Efficient managers and effective managers

Difference between efficient managers and effective managers
Effectiveness and efficiency are mutually exclusive things. For a manager, they are both fundamental preconditions. Being effective means that one is able to properly analyse the evolving environment and selecting the right things as the areas of strategic focus for the enterprise. On the other hand, being efficient requires a carefully carved cultural and operational framework which helps the manager to achieve a particular degree of success, given the level of resources applied to a particular objective.

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In any business, an efficient manager is one who uses limited resources available viz., time, material and men to get the job done in a more professional manner. This includes securing productive and profitable results in a short span, using funds allotted for a business more legibly yet smartly, and appraising employee performance etc., In other words, an efficient manager would keep the business running even in dire circumstances.
An effective manager, on the other hand, is slightly different from the efficient one. The effective manager focuses on productivity rather than increased/balanced profitability. Effective management has various layers in its setup such as motivation, teamwork, communication and objectives. An effective manager is someone who leads, coordinates and filters various activities of the sub-ordinates and decides an appropriate mechanism to work upon. An effective manager usually works without any constraints such as funds, manpower etc. The focus always implies on better management practices and in turn, better output.
Effectiveness is a precondition for the success of any manager; however that depends more upon the uncontrollable variables dictated to the manager by the operational environment and his ability to come up with the right choices that would suit his resources built over time. It may be appreciated that a firm’s resources in terms of manpower and technology as well as capital would have been built up over time and they have a great degree of rigidity. Once you become effective, efficiency can be an easier thing to bring into operation. The two things are in fact complimentary. Efficiency in fact depends upon the lower level managerial abilities and culture while effectiveness is almost always a top management variable.
In management, operating in efficient and in effective ways is a key to good performance and to successfully reaching the goals set for the business. While efficiency and effectiveness are similarly desirable characteristics of business behavior, either one is often seen as attainable only at the expense of the other. Looking at the interplay of the two characteristics can give a clear insight into the ideal behavior for a manager when faced with tasks which must be completed quickly, but also completed in such a way that the key goals are attained.
Luther Gulick advocates seven elements which make up common management in any organization. He calls it the POSDCORB.
� Planning a strategy to accomplish the objectives set for an enterprise.
� Organizing a formal structure of authority, arranged and defined for specific jobs.
� Staffing / Recruiting and training personnel.
� Directing/ Decision � making and embodying rules, instructions etc.,
� Co-ordinating various parts of work.
� Reporting through records, research and inspection.
� Budgeting in form of fiscal planning, accounting and control.
These make up the common administrative tasks managers perform in an organization. The effectiveness of each element makes up both an efficient and effective management system. The following make up management behavior.
Management of human resources is a social phenomenon. An effective communication channel is always imperative in any kind of an organization. James Pfiffner calls it �the heart of management�. Chester Barnard remarks it as the foundation of co-operative group activity. For an effective communication, the information passed on must be clear, consistent, adequate, timely, uniform, flexible and acceptable. A manager must make sure that a proper communication channel is present in an organization. This includes avoiding semantic and ideological barriers, two-valued thinking (Halo effect), stereotyping and dogmatism among the employees.
Decision-making is a vital part of an efficient management system. Robert Tannenbaum says decision-making involves a conscious choice or selection of one behavior alternative from a group of two or more behavior alternative. A behavior alternative may simply be known as a decision. Decision-making, in more ways or the other, is a singular function of the manager. It is thus very important in an organization.
Herbert Simon came up with the fact that every decision has two basic premises � a factual premise and a value premise. A fact is a statement of reality while a value is an expression of preference. A manager would go by decisions based on these only. An effective manager goes in for the factual premise because it can be measured empirically, while the value premise, which may determine efficient factors such as profit, loss, employee satisfaction, cost-cutting etc., would be more preferred by efficient managers.
Rensis Likert calls motivation as �the core of management�. Motivation is a psychological process which energizes and activates an individual to achieve formulated objectives. A manager thus plays a vital role as a driving force behind motivation. On this part, both effective and efficient managers must be good motivators, so as to bring about the best in the employees. Classical and modern management thinkers have listed money and a variety of socio-psychological factors as a source of motivation. Motivation also helps to build teams and perform better.
Teamwork is another essential part of management. A manager is the undisputed leader of a team. He delegates work to his sub-ordinates, assigns tasks, creates plans and makes decisions. An autocratic manager would do all the above functions by himself. It is not desirable in an effective organizational system. On the other hand, an efficient manager would tend to be a little autocratic in his functions, because of the limited resources available and some other constraints. It is however better for an organization to be more democratic for proper functioning.
Managing effectively and efficiently is the way to go about in business. Efficient business tactics would help to know how to deal with finance and personnel in a more productive way. Most successful businesses in the world today are rather efficient than effective. Efficient management practices provide increased sustainability and stability in an organization. It involves novelty in management practices and output.
An effective management system takes a long time to fully materialize. It has more to do with the long-term vision of an organization than its present objectives. Effective management also involves setting time benchmarks within the organization, so that a given objective gets completed within a set time. Traditional management practices are usually followed, and the manager sets up an instructional framework within which the sub-ordinates are expected to follow. An effective management system, summarily can be defined as, one which
� Raises productivity
� Increases work output from sub-ordinates
� Functions within a set of rules and regulations
� Works in a more democratic manner
� Builds teamwork and effective communication channels
A good manager, therefore is one who works both efficiently and effectively simultaneously. It is imperative that he does work in a more systematic manner and adapts himself depending on the organizational situation and environment. What an organization / business would need is an effective mechanism and an efficient output.

