European Monetary Union’s effect on Europe

A currency is a form of money and is used when purchasing goods or services. Coins and paper money are both forms of currency. There are different types of currency for each country, for example the UK has the Pound (£), the USA has the US Dollar ($) and 15 member states of the European Union use the Euro (€). There are other currencies used all around the world. A person can exchange one currency for another but there is a rate at which it must be done, these are called exchange rates. Exchange rates are the rate at which one currency is worth in another currency, for example at today’s current exchange rates £1 will by a person $1.46. Businesses exchange money every day and in large amounts, this effects how much a currency is worth. Businesses exchange money to purchase goods in other countries, if there are a lot of businesses purchasing from one country their currency value will raise. This means the businesses will have to pay more of their currency to import goods. Even though the value of a currency can rise they can also fall in value as well. This happens when a currency is not in demand. Because the value of the currency is high businesses will not import from that particular country because it will be possible to get what they want from another country for less money. This will cause the value to fall. Even though people exchange money when going on holiday they do not play a big part in exchange rate fluctuation, it is businesses which cause the exchange rate of countries to change every day. The exchanges rates have two effects on businesses. One of them is that businesses need them to import and export goods to other countries, without them it is not possible because each country has a different form of type of currency. The other impact is that businesses make the exchange rates fluctuate making it more expensive or cheaper to purchase goods in other countries.
The US dollar started to rise in value quite swiftly against the Euro and the Pound between July and September causing the value of the Euro and the Pound to plummet to all time lows.
Before the euro was introduced the member states of the EU still used their own currencies, but the exchange rate of these currencies were always fluctuating. Following an Arab-Israeli war in October 1973. Middle Eastern oil production companies forced high prices and restricted sales to certain European countries, consequently this created economic problems throughout the EU. This gave birth to the European Monetary System (EMS). The EMS was an arrangement between the member states to link their currencies to prevent large fluctuations. The essential fundamental of the arrangement was the creation of the exchange rate mechanism (ERM) which was a system to help maintain stability for the currencies of the member states. This was done by setting limits an exchange rate could fluctuate in. The limit was 2.25% (6% for Italy), for example the pound’s exchange rate could not increase by more than 2.25% and could not decrease by more than 2.25%. All currency values within the EU were tied to the German mark because at that time their currency value was the Strongest. This was good economically because business could cope with small fluctuations. But what happened when a countries exchange rate reached its limits? This happened in September 1992 when the UK was forced out of the ERM. The value of the pound was decreasing and the government tried to keep the value within the ERM limits. They raised interest rates from 10% to 12% to 15% in one day and they spent large amounts of other currencies to buy pounds to try and increase the value of the pound. But it did not work and had to leave the ERM. Other currencies in the EU devalued and the French franc was the only currency to successfully defend itself from devaluing. The establishment of the ERM was the first time a single currency was thought possible.
The signing of the Maastricht treaty in 1992 was when the EU made it an objective to bring a single currency (The Euro) to pass. The euro was launched in 1999 but only for commercial and financial transactions. Notes and coins were introduced in 2002.
There were strict conditions to be met before a country could ascend to the euro. These included targets for inflation, interest rates and government debt. A European central bank was created to set interest rates for all member states that ascended to the euro.
With the ongoing integration between the members of the EU and the continuing effort to make the trade of goods, services, people and capital easier, it was only a matter of time until the euro was launched. The ERM was designed to maintain the stability of exchange rates within the EU and was not very successful in doing this, so the EU had to come up with a better idea. This was the euro; this would remove the exchange rates when trading within the EU and make things more simple because businesses didn’t have to worry about how much their currency was worth in another currency within the EU. This is also written on http://www.civitas.org.uk/eufacts/FSECON/EC9.htm, it says

“Yet it was not an entirely successful move because it posed many technical difficulties in setting the correct rate for all member states and because some members were less committed to it than others”

Introducing the euro was inevitable because the ERM was not very successful in keeping all the exchange change rates within the EU stable and it was an objective for there to be a free movement of capital (money) between the member states of the EU. If there is to be a free movement of capital between the EU they would have to do away with exchange rates and create a currency for the member states to use.
There are 5 economic tests for the UK to join the Euro. These were created by the Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1997, this was Gordon Brown. The tests are a set of conditions the UK has to pass for it to join the Euro. The key notion behind the test is whether the UK is able to handle the same monetary policy as the countries within the Euro zone. The first test is economic harmonisation. If the UK joins the Euro the UK will be in sync with the Euro zone. But if the UK was growing at a faster rate than the EU then the UK interest rates would have to be increased but then that would increase the interest rates of all the other countries within the Euro zone. This is because the interest rates in the Euro zone are controlled by the European Central Bank. But if there were harmonisation there is no guarantee that it would be on a permanent basis. The second test is flexibility and whether there would be enough of it. For example if the UK went into a recession would it be able to cope. The UK would have no authority over monetary policy and fiscal policy would be limited by the growth and stability pact. This would restrict the amount of government borrowing and consequently restrict the scale for expansionary fiscal policy. The third test is investment and the effect the Euro will have on it. Would the Euro create a better setting for firms making long-term decisions to invest in Britain? The fourth test is financial services and what affect the Euro will have on it. What influence would the Euro have over the financial services industry considering London’s financial sector has thrived in recent years would the Euro effect it in a bad way? The last test is growth and employment. Will the Euro encourage higher growth and stability? Also how will it affect employment, will it create a permanent increase in jobs or not? There is no evidence that it would.

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With all this said will it be in the national interest for the UK to join the Euro? There are advantages to joining the Euro. The advantages are, the Euro would end currency instability within the Euro zone and lower it outside it because the credibility of the Euro would increase because it is being used in most of Europe. Another advantage is people travelling from the UK would not have to exchange their money, encountering fewer restrictions when transferring large sums of money when going across borders. A further advantage is businesses won’t have to pay hedging cost to insure themselves against the threat of currency fluctuations. Another advantage is there will be a lower interest rate. Also the stability pact will force EU countries into a system of fiscal responsibility. This will enhance the Euro’s credibility, which should lead to more investment, jobs and lower mortgages. Even though there are advantages there are also disadvantages to joining the Euro. The disadvantages are, if the UK government is required to conform to the stability pact they may be unable to battle a recession using fiscal policy. This is because the government will not be able to borrow as much money or cut taxes. Another disadvantage is the UK will have no control over interest rates as the European Central Bank controls interest rates within the Euro zone. A further disadvantage is the UK will lose its sovereignty. This means that the UK will have to work with other economically weaker countries, which are more tolerant to higher inflation. Another disadvantage is that the transfer between the pound and the Euro will cost a great deal. The British Retailing Consortium estimated that all British retailers will have to pay between £1.7 billion and £3.5 billion to make the essential changes. These changes include educating customers, changing labels, training staff, changing computer software and adjusting tills. The last disadvantage is the exchange rate would no longer balance Britain’s trade and capital flow with the rest of the world.
It is difficult to say if it would be in the national interest of the UK to join the Euro as there are advantages and disadvantages. But nobody knows what will happen if the UK joins the Euro, we can only predict possibilities. It is wrong to say the UK will never join as there are advantages to joining the Euro but the UK will not be joining anytime soon.
[1] http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/fds/hi/business/market_data/currency/11/12/twelve_month.stm
[2] http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/fds/hi/business/market_data/currency/11/13/twelve_month.stm
[3] http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/fds/hi/business/market_data/currency/13/12/twelve_month.stm
 

Effect of Doodling in Learning

Doodling: Distracting or Rewarding?

 George Evans once said, “Every student can learn just not on the same day or the same way”. For educators, there are few things more frustrating than looking out to the classroom and seeing children with their heads down appearing uninterested or inattentive. Infinite questions can run through a teacher’s mind as to the setting of their classroom and if they are handling the order in the classroom in a proper manner. However, when ideas and methods are multifaceted, doodling can be a fast and intuitive way for students to capture information. For example, it helps in stimulating the brain, creating conceptual hierarchies, and giving the brain a break from the task of paying active attention for long periods of time. Doodling is just one of many memory strategies for visual learning that can be used to enhance encoding of classroom material in all subject areas.

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  In order to understand why students feel apt to doodle, it is first important to understand where doodling came from. According to Matthew Battles of American Scholar, there are many ways in which the word ‘doodle’ arrives in the twenty-first-century terminology. For example, “The best-known such use occurs in the colonial sobriquet ‘Yankee Doodle’, which in turn became a catchall British nickname for Americans during the Revolutionary War” (Battles 106). Although there is origination in countries such as Germany and Portugal, each place offers the term ‘doodling’ to be a negative and unacceptable act. This negative connotation continues into the classroom when teachers are strict with their students about paying attention in class. But what does it mean to pay attention? Battles writes, “We doodle in solitude, fixing styles as private as the individuated, inner cosmologies of thought betray themselves in the slow smiles or the clouded faces of strangers on the subway” (108).  As students ‘thoughts betray themselves’, they begin to wander off into a different mental state than offering active listening skills to the teacher. As an educator, it is likely to hold expectations in the classroom such as refraining from side conversations to other classmates, looking at the board and taking notes as the teacher speaks, and to remain seated and still unless otherwise told. However, each student has a different way of learning and attention-span that can affect how these expectations are played out within the walls of the classroom. The M/C Journal acknowledges that,

Doodlers exhibit 29% more memory recall than those who passively listen, frozen in an unequal bond with the speaker/lecturer. Students that doodle retains more information and are likely more productive due to their active listening. They adeptly absorb information while students who stare patiently or daydream falter. (Populating the Ambient Space)

Each student that connects their learning with the small sketches in the margin of their paper can grasp more information since they have not yet withdrawn from the conversation as they are not ‘passive listeners’ when they become invested in doodling.  Teachers, of course, may want to question whether this act is as beneficial for the brain and memory as some may say.

 The biological considerations behind the art of doodling revolve back to the individual student. A study posted by G. Schott explains in detail how the parts of the brain connect to allow learning to continue to take place even if the student’s eyes and ears are not actively paying attention to the teacher. Schott emphasizes that “Brain activity in this default system seems to be inversely related to activity in another intrinsic network, “the attention system”, which is activated during goal-directed cognition” (1133). Ultimately, what is at stake here is a student who is drifting into a state of idle will lose any stimulation of the networks that connect to the attention system. Therefore, in doodling, there is still motivation for the brain to continue to work whether it be directly related to the topic of discussion throughout the classroom or not. It is not important what the doodle is, but that there is a doodle. Another important point Schott makes is that doodling has no relation to being bored in the classroom but is a way to avoid boredom (1134). The brain is engaged in something that is unique to each student but is not meant to come across as a form of disrespect to the teacher. A student could be dealing with anxiety, stress, or simply just having a rough day may result to doodling in the sides of the papers as a choice to escape their own conscious thoughts, but what they don’t realize as many don’t, is their subconscious is still at work. At the end of the day, the educators are hopeful to spread knowledge and lessons across to their students, and doodling can ultimately get them there with possible benefits some may have not considered. For example, “It will likely activate your brain’s ‘unfocus’ circuits, give your ‘focus’ circuits a break, and allow you to more creatively and tirelessly solve a problem at hand” (Pillay). This is a relaxing point for not only student’s education but in everyday lives. When the brain is working hard to concentrate on the same topic for any length of time, the ‘circuits’ can wear down and be less effective than they would be if they were given a break. Concentration and relaxation through art are beneficial in taking a step back and reflecting on the knowledge everyone has already. Additionally, this helps in mapping concepts in the brain for memory recall. A study performed in the International Journal of Art & Design Education provides evidence into how students allowed to doodle in class recalled information more accurately than students who were not given the opportunity. The study was designed to give a group of student’s powers in the classroom. Many times, the teacher feels that in order to maintain order and respect in the classroom they have to result dominating what the student can or can’t do throughout the school day. This dynamic of power takes away the adolescence interest and focuses on the atmosphere of the classroom over the education of the students. In this case, the students who were given permission to doodle if they chose to perform better on a quiz than those who were simply given the paper and instructed not to doodle on it (Tadayon). These students in junior high have represented the power of choice in the classroom. The experimental group shared the benefit of doodling, but also how the option opens the opportunity for students to show interest. In telling the students that they can doodle it places in their mind the idea that it is acceptable to do this, but they do not have to if they are not interested. 

 Ultimately, the consequence of doodling is the reaction of the teacher. Mary Bell observes that a student who is caught doodling in class is likely to give a call to the parents and explain that this is unacceptable in the classroom. Bell states, “Tonight her teacher will call her mother and tell her that Mary Ann needs to pay attention in class, sit up straight and stop doodling…This was a sad thing because the doodles were one thing that got me through the boring parts of my school days” (12). This is an example of the power dynamic in the classroom as previously mentioned. A student who may not appear to be actively listening continues to be looked down upon for what appears to be disengagement. However, Bell who acts as the student in the scenario follows up with how doodling has always been a part of her life and continued to be event into adulthood. The significance in continuing to grow with small sketches appeases the ideas that it can be beneficial for more than the classroom. Visual learning introduces more thought-processing about new subjects as students and adults are gathering new information. In connecting a sketch to an idea, the potential to remember the idea is greater which can be a challenge for all ages.

