called projectiles.
References
Anonymous. (1996). the Physics Classroom. Retrieved 03 28, 2015, from physicsclassroom.com: http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/vectors/Lesson-2/What-is-a-Projectile
Boundless. (2014, 12 12). Key Points: Range, Symmetry, Maximum Height. Retrieved 03 24, 2015, from boundless.com: https://www.boundless.com/physics/textbooks/boundless-physics-textbook/two-dimensional-kinematics-3/projectile-motion-42/key-points-range-symmetry-maximum-height-230-11284/
http://amrita.vlab.co.in/?sub=1&brch=74&sim=191&cnt=1
http://www.phy.olemiss.edu/~thomas/weblab/221_exp_procedures_spr2006/221_proced_Proj_mo_spr2006.pdf
https://www.pa.msu.edu/courses/2002summer/PHY251/Projectile.pdf
https://www.google.ae/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=9&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CE0QFjAI&url=http://engineering.nyu.edu/gk12/Information/RAISE_Workshop_PowerPointFiles/Projectile%20Motion.ppt&ei=T0UUVfDSO9PLaNWogdgC&usg=AFQjCNHOrhZXFDclOBiI89btpHAQIHCLWg&sig2=CqlyKDLGcXo1QS-W7SHNow
http://www.pa.msu.edu/courses/1997fall/phy251/proj_mo.pdf
https://www.google.ae/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=7&cad=rja&uact=8&sqi=2&ved=0CDoQFjAG&url=http://www.mssch.edu.hk/phy/lab/example/Projectile%20Motion%20Lab%20Report.doc&ei=0WwVVfOHOpLdaNq0gMAN&usg=AFQjCNG8yUN-hLdBJj8YHOi1BSZHcXRJ8Q&sig2=cw7jFYS9MqXH5KnSJXsnYQ
https://www.google.ae/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=39&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CE0QFjAIOB4&url=http://www.rlasd.k12.pa.us/teachers/bsmith/Mr._Smiths_Physics_Classroom/Honors_Unit_4_files/Proj%20Motion%20Lab%20book.doc&ei=yHUVVY39KoPzaN2pgbgC&usg=AFQjCNEyanaLfh_BArpQ0408H7C5ZbDGFQ&sig2=snGyLOYUigF9iBf8o4I1dA
http://www.pa.msu.edu/courses/1997fall/phy251/proj_mo.pdf
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1UiGi0B9NPZeliXzZeptQoKA8G-Zg9z87ejszD9nSeHw/edit
https://prettygoodphysics.wikispaces.com/file/view/Projectile+Motion+Lab.pdf
https://186734.wikispaces.com/file/view/IWB+&+Camera.pdf
 

Shape Complexity Dynamics of Bangladesh Delta

Shape complexity dynamics of Bangladesh delta: A fractal dimension approach
Sugata Hazra Anirban Mukhopadhyay#, Sandip Mukherjee, Abhra Chanda and Tuhin Ghosh
 
Abstract
The lower deltaic plain of Ganges Brahmaputra Delta in Bangladesh is a tidally active flood plain with anastomosing network of rivers and tidal creeks. The rapidly changing morphology of this delta is mainly due to huge sediment discharge transported down the drainage basins, it’s redistribution by tides and currents , erosion, deposition and sea level change. The shape complexity of this delta mainly near the estuaries has been a major concern for the Geomorphologists for a long time. During the recent past, the study of morphology and landscape evolution has gone through a radical change due to the advent of remote sensing techniques. The present research attempts an analysis the shape change dynamics of this deltaic island region of Sundarban for the last two decades on the basis of fractal dimension index coupled with modern remote sensing techniques. It is observed that the shape of the islands with respect to their margin irregularities are being caused due to the change in fractal geometry at the micro level which in turn is a function of sea level rise over this time period.
Key words: Delta shape complexity; fractal dimension, Sundarban; Sea level rise.
1. Introduction
Sundarban mangrove forest of Bangladesh comprises a huge network of small alluvial islands formed by the deposition of sediments, transported down the drainage basins of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers system (Gopal et al., 2006). Deltaic erosion and morphological change are continuously seen in the Sundarban region (Ghosh et al., 2003). Innumerable tidal creeks and channels with diurnal flow reversal and rapidly changing land forms make this delta a very dynamic one. Islands are undergoing erosion and accretion, therefore the morphology is continuously changing. The changes in the morphology are mainly driven by the variable supply of sediments (Brammer, 1993) and sea level change.