The Effective Learning Strategy In English

Speaking is considered to be one of the most difficult skills in English learning. As one of the receptive skills, speaking is the foundation to develop other language skills. For a long period of time, the teaching of English in China has mainly focused on the teaching of reading and writing in the early stage of learning and neglected the teaching of listening and speaking. Many teachers are puzzled at the situation in the English class: though many students can get a good mark in English test, not all of them can perform well in listening and speaking. But the primary function of language is for interaction and communication. So how to improve learners’ oral communicative competence is a significant problem that each language teacher has to face, especially for the 12 to 15-year-old junior middle school students. But as their teachers, their oral English is very important. In China, oral English learning has been the weak point. It is of necessity to investigate factors which may obstruct or enhance oral English acquisition. They reflect on what was wrong with the teaching and try to find out the solutions to these problems. And it is obvious that the learners do not have enough and effective listening and speaking practice in a scientific way. Through our research, we know that the students are mainly influenced by the affective learning strategies. This article starts from the affective learning strategies, analyses the relations between the learners’ oral English ability and the affective learning strategies. At last, this article also gives some suggestions for the English learners in junior middle school.
1 Introduction
With the rapid development of the society, frequent communication among different nations and the rapid development of the international trade, more and more English majors will be needed. So to teach the students to be excellent English talents is an important and difficult task. In recent years, more and more scholars and researchers have paid much attention to the learning methods in order to improve their learning ability and achievement. In my own school and university experience, I found that students’ learning ability and achievement has much to do with the language learning strategies, especially the affective learning strategies. As we know, language learning strategies are what the teachers and students should know in their teaching and studying. In my middle school time, it reminds me that most of my English teachers did not view learning strategies as a priority and even the few who did care about them knew little or nothing to apply them to their teaching or to help the students to learn English. Due to this fact, I set down to do some researches and write an article to make a study of the learning strategies.
1.1 Problems
In the past decades,much progress has been made in English teaching in China, but there are still some problems that we have to face .One of them is that in spite of consistent practice and hard work,many junior high school students can’ t use English properly after three years of learning, especially their oral English is very poor. They still use the old learning methods,and are passive in English learning. Although teachers always make their students change learning strategies,they can’t yet change this kind of embarrassing situation . And there is another phenomenon, many a students can do well in reading and the examinations, but when they are called to give a speech or do some oral exercises, they just can not open their mouth. It seems that there are something stuck in their throat. Both the teachers and students do not know how to solve this problem, so they don’t know how to improve their speaking ability.
1.2 Theoretical significance
This article mainly discusses the influences of the affective learning strategies on English speaking. So, before we start those points, let us know something about the theoretical significance of studying the learning strategies and oral communication.
1.2.1 The importance of studying the learning strategies
It is meaningful and important for us to learn how to employ efficient ways in English learning. First,autonomous learning is the ultimate goal for English teaching. And one of the most important ways to achieve this is to motivate students to develop their own thinking strategies and learning strategies. In junior high schools,because of the traditional teaching methods,students cannot develop their own learning strategies .Therefore, it is becoming more and more important to study how to help students develop and use efficient learning strategies.