 While it is true that doodling is a rewarding aspect of classroom learning, it does not necessarily follow when it comes to the presentation of the lesson by the teacher. In other words, doodling can be effective when the lesson is not being presented in all visuals. A student who is engaged in a small sketch on a piece of paper is not physically looking at the pictures or models that are being presented therefore they are unable to conceptualize that information. Jason Boggs, Jillian Cohen, and Gwen Marchand collaborated on a study of presenting information on how multi-oriented tasks such as trying to recall an image shown to the students when the student’s head was down and doodling. For example, a visual recall task showed that students who were doodling while observing the images remembered less images than the group who was focused solely on the images shown (210). However, by focusing on the visual aspects, the researchers overlook the deeper problem of how many teachers have not embraced the benefits of doodling and allowed this concept in the classroom with boundaries. A possible solution could be to strategize and include doodling in the classroom at appropriate times. Bell offers strategies for teacher’s such as giving the students an opportunity to transfer notes into visual depictions to help connect concepts from words to pictures. Recent studies like these shed new light on how teachers can constructively address doodling in the classroom and encourage picking up a pencil and beginning a sketch over dazing off into a dream about anything else on the student’s mind.

 Although doodling may seem of concern to only a small group of students or educators, it should in fact concern anyone who cares about learning. A student in a class room or an adult on an office phone call can become subjects of doodling when it may seem inappropriate. However, as educators learn more about effective teaching styles, one thing they should continue to consider is reconceptualizing the idea of doodling in the classroom. This discovery will have significant applications in maintaining student’s attention in the classroom because at some point they are going to drift off topic, but doodling can keep the brain stimulated to learn. As George Evans once said, “Every student can learn just not on the same day or the same way”.

References

Battles, M. (2004). In Praise of Doodling. American Scholar, 73(4), 105-108. Retrieved from http://web.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=10&sid=48741f37-f0b8-4068-aa3b-51422014dd0d%40pdc-v-sessmgr06

Bell, M. A. (2015). Embrace your Inner Doodler! Join the Sketchnoting Revolution! Internet@Schools, 22(2), 12-13. Retrieved from http://libproxy.cortland.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eue&AN=111882942&site=ehost-live

Boggs, J. B., Cohen, J. L., & Marchand, G. C. (2017). The Effects of Doodling on Recall Ability. Psychological Thought, 10(1), 206-216. https://doi.org/10.5964/psyct.v10i1.217

Chan, E., & Sawal, A. (2012). The Negative Effect of Doodling on Visual Recall Task Performance. University of British Columbia’s Undergraduate Journal of Psychology, 1. Retrieved from https://ojs.library.ubc.ca/index.php/ubcujp/article/view/2526

Pillay, S. (2016, December 15). The “thinking” benefits of doodling. Retrieved November 27, 2018, from Harvard Health Publishing: Harvard Medical School website: https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/the-thinking-benefits-of-doodling-2016121510844

Populating the Ambient Space of Texts: The Intimate Graffiti of Doodles: Proposals Toward a Theory. (2010). M/C Journal, 13(2). Retrieved from http://libproxy.cortland.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=cms&AN=57400133&site=ehost-live

Schott, G. D. (2011). Doodling and the default network of the brain. The art of medicine, 378. Retrieved from https://www.thelancet.com/action/showPdf?pii=S0140-6736%2811%2961496-7

Tadayon, M. M. (2017). Doodling Effects on Junior High School Students’ Learning. International Journal of Art & Design Education, 36(1). https://doi.org/10.1111/jade.12081

 

Research Proposal on Bystander Effect

The world will not be destroyed by those who do evil, but by those who watch them without doing anything.

–          Albert Einstein

 

Bystander Apathy

 

It seems that when asked, people will respond positively. They would say that in an emergency situation, they would get help or act as a hero figure. But in reality, they tend to desist from actually helping when it occurs in real life. This happens to be the bystander effect in action. The bystander effect is when situations influence decision making which also creates a reduction in the helping behavior in the surrounding people. Even if others are present at the scene of the emergency situation, that doesn’t necessarily help. In fact, when others are more bystanders present, it causes people to refrain from helping even more (Hortensius and de Gelder, 2018). In 1968, John M. Darley and Bibb Latané tested out the bystander effect with a research program. Their research resulted in the findings that when there are more than five bystanders, only 62% intervened. But when there was only a sole bystander, it was most likely that they would help (Darley and Latané, 1968). This pattern was observed not only in serious accidents (Harris and Robinson, 1973), but also in noncritical situations (Latané and Dabbs, 1975), on the internet (Markey, 2000), as well as in children (Plötner, Carpenter, and Tomasello, 2015).

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There are three psychological factors that facilitates bystander apathy. The first is the feeling of having less responsibility when there are more bystanders present which is diffusion of responsibility. The second is the fear of unfavorable public judgment when helping or the evaluation apprehension. And lastly is the belief that due to no one else helping, the situation is not actually an emergency which is the pluralistic ignorance (Darley and Latané, 1968). There is some evidence that suggested that there are types of behavior that can be automatic and reflexive. It has been found that when someone observes a confrontation that seems to activate a specific part of the brain, the premotor cortex independent of attention or focus. There were experiments trying to determine how the number of bystanders affected the act of someone helping in a threatened situation. It was found that the more bystanders present, it created a decrease in brain activity in the district that is essential for the preparation of help. These areas are the pre- and postcentral gyrus and also the medical prefrontal cortex (Hortensius and de Gelder, 2018).

What hurts the victim most is not the cruelty of the oppressor, but the silence of the bystander.

-Elie Wiesel

 

The Intervention

 

For the purpose of this intervention I wanted to focus on the bystander effect in relation to dating violence. An article stated that, “…campus violence prevention programs should consider context-specific issues in their trainings such as relational distance and type of crime.” What they found in a study of whether or not the bystander knew or had relation to the victim or perpetuator, they were more likely to intervene (Palmer, Nicksa, and McMahon, 2018). For this specific intervention, the main focus is to educate people on the bystander affect. This intervention will be on the course of four days. For the first day, there will be a survey sent through the UH email that asks students to answer a few questions. In addition to the survey, the next day there will be posters put up around campus. There will be different posters that relate to both the bystander effect and dating violence. And the third day will put the bystander effect in action. The last day will include an open to the public final intervention regarding the bystander effect and dating violence.

Day One:

Survey Questions: (Survey is chosen to be anonymous or not)

Have you heard about the bystander affect? If so, How?

If you were a bystander in a dating violence situation, would you intervene?

Would the fact that there are more bystanders present, affect your response?

If you are the only sole bystander present in a threatening situation, would you intervene? How would you react?

There will be a booth set up on campus with people urging people to be involved with this study. The surveys purpose is to have an idea of how people will answer the questions on paper, as compared to the situation happening in real life.

Day Two:

Poster #1: There will be a picture of a woman sitting on the floor hugging her knees with a black high. She is looking up to the camera, as a man is above her with his fist out. In addition, the text will be: “HELP: You could have, but you didn’t.”

Poster #2: A photograph of a woman with hurtful words written allover her body. These words range from things that her partner may call her, things that he says, and any other hurtful things that he may yell to her. This will demonstrate that dating violence is not only physical. The text on this poster will read: “All it takes is ONE.”

Poster #3: There will be a picture of a woman laying on the ground as if she has just been knocked out. With her eyes open and towards the reader, a man is standing above her. The text will be: “Help was right here, but nothing was done.”

The purpose of the posters is that posted around campus it will grab the attention of everyone including students, visitors, and professors/instructors, etc. In order to show that these things are real, people seeing them need to see how bad it can be or result to. Situations with dating violence may start off as if nothing is really happening but escalate to serious problems. Often the victim is afraid and wants someone to step in to help them.

Day Three:

A situation will be created in public at three different locations and at the same time. A girl will be getting yelled at by a guy. Nothing very serious (physically), but will involve certain things such as…

I would love to hit you right now!

Do you know how mad I am right now!

It will involve things being said that will draw bystander’s attention. The guy will also slowly force the girl towards a wall until she is against the wall and continue to yell at her. This should draw attention. The purpose of creating a situation is to see if any one will intervene in any way. It will be video taped for the sake of the study as well. Once As soon as someone or some people intervene, they will be told that it was part of an experiment. Then bystanders will be asked to answer just one question.

Did you intervene in any way? If so, how? If not, why not?

Day Four:

The final intervention will include multiple speakers from professors to people telling their own stories o being a bystander who intervened and victims who are thankful that someone did. This will be open to the public. There will also be a repeat of the same survey done on day one. This survey will conclude of the same questions with the addition of one, “Will you allow yourself to miss the chance to help someone in need?” This survey will again be sent out through the UH email. In addition, a link to the video of the final intervention will also be included in the email. On this day there will also be a photobooth that includes props as well as signs that say, “I will be an effective bystander.” By including a fun photobooth it will draw more awareness and cause people to remember it more and see it because they will have a picture of them supporting the cause.

I always wondered why somebody didn’t do something about that, then I realized I’m that somebody.

-Unknown

 

Will it work?

 

The intervention should work because not only does it have a combination of different ways to attack the issue, but it also includes a real time learning process. On the first day when people fill out the survey, they will be thinking about the situation. Then on the second day when they visually see the posters around campus, it will get them to realize that it’s something that actually happens. On the third day they will have real life experience with a similar situation. It doesn’t matter it they intervened or not because just being a bystander and present at the situation is enough. By being a bystander that intervened, it will make them feel good that they did the right thing. Then by being a bystander that didn’t intervene, it will allow them to process their feelings and maybe they will think to themselves, “I wanted to help, but I didn’t know how to.” These thoughts may result them in actually intervening if they are ever a bystander in a similar situation in the future. Then lastly, the final intervention will allow people to come and even bring others. The purpose of the intervention is to allow people to come and get the additional information they need for future situations regarding the bystander effect.

The social responsibility norm is the societal rule that people should help those who need their help. In other words, we should indeed help those who are dependent of our help. Bystanders have the ability to influence the activity of the social responsibility norm, as well as the resolution to help. This serves in three different ways, being as a source of help, as a source of information pertaining to if help is required, and as a source of approval or disapproval of helping the action. The bystander effect may generate observers to think that someone else, maybe someone more qualified, would be the one to help. As stated by Latané and Darley there is a procedure called diffusion of responsibility. This is the proclivity that each group member weakens their own personal responsibility for proceeding action by spreading it unto other group members. This is the action that no one feels the obligation to take action, and it results in no one doing so (Darley and Latané, 1968). The social responsibility norm, as well as the diffusion of responsibility will cause bystanders to spread the helping responsibility to other bystanders. This act will cause it to seem that the victim is less dependent on the bystanders for help because there is so much, thus resulting in the norm that causes bystanders to weaken their duty to help (Kenrick, 2015).

The intervention should be a success because the main focus will be, “All it takes is one. But the more help, the better!” Just because some one else doesn’t step up and take action, doesn’t mean that it’s the right thing to do. If a situation seems alarming, even the slightest, it is the responsibility of the bystander (any or all) to simply ask, “Is everything okay here?” A simple question could help to prevent a threatening situation and even save a life.

Whenever one person stands up and says, “Wait a minute, this is wrong.” It helps other people do the same.”

-Gloria Steinem

Intervention Evaluation of Effectiveness

In order to evaluate effectiveness of the evaluation, we will gather up the surveys from day one and day four. By comparing the statistics of each question, we will be able to conclude if we have reached out to more people and made it known how important it is to help. The goal is to do the right thing, no matter who is watching. If you see something that seems wrong in any way, especially in situations where there is a victim, go on and help. It is okay for more than one person to get help and/or offer help. The more help that they receive, the safer the situation will become. The evaluation of effectiveness will allow us to compare the first findings of the survey, to the second. Then depending on how they differ, if the numbers go up then we will know that it had worked and if it decreases then we will know that it didn’t. Below is an example of a bar graph to show the results of one survey. Once we have the information concluded form both surveys, we will be able to compare the data.

He who passively accepts evil is as much involved in it as he who helps to perpetrate it. He who accepts evil without protesting against it is really cooperating with it.

-Martin Luther King Jr.

References

Darley J. M., Latané B. (1968). Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8, 377–383.

Harris V. A., Robinson C. E. (1973). Bystander intervention: Group size and victim status. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 2, 8–10.

Hortensius R., de Gelder B. (2018). From Empathy to Apathy: The Bystander Effect Revisited. Article: Volume 27 Issue 4, 249-256.

Kenrick, D. (2015). Social Psychology: Goals in Interaction, 6th Edition. Pearson.

Latané B., Dabbs J. M. Jr. (1975). Sex, group size and helping in three cities. Sociometry, 38, 180–194.

Markey P. M. (2000). Bystander intervention in computer-mediated communication. Computers in Human Behavior, 16, 183–188.

Palmer J.E., Nicksa S.C., McMahon S. (2018). Does who you know affect how you act? The impact of relationships on bystander intervention in interpersonal violence situations. Volume 33 Issue 17, 2623-2642.