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Shape analysis is a process which identifies the pattern of landscape. The process describes distinction between regularity and irregularity of shape (). The prime objective of the shape analysis is to understand spatial pattern of a geographical phenomena and its possible cause and predicts a probable future pattern (). Shape index, in terms of magnitude of roundness of the object or the measure of irregularity in terms of roundness, is a statistical method to quantify shape of any unit of area.
In a geographic context, shape is often characterized through a compactness indicator, which describes the form of a given region based on how far it deviates from a specified norm (e.g., circle, square, or triangle). The method for calculating this number utilizes one or more of the geometric parameters of the region being measured, such as area or perimeter (Elizabeth Wentz). The surface of the earth and especially landforms are always changing due to ever dynamic exogenetic forces contributing over the transformation of landforms in every moment of time. Due to this dynamism, the shapes of the landforms are not static outside a specific scale of time thus by creating the irregularity of shapes during the transformation process. Considering the transformation process as the media, we are required to examine the quantitative characterization of the shape irregularities of deltaic islands over the progressive temporal periods. The goal of the paper is to improve the ability to compare the shape dynamics caused due to external factors thereof over two decadal periods. Also it is to suggest a method for improving the ability to compare the shape of landforms in a GIS environment with statistical base that is less dependent on direct human intervention or intuition or visual interpretation.[t1]
As the fractional geometry especially known as fractal dimension of the object is a fundamental component of the object’s geometry to measure the irregularity. Fractal dimension is a fractionary value that describes the irregular of an object and how much of the space it occupies. It is a measure of how fragmented a fractal object is which may be understood as a characterization of its self-similarity (Backes and Bruno, 2008). We have taken this element as independent variable on the micro analytical base and by extracting the same for detection of overall shape change and the temporal dynamics of islands as the dependent variable on the macro analytical base over two decades. Sea level rise is found to be causal factor behind this dynamics. Present study aims at shape complexity dynamics study of Bangladesh Sunderban from 1999 to 2010 in the framework of Fractal Dimension (FD) and Shape Index (SI) analysis.
2. Study area and datasets
Bangladesh, a low lying flood plain delta is the land of rivers and canals. This[t2] delta is formed at the confluence of Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna river system and their respective tributaries. Pramanik (1983) has divided the coastal zone of Bangladesh into three main regions namely eastern region, central region and western region. Our present study is mainly on the islands of central and western coastal regions. Central coastal zone extends from Feni river estuary to the eastern corners of the Sunderban. The zone receives a large volume of silt deposition from Ganga, Brahmaputra and Meghna river system. The sediment load comprises more than 70% of the silt with additional 10% sand (Sarwar, 2005). The morphology of this zone is very much dynamic due to huge river discharge and strong current leading to high rate of erosion and accretion. Numerous islands are located in this region. Many islands have formed by the accretion and many have disappeared in last few years due to erosion.
Western region is mainly covered by Sunderban mangrove forest. Due to presence of mangrove forest this zone is comparatively stable in terms of erosion. The main characteristics of this zone are mangrove swamps, tidal creeks and mud flats. This region lies at 0.9 to 2.1 m above mean sea level (Iftekhar and Islam, 2004). Soil is of mainly silt loam or alluvial type. This region is very important for tourism due to Sunderban[t3].
Landsat TM-5 images of the year 1999 and 2010, 30 m spatial resolution, of Bangladesh Sunderban have been taken for this study. The path/row no of this datasets is[t4] …………. Satellite altimeter data of TOPEX (NASA) is taken for measurement of regional mean sea level using Nadir Pointing Radar Altimeter. The sea level rise is computed from the tide gauge measurement of various observatory of Bangladesh such as Hiron Point, Khepupara and Charchanga.
Figure 1
3. Methodology
The step by step procedures have been followed to examine the fact and to establish the concept. The raster and vector data processing and statistical analysis have been implemented in the remote sensing and GIS environment, the detail of which is furnished in the flow chart:
Figure 2
3.1 Satellite data processing
Two satellite imagery of different time (1999 and 2010) is taken into consideration in this study. Landsat TM-5 datasets were downloaded from the http://glovis.usgs.gov website. All the datasets are projected in UTM projection with zone no 45 and WGS 84 datum.
3.2 Measurement sea surface height variation
The measurement of regional mean sea level and sea level anomaly is computed from satellite altimeter data of TOPEX (NASA-built Nadir Pointing Radar Altimeter using C band, 5.3 GHz, and Ku band, 13.6 GHz, and POSEIDON (CNES-built solid State Nadir pointing Radar Altimeter using Ku band, 13.65 GHz). The datasets are analyzed for measuring sea surface height from the year 1992 to 2012. Inverted barometer correction was applied to improve thedata quality ().
3.3 Delta morphology analysis
This raster data format is changed to vector format by three successive stages. First is the digitization of the raw images in line layers. Once digitization is successfully completed, topology was built followed by the polygon building. After polygon building, creek and landmass layers are separated for two years. The landmass layers of polygons have converted to raster format again in order to use as the input for fractal dimension and shape index calculation in Fragstats (version 4.1) software. Fractal dimension and shape index are calculated using equation 1 and 2 (Jorge and Garcia, 1997).
Shape Index = (1)
Where, P is the perimeter of the polygon and A is the polygon area. If the polygon value is 1.0 it expresses maximum compaction, where the shape is circular. As the shape becomes more complex the SI increases.
FractalDimension Index (D) = (2)
The self similarity ratio and N is the number of step size here. Then[t5] the curve is defined as self-similar with fractal dimension D. FD of a curve may be any value D ranges from 1.0 to less than 2.0 for lines, and from 2.0 to less than 3.0 for surfaces. The higher the spatial complexity of a line or surface, the higher its fractal dimension (Nayak, 2008).
Index Number Analysis[t6] is carried out to calculate the gradual changes of both the factors having the base year as 1999. The Simple Aggregative Index of FD (Eq. 3) and Simple Aggregative Index of SI (Eq. 4) are calculated to identify the change in FD and SI. The Fisher’s Ideal Index (I0n) is also computed to see the relative change of SI and FD during the period 1999 and 2010 (Eq. 5). It is a compound index calculated from Laspeyres’s Index and Paasche’s Index (). The relation between FD and SI is analysed in terms of regression and correlation to identify the relation between island shape and fractal geometry[t7].
Simple Aggregative Index of FD (I0n) = (∑pn / ∑p0) x 100(3)
Simple Aggregative Index of SI (I0n) = (∑qn / ∑q0) (4)
Fisher’s Ideal Index(5)