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An old proverb tells us what to do in English teaching .It goes “Give a man a fish and he will eat it up for a day ,but teach him how to fish and he will have fish to eat. “So to help students to develop their own affective learning strategies is just like teaching them” how to fish”. So in English teaching it is very important to teach students how to develop learning strategies .If they master the ways to develop learning strategies and use them freely and correctly ,students can not only improve their English fast,but also enhance their sense of responsibility in learning English .
1.2.2 The importance of oral communication
In people’s daily lives most of them speak more than they write, so speaking is fundamental to human communication. Many students equate being able to speak a language as knowing the language and therefore view learning the language as learning how to speak the language, or as Noonan (1991) wrote, “success is measured in terms of the ability to carry out a conversation in the target language”. Therefore, if the students do not learn how to speak or do not get any opportunity to speak in classroom they may soon get de-motivated and lose interest in learning.
With China’s entry into WTO and successful bidding for holding 2010 EXPO in Shanghai, the need for proficient English speakers is surely increasing, which means more opportunities for those who can speak fluent English in their own fields. In order to meet this challenge and seize the opportunity, the students not only want to have profound knowledge for English reading and writing, but also need the ability to have oral communication with foreigners in English. So to improve the students’ ability of oral English is becoming an important task.
2. A General Review of Affective Learning Strategies
In the September of 2000, the new English Course Standard for the Basic Education Stage was issued and tried out. It’s greatly different from the past syllabus. The teaching contents and goal of the course standard includes skills, knowledge, culture, affective strategies and so on. Both The Syllabus for Junior Middle School English Course of the Nine year Fulltime Compulsory Education (Revised) and The Syllabus for Full-time Senior Middle School English Course mentioned “To help the students develop the effective English learning strategies” as the teaching goal. The problem here is that we failed to get proper affective learning strategies organized in teaching and learning practice. So the brief review of the foreign and Chinese applied linguists’ researches about the affective learning strategies in the latest years should be taken at first. And it starts from the following aspects:
2.1 The definition of affective learning strategies
Affective strategies concern the ways in which learners interact with other learners and native speakers or take control of one’s own feelings on language learning. Examples of such strategies are cooperation and question for clarification. The term affective refers to emotions, attitudes, motivations, and values. It is impossible to overstate the importance of the affective factors influencing language learning. Language learners can gain control over these factors through affective strategies.
“The affective domain is impossible to describe within definable limits,” according to H.Douglas Brown. It spreads out like a fine-spun net, encompassing such concepts as self-esteem, attitudes, motivation, anxiety, culture shock, inhibition, risk taking, and tolerance for ambiguity. The affective side of the learner is probably one of the very biggest influences on language learning success or failure. Good language learners are often those who know how to control their emotions and attitudes about learning. Negative feelings can stunt progress, even for the rare learner who fully understands all the technical aspects of how to learn a new language. On the other hand, positive emotions and attitudes can make language learning far more effective and enjoyable. Teachers can exert a tremendous influence over the emotional atmosphere of the classroom in three different ways: by changing the social structure of the classroom to give students more responsibility, by providing increased amounts of naturalistic communication, and by teaching learners to use affective strategies.
Self-esteem is one of the primary affective elements. It is a self-judgment of worth or value, based on a feeling of efficacy-a sense of interacting effectively with one’s own environment. Low self-esteem can be detected through negative self-talk, like “boy, am I a blockhead! I embarrassed myself again in front of the class.” The three affective strategies related to self-encouragement help learners to counter such negativity. A mount of anxiety sometimes helps learners to reach their peak performance levels, but too much anxiety blocks language learning. Harmful anxiety presents itself in many guises: worry, self-doubt, frustration, helplessness, insecurity, fear, and physical symptoms.
Tolerance of ambiguity—that is the acceptance of confusing situations-may be related to willingness to take risks (and also reduction of both inhibition and anxiety). Moderate tolerance for ambiguity, like moderate risk taking, is probably the most desirable situation. Learners who are moderately tolerant of ambiguity tend to be open-minded in dealing with confusing facts and events, which are part of learning a new language. In contrast, low ambiguity-tolerant learners, wanting to categorize and compartmentalize too soon, have a hard time dealing with unclear facts. Again, self-encouragement and anxiety-reducing strategies help learners cope with ambiguity in language learning.
2.2 Classification of affective learning strategies
There are two kinds of classifications: Chamot and O’Malley’s and Oxford’s
a: Chamot and O’Malley (1990) recognized three affective/social strategies: cooperation, questions for clarification, and self-talks.
b: Oxford (1990), otherwise, gave some more detailed items: lowering your anxiety, encouraging yourself, and taking your emotional temperature for affective strategies; and asking question, cooperating with others, and empathizing with others for social strategies. In this paper, I mainly talk about Oxford’s classification of the affective strategies. As shown in Figure 1
A. Lowering your anxiety
(Using progressive relaxation, deep breathing, or meditation, Using music, Using laughter)
Affective strategies B. Encouraging yourself(Making positive statements, Taking risk wisely, Rewarding yourself)
C. Taking your emotional temperature(