Plötner M., Over H., Carpenter M., Tomasello M. (2015). Young children show the bystander effect in helping situations. Psychological Science, 26, 499–506. doi:10.1177/0956797615569579

 

Effect of the Weather on Agriculture

Executive Summary
Agricultural activities are often affected by the weather. Weather is unpredictable as it changes from time to time. As the agricultural activities affected, the crops or the outcome of the agricultural activities would be affected as well and this caused the income of the farmers to be affected or causing the investors to lose money. Therefore, weather derivative is needed to protect the farmers and investors. So, this research is all about modelling and pricing of weather derivatives where the weather is based on the daily average temperature in Malaysia. In this research, there are two main objectives which include the modelling of temperature and pricing of weather derivatives. To complete this research project, there are 10 stages to be gone through. The details about the stages would be discussed in the methodology of this research.

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The model used to model the movement of daily average temperature in this research would be the stochastic fractional Brownian motion. This model is chosen because based on the past researches, this model fits the data well and successfully modelled the dynamics of daily average temperature. From this research, the daily temperature is expected to be modelled and described by the stated model well. Besides that, the pricing of weather derivatives will be encountered as well. Through this research, it provides a lot of advantages. For example, it provides a better idea in the process of modelling the temperature and the pricing method of weather derivatives. The outcome from this research can be used as a reference for future researchers that do research in this field.
Details of Research Project
(a) Research Background
1. Problem statement
Agricultural activities are one of the main activities carried out by people around the world. It is one of the main sources of income for some of the countries like Africa, India and China. Even in this modern technological era, many of the agricultural activities still depending on the weather. Weather is the daily conditions of a particular place. For example, humidity, precipitation, the daily average temperature and visibility are all under the weather. Since weather is a thing that’s beyond human control and agricultural activities are highly depending on weather, therefore, agricultural businesses are often referred to as a high risk business.
In recent years, the weather insurance and weather derivatives are becoming more renowned as it reduces or hedge the risks faced by all farmers and investors that caused by weather. Jewson (2005) presented a few reasons why is the weather derivatives important and in Jewson (2005) and Cao and Wei (2004), a few weather hedging techniques were shown. The traditional agricultural insurance is the crop insurance. There are a lot of disadvantages of the traditional crop insurance. Some of the disadvantages include inefficiency due to poor contract structured, lack of information and high transaction costs involved. This caused those farmers could not afford for the insurance and hence the weather derivatives are highly needed as weather derivatives normally had a lower price than the weather insurance. Thus, weather derivatives play a very important role in helping the farmers and investors. The first weather related derivative deal was done by Aquila Energy in 1997 for Consolidated Edison Company, where a dual-commodity hedge was structured.
Since the agricultural derivatives are getting more important, more financial researchers are doing their research on the pricing of weather based derivatives. Norton (2010) stated that the weather derivative is a way to share the risk for farmers in developing countries. Malaysia is lucky enough to be located in the equatorial region. Hence, the weather in Malaysia is hot and humid throughout the year. Therefore, in Malaysia, the crops are only affected by the daily average temperature and the amount of rainfall. Of course, there are catastrophes that happen in Malaysia too, like flash flooding, acid rain or drought. These catastrophes in Malaysia caused the damage to all the crops. But, the main problem that could affect the crops in Malaysia would be the amount of rainfall, the daily temperature or humidity. Hence, in Malaysia, to structure a weather derivative, it is easier as compared to other four season countries because the weather factors that taken into account are lesser. Moreover, there are lack of people doing research in this field, thus, this research is quite important as to solve the agricultural problems.
2. Research questions
One of the problems faced by researchers in doing research about the pricing of weather derivatives is often the pricing model or the pricing technique that is used. Besides pricing technique, the model that used to describe the dynamic or the movement of the weather factors like amount of rainfall or daily average temperature in the research of weather derivatives is one of the problems faced by researchers as well. Hence, in this research, the focus would be on the modelling of the daily average temperature in Malaysia and the pricing of the weather derivatives. So, the questions to be answered in this research will be how well the model is, in describing the movement of daily average temperature and how to price the weather derivatives.
3. Literature review
There are actually a lot of researchers had done their research about the weather insurance or derivatives. Some of the models used by past researchers include temperature modelling, Black-Scholes model, Time Series models, Brownian model, Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model, Esscher transformation and more.
Taib and Benth (2012) had done a research on the pricing of the weather insurance by using three different approaches which include burn analysis approach, index modelling and temperature modelling. The weather index is first calculated and then the price of the insurance contract is calculated based on the weather index. The weather index, which is based on the Cooling-Degree Day (CDD) is calculated by using the formulae of After calculating the , the price of the insurance contract can then be now determined by using the formulae
P(t, ) = exp(−r( − t))E[)|Ft ]
where the expected value of the claim size is found. The exp(−r( − t) is used to find the present value by discounting at time as Indicates the end of the period where insurance starts paying. The formulae of P(t, ) is a standard method to price the weather related insurance or derivatives.
For burning analysis approach, it is firstly introduced by Jewson and Brix (2005) as a classic method in pricing weather derivatives. The payoff of the burning analysis approach is based on the empirical distribution of the sample data collected. While the mean value of observations of the sample data is used to calculate the price of the contract. The next method introduced by Jewson and Brix (2005) is the index modelling approach, and Taib and Benth(2012) modify a little bit of the model where the past claims are fitted into a distribution and the expected value of the distribution is used in pricing the contracts. Lastly, Taib and Benth (2012) proposed a new model where the changes of the daily average temperature are modelled using the autoregressive, a time series model.
Besides Taib and Benth (2012), Campbell and Diebold (2003) also uses time series model to model and forecast the daily average temperature in certain cities of America for the purpose of weather derivatives. While Chang, Lin & Shen (2009) constructed a theoretical model to price the weather derivatives and this is the extended version of the model of Cao and Wei (2004). In the research paper of Chang, Lin & Shen (2009), the estimation value of future Heating-Degree Day(HDD) and Cooling-Degree Day (CDD) is predicted by using Mote-Carlo simulation and they successfully utilize the time series temperature model in Campbell and Diabold (2003). Mills (2009) also uses time series model to model the current temperature trend of Central England. In the research of Mills (2009), it is suggested that three other alternative ways could be used to model the temperature trend, which is the parametric stochastic trend model, the non-parametric local trend fit, and a low-pass filter. These 3 alternative techniques had been discussed in Mills (2003) and Pollock (2007).
Other than time series models, other models were used by other researchers in pricing of weather derivatives. For example, Lee and Oren (2009) suggested a model of equilibrium pricing of the weather derivatives for various commodities. This model is built where the risk averse utility function is optimized by the agents, including the weather derivatives that have been issued. There are two types of agent. The first type is the farmers where they obtain the profit with the exposure to weather risks while the second type of agent is those financial investors where they hope to diversify the financial portfolio. Therefore, later in 2010 and 2011, Lee and Oren with Härdle and Osipenko simulate the realistic market conditions to get the equilibrium price for weather derivatives. This equilibrium pricing method of Lee and Oren is actually based on the research of Cao and Wei (1999) where Cao and Wei generalize the model of Lucas (1978) and include the daily temperature as a fundamental variable.
Since Black-Scholes Model is a popular method to price the European options, BotoÅŸ and CiumaÅŸ (2012) uses the Black-Scholes model to apply in weather derivatives. The aim of their research is to see how the Black-Scholes model can be applied in weather type derivative and to analyze whether it is a suitable model to price for weather derivatives. However, based on their findings of the research, they concluded that the Black-Scholes model is not a suitable model to price for the weather derivatives as the weather market developed very quickly and it is inconsistent. Due to the inconsistencies, the model is not preferable to be used for pricing of weather derivatives contract unless it is a part of the portfolio.
Benth and ŠaltytÄ-‐Benth (2005) uses a stochastic model to model the variations of temperature in their research paper. They used the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck with the driven by Levy process and having seasonal mean and volatility. They find that this model is quite a success to fit the Norwegian temperature data. Besides that, Svec and Stevenson (2006) also use a stochastic model to model and forecast the temperature.
Svec and Stevenson (2006) uses Fourier transformation and stochastic Brownian motion (SBM).They proposed a more generalized stochastic Brownian motion to model the temperature, that is, the stochastic fractional Brownian motion (FBM). The model proposed take account the low-frequency variability of weather where the SBM does not. The difference of the SBM and FBM is that the FBM included a continuous-time Gaussian process depending on the Hurst parameter. This research paper concluded that the Monte-Carlo simulation overly forecast while the autoregressive moving average (ARMA) time-series model under forecast the monthly accumulated Heating-degree Day (HDD) and Cooling-degree Day (CDD). They also concluded that the models they use in the research have better estimates than that of the Campbell and Diebold (2003) model.
(b) Objective of Research
There are two main objectives in this research, that is:-
(i) To model the daily temperature based on the analysis of daily average temperature in Malaysia by using stochastic fractional Brownian Motion.
(ii) Pricing of the weather derivative.
(c) Methodology
1. Flow Chart of Research Activities

Stage

Research Activities

2014

2015

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

1

Looking for a research supervisor

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

2

Setting up research title

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

3

Reading and studying of related journals

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

4

Fix the model to be used in the research

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

5

Preparation of research proposal

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

6

Collection of data

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

7

Analyses of data

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

8

Modelling of daily average temperature

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

9

Pricing of weather derivatives

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

10

Completion of research project

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

2. Gantt Chart of Research Activities
3. Milestones and Dates

Stage

Research Activities

Expected Completion date

1

Looking for a research supervisor

31/7/2014

2

Set up research title

31/8/2014

3

Reading and studying of related journals

31/12/2014

4

Fix the model to be used in the research

15/10/2014

5

Preparation of research proposal

06/11/2014

6

Collection of data

31/12/2014

7

Analyses of data

31/1/2015

8

Modelling of daily average temperature

15/3/2015

9

Pricing of weather derivatives

15/4/2015

10

Completion of research project

5/5/2015

The flow chart, Gantt chart and milestones and date clearly show that the research activities of this research project. To complete this research project, there are 10 stages. The first stage is looking for a research supervisor so that this research is under supervision. Then, setting up of research title will be the next stage. After setting up the research title, studying and reading related journals needed as to get a rough idea of what is the research needed to be done and what actually the research is all about. The fourth stage will be fixing the model to be used in the research. After reading and studying of relevant journals, the model to be used could be determined.
In this research, the model to be used in modelling the daily average temperature is the FBM. The FBM that will be used is as follows:

This model was chosen because out of a few models studied in the past research papers, it is one of the best model that fits the movement of temperature. In this FBM, it consists of several components. That is, the mean reversion process, the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and the fractional Brownian process which is a continuous-time Gaussian process. Besides that, the model used also included some seasonal and trend factors. With the combination of this few process and factors, it makes the stochastic FBM more efficient in describing the movement of temperature.
As the fixing of the model is done, preparation of research proposal would be the next stage and it is now pending for approval by supervisor. After the proposal of research is done and it is approved, collection of data begun and then analysis works will be started. Analyses of data enable the temperature to be modelled by the model fixed in the earlier stage. In this research, the model to be used is the Stochastic Brownian Motion. Hence, the eighth stage is the modelling of daily average temperature using Stochastic Brownian Motion. After the modelling, pricing of weather derivatives can be start doing and finally, after the pricing is done, the research project is finished up and completed.
(d) Expected results
1. New Knowledge
Throughout this research, there are actually a lot of new knowledge could be obtained. As this research is all about modelling of temperature and pricing of weather derivatives hence, by doing this research, it provides a better idea on which model is better in fitting or describing the movements of daily temperature as a lot of other models are studied. Besides that, the steps to model the movements of daily temperatures also a new knowledge. It improves the knowledge about stochastic. Since this research is using stochastic fractional Brownian Motion to model the changes of daily temperature, through this research, the suitability of the stochastic model to describe the changes of daily temperature will be reviewed. Besides that, through this research, the application and the usage of the stochastic fractional Brownian Motion is known. Moreover, it will provide a better understanding of the method to calculate the price of the weather derivatives.
2. Research publications
This research will be published as a thesis in semester II of 2014/2015.
3. Impact on Society, Economy and Nation
Since in Malaysia, it is lack of researchers doing the research about the pricing weather derivatives, so, this research of modelling and pricing of weather derivatives gives some small impact on the economy. One of the impact is that it improves a little bit of the economic conditions of the agricultural field. As mentioned previously in this research, agricultural activities are affected a lot by the weather and agriculture activities are one of the largest activities in Malaysia. Hence, by doing this research, the forecasting of temperature can be done based on the modelling of temperature. With the forecasting of temperature, it can help the farmers to be aware of their crops and come out with a better strategy to handle and prepare for the worst. Of course, the forecast results might not be accurate, but, with the guides provided from the modelling and forecasting, it helps to reduce the risk of losing the money, be it the farmers or the investors. This helps to prevent the farmers from stop doing agriculture activities. So, by doing this research, it indirectly affected a little bit on the economic condition of the agricultural field.
References
Benth, F., & ŠaltytÄ-‐Benth, J. (2005). Stochastic Modelling of Temperature Variations with a View Towards Weather Derivatives. Applied Mathematical Finance, 53-85.
BotoÅŸ, H., & CiumaÅŸ, C. (2012). The use of the Black-Scholes Model in the Field of Weather Derivatives.Procedia Economics and Finance,611-616.
Cao, M. and Wei, J. (1999). Pricing weather derivative: an equilibrium approach. Working paper.
Cao, M., Li, A. and Wei, J., (2004). Precipitation modeling and contract valuation: a frontier in weather derivatives. The Journal of Alternative Investments 7: 93- 99.
Campbell, S.D. and Diebold, F.X., (2003). Weather forecasting for weather derivatives. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 100: 6-16.
Chang, C., Lin, J., & Shen, W. (2009). Pricing Weather Derivatives using a Predicting Power Time Series Process*.Asia-Pacific Journal of Financial Studies,863- 890.
Härdle, W. K. and Osipenko, M. (2011). Pricing Chinese Rain: A Multisite Multi-period Equilibrium Pricing Model for Rainfall Derivatives. SFB 649 Discussion Paper 2011-055.
Jewson, S. and Brix, A. 2005. Weather Derivative Valuation: The Meteorological, Statistical, Financial and Mathematical Foundations. Cambridge University Press.
Lee, Y. and Oren, S., (2009). An equilibrium pricing model for weather derivatives in a multi-commodity setting. Energy Economics, 31 (5): 702-713.
Lee, Y. and Oren, S., (2010). A multi-period equilibrium pricing model of weather derivatives. Energy Systems 1: 3-30.
Lucas, R. E. (1978). Asset prices in an exchange economy, Econometrica 46, pp. 1429-1445.
Mills, T. C. (2003). Modelling Trends and Cycles in Economic Time Series. Palgrave Macmillan.
Mills, T. C. (2009). Modelling Current Temperature Trends. Journal of Data Science 7, 89-97.
Norton, M., Osgood, D., & Turvey, C. (2010). Weather Index Insurance and the Pricing of Spatial Basis Risk. Retrieved from: http://ageconsearch.umn.edu /bitstream/61734/2/Norton%20Osgood%20Turvey.Weather%20Index%20Ins urance%20and%20the%20Pricing%20of%20Spatial%20Basis%20Risk%20_ AAEA2010_.pdf
Pollock, D. S. G. (2007). Statistical signal extraction and filtering: A partial survey. In Handbook on Computational Econometrics (Forthcoming)2. Elsevier.
Svec, J., & Stevenson, M. (2006). Modelling and forecasting temperature based weather derivatives.Global Finance Journal,185-204.
Taib, C.M.I.C. and Benth, F.E. (2012). Pricing of temperature index insurance. Review of Development Finance 2, pp.22-31.
 