Laspeyres’s Index = ∑qn p0/ ∑q0 p0
Paasche’s Index = ∑qn pn/ ∑q0 pn
Fisher’s Ideal Index (I0n) = √(Laspeyres’s Index/ Paasche’s Index) x 100

 
Result and discussion
Statistical analysis of change in delta morphology
…..[t8]
The histograms of Fractal Dimension Index (Figure 3) and Shape Index (Figure 4) have been analyzed separately to examine the general statistical trends of the data. The summery of the histograms of FD and SI of the year 1999 is listed in the Table[t9] 1. It is observed that the modal frequency class has been defragmented into the higher FD values beyond the median range of 1.056 in 2010 and also the fractal diversity increases by 2 new classes in this year. The histograms of FD and SI of the year 2010 are summarized in the Table – 2. It is perceived that despite of being the modal class persistent, the frequency in the modal class is defragmented and distributed into higher SI classes beyond the median value of 1.475 and also 4 new SI classes are detected in the progressive period of 2010.
Figure 3
Table 1
Figure 4
Table 2

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The Simple Aggregative Index of FD and SI are shown (Box 1) which is 101.49% and 117.26% respectively. The Simple Aggregative Index shows there is only 1.49% increase in FDI whereas SI increases by 17.26% in between 1999 and 2010, revealing about 8.63% changing effect of FDI over Shape Index. The Simple Aggregative Index of FDI and SI have confirmed that both the FDI and SI increases in this period and there is a definite changing effect of fractal geometry over the shape of the islands between 1999 to 2010 whereas the magnitude of the changing effect is only 8.63%.
The Fisher’s[t10] Ideal Index (Box 1) shows that the SI has increased with respect to FD by 5.19% from 1999 to 2010. It is signifying the there is a positive increase of shape diversity with respect to fractal diversity within the specified time period.
Relationship between FD and SI
The scatter plots and linear regression of FD and SI for 1999 and 2010 depicts that there is a strong positive relation of FD and SI of the Islands. The magnitude of Pearson’s correlation (r-value) increases with strong positive response in the 2010 is revealing that trend of changing shape diversity of Islands in terms of FD is increasing towards the gradual period. Both the r-values are positive and it is also evident that the relation of Island shapes with their fractal geometry becomes stronger in the progressive period of 2010 as the r-values have changed from 0.44 to 0.73.
Figure 5
The causal factor of Shape Dynamics-Sea Level Changes
To find the root cause of the shape[t11] dynamics of delta region, two main exogenetic factors have been examined on spatio-temporal basis such as creek density and sea level change. Creeks density is calculated for the year 1999 to 2010 by dividing the length of creek with the area of the island, which shows there is also a trend of gradual increase especially in mangrove forest area on the sea shore margin. It is observed that values of creek density increases towards the sea shore region where the sea water along with wave action is more active rather than dynamic river water in the inland areas which is shown in the Figure 6. Except one region the creek density is higher on the sea margin. The increase creek density may be the reason for formation of several islands in the central coastal zone due to defragmentation.
Figure 6
The temporal data of sea level changes of three observation points i.e., Hiron Point, Khepupara and Charchanga (Figure 7) are analyzed to identify the sea level changes within 1979 to 2000, shown in Figure 8. The progressive graph of the data of this temporal period exhibits an average positive gradual trend of sea level rise in this region.
Figure 7
Figure 8
To examine the causal source of that diversity and we have definitely found that there remains [t12]a positive sea level anomaly of 2.80 mm in between 1992 to 2012 in the concerned region (Figure 9). The fact again signifies that the sea level rise in the study area which contributes the changes of delta morphology capture in fractal geometry ultimately resulting into dynamism of island shapes over the progressive temporal period[t13].
Figure[t14] 9
 
Conclusion
The objective of the present study is to analyse the shape complexity dynamics of Bangladesh Sunderban delta in between 1999 to 2010. The dynamism of the delta shapes is analysed using in terms of fractal dimension and shape index. The change in fractional geometry of island/delta within the specified time period is captured and the observations are strengthening with the help of other statistical indices. The analysis of FD and SI parameters of islands indicate that there is an exponential relation of Shape complexity with the changing FD within 1999 to 2010.
The[t15] shape complexity of the islands of Bangladesh is increasing which is clearly evident from this study. There may be several factors for this complexity. Of these, sea level rise and creek density are important factors because Bangladesh is highly vulnerable to sea level rise (Brammer et al., 1993). But still there is no specific regional scenario for net sea level rise because the Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta is still active and having dynamic morphology and delivers approximately 1.6 billion tone sediment at the face of Bangladesh annually (Broadus, 1993), while there are some parts where land is subsiding due to tectonic activities (Huq et al., 1996). So this sediment replenishment is considered to balance subsidence of delta (Agarwala et al., 2003). This sediment deposition along with strong tidal current is the reason for the formation of some new islands in the central coastal zone in last few years. But still it needs more detail scientific study to reveal the dynamics of this delta complex and a lot of time series data of sea level rise to comment on this.
It is also notable that result FD computation is varies over the scales. Hence, the observation and conclusion is valid only on the existing scale over which the experiment is carried out. It is also pointed out that further study may be undertaken to make more reasonable judgment over it.

[t1]Need modification
[t2]Co-ordinate, geographical extent
[t3]No. of islands taken into consideration
[t4]Path / row
[t5]Model name
[t6]What these indices indicates or signify
[t7]Why used in this study (indices)
[t8]Write something here
[t9]Analyse more about table 1 and 2
[t10]Significance
[t11]Is there any other cause like thermal expansion . at least mention it
[t12]modify
[t13]overall comments: write something about physical significance at least one or two paragraph. Things are statistically analysed physical significance and observation is necessary.
[t14]Try to give a or two delta figure of two time with FD and SI value ebbraded to show the change in shape and FD relation.
[t15]Check the conclution once
 

Evaluavation of Dynamics of Controlled Rolling Motion Using Multibond Graph Approach

 

CE 1.1 INTRODUCTION

This research project has been carried out by me for the fulfillment of the award of MTech degree (Mechanical Engineering) in the year 2012. In this research project, a problem of the dynamics has been defined and evaluated as mentioned in the title. This project was submitted to Deenbandhu chhotu ram university of science and technology, Sonipat for the evaluation and completion of the post graduate engineering degree in mechanical engineering (CAD). 

Deenbandhu chhotu ram university of science and technology, Sonipat has been established as an engineering college in the year 1986 on the name of Sir Chotu Ram, who was a renowned revolutionary in favor of agriculturists. Later the college upgraded to university in the year 2006.

The details of the project are mentioned below:

      The Chronology:

Duration: 6 Months

Dates: Jan 2012 to June 2012

      Location:

Sonipat, Haryana- India

      Organization/Institute:

Deenbandhu Chotu Ram university of science and technology, Sonipat, Haryana- India

      Position Title:

Engineering scholar

CE 1.2 Background

CE 1.2.1 Nature of the overall project

The dynamic analysis of rolling motion can help in studying rolling pairs in machines, mechanisms, vehicle dynamics, vehicle suspensions, etc. Dynamics of rigid body can be formulated based on the principle of work and energy, impulse and momentum method or by using Euler’s equation of motion. But as system complexity increases, order of governing differential equation increases it becomes difficult to solve system dynamics using Euler equations or any other method.  The complexity of the problem further increases when a system involves multi energy domain systems. Modeling a system in different domains needs a univariant approach. Hence in this project I used an approach known as Multi bond graph theory with the help of which we can bring energy conversion between different domains on to one platform. Not only that, bond graph approach also allows us to systematically organize large number of equations and makes it easy to find out the dynamic behavior of the system.

With the help of above-mentioned approach, mathematical model of the rolling motion of a disc on an elastic surface was developed. The bond graph model so developed can be used as a capsule for an object for modeling big system having rolling pair.

C.E.1.2.2 Objectives of the project

      The main objective of the project was to develop mathematical model of rolling of disc on thin layer of elastic material using bond graph.

      Here dynamics of rolling disc is solved by Multi bond graph approach as it is easy as compared to other methods like finite element method (FEM), finite element analysis (FEA) etc. Although FEM is also used now days but in case of dynamic problems FEM formulation is not that convenient approach. Hence, showcasing an easy way of modeling was the other one.

      The purpose of this work was not to validate rolling motion, rather to show the difference between modeling with a classical mechanical method and by using the bond graph approach.

      The developed model can also be used as a basic model for solving highly complex models which involves numerous rolling mechanisms.

C.E.1.2.3 milestones of the project

      Word bond graph object (WBGO) for rigid body dynamics was developed first, to start with the process.

      Then, I added contact interface to Word bond graph object (WBGO).

      After that, I modeled frictional forces at the contact interface according to the voigt model.

      Next to that, I added WBGO of proportional derivative to control the motion of the rigid body.

      Then I assembled all the WBGO to generate the final bond graph model for the system (A disc rolling on the elastic surface).

      After that I created the codes in MATLAB language as per the final bond graph model.

      Finally, I tested the model by simulating it in MATLAB platform and plotted all system states.

C.E.1.2.4 REPORTING STRUCTURE

The reporting structure along with my role, of the project has been demonstrated with the help of chart. My role in the project was of engineering scholar who has to perform all the project activities individually.

C.E.1.2.5 DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES

As I was the sole owner of the project, so all the project activities were carried out by me under the guidance of “Project Guide”. Below mentioned are details of the duties and responsibilities.

      I did the thorough analysis of the rolling motion and its importance in the various other mechanisms, along with learning MATLAB coding language and Bond Graph Approach.

      I tried to evaluate the benefits of the targeted problem along with effort measurement.

      After finalizing the problem, I created bond graph model of the dynamics of the rigid body.

      I integrated the bond graph model of the rigid body with the interface dynamics.

      I did the frictional analysis between the body and elastic surface (system).

      I merged the proportional derivatives to the system to convert system into controlled motion system.

      I performed the detail analysis of the final bond graph model of the system for the required output.

      I created the MATLAB code for the overall bond graph model of the system.

      I tested the simulated model in MATLAB system for different variations.

      I analyzed the output of the simulated model and compared the results with desired ones.

      I finalized the way of simulation showcasing in MATLAB.

C.E.1.3 ENGINEERING ACTIVITIES

C.E.1.3.1 PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION AND DEFINATION

First and the foremost important task of the project was to define the problem and finalize the scope of the work. The problem definition includes different task which are mentioned below:

      Problem identification

This includes analysis of the benefits of the problem solving in today’s world and in future. Also, in this step, benefits of the solution need to be compared with efforts, to finalize the problem. In my project, after analysis I found that outcomes of the project outweigh the efforts and can be highly beneficial for other scholars.