Effect of DDT on the Environment

Effect of DDT to This Environment
Pesticides became a bad forebode in agriculture since mid-twentieth century. In agriculture, pesticides are an important element to control the major vector-borne diseases such as malaria and visceral leishmaniasis. There are 4 major groups of pesticides: insecticides, rodenticides, herbicides and fungicides. Although pesticides are vital to protect the crop and also human health in the whole world, but due to their detrimental effects on natural ecosystems more deaths are cause by the pesticide poisoning than infectious diseases. Hence, we should focus more on the short and long term harms of pesticides on the environment. Most of the pesticides are highly toxic and will have immediate adverse effects on human health and also wildlife. Besides that, pesticides which spray on the plant at ground will easily contaminate the soil, water and air. The chronic consequences cause by pesticide including neurotoxic, carcinogenic, immunotoxic, hormonal and reproductive effects. One of the highly problematic pesticides is the insecticide dichlorodiphenlytrichoroethane also known as DDT.
1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane is the scientific name of DDT and the chemical formula is C14H9Cl5. DDT is build up by 14 carbon, 9 hydrogen and 5 chlorine atoms (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Molecular structure of DDT.
In its nature form, DDT is crystalline powder with odorless to slightly fragrant in white color. The melting point is at 108.5ËšC, and boiling point at 185ËšC. DDT is highly insoluble in water but is soluble in most organic solvents. This molecule is lipophilic and partitions readily into the fat of all living organisms. Biomagnification and bioaccumulation in the food web make this molecule become more negative impact to the organisms. When the DDT break down the product will be 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDD or TDE) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene)(DDE). These two compounds are actually also present everywhere in the environment and are more persistent than the parent compound (Ritter, Solomon, & Forget, 1996).

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DDT is an organochlorine insecticide and is considered a persistent organic pollutant (POP) (PAN Germany for PAN International, 2009). According to Turusov et al. (2002), in year 1874, DDT was first synthesized but until year 1943 its insecticidal properties just discovered and in 1943 large-scale industrial production are started. DDT is contributed to worldwide use and widely accepted by people because of its low price and effectiveness to control malaria and typhus during and immediately after World War II. In order to control the agriculture and forest pests, much more DDT was used after 1945. About 400,000 tons of DDTs were used yearly in this world at 1960s, and 70 – 80% was used for agriculture (Turusov et al., 2002). DDT is a persistent, widespread environmental contaminant that causes significant anatomical, behavioral abnormalities and physiological in humans and also wildlife (Iwaniuk, et al., 2006). In January 1970, the first country – Sweden had banned the use of DDT. In the same year, the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R) was prohibited all DDT and DDT-based products for use as pesticides because of their destruction and persistence effect by bioaccumulation and the carcinogenicity. The production and use of DDT in agriculture were banned too in 1981, but the use for public health purposed was still allowed. In year 1972, most uses of DDT were banned in other countries. The use of DDT has been banned in 34 countries and severely restricted in 34 other countries. Argentina, Australia, Bulgaria, Canada, Colombia, Cyprus, Ethiopia, Finland, Hong Kong, Japan, Mozambique, Lebanon, Switzerland, Norway, and USA are the countries that have banned DDT. The countries that have severely restricted its use include Thailand, Israel, Panama, Kenya, Mexico, Belize, India, Ecuador and the EU (Ritter, Solomon, & Forget, 1996).
DDT is not very strong toxic like most of the organochlorine insecticides, but this chemical is widely use and spread (Ritter, Solomon, & Forget, 1996). In Turusov et al. (2001) study showed that the process of biodegradation of this chemical is very slow and it will persists for a long time in the environment. DDT will likely to accumulate in the food chain and in the tissues of living organisms. When expose to DDT and digest it, this molecule will store in all the tissues, especially in fat. Bioaccumulation occurred by accumulate the DDT from small concentration to high concentration in the food web. Due to it widespread, uncontrolled, and intensive use, this chemical has resulted in worldwide pollution. In the body of all birds and fishes analyzed in the study of Turusov et al. (2001), DDT residues are found even in those living in desert areas or in the depths of the oceans.
Human are most likely to be exposed to DDT from the food they eat. Almost all the meat, fish, and dairy products are contaminating with DDT. Hence, by eating, breathing or touching the products which contaminated with DDT, this chemical will easily absorbed into our body. After ingested, DDT will convert into several breakdown products called metabolites that included DDE and stored in the fatty tissues. For the pregnant women, DDT and DDE can be passed to the fetus by breast feeding (Centers for Disease Control and Preventation, 2009). If human expose to high concentration of DDT, the symptoms like vomiting, tremors or shakiness, and seizures will occur. Besides that, DDT also considered a possible human carcinogen.
Birds usually played a major role in creating awareness of pollution problems. Birds are most probably believed to expose to DDT by ingestion (Enrlich, et al. 1988). The pesticide can be swallowing by the birds directly or the birds eat the contaminated prey. Besides that, they may also ingest pesticide residues off feathers while preening, or they may drink or bathe in contaminated water. When the birds expose to aerially spread DDT, the chemical will absorbed through the skin or inhaled into the body (Edwards, 2004). DDT and DDE are persistent as they tend to concentrate as they move through the food chain (Figure 2). In the marine communities, the contaminated planktons are eaten by small fishes, and then bigger fishes will consume small fishes. DDTs are passing from a small concentration in planktons to bigger fish. DDT will store in the fatty acid of fishes, when fish-eating birds consume the fish, all the bio accumulated DDT will pass into the bird’s body. Most of the DDT from numerous fishes ends up in the body of few birds. Bioaccumulation of DDT in birds high on food chains occurs not only because there is usually reduced biomass at each step in those chains, but also because predatory birds tend to live a long time. DDT take in only a little per day, but when they keep most of what they get and they live many days (Deinlein, n.d.).

Figure 2. Bioaccumulation of DDT.
DDT with high concentration does not usually kill the bird outright. However, DDT and its relatives will alter the bird’s calcium metabolism in a way that results in thin eggshells (Edwards, 2004). Since the eggshells are too thin and are unable to support the weight of the embryo of bird, heavily DDT-infested Brown Pelicans and Bald Eagles tend to find omelets in their nests. DDT resulted in the decimation of the Brown Pelican populations in much of North America and the extermination the Peregrine Falcon in the eastern United States and southeastern Canada. Shell-thinning caused lesser declines in populations of Golden and Bald Eagles and White Pelicans, among others (Enrlich, et al. 1988). Fortunately, the scientists are able to figure out the cause of the breeding failures in time, and the use of DDT was banned almost completely in the US at 1972.
The Arctic, polar bears also become one of the victims of DDT. Chemical pollutants are carried towards the Arctic Ocean by the great continental rivers of Russia and Canada. DDT that in the sea are wafted northwards by the currents. Even the DDT molecule in the air will be carry by winds to the Arctic, where they condense in the cold and fall to the ground in snow or hail. The most direct and effective way to bring DDT that will cause an effect to polar bear and its offspring is biomagnification. DDTs are biomagnify as they move up the food chain from the small plankton to polar bear. As polar bear is the carnivores, it accumulates the most concentrated amounts of them. Before the hibernation, polar bear will consume large amount of fish to store as fat. DDT which accumulates in the fish will then store in the fatty tissues. When the polar bear start to use the fat during hibernation, DDT is being release and causes the death. In addition, DDT will also reduce the polar bear capacity to bread and lower their immune system (Polar bears: Walking on thin ice, 2006).
The available epidemiologic and scientific data indicate that the presence and persistence of DDT and its metabolites worldwide are still problems of great relevance to public health. It has been debated at the United Nations Environment Program whether DDT should have been totally banned together with 11 other persistent organic pollutants. However, the total ban of DDT was sharply criticized in South Africa. This is because, a temporary total ban on the use of DDT for indoor spraying resulted in a sudden increase in malaria. Now, 11 countries in Africa, 7 in Asia, and 5 in Latin America still use DDT for vector disease control (Turusov et al., 2002). There is a general consensus that limited and strictly controlled use of DDT should be allowed for public health purposes, in particular where other effective, safe, and affordable alternatives are not available, and the benefits are clearly far superior to possible risks. In conclusion, to solve the problem of DDT an efficient pesticides that do not have the negative properties of DDT and its metabolites should be sought with the goal of replacing DDT completely.
References
Centers for Disease Control and Preventation (CDC), (2009). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/biomonitoring/pdf/DDT_FactSheet.pdf
Deinlein, M. (n.d.). Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center. When it comes to pesticides, birds are sitting ducks. Retrieved from http://nationalzoo.si.edu/scbi/migratorybirds/fact_sheets/fxsht8.pdf
Edwards, J. G. (2004). DDT: A case study in scientific fraud. Journal of American Physicians and Surgeons, 9, 3, 83-88.
Ehrlich, P. R., Dobkin, D. S., & Wheye, D. (1988). DDT and birds. Retrieved from https://web.stanford.edu/group/stanfordbirds/text/essays/DDT_and_Birds.html
Iwaniuk, A. N., Koperski, D. T., Cheng, K. M., Elliott, J. E., Smith, L. K., …, Wylie, D. R. W. (2006). The effects of environmental exposure to DDT on the brain of a songbird: Changes in structures associated with mating and song. Behavioural BrainResearch, 173, 1-10.
Polar bears: Walking on thin ice. (2006). Retrieved from http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/polar-bears-walking-on-thin-ice-523207.html
Ritter, L., Solomon, K. R., & Forget, J. (1996). Persistent organic pollutants. Retrieved from http://www.chem.unep.ch/pops/ritter/en/ritteren.pdf
Turusov, V., Rakitsky, V. & Tomatis, L. (2002). DIchlorodiphenytrichloroethane (DDT): Ubiquity, persistence, and risks. Environmental Health Perspectives, 110, 2, 125-128.
 

The Effect of Media on Young Girls

The Effect of Media on Young Girls
One of the most sensitive stages of a human being are their youth, whilst growing up one is faced with numerous transitions that transform one into someone mature. Our society has been swamped by endless media around us coming in different formats, i.e. magazines, newspapers, TV, Internet, etc. Each one of these has managed to flood dominating messages that put one’s self-image into question. Within the context of this essay, it examines the effect of media on young girls. The fact young girls are at a vulnerable phase they are most likely to be impacted by what they watch on TV, read in the magazines and get pumped by the current social media. Unfortunately the media has put a great deal of stress and pressure on the minds of sensitive young girls who are compelled to accomplish a so called ‘perfect image’. When we refer to the term ‘ideal image’, it directly includes supermodels, models, singers, actresses and icons who seem to be the ideal of young girls. Media is clearly responsible for promoting fake images of models who undergo an airbrushed and edited image of themselves when presented in magazines. Furthermore, these supermodels undergo strict and dangerous diets where their health suffers to an extreme. There are issues of self-image which are seen to be the biggest concern. Within self-image it results in three destructive effects, namely; depression (physical and mental) and eating disorders (Schlegel, n.d)

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York (2012) exposes the shocking figures from 2011 at 16% highlights there has been a boom in eating disorders. One of the biggest increase was mainly girls who were aged from 10 to 15 up at 69% in 2011. It could further be elaborated that eating disorders have the highest morality rates of any mental illness which were accounted at 20%. Interestingly, the depiction of the so called ‘ideal’ body kinds portrayed by Western media has been perceived as a major factor in inseminating eating disorders. It can be highlighted how social media has rapidly promoting these diseases. Shockingly, the research points out eating disorders were becoming widespread just like a virus due to social networks, whereas pro-anorexic websites would offer tips, guidance and an online community was designed for unhealthy weight management. One fine example demonstrating the widespread search conducted online on eating disorders and losing weight unhealthily is the case of Pinterest who have taken an initiative to put an end to search words, i.e. ‘thininspiration’ that would provide users a list of results which were linked to eating disorders. Pinterest offered users to read warnings that would refer to the dangers of eating disorders and how they weren’t a part of lifestyle choices but were simply a mental disorder which if they left untreated could possibly result in major health problems and even pose a major threat to one’s life. One of the other social networks that is notorious with promoting self-consciousness is Facebook. Facebook has been pro-actively promoting ‘self-consciousness as being an extremely important issue where body image and weight are center of attention. Maree (n.d) believes media has been compelling numerous youth to commit suicide, it has brought youth suicide to the front row where there has been a boom in youth depression that results in a high rate of suicide in the recent years. Maree refers to the statistics taken from the National Suicide Research Foundation (NSRF) back in 2011 which showed the suicide rates stood at four male to one female ratio. Furthermore, suicide amongst young girls was displayed in 2012 as a result of numerous tragic deaths. There were three major deaths that raised eye brows and outraged the public, the tragic deaths of Ciara Pugsley, Erin and Shannon Gallagher raised a very significant issue of why these deaths took place and scrutinizing the negative influence of media and promotion of self-image pushing these young souls to plunge to their own death. Their deaths resulted in organizations within the government along with the media instantly initiating work on fighting the lack of resources for the youth who were suffering from depression. It should be pointed youth depression has emerged due to numerous factors, where such a condition is simply complicated in nature. Self-esteem is said to be one of the main issues which emerge in youth depression. Unfortunately the media has been predominantly playing a negative role in promoting conflicting interest in itself also for the youth, where if bad exposure is restricted it can certainly make a major difference. The number of times the young girls view a super model, this makes them wonder if they could share a resemblance to their so called ‘media ideal’s and accomplish this by undergoing cruel diets at a tender age when their bodies are undergoing numerous kinds of changes. The fact the media is constantly flooding the TV channels, fashion magazines and social media with representing a so called ‘perfect woman’, this results in the creation of mental and emotional issues, this specially refers to the inability to remain joyful in their very own body. As per the comments by a counsellor, such a depiction clearly delivers a very impractical body image in the media which can have an extremely serious and deep impact on susceptible woman than one imagines.
Sanders (n.d) emphasizes how media marketing has simply depicted a very fake image of models, actresses and icons that becomes an impossible objective for young girls to accomplish. The fact the youth are highly influenced by celebrities and pick up the latest fashion, hair-style and lifestyle trends from their ideals, this results in a trend of being a copy-cat where one is compelled to imitate their ideals and feel a sense of dissatisfaction if they are unable to do so. If one takes into consideration how popular media has been progressively promoting a thinner and thinner body image as the so called ideal for women, this has become more like a competition for the youth where they feel it is necessary to maintain a thin image.
Being thin for today’s youth means being beautiful, here they are unable to distinguish between reality and what is digital editing in magazines, social media and online websites. Unfortunately, the youth are paying a heavy price at the expense of their health to be socially accepted by starving themselves on fad diets that will have a major side-effect on their health. In terms of self-confidence, the youth will feel out of place, lacking a sense of affinity and unable to confidently socialize if they do not fit the so called ideal criteria of being thin and beautiful. They feel their social group will reject them on basis of them being slightly fat or what is normal. There is this unpleasant bullying that comes into the picture where one is experiencing teasing from their counterparts on the basis of how they look like, i.e. fat. The fatter you are, the more unpleasant and disconnected you are from being a part of the popular group of girls.
Heubeck (n.d) takes the example of American girls who are facing the burden of being model like thin which seems like a real aspiration for them, however this starts off at a very young age which is extremely disappointing. There are countless bombardments of TV adverts featuring models with perfect lips, body, hair-style and the entire attractive physical appearance that seems a must achieve for these young minds. Unfortunately these young girls seems to consider these celebrities as role models even if these role models have a cruel bad reputation. According to Renee Hobbs, EdD, Associate Professor of Communications at the Temple Univesity she found in her research the exposure an average teen gets to media is nearly 180 minutes with only 10 minutes of interaction with their parents on a daily basis. This view is shared by Elissa Gittes, MD- a pediatrician at the adolescent medicine at the Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh, she believes young girls are obsessed with imitating the ideal image they watch in media, they end up taking harsh and desperate measures. There has been an increase in the number of young girls who comment on how unhappy they are with their body and are working obsessively hard to change this image of themselves.
As per the research conducted by Nancy Signorielli from the Kaiser Foundation, Nancy discovered one in every three articles in leading teen girl magazines also consisted a key focus on physical appearance, where majority of the advertisements (reported at 50%) used an appeal to beauty to market and sell their products. Furthermore, the TV adverts and commercials which were targeted at female viewers depicted frequently were regularly watched by young girls where beauty was seen as the central theme for product appeal. When examining the figures on eating disorders, it points how 1,000 women died annually as a result of anorexia nervosa. Nearly, five percent of adult women and adolescent along with one percent of men were suffering from binge eating disorder, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. When comparing the figures on men to women suffering from depression and eating disorders, it clearly demonstrates it is young girls who are most affected and suffer from depression and eating disorders (Media’s effect on body image, n.d)
It can be concluded from the findings within this essay popular media is certainly responsible for influencing young girls in a negative way by making them self-conscious about looking perfect. There has been an artificial imagery of icons created, flashed and swamped in different mediums of media that has caught the eye and attention of young minds who take it in a positive manner. The fact more and more young girls are driven towards looking like their ‘role models’ they take up unhealthy options to look physically perfect even if it means it is a life threatening one. The issue of self-image is an umbrella which entails issues of mental and physical depression along with eating-disorders that have multiplied and compelled young girls to commit suicide. More and more young girls are drawn to look perfect starting from as young as the age of 5. It is the responsibility of media, government, health organizations and parents to intervene and deviate these young girls from taking an extreme measure which would result in a complete chaos. There is a strong need to tackle this matter as the rapid flow of information available online and easily accessed by anyone at the click of a button, i.e. mobile device, tablet, etc., it is truly concerned as to how there is an endless amount of literature available that attracts more and more young minds to imitate their favorite celebrities, icons and become just like them. Governments and health organizations need to implement strict codes that would ban media from promoting an unrealistic picture of what is a perfect woman as these young minds are vulnerable and capable of believing what they see on TV. Parents should be actively involved in monitoring on the habits, patterns and changes in behaviors of their children. The fact we are living in a modern world has meant we are suffering greatly with a fabricated image of what is considered perfect by the media and what is truly perfect in the real world, which obviously is a complete conflict. Schools and colleges should promote an awareness of accepting oneself rather hating one’s own image. Successful media campaigns conducted like the one by Dove was an impressive and attention grabbing one which demonstrated how beauty in women is not limited to any form of perfection of being thin but rather accepting oneself the way they are. It truly celebrates natural beauty and promotes this image by featuring a group of women in different colors, sizes, heights and empowers female beauty in a natural way. There is a strong need for more and more media campaigns similar to this that should be created and promoted to wash away the wrong image depicted of perfection into the young minds of girls.
 

Effect of Changing Concentration on the Order of Reaction

Title : An Investigation into the Effect of Changing the Concentration by Continuous Method on the Order of Reaction

Planning

A. Hypotheses
I predict that the rate of reaction is influenced by the concentration of the reactants; and that the rate of reaction and the concentration of reactants decrease as time intervals increase. I predict that the order of reaction is affected or influenced by the concentration of the reactant. I also predict that the change in concentration of reactants affects the rate of reaction proportionately and hence, the order of reaction. Such that, if the concentration of the reactants is reduced by half, the rate of reaction will also decrease by a certain proportion.
The reaction that will be analyzed in this experiment is between a metal (magnesium ribbon) and an acid (sulfuric acid). The reaction is shown by the chemical equation below:
Mg (s) + H2S04 (aq) → MgS04 (aq) + H2 (g)
In this experiment, 0.15 grams of magnesium ribbon will be used in excess, together with 10 cubic centimeters of 0.3 M sulphuric acid (H2SO4). The continuous method will be used, where the metal is in excess and the reaction goes to completion. The volume of the hydrogen gas (H2) will be collected at a measured time interval of 30 seconds. These volume readings at the time intervals shall be recorded and analyzed.
III. Background
The rate of a reaction depends in part on the concentrations of the reactants. The rate at which a reactant or reactants is transformed into products is the change in concentration of the reactant or reactants with time, (Wilbraham, et.al., 1997). Mathematically, the rate can be expressed as:
Rate = Change in Concentration of Reactants / Change in time
 
The formula implies that the rate of disappearance of the reactants is proportional to its molar concentration. Hence:
Change in Concentration of Reactants / Change in time = proportional to the concentration of reactants
 
The reaction rate has to be experimentally determined. From the reaction rate equation, the order of reaction can be obtained. The order of reactions can be classified as zero order, first order, or second order, with respect to only one reactant.
IV. Risk Assessment
In this experiment, sulphuric acid (H2SO4), will be used as a reactant. Since it is a strong acid and is very corrosive, I will observe the following precautionary measures:

Wear protective goggles for the eyes.
Avoid pipetting the sulphuric acid by mouth.
Avoid inhalation of sulfuric acid.
Care in handling the acid should be observed. It should be prevented from being knocked over.

V. Fair Test
To ensure that the results that I will obtain in the experiment are reliable and accurate, I will observe the following:

The volume measurements of the sulphuric acid reactant will be made very accurately by reading from the lower meniscus of the 10 cubic centimeter mark
The bung will be securely and tightly placed to prevent the collected hydrogen gas (H2) from escaping.
The weight measurements of the magnesium ribbon will be made very accurately.
All materials will be thoroughly cleaned before each use in order to prevent contamination.
The experiment will have 3 runs or replicates in order to attain a high reliability of results.

VI. Procedure of the Experiment:

Materials needed:

Stopwatch for time interval measurements
100 cc gas syringe for the Hydrogen gas collection
100 cc conical flask for the sulphuric acid
100 ml graduated cylinder for measuring the sulphuric acid
Analytical balance for measuring 0.15 grams of magnesium ribbon

Procedure:

1. Set up the materials while making sure that they are thoroughly clean and dry.
2. Using a graduated cylinder, measure 10 cc of 0.3 Molar concentration of sulphuric acid.
3. Carefully weigh 0.15 grams of magnesium ribbon using an analytical balance to make sure that the weight measurement is accurate.
5. Put the 0.15 grams of magnesium ribbon into the conical flask with the sulphuric acid.
7. Measure the volume in cubic centimeters of hydrogen gas collected in the gas syringe at every time interval of 30 seconds.
8. Record the volume of collected hydrogen gas at each set time interval.
9. Make 2 more runs of this experiment by repeating steps 1-8 at every run.
VII. Results.
Below are the tabulated volume measurements at every time interval:
Table 1: Volume Measurements for Run 1

Time /s

Volume of gas evolved Vtotal/cm3

(Vfinal-Vt)/cm3

0

0

74.5

30

15

59.5

60

23

51.5

90

31.5

43

120

43

31.5

150

49.5

25

180

53.5

21

210

57

17.5

240

61

13.5

270

62.5

12

300

65

9.5

330

67

7.5

360

69

5.5

390

69.5

5

420

70

4.5

450

70.5

4

480

71

3.5

510

71.5

3

540

72

2.5

570

72

2.5

600

72.5

2

630

73

1.5

660

73

1.5

690

73

1.5

720

73.5

1

750

73.5

1

780

73.5

1

810

74

0.5

840

74

0.5

870

74

0.5

900

74

0.5

930

74.5

0

960

74.5

0

990

74.5

0

1020

74.5

0

The data in Table 1 were plotted in a graph below:
Graph 1: Volume vs. Time (Run1)

For Run 2, the data were obtained were tabulated below:
Table 2: Volume Measurements for Run 2

Time /s

Volume of gas evolved (Vtotal/cm3)

(Vfinal-Vt)/cm3

0

0

74

30

15

59

60

25.5

48.5

90

34.5

39.5

120

42.5

31.5

150

47

27

180

51.5

22.5

210

55.5

18.5

240

58.5

15.5

270

61.5

12.5

300

63.5

10.5

330

66

8

360

67.5

6.5

390

68.5

5.5

420

69.5

4.5

450

70.5

3.5

480

71

3

510

72

2

540

72

2

570

72.5

1.5

600

72.5

1.5

630

73

1

660

73

1

690

73

1

720

73.5

0.5

750

73.5

0.5

780

73.5

0.5

810

73.5

0.5

840

74

0

870

74

0

900

74

0

930

74

0

The data in Table 2 were plotted in a graph below:
Graph 2: Volume vs. Time (Run 2)