      Problem definition

This step includes the finalizing an appropriate definition of the problem in an understandable manner. In my project, in this step created the definition of the project which exactly shows my work.

      Project Scope

In this step, limits of the project are defined to finalize the extent of the work need to be included. In my project, I finalized that I will focus only on the elastic surface and not include non-elastic surface for the analysis.

C.E.1.3.2 LITERATUTRE SURVEY

This step includes the analysis of the history of the problem and related topics. In this step, I drilled down in the various researches, which were carried out earlier on the similar kind of problem. This helped me to gain insights of the various techniques now researchers are using to solve this kind of problems.

C.E.1.3.3 RIGID BODY DYNAMICS FORMULATION OF THE SYSTEM

In the rigid body dynamics formulation, I defined the basic rigid body on the surface of an elastic material. The equation of the dynamics of a point are formulated first. Below shows the pictorial representation of the point P with respect to a moving and an inertial frame.

After creating the point equation, then I integrated it to create an “Rigid Body”. The integrated equation gave me, the dynamics of the rigid body with respect to a moving and a inertial frame. Below is the pictorial representation of the rigid body with respect to two frames.

The equation mentioned below served the basis of the analysis.

C.E.1.3.4 BOND GRAPH MODELING OF THE SYSTEM

For Bond graph modeling of the system, I assumed a thin layer of elastic material between the disc and surface as demonstrated with the help of the picture.

With this assumption, I created a bond graph model of the different subsystem also known as “Word Bond Graph Object” (WBGO). WBGO are created for rigid body dynamics and contact interface separately. After that, I integrated the two WBGO to obtain the dynamics of the rolling motion on the thin sheet of elastic material. The final bond graph model is shown in the picture below.

After creating the bond graph model of the system, I created the WBGO of the proportional derivative (PD) controller and added that, to the system. The purpose of the PD controller is to control the velocity of the disc using distance and time. The WBGO of the whole system along with the PD controller is shown in the picture below.

C.E.1.3.4 SIMULATION AND ANALYSIS

C.E.1.3.4.1 INTRODUCTION

After the creation of the bond graph model of the whole system, I created the code for the simulation in MATLAB platform. For this, I used ODE45 solver as the equation from the bond graph can be directly used in the ODE45 solver.

Below shown is the flow chart that I created for the simulation code.

  Below mentioned are the major parameters that i used in Simulation:

PARAMETERS OF DISC

VALUE

Radius of disc

0.05 m

Thickness

0.005 m

Table1: Parameters of disc

    PARAMETERS

UNITS

Values

Time Span

Second

[0  2]

Mass of disc

Kilogram

0.5 kg

Stiffness of springs

k15

k20

k25

k30

Newton per meter

10000 N/m

Damping coefficients of dampers

R16

R21

R26

R31

Newton-sec per meter

20Ns/m

C.E.1.3.4.2 SIMULATION RESULTS

I tested the model through simulation and simulation results are discussed below.

C.E.1.3.4.2.1 SIMULATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE RIGID BODY DYNAMICS WHILE ROLLING

In this simulation, I simulated and analyzed the dynamics of rigid body while rolling. I applied a horizontal force of 1 Newton at the center of mass of the disc to provide motion. Various states are shown with the help of graphs below

linear momentum with respect to time       Angular momentum with respect to time

 Position of center of mass with respect to time

C.E.1.3.4.2.2 SIMULATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE RIGID BODY DYNAMICS WHILE ROLLING CONTROLLED BY PD CONTROLLER

In this simulation, I simulated and analyzed the dynamics of rigid body while rolling, controlled by PD controller. PD controller helps to control and give jerk free motion to the disc. Various states are shown with the help of graphs below.

 

 

Position of center of mass with respect to time

    Figure 6.17 Locus of a point on the circumference of the disc

C.E.1.4 APPLICATION OF ENGINEERING KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS

In this project, I applied numerous engineering skills to solve the problem. Few of them are listed below

      First, identifying a technical problem requires immense amount of topic research. Literature survey of the previous researches helped me to identify and then define the problem.

      Second, I applied rigid body dynamics knowledge to study the rolling motion and its effect on its environment.

      Third, I learnt and applied Bond graph technique to the system to put all the conversions on one platform.

      Fourth, I applied the coding knowledge of MATLAB to simulate the problem.

      Last, I applied the knowledge of Microsoft office to present the work in a understandable manner.

  C.E.1.5 MAJOR CHALLENGES

In this project, I faced several challenges which enhanced my skills in the end. Details are highlighted in the below mentioned bullet points.

      The foremost challenge was to identify and define the problem. As I already mentioned, literature survey of the previous researches helped me to overcome this hurdle.

      Learning the basics of rigid body dynamics was another challenge, in which my guide helped me immensely.

      Bond Graph approach was an all-new technique for me, as it was never been in my curriculum. Learning a new approach with in stipulated time was a hard task to accomplish.

      Learning a new coding language MATLAB as mechanical engineer was another tough task for me.

      Completing the project in the time frame was biggest challenge. I putted huge effort and time to solve the problem along with carrying out the documentation, in which my time management skills helped me.