For Run 3, the data were obtained were tabulated below:
Table 3: Volume Measurements for Run 3

Time /s

Volume of gas evolved (Vtotal in cm3)

(Vfinal-Vt in cm3)

0

0

73.5

30

16.5

57

60

28

45.5

90

37

36.5

120

45

28.5

150

50

23.5

180

54

19.5

210

57.5

16

240

60

13.5

270

63

10.5

300

65

8.5

330

67

6.5

360

68.5

5

390

69.5

4

420

70

3.5

450

70.5

3

480

70.5

3

510

71

2.5

540

71

2.5

570

71

2.5

600

71.5

2

630

71.5

2

660

72

1.5

690

72

1.5

720

72

1.5

750

72.5

1

780

72.5

1

810

72.5

1

840

73

0.5

870

73

0.5

900

73.5

0

930

73.5

0

960

73.5

0

990

73.5

0

The data in Table 3 were plotted in a graph below:
Graph 3: Volume vs. Time (Run3)

All three graphs show the trend that as time increases, the volume of the reactant decreases, while the volume of the product increases.
B. Calculation of the Concentration of Reactant
From the reaction:
Mg (s) + H2SO4 (aq) → MgSO4 (aq) + H2 (aq)
Concentration is measured in terms of Molarity, where Molarity is equal to the number of moles of solute divided by liters of solution:
Molarity = No. of moles of solute / Liters of solution
For Magnesium (Mg), 0.15 grams were added to sulphuric acid. The number of moles is equal to: weight in grams divided by the formula weight. Hence, the number of moles = wt. in grams / FW. Since 0.15 grams were used, 0.15 grams should be divided by the formula weight of Magnesium (Mg), which is 24.
So: 0.15 grams / 24 = 0.00625 moles for Mg.
To get the molar concentration, the number of moles will be divided by the volume of the solution in liters, which is 0.01.
So, the molarity of Mg is : 0.00625 / 0.01 = 0.625 M
For the sulphuric acid (H2SO4) used, the molarity is 0.3 M. The number of moles of H2SO4 used is determined by multiplying the molar concentration by the volume of solution in liters. Hence: 0.3 moles/L X 0.01L = 0.003 moles.
From the chemical equation of the reaction, for every 0.003 moles of H2SO4 used, the same amount of moles (0.003) of hydrogen gas (H2) is given off.
The molar concentration of the hydrogen gas evolved can now be determined for each respective time interval, by dividing the number of moles by the volume obtained.
For run 1:
The concentration of the product can now be calculated, using the formula for reaction rate, where: Molarity = Number of moles / Liters of solution
The data for the concentration of the hydrogen gas are tabulated below:
Table 4: Molarity of the hydrogen gas (H2)

time /s

Volume of gas evolved Vtotal/ L

Molarity (mol/L)

 

0

 

30

0.015

0.200

60

0.023

0.130

90

0.032

0.093

120

0.043

0.069

150

0.049

0.061

180

0.053

0.056

210

0.057

0.052

240

0.061

0.049

270

0.0625

0.048

300

0.065

0.048

330

0.067

0.044

360

0.069

0.043

390

0.0695

0.043

420

0.070

0.043

450

0.0705

0.043

480

0.071

0.042

510

0.0715

0.042

540

0.072

0.042

570

0.072

0.042

600

0.0725

0.041

630

0.073

0.041

660

0.073

0.041

690

0.073

0.041

720

0.0735

0.041

750

0.0735

0.041

780

0.0735

0.041

810

0.074

0.041

840

0.074

0.041

870

0.074

0.041

900

0.074

0.041

930

0.0745

0.040

960

0.0745

0.040

990

0.0745

0.040

1020

0.0745

0.040

The molarity values tabulated above are plotted in the graph below:
Graph 4: Concentration vs. Time (Run1)

Graph 5: Concentration vs. Time (Run 1) Showing the Gradient of the Tangent Curve

 
The rate of reaction was calculated by measuring the gradient of the tangent of the curve above, as depicted by the red line. Hence, the gradient of the tangent is equal to 0.12 – 0.05 / 150 = 0.00046. From the rate equation, the rate constant (k) can be obtained by the formula: k = rate x [H2SO4]. So: k = (0.00046) / 0.3 = 0.153. The rate equation is:
Rate = k [H2SO4]
Rate = (0.153) (0.003) = 0. 000459 or 0.0046. Hence, this value is equal to the gradient of the tangent of the graph above. This shows that the rate is directly proportional to the concentration of the sulphuric acid (H2SO4).
Table 5: Concentration of Gas Collected and Rate of Reaction (Run 1)

Time /s

Molarity (mol/L)

Rate (M/T)

0

0

0

30

0.200

0.0067

60

0.130

0.0022

90

0.093

0.0010

120

0.069

0.0006

150

0.061

0.0004

180

0.056

0.0003

210

0.052

0.0002

240

0.049

0.0002

270

0.048

0.0002

300

0.048

0.0002

330

0.044

0.0001

360

0.043

0.0001

390

0.043

0.0001

420

0.043

0.0001

450

0.043

0.0000

480

0.042

0.0000

510

0.042

0.0000

540

0.042

0.0000

570

0.042

0.0000

600

0.041

0.0000

630

0.041

0.0000

660

0.041

0.0000

690

0.041

0.0000

720

0.041

0.0000

750

0.041

0.0000

780

0.041

0.0000

810

0.041

0.0000

840

0.041

0.0000

870

0.041

0.0000

900

0.041

0.0000

930

0.040

0.0000

960

0.040

0.0000

990

0.040

0.0000

1020

0.040

0.0000

 
The plotting of tabulated data above results to the graph below:
Graph 6 Rate vs. Concentration (Run 1)

The Rate –Concentration Graph for Run 1 above shows that the concentration of hydrogen gas (H2) is directly proportional to the rate of reaction. Thus, the concentration of sulphuric acid (H2SO4) is also directly proportional to the rate of reaction, whereby, as the concentration decreases, the rate of reaction also decreases.
Since the Magnesium ribbon is in excess, only the sulfuric acid can be allowed to change. Having it in excess is to make sure that its concentration does not change.
Using the rate of reaction:
Rate = k [H2SO4]
And applying the rate equation to the chemical equation in the reaction:
Mg (s) + H2SO4 (aq) → MgSO4 (aq) + H2 (g)
The rate equation is now: Rate = k [Mg] º [H2SO4]¹.
Since Mg concentration does not change in the reaction, it is the zero order. On the other hand, since H2SO4 is in the first order of reaction, the rate is directly proportional to its concentration, as measured in the experiment by the concentration of the H2 gas collected, the overall order of reaction is: 0+1 = 1.
For Run 2, the table below shows its concentration.
Table 6: Molarity of the Hydrogen gas (Run2)

Time /s

Volume of gas evolved (Vtotal in cm3)

Molarity

0

0

0

30

15

0.200

60

25.5

0.120

90

34.5

0.088

120

42.5

0.071

150

47

0.064

180

51.5

0.058

210

55.5

0.054

240

58.5

0.052

270

61.5

0.049

300

63.5

0.047

330

66

0.045

360

67.5

0.044

390

68.5

0.044

420

69.5

0.043

450

70.5

0.043

480

71

0.042

510

72

0.042

540

72

0.042

570

72.5

0.041

600

72.5

0.041

630

73

0.041

660

73

0.041

690

73

0.041

720

73.5

0.041

750

73.5

0.041

780

73.5

0.041

810

73.5

0.041

840

74

0.041

870

74

0.041

900

74

0.041

930

74

0.041

The table of Concentration and Time for run 2 gives the following graph:
Graph7: Concentration vs. Time (Run 2)

The Concentration –Time Graph for run 2 above shows the same trend as in run 1, where it shows an inverse proportionality: as time increases, the concentration of the sulfuric acid ( H2SO4) decreases as measured by the concentration of the hydrogen gas (H2) collected. The rate of re
 

Effect of Temperature on the Activation Energy

Title: Investigating the Effect of Temperature on the Activation Energy
Planning

A. Hypothesis
I predict that as temperature rises, the faster are the rates of reaction. The reaction that will be studied in this experiment is between magnesium and sulphuric acid. This reaction is shown in the chemical equation below:
Mg (s) + H2S04 (aq) → MgS04 (aq) + H2 (g)
In this experiment, 0.4 grams of magnesium ribbon will be used, together with 100 cubic centimeters of sulphuric acid which is in excess. The variable that I will be changing is the temperature of the water baths where the reactants (sulphuric acid and magnesium ribbon) will be placed. The volume of the gas (hydrogen gas) to be collected at each varying water bath temperature is 100 cubic centimeters. The time it takes for to collect 100 cubic centimeters of the hydrogen gas will be measured to calculate the rate of reaction.
B. Background
The fundamental basis of the collision theory is the kinetic theory which describes the state of matter in terms of the energy of its particles, (Energex, 2006). According to Wilbraham and others (1997), “the kinetic theory says that the tiny particles in all forms of matter are in constant motion. When heated, the particles of the substance absorb energy, some of which is stored within the particles. This stored energy does not raise the temperature of the substance. The rest of the energy goes into speeding up the particles.” Particles lacking the necessary kinetic energy to react still collide but simply bounce back. Substances decompose to simpler forms, or form new substances when supplied with sufficient energy, called the “activation energy”. The activation energy is a barrier or an obstacle that the reactants must cross in order to decompose into simpler substances, or to combine and form new products.

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At higher temperatures, the particles of a substance move faster and become more energetic. Thus, increasing temperatures help speed up the reaction by first increasing the amount of collisions of particles and cross over the energy barrier. Wilbraham and others argue that “the main effect of increasing the temperature is to increase the number of particles that have enough kinetic energy to react when they collide. More colliding molecules are energetic enough to slip over the energy barrier to become products.” The frequency of high energy collisions between reactants increase, thus, products form faster.

The illustration above shows the basis for the postulate: “raising the temperature increases the rate of reaction because the added kinetic energy allows a larger fraction of reactants to go over the hill”, (Norton, 2003).
C. Risk Assessment
Sulphuric acid is a strong, corrosive substance. Therefore, care should be observed when performing the experiment. I will keep in mind the following safety precautions to ensure a safe experiment:

To protect the eyes from the strong acid, goggles should be worn.
Care in handling the sulphuric acid should be observed. I will not pipette acid by mouth.
The temperature of the water baths should be ascertained carefully to prevent scalding. The beaker with hot water bath should be set up carefully to prevent it from being knocked over.

D. Fair test
To ensure a fair test and high reliability of results from this experiment, I will observe the following measures:

All apparatus and equipment shall be cleaned after each time where the time it takes to collect 100 cc of hydrogen gas is obtained at each run of the experiment.
The reading for the volume of the sulphuric acid shall be made very carefully by reading from the lower meniscus of the 100 cubic centimeter mark.
The volume of the sulphuric acid and the weight of the magnesium ribbon will be measured very accurately for all time measurements at every temperature level at each run of the experiment.
The bung should be correctly and tightly placed to prevent the collected hydrogen gas from escaping.
In order to achieve a constant and stable temperature for each time measurement, after adding the magnesium ribbon to the sulphuric acid, I will wait for 20 seconds to make sure that the temperature is kept constant. .