      Lastly, satisfying the panel with the work and project details was another challenge. I answered all the queries of the panel to satisfy them.  Also, I demonstrated the work in very effective and understandable manner with help of my Microsoft office skills.

C.E.1.6 SUMMARY

      This project taught me numerous things related to time management and documentation.

      I learnt how to apply the engineering skills to execute the project and deal with in-between challenges.

      In this project, I acquired new engineering skills like MATLAB coding and Bond graph technique, which could be fruitful for me in the future.

      I also learnt how to identify a problem and various ways of solving them, along with opting for the best solution.

      This project also helped me to enhance my decision-making skills.

      I also learnt how to carry out a research project in a timely manner.

      As it was a single-handed project, it helped me to learn, how to carry out any project individually and make it a success.

      As I was the first to submit my project, I received appreciation from my guide and institute along with the post graduate degree in mechanical engineering.

 

Dynamics of Bone Loss in Cases with Acute or Chronic Apical Abscess

48 limited field of view CBCT studies of cases with AAA or CAA were randomly selected from an existing database. The clinical diagnoses were made using the criteria established by the American Association of Endodontists (Glickman 2013). Inclusion criteria were as follows: patients with periradicular diagnosis of AAA or CAA; patients at least 18 years old; and patients with limited field of view CBCT studies obtained before initiation of treatment. CBCT studies in which the entire volume of the periapical lesion and/or the associated tooth was not captured were excluded from the study. All the images were small field of view (FOV) CBCT studies that were taken between January 1, 2016, and June 1, 2018, as part of an endodontic examination for diagnosis and treatment planning purposes. The CBCT unit used in this study was the CS 9000 3D (Carestream Health, Inc, Rochester, NY) with an isotropic voxel size of 76 mm and FOV of 50 X 37 mm. Exposure parameters were 60–90 kVp and 6–15 mA.

The CBCT images were viewed with InvivoDental Imaging Software version 6.0.02 (Anatomage, San Jose, CA) on a Dell Professional P2213 workstation (Dell, Round Rock, TX) with a 22-inch Dell light-emitting diode monitor with a resolution of 1680 X 1050 pixels in a dimly lit room. The window/level of the images was adjusted using the image processing tool in the software to ensure optimal visualization. Two observers, a board-certified oral and maxillofacial radiologist and a board-certified endodontist, were calibrated based on the criteria and variants established before the evaluation session. All images were analyzed simultaneously to reach a consensus for the interpretation of the radiographic findings. Multiplanar images were interactively examined in a sequential fashion in all 3 dimensions, and findings were correlated across these images to arrive at a conclusion.

During evaluation of the CBCT studies the following data were recorded:

Volume of the periradicular lesions

Presence of cortication (a uniform, high attenuation line at the periphery of the lesion)

Presence or absence of cortical fenestration

Buccal or palatal location of the fenestration

Location of the cortical fenestration relative to the associated root (coronal 3rd, middle 3rd, apical 3rd, or subapical)

Vertical extension of the cortical fenestration relative to the associated root (extension to one location or more than one location)

Distance of the involved apex to the buccal and lingual/palatal surface of the cortical bone

Volume of the periradicular lesions were measured using Mimics Innovation Suite software version 19 (Materialise NV, Belgian). Masks were created from thresholding and the lesions were segmented using 3D Live Wire tool (Figure 1). Then the masks of the periradicular lesions were converted to a 3-D model and the volume was recorded.

For multirooted teeth with multiple distinct lesions, the pattern of the lesion with cortical fenestration was recorded as the primary lesion. If no cortical fenestration was present, the lesion with the larger size was considered as the principal lesion. For multirooted teeth with a single lesion associated with multiple roots, the entire lesion was considered as the principal lesion.

After data collection, data entry was performed in Excel (Micro- soft, Redmond, WA), and data analysis was performed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 22 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL). Differences between the groups were compared using the chi-squared, Fisher’s exact, and Mann Whitney tests. Using Shapiro-Wilk test, it was determined that the data for the volume of the lesions was not normally distributed, and therefore it was expressed as median and interquartile range (IQR). The level of significance was set at p
Results

 

23 cases with AAA and 25 cases with CAA were included in the study. As summarized in Table 1, for age, gender, tooth location and pulpal diagnosis, there was no statistically significant difference between AAA and CAA groups (Table 1). The median volume was 109 mm3 for AAA and 233 mm3 for CAA (Table 2), but there was no statistically significant difference between the groups (P > 0.05). All the cases with CAA had cortical fenestration, but only 47.8% of cases with AAA had cortical fenestration (P

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For both AAA and CAA groups, the differences between the vertical location of fenestration was not statistically significant (P > 0.05), and the most common location for cortical fenestration was at the apical 3rd (Table 3). CAA cases, had relatively larger cortical disruptions than AAA cases, and 48% of them had fenestrations extending to more than one location of the root (e.g. apical 3rd to middle 3rd). Only 4.3% of AAA cases had similar extensive fenestrations.

8% of cases with AAA and 13% of cases with CAA showed a corticated border (P > 0.05).

 

 

 

Discussion

In contrast to cases with CAA which all had cortical disruptions, more than half of the cases with AAA did not show any radiographic evidence of cortical fenestration. Transmission of the inflammation in cases with intact cortical bone was most likely through the path of blood vessels and lymphatics (Bauer 1943), which resulted in soft tissue swelling or fascial space involvement (Figure 2). Another possible pathway for the spread of inflammation from the confined lesions to the peripheral soft tissue could be via bone marrow and cortical microchannels that were not detectable with CBCT studies. A study by Simon et al. using high quality computed tomography showed the presence of cortical microchannels in metacarpal bones in healthy subjects (Simon 2014). Therefore, absence of radiographic evidence of cortical disruption does not necessarily mean that no pathway exists through the bone, and the cortical plate may not serve as an impenetrable shell enclosing the cancellous bone.

In the majority of AAA cases, cortical fenestration was either absent or smaller in size than seen in CAA cases. This could partly explain the differences between the signs and symptoms of the two conditions. In CAA cases, the presence of these pressure relief valves could prevent emergence of swelling and severe discomfort. However, this was not a factor exclusive to CAA cases, as there are a few cases with AAA that had large cortical disruptions similar to that of CAA cases. In addition, although it appears that in the majority of cases with CAA the lesion followed the least resistant path by establishing a bony tract through the cancellous bone (Figure 3), in some cases the lesions apparently exited through unexpected pathways (Figure 4). It is worth noting that cone beam computed tomographic appearance of the two conditions may be very similar, and one cannot anticipate the existence of either of these conditions by just examining their CBCT imaging.

On average, size of the lesions in the AAA group were smaller than in the CAA group. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. In CAA cases, the smallest lesion had a volume of 34 mm3. However, two of the lesions in AAA group had PDL widening only (volume of less than 10 mm3), without a distinct periapical lesion. It can be speculated that in those AAA cases with very small lesions, inflammation spread so quickly that there was inadequate opportunity for osseous destruction to occur. This also explains why a case with AAA may not show evidence of a lesion in a periapical radiograph (Glickman 2013).

The apices of the involved roots were closer to the buccal cortex than the lingual cortex in both groups. Perhaps consistent with this is that more than 90% of the fenestrations were found in the buccal cortex. In addition, the overall incidence of fenestrations was the lowest at a location beyond the apex of the involved root. The thickness of the cortical bone decreases as one moves coronally from the location of tooth apices. As lesions tend to grow through the path of least resistance, the location of the fenestrations is understandable.

It has been suggested that a corticated border is indicative of a lesion with chronic nature, and sclerotic boundary is commonly seen with cysts and slow-growing lesions (White and Faroah chapter 26). Based on this notion, one may expect a higher incidence of corticated border in CAA cases compared to AAA cases. However, in this study only 8% of cases in CAA group and 13% of cases in AAA group showed a corticated margin, and there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (p=0.567). This finding questions the reliability of radiographs in determining the chronicity or acuteness of a lesion.

There are many elements (e.g. different components of immune system and species of bacteria) involved in emergence of endodontic signs and symptoms as a reaction to root canal infection, and a large number of states may be expected as a consequence. However, by self-organization, the immune system usually reduces the possible inflammatory reactions to only a few number of states, such as a draining sinus tract or an acute cellulitis (Jalali 2015).

Although there are differences between these inflammatory scenarios, one should not forget that these conditions are part of a continuum of inflammatory responses. Categorization of these conditions may be necessary for proper treatment planning and decision making, but it should not prevent the clinicians from considering the fuzziness of their boundaries. For example, a case with an endodontic sinus tract, if left untreated, can simply transform into an acute apical abscess or vice versa.

Notwithstanding the results of this study suggested the absence of fenestration as a possible contributing factor for emergence of acute symptoms, the other variables in the system should not be neglected. Presence of an infinite number of variables and their interactions make the inflammatory response to endodontic infection a complex nonlinear dynamic system (Jalali 2015, Seely 2000). Therefore, it may not be wise to pinpoint one element as the causative factor for the development of these inflammatory states. Studies focusing on this aspect of endodontic infection are needed.

This study showed that cortical fenestration is fundamental for the development of chronic apical abscess. However, periradicular lesions without evident cortical fenestration can still cause acute apical abscess and fascial space involvement.

References:

Gupta R, Hasselgren G. Prevalence of odontogenic sinus tracts in patients referred for endodontic therapy. J Endod 2003;29:798-800.

Glickman G, Schweitzer J. Endodontic Diagnosis. In: Colleagues for Excellence. Chicago: American Association of Endodontists; 2013.

Barnett CW, Glickman GN, Umorin M, Jalali P. Interobserver and Intraobserver Reliability of Cone-beam Computed Tomography in Identification of Apical Periodontitis. J Endod 2018;44:938-40.

Pak JG, Fayazi S, White SN. Prevalence of periapical radiolucency and root canal treatment: a systematic review of cross-sectional studies. J Endod 2012;38:1170-6.

Liang YH, Jiang L, Gao XJ, Shemesh H, Wesselink PR, Wu MK. Detection and measurement of artificial periapical lesions by cone‐beam computed tomography. Int Endod J 2014;47:332-8.

Naing L, Winn T, Rusli BN. Practical issues in calculating the sample size for prevalence studies. Arch Orofac Sci 2006;1:9-14.

Bauer WH. Maxillary sinusitis of dental origin. Am J Orthod Dentofac. 1943 1;29:B133-51.

Simon D, Faustini F, Kleyer A, Haschka J, Werner D, Hueber AJ, Sticherling M, Schett G, Rech J. in Vivo Visualization of Cortical Microchannels in Metacarpal Bones in Patients with Cutaneous Psoriasis By High Resolution Peripheral Computed tomography-Detecting Cortical Pathologies before the Clinical Onset of Psoriatic-arthritis.: 1892. Arthritis Rheumatol 2014;66:S832-3.