Procedure of the experiment:

Materials needed:

For this experiment, the following are the materials that are to be used:
0.4 grams of Magnesium ribbon
100 cubic centimeters of 0.3 Molar sulphuric acid
100 cc gas syringe for the collection of the hydrogen gas (H2)
stopwatch for measuring the time it takes to collect 100 cubic centimeters of the H2 gas
Thermometer for measuring the temperature of the hot water baths
200 cc conical flask for the sulphuric acid
500 ml graduated cylinder for measuring the sulphuric acid
500 ml beaker for the water baths
water baths with the following temperatures: 18.5°C, 30°C, 40ºC, 50ºC, 60ºC, and 70ºC.
analytical balance for measuring 0.4 grams of magnesium ribbon

Procedure:

1. Set up the materials while making sure that they are clean and the reagents are not contaminated.
2. Using a graduated cylinder, measure 100 cc of 0.3 molar concentration of sulphuric acid.
3. Carefully weigh 0.4 grams of Magnesium ribbon using an analytical balance to make sure that the weight measurement is accurate.
4. Pour the water bath with the desired temperature into the beaker.
5. Carefully put the conical flask with the sulphuric acid and into the beaker with the water bath.
6. Put the 0.4 grams of magnesium ribbon into the conical flask.
7. Measure the time it takes to collect 100 cubic centimeters of hydrogen gas into the gas syringe.
8. Repeat steps 1-7 for every desired temperature.
10. Label the time recorded as run 1.
11. Make 2 more runs for this experiment.
IV. Results:
Data Gathered: The time measurements for each temperature of 18.5°C, 30°C, 40ºC, 50ºC, 60ºC, and 70ºC were obtained and tabulated below (Table 1).
Table 1. Temperature Measurements for the Three Runs or Trials

Temperature (°C)

First Run (Seconds)

Second Run (Seconds)

Third Run (Seconds)

18.5

96

86

95

30

70

68

65

40

50

46

45

53

61

59

58

60

50

50

48

70

48

45

44

The rates of reaction were obtained using the following formula below:
Reaction Rate = Volume of gas collected in cc / Time it takes to collect the gas in seconds
The calculated reaction rates (Volume / Time) for each set temperature for the three runs were tabulated below:
Table 2. Reaction Rate of Each Run

Temperature (°C)

First Run Reaction Rate
(cm³ / s)

Second Run reaction Rate(cm³ / s)

Third Run Reaction Rate(cm³ / s)

18.5

1.04

1.16

1.05

30

1.43

1.47

1.54

40

2.00

2.17

2.22

53

1.70

1.69

1.72

60

2.00

2.00

2.08

70

2.08

2.22

2.27

The tabulated data of reaction rates above were then graphed for all the three runs. The graph shows the same pattern for all the runs.
Graph 1: Reaction Rate Vs. Time Graph of the Three Runs

Using the same data, the average of all calculated reaction rates for each set temperature in every run were taken and tabulated below:
Table 3: Average Reaction Rate for Each run

Temperature (°C)

First Run Reaction Rate
(cm³ / s)

Second Run reaction Rate(cm³ / s)

Third Run Reaction Rate(cm³ / s)

Average Reaction
Rates (cm³ / s)

18.5

1.04

1.16

1.05

1.08

30

1.43

1.47

1.54

1.48

40

2.00

2.17

2.22

2.13

53

1.70

1.69

1.72

1.70

60

2.00

2.00

2.08

2.03

70

2.08

2.22

2.27

2.19

The average reaction rate of all the three runs are then graphed below:
Graph 2: Average Reaction Rate Vs. Temperature.

Determination of the Activation Energy:
The linear relationship between a rate constant or reaction rate and temperature is given in the equation:
In k = -Ea/R X 1/T + In A, which is obtained from the Arrhenius equation that relates temperature, rate constant and activation energy. To solve this equation, the rate constant or reaction rate at several temperature values obtained in the experiment are required. Activation energy can be calculated from the obtained temperature values and each respective rate constant by graphing In k versus 1/T. The In k values were obtained using a calculator, where for every value of reaction rate (k) entered into the calculator, the In function is pressed and the In k value was given. .
Table 4: In K and 1 /T Values with the Corresponding Time and Rate of the First Run

Temperature in Kelvin

Rate (Volume/Time in cm³ / s)

In k

1/T

291.65

1.04

0.0392

0.0034

303.15

1.43

0.3577

0.0033

313.15

2.00

0.6931

0.0032

326.15

1.70

0.5306

0.0031

333.15

2.00

0.6931

0.0030

343.15

2.08

0.7324

0.0029

After obtaining the In k and 1 / T values for the first run, they were graphed as shown below:
Graph 3: In k versus 1/T (First Run)

The slope of the In k versus 1/T graph for the first run was obtained the using a line of “best fit” through the points in the graph. A perpendicular line was drawn at points A and B. In the graph, A is equal to the distance between 0.6700 and 0.400 in the Y-axis and B is the distance between points 0.0033 and 0.0032 in the X-axis. So, to solve for the slope:
Line A = 0.6740-0.400 = 0.2740 and for line B = 0.0033-.00032= -0.0001
Slope = Line A / Line B = 0.02740 / 0.0001 = -2740
Graph 4: In k Versus 1/T showing the Slope

 
The relationship between slope and activation energy is: slope = -Ea/R. Hence, the activation energy for the reaction for the first run is:
-2740= -Ea/R
Ea = (-2740) (8.314J/mol)
Ea= 22780.36 J/mol
Similarly, data for the second run were obtained and tabulated as shown below:
Table 4: In K and 1 /T Values with the Corresponding Time and Rate of the Second Run

Temperature in Kelvin

Rate (Volume/Time in cm³ / s)

In k

1/T

291.65

1.16

0.1510

0.0034

303.15

1.47

0.3860

0.0033

313.15

2.17

0.7761

0.0032

326.15

1.69

0.5271

0.0031

333.15

2.00

0.6931

0.0030

343.15

2.22

0.7984

0.0029

The values of In k and 1/T for the second run were graphed as shown below:
Graph 5: In k – 1/T Graph for the Second Run

The slope of the above In k versus 1/T graph for the second run was determined by drawing a perpendicular line in the best fit points such as in the graph of the first run. For the second run, the slope is equal to: -1093.16
So, the activation energy for the second run is: -1093.16 = -Ea/R
-Ea = (-1093.16) (8.314 J/mol)
Ea = 9088.53 J/mol
Data for the In k versus 1/T graph for the third run are as follows were similarly obtained and tabulated as follows:

Temperature in Kelvin

Rate (Volume/Time in cm³ / s)

In k

1/T

291.65

1.05

0.0488

0.0034

303.15

1.54

0.4318

0.0033

313.15

2.22

0.7975

0.0032

326.15

1.72

0.5423

0.0031

333.15

2.08

0.7324

0.0030

343.15

2.27

0.8198

0.0029

The graph of the tabulated data above is shown below:

The slope of the above In k versus 1/T above is: -1274.70
So the activation energy for the third run is: -1267.89 = -Ea/R
-Ea = (–1267.89) (8.314 J/mol)
Ea= 10541.23 J /mol
Thus, the activation energy values for each run are the following:

First run : 22780.36 J/mol
Second run : 9088.53 J/mol
Third run : 10541.23 J /mol

V. Analysis
The data gathered clearly show that at higher temperatures, the rates of reactions increase up to a certain point, and then continue to slow down. This can be seen in the first 2 graphs, namely: Graph 1: Reaction Rate Vs. Time Graph of the Three Runs and Graph 2: Average Reaction Rate Vs. Temperature. This means that after sometime, the rate of reaction slows down because the products are already being formed. In the experiment, the plateaus in the graph correspond to the time that the hydrogen gas (H2) are already being formed.
The data also showed only one activation energy value for each run. Thus, it only shows that the activation energy in NOT temperature- dependent, NOR is there a direct relationship between the two, since its value does not change with changes in temperature. The relationship between temperature and activation energy as can be concluded in this experiment, is that the temperature increases the capacity of the system to overcome the activation energy needed to form the products. So, the higher the temperature, the faster are the rates or speed of reactions.
VI. Evaluation:
A. Experimental Uncertainty:
In the measurement of the different temperatures for the water baths, the following percentage errors were obtained:
For the reading of 18.5º C, the percentage error is: Plus or minus 0.5 / 18.5 x 100 = 2.7%
For 30º C, the percentage error is: Plus or minus 0.5 / 30 x 100 = 0.16%
For 40º C, the percentage error is: Plus or minus 0.5 / 40 x 100 = 0. 125%
For 53º C, the percentage error is: Plus or minus 0.5 / 53 x 100 = 0. 94%
For 60º C, the percentage error is: Plus or minus 0.5 / 60 x 100 = 0. 83%
For 70º C, the percentage error is: Plus or minus 0.5 / 60 x 100 = 0. 71%
In the use of a graduated cylinder with 1 cm scale, the percentage error is plus or minus 0.5 in every 10 cm scale. So, in this experiment, the percentage error can be calculated as:
0.50/100 X 100 = 0.5%.

Experimental Outcomes

The outcomes of the experiment exactly fit my hypothesis or prediction, that as the temperature rises, the faster is the rate of reaction.
However, I did not predict the outcome that the activation energy itself is NOT temperature dependent, since it does not change with the changes in temperature. This is shown in the experiment results, where there was only one activation energy value for all temperature measurements in each run of the experiment. The relationship between temperature and activation energy is based on the fact that the temperature increases the capacity of the system to overcome the activation energy needed to form the products.

Design of the Experiment

I believe that to improve the experiment, I may need to compare the reaction used in
this experiment to a reaction that uses a catalyst to investigate the effect of catalysts on the activation energy and speed of reactions.
References:
Activation Energy, 2006. http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicreview/bp/ch22/activate.html#act
[Accessed: February 28, 2006].
Collins, M. (1999), Activation Energy and the Arrhenius Equation. Abbey Newsletter, Vol.23, Number 3, 1999. http://palimpsest.stanford.edu/byorg/abbey/an/an23/an23-3/an23-308.html. [Accessed: February 29, 2006].
Energex, 2006. Kinetic Theory. http://www.energex.com/au/switched_on/project_info/electricity_production_glossary.html#K. [Accessed: February 29, 2006].
Norton, 2003. Key Equations and Concepts .Chemistry in the Science Context. http://www.wwnorton.com/chemistry/concepts/chapter14/ch14_5.htm [Accessed: February 27, 2006].
The Shodon Education Foundation, Inc. 1998. The Arrhenius Equation. http://www.shodor.org/UnChem/advanced/kin/arrhenius.html. [Accessed: February 27, 2006].
Wikipedia, 2006. Collision Theory. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/collision_theory. [Accessed: February 27, 2006].
Wilbraham, A. Stanley D., Matta, M., 1997. Chemistry. 4th edition. Menlo Park, California: Addison-Wesley. (pp.490-494).
.
 

The Effect Of Games On Vocabulary Learning

Learning another language has always been problematic for learners. How and what skills should be learned has been a matter of inquiry. It is true that integrating language skills and component is against the nature of language and language should learn holistically, but some components of language, like vocabulary, are the building block of learning.
Vocabulary learning and teaching has had a long history in second language learning field, sometimes it has been the focus of attention and sometimes its margin; but it has never been absent. About six hundred experimental reports published over the last twenty -five years, indicates the significant role of vocabulary in L2 learning (Brown, &Rodgers, 2002). In addition, different scholars mentioned the central role of vocabulary; “Vocabulary knowledge is crucial to reading comprehension”(Mosher, 1999, p.9;cited in klepper,2003,p.4); “Mastering English vocabulary is crucial for ESL student to become language competent” (Avila& Sadoski, 1996; cited in Gaudio, 2003, p.18); “Without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed”( David Wilkins; cited in Thornbury, 2002, p.13) . “If you spend most of your time studying grammar, your English will not improve very much. You will see most improvement if you learn more words and expressions. You can say very little with grammar, but you can say almost anything with words” (Dellar & Hocking; cited in Thornbury, 2002, p.13).