White SC, Pharoah MJ. Oral Radiology Principles and Interpretation, 7th ed. Missouri. Elsevier; 2014.

Jalali P, Hasselgren G. Endodontic inter-appointment flare-ups: An example of chaos? Dent Hypotheses 2015;6:44–8.

Seely AJ, Christou NV. Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome: exploring the paradigm of complex nonlinear systems. Crit Care Med 2000;28:2193–200.

Theories of Group Dynamics and Group Work

Current/germinal theories of group dynamics and group work – Decision Making and Communication:

When making decisions and solving problems, effective communication and decision-making skills are essential within a group since all members of the group are better informed, can review and appraise ideas, information, and alternatives through the use of consensus-based principles when making the final decisions (Forsyth 2018; Stanley 2011; Suter et al. 2009). 

Effective communication facilitates trust, commitment, and respectful relationships.  Effective communication exacerbates conflict if feelings of hate, disgust, and annoyance are verbalized (Suter et al. 2009).  Possessing an ability to explain things at the right level for the group to understand are essential for group members to feel safe, to contribute their opinions, and to overcome differences in viewpoints influenced from different values and beliefs (Stanley 2011; Suter et al. 2009).  Moreover, it provides a clear opportunity to be heard with respect, to allow for communication that is free-flowing, reflective of the reality of the group’s situation, and to harness the information required for effective decision-making (De Dreu & Beersma 2010; Suter et al. 2009). 

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But not all groups are perfect and not all groups make impeccable decisions.  Some groups make irrational decisions, and most groups fall victim to groupthink.  Groupthink according to Forsyth (2018) occurs when the group strives for solidarity and cohesiveness to a degree that disagreements are avoided, resulting in defective decision-making processes and the occurrence of suboptimal decisions.  The common causes of groupthink according to Forsyth (2018) include cohesiveness, structural faults of the group (such as isolation and closed leadership styles), and provocational situational factors (such as decisional stress).  To avoid groupthink, Forsyth (2018) recommended the following including reducing predeveloped searching of unanimity, rectifying misinterpretations and errors, and developing decisional methods of the group.

In accomplishing effective decision-making and problem-solving, groups require the completion of four important stages.  According to Forsyth (2018), the first stage is orientation which involves defining the problem, setting attainable goals, reviewing objectives and missions, organising roles and responsibilities, specifying how the group will work together, setting milestones, and developing an ops strategy approach or processes.  This stage is fundamental to constructing improved decisions, efficient problem-solving and reduces unwanted time since all goals and their respective paths to the goals are clarified (Forsyth 2018). 

Secondly, the discussion stage involves the collection and gathering of information about the situation.  If a decision is warranted, options would be identified, discussed, considered and processed by the group (Forsyth 2018).  This stage involves the group analysing ideas, sharing and debating viewpoints, and seeking a shared meaning or a better opinion (Forsyth 2018).  The members of these groups individually contribute and share unique information.  They critically evaluate ideas or differences in opinions.  Moreover, they encourage support, express commitment and time to each other (Forsyth 2018).  According to Forsyth (2018) time spent on active discussion within a group is essential in increasing the quality of the group’s decisions. 

Thirdly, the decision stage involves the group selecting a solution either through reaching consensus, voting, averaging, delegating or by using other social decision processes such as a social decision scheme (Forsyth 2018).  During this phase, the group is dependent on an implicit and explicit social decision strategy to incorporate individual preferences into a more unified decision (Forsyth 2018).  The advantages of group decisions according to Stanley (2011) include more diverse views, a shared feeling of responsibility, more complete information, more accuracy and creativity than decisions made by one person.  Whereas, the disadvantages of group decisions include more risk-taking, more time organising, delayed or slow actions due to not meeting consensus, and increased arguments leading to conformity (Stanley 2011).  However, if a group cannot meet consensus, Stanley (2011) suggested that the Delphi technique should be applied to allow individuals to contribute to the decision-making process since it may reduce the dialogue and conflict between the group.  Similarly, Vroom’s (2003) normative model of decision making and leadership for determining the decisional procedures of a group across different situations should be utilised since different situations require the use of different decision-making methods including autocratic, consultative (individually or a group), facilitating and delegating (Forsyth 2018).

The last stage is the implementation which involves the group carrying out their decisions into action.  Moreover, the implementation stage involves assessing and evaluating the impact and consequences of the group’s decisions (Forsyth 2018).

In summary, it is proposed in several works of literature that creativity, innovation, empowerment, and teamwork is enhanced significantly when communication is open and decision-making is shared (De Dreu & Beersma 2010; Stanley 2011; Suter et al. 2009).  Accordingly, effective decision-making and effective communication are essential for competent group dynamics. 

References:

De Dreu, C & Beersma, B 2010, ‘Team confidence, motivated information processing, and dynamic group decision making’, European Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 1110-1119.

Forsyth, D 2018, Group Dynamics, 7th ed., pp. 372-408, Wadsworth: Cengage Learning Belmont.

Stanley, D 2011, Clinical Leadership: Innovation into action, Melbourne: Palgrave Macmillan.

Suter, E, Arndt, J, Arthur, N, Parboosingh, J, Taylor, E & Deutschlander, S 2009, ‘Role understanding and effective communication as core competencies for collaborative practice’, Journal of Interprofessional Care, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 41-51.