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L2 learners are the ones who struggling with learning and the first weapon used in this struggle is dictionary (Krashen, 1997; citied in Brown, &Rodgers, 2002) so it is evident that they are more aware of vocabulary role than scholars and researchers. “Sometimes, I am a lack of useful vocabularies to express my opinions.” And “too often my speaking is hard caused by missing word”; these are how learners mentioned their needs of vocabulary in Thornbury’s book (Thornbury, 2002, p.13).
What has been done in this field, remains no doubt in the importance of vocabulary on both scholars’ and learners’ side. However, which approach to take in order to make vocabulary teaching more effective, is still a question. According to scholars, “learning vocabulary through games is one effective and interesting way that can be applied in any classrooms”( Thanh Huyen,& Thu Nga,2003 , Learning Vocabulary Through Games,para.1)
Using games as an educational tool is not something new and had a long history in language teaching. Games were used for more repetition in Audio lingual; they were introduced in Desuggestopedia as role-play activities or other activities aiming to reduce language barriers; most activities in TPR were game like ones to insert fun in classroom environment; and they found to be handy in Cooperative language teaching, in order to maximize the learner- learner interaction. This long story may prove the effectiveness of games; however, what is the role of games in vocabulary learning? Moreover, do games truly have educational value? To answer this question systematically, as Klepper suggested (2003), “to form a basis for researching the effectiveness of games used in vocabulary instruction” (p.4), it would be useful to review researches done in related idea; like the effect of games on student retention and memory, and motivation.
To start, it would be a good idea to review games and memory in vocabulary teaching and learning. One of the teachers’ desires is to see their students retain what have been taught. To realize this wish, learners should memorize and recall the information in this field (vocabulary) accurately.
Frequently asked question by student is how to memorize and recall what they have learned. Even highly motivated learners facing the difficulty of memorizing vocabulary lose their motivation, because memorizing requires them to make efforts to keep increasing vocabulary accurately. Vocabulary needs great repetition drills to establish (Atake, 2003). It is true that drills are sometimes boring, but there is a simple solution for this problem, insert games to make drills fun. “Games bring in relaxation and fun for students, thus help them learn and retain new words more easily”( Thanh Huyen,& Thu Nga,2003 , Learning Vocabulary Through Games,para.1).
For learning vocabulary, learners need to be able to remember long term. Information, first is held in short-term memory and by lack of attention, it is quickly lost. In order for the information in the short term to be retained, enough rehearsal and elaboration is needed. The more that the knowledge is rehearsed in the memory the more likely it is to be retained in long term memory (Klepper, 2003). It is important to keep student attention, in order to increase their ability to retain words. One way to keep students attention as scholar suggested is “emotion”. When an educator creates emotion, such as in a game format, music, or drama, then the students’ attention is most likely to remain with the material and task at hand. In addition, using this strategy directly after a lesson increases the chances that the material will be recalled later.”(Meyen, et. al.1999,cited in Klepper, 2003)
The other related field is games and motivation. “We know that motivation is the root problem in learning. Without due attention to motivational inputs, they [output or ends of learning] are rarely achieved” (Clark, 2007, p.11). In order to achieve learning goal, teachers should pay attention to motivating strategies and One of these strategies used by teachers, as Hootstein (1994) mentioned, is using games. While you are teaching, sometimes you feel your students are just physically in the class, and what happen to attention? Not even a sign of it, what is the reason? As Ersoz (2002) mentioned, “language learning is a hard task which can sometimes be frustrating. Constant effort is required to understand, produce, and manipulate the target language” (p.1). “It is hard for students to keep trying to overcome their frustration and unfortunately, it is possible for students to easily lose their motivation” (Atake, 2003, p.9). When learners face so many essential words to comprehend and produce a language, they will find learning a burden. This burden is so heavy that makes even highly motivated learners, demotivate. “Research shows that games can serve to motivate and interest student in learning” (Hogle, 1996, p.8-10).
Most scholars ( Wright, Betteridge ,& Buckby , 1984; Ersoz , 2000; Su Kim, 1995; Uberman, 1998; Lee,1979;Richard-Amato, 1988; Hansen, 1994; Wierus and Wierus, 1994; Zdybiewska, 1994; Thanh Huyen & Thu Nga, 2003; Yong Mei& Yu-jing, 2000; Lewis, 1999;Tyson, 2000; Lengeling & Malarcher, 1997) believe in the significant role of games in EFL field specially vocabulary development in addition some complained about the negligence of its importance; as Lee stated, a game “should not be regarded as a marginal activity filling in odd moments when the teacher and class have nothing better to do” (Language teaching games and contests, 1979; cited in Using Games in EFL Classes for Children,2000 ). He also says that games should be treated as central not peripheral to the foreign language teaching program. Thanh Huyen and Thu Nga,also aptly mentioned the advantages of using of games:
Games have been shown to have advantages and effectiveness in learning vocabulary in various ways. First, games bring in relaxation and fun for students, thus help them learn and retain new words more easily. Second, games usually involve friendly competition and they keep learners interested. These create the motivation for learners of English to get involved and participate actively in the learning activities.
Therefore, the role of games in teaching and learning vocabulary cannot be denied. ( 2003 , Learning Vocabulary Through Games,para.1)
However, considering games, as the central activity does not mean it is a safe way to stick to it and call it super technique. It can be said that games are an effective tool, but as Thanh Huyen and Thu Nga themselves observed, a matter of caution still remains:
However, in order to achieve the most from vocabulary games, it is essential that suitable games are chosen. Whenever a game is to be conducted, the number of students, proficiency level, cultural context, timing, learning topic, and the classroom settings are factors that should be taken into account.( 2003 , Learning Vocabulary Through Games,para.1)
So games are effective as long as their style, as Dunne (1984) reported, match with subject matter and types of student.
 

Effect of Media Bias in Arab World on Palestinian Community

Research Proposal

Proposed Research Topic:
The Effect of Biased Media in the Arab World on the Palestinian Community.
Research Question:
Why Palestinians believe media even though there are different sources with different opinions on the same topic?
Introduction and Purposes:
In September of 2013, there were billboards around Bethlehem city attracted my attention saying “Did you know a 3rd tower fell on 9/11?” and this sentence followed by a website to be checked if someone interested of getting more details, it was www.rethink911.org, I checked the website. It was all about introducing facts about what happened in the 11th September, 2001. And there was a documentary video which presented by agroup of Architects & Engineers who try to unveil the truth behind the fell of the World Trade Center Twin Towers on that day, and the surprising thing that there was a third building fell on that day called the World Trade Center Building 7 that didn’t hit by plan and collapsed in free fall 7 hours after the twin towers collapsed, I didn’t remember that on that day I heard about the existence of a third building and no news mentioned a story about the third building. I wondered how could media hide such a thing, why did they do that especially the U.S media, who could control all the main media networks around the word for not reporting about the third tower, and why did the audience believe them? While reading several articles about the issue trying to explore some facts, I realised that media coverage followed accusations by government authorities that pointed toward Al Qaeda as the group that carried out the attack on the United States and Osama bin Laden as leader of that group. Those news reports on the attack and the aftermath shaped public opinion to support the war on terrorism.Other ways to influence public opinion include political advertising.Subsequently I realised that media plays the role of the invisible hand in this universe and controls the audiences’ minds in a strange way, so what makes media’s audiences believe what they hear or see? Therefore, I plan to conduct a research about the media impact in the Arab world, and my purpose of this research is to see how the news reporting nowadays by affect people’s opinion toward what’s going on in the Arab world. And how the biased media can control people’s political thinking? It will also aim to tackle issues such as is media report or create news? Moreover who are the parties that control media in the Arab world?
Background and Methods:
In order to get data for my research, first I will read articles and researched conducted to a related topics, and will conduct a survey that target under graduate university students in Bethlehem University, also a group of people who used to set in Cafés and watch, read and listen to news, so this will enable me to gather relevant information, ultimately giving me the necessary tools to be able to compare people’s perspectives about today’s media, besides what is their relevance source of media, how their believe in media changed in the last years? Also to see if they make sure about the news they read before sharing it with other people in social networks. Further, I will prepare for a focus group of university students with different political views about what’s going on in the Middle East, and during this focus group I will introduce different resources of media with different opinion specifically about the Syrian revolution because I have noticed that there are many conflicted opinions in the Palestinian community about it and cannot find group of people have the same political analysis about what’s going on there in Syria, and during the discussions that will arise I will observe how this group of people going to react and comment about the differences in media and opinions.

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I choose surveys because using this tool will make me able to collect different opinions about media, and the creating of focus group is efficient to see immediate reaction and different opinions about media and this will give me information about what is the source of news that people prefer and trust, and how people evaluate the reliability of the reported news?
I think about targeting university students and people who usually set in cafés to watch news when distributing the surveys and creating the focus group; because these types of groups gathers people with different values and believes in one spot. And this will make the data I gather more efficient.
Literature Review
Watching news, reading newspaper or magazine, or listening to a radio station are one of the main activities in every day’s life. And these media become part of culture. While reading about the media effect and impact on people’s opinion and beliefs I found that there are three main sociological perspectives on the role of media, the first called the Limited-effects theory (1940s-1950s) this theory supports the assumption that people has the control of their own choices and choose what to watch, what believe and what to not; so the studies of the media influence showed that well- informed people relied more on personal experience, prior knowledge and their own reasoning unlike those who are less- informed ones. However for me there is a missing point in this theory that makes me disagree with it, the point is that when someone wants to get some knowledge about something he looks for information through media, if not through media, he will ask other people for information and for sure these people didn’t get this knowledge from nothing, they got it for example, from books, magazines, TV or internet which all considered as media. And another important thing is that this theory was created when the existence, availability and dominance of media was far less widespread which make it out dated (Entman 1994). The second theory is Class-dominant theory this theory follow the postulation that media is owned by a minority elite who controls it, and this elite group is cooperating with each other as a result, they can control what people see or hear, in addition because the main source of income for media is advertising, when a big company that finance large advertising campaigns in media do something unethical this media protect the image of this company because it is not for her benefit to harm the image of the company because this will make the media lose a big source of income (Mills 1956). The third and final theory called Culturalist theory (1980s-1990s), this theory combined the other two theories and it believes that people interact with media in a way so they create their own meanings out of the images and messages received form media, moreover this theory has two standpoints, the first is how audiences interact with media, and the other standpoint focuses on the producers of media. For the first standpoint because people choose what to watch, how much to watch and may choose to not watch; studies done by sociologists and linguists found that audiences interpretation of what they choose to watch is based on their own knowledge and experience. Therefore, culturalist theorists claim that, while a few elite in large corporations may exert significant control over what information media produces and distributes, personal perspective plays a more powerful role in how the audience members interpret those messages. (The Role and Influence of Mass Media 2013).
Several reports and studies showed that the media can influence the audiences’ political view, and voting decision, for instance a study conducted in one of NBER working paper series, the study took the introduction of Fox News into a cable market as a case to analyze its news reporting impact on the federal election, they collected data for 28 states in the United States of America. After that they compared the change in the Republican vote share between 1996 and 2000 for the towns that had adopted Fox News by 2000 with those that had not. And the result showed that Fox News had a significant impact on the 2000 elections. The entry of Fox News increased the Republican vote share in presidential elections by 0.4 to 0.7 percentage points, depending on the specification. Since Fox News in 2000 was available in about 35 percent of households, the impact of Fox News on the two-party vote share in 2000 is estimated to be 0.15 to 0.2 percentage points, 200,000 votes nation-wide. (DellaVigna and Kaplan 2006). Another study find that Fox News watchers were 50 percent more likely that viewers of other networks to believe (erroneously) that weapons of mass destruction were found in Iraq. (Steven, Ramsay and Lewis 2003). These statistics raised in my mind why did people believe median in such a case? Is it because it represents their inner affiliation? Or because the way it is presented is coming straight to the point that interest them? Or is it all about the credibility that a channel may be having? These are another minor questions of what I am looking for, and may lead me to study the case through some focus groups with different affiliation.
In addition other studies found that over 70 percent of Americans believe that there is a great deal or a fair amount of media bias in news coverage (Pew 2004). Evidence of bias ranges from the topic choice of the New York Times (Puglisi 2006) to the choice of think-tanks that the media refer to (Groseclose and Milyo 2005). Media bias was even more prevalent in the late 19th and early 20th century (Gentzkow 2006).
There is another theory addressed by Dr. Max McCombs and Dr. Donald Shaw, which is Agenda- Setting Theory it describes the powerful influence of media by telling what issues are important, they came out with this theory by studying the influence of media on the 1968 presidential election, the study titled 1968 Chapel HillStudy, the conclusion of this study is that the mass media exerted a significant influence on what voters considered to be the major issues of the campaign. (McCombs and Shaw 1972).
Biased Media: The media is biased whenever it provides fake images or out of context facts to support a certain viewpoint. The media is also biased whenever it “framing” issues of eventer on a certain way to fake the facts. Many scholars argue that framing can actually decide how we view a situation. (Kuypers 2002). A biased media affects the public’s understanding of current events and issues without giving the public all the facts. Opinions based on biased information are not usually the same as opinions based on neutral information. So for the public to make informed decisions on issues and politics, they must be given neutral information. (Kelly and Pax 2004)
As shown, media has powerful impact on people’s beliefs, and is controlled by group of people, furthermore there is agreement about the existence of biased media, and most of studies are conducted in western areas. That is why the current research study will be aimed to find out why people in the Arab world, from Palestine, in Bethlehem believe what media reports.
Limitation:
Unfortunately I will not be able to collect audience’s interaction with the reported news about what’s going on in the Arab world specially about what so called the Arab’s Spring because I have no access to audiences from other countries. In addition I can’t get statistics about what are the news media people in the Arab world watch, read or listen. As a result I am limited to Bethlehem University undergraduate students only. Because of that, I will be restricted to only normal audiences in the Palestinian community. In addition, there is no available technology for media that give statistics about what people watch on TV. And what are the main news TV channels they watch such as Nielsen technology.
Bibliography

DellaVigna, Stefano, and Ethan Kaplan. 2006. The FOX News Effect: Media Bias and Voting. NBER Working Paper, Cambridge, MA: NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH.
Entman, Robert M. 1994. “Reopening the Black Box: Toward a Limited Effects Theory.” Political Communication 11 (3): 313 – 314.
Gentzkow, Matthew. 2006. “Television and Voter Turnout.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 931-972.
Groseclose, Tim, and Jeffrey Milyo. 2005. “A Measure of Media Bias.” The Quarterly Journal of Economics 1191-1237.
Kelly, and Pax. 2004. Think on Journalism. July 1. Accessed January 27, 2014. http://www.jour.unr.edu/think/bias.html.
Kuypers, Jim A. 2002. Press Bias and Politics: How the Media Frame Conoversial Issues. London: Praeger.
McCombs, Maxwell E., and Donald L. Shaw. 1972. “The Agenda-Setting Function of Mass Media.” The Public Opinion Quarterly (American Association for Public Opinion Research) 36 (2): 176-187. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2747787.
Mills, C. Wright. 1956. The Power Elite. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
2004. NEWS AUDIENCES INCREASINGLY POLITICIZED. Study, Washington, D.C.: PEW RESEARCH CENTER FOR THE PEOPLE AND THE PRESS.
Puglisi, Riccardo. 2006. “BEING THE NEW YORK TIMES: THE POLITICAL BEHAVIOUR OF A NEWSPAPER.” http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/. April. Accessed January 26, 2014. http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/19292/1/Being_the_new_york_times.pdf.
Steven, Kull, Clay Ramsay, and Evan Lewis. 2003. “Misperceptions, The Media, And The Iraq.” Political Science Quarterly 118: 569-598.
2013. “The Role and Influence of Mass Media.” CliffNotes. May 7. Accessed January 27, 2014. http://www.cliffsnotes.com/sciences/sociology/contemporary-mass-media/the-role-and-influence-of-mass-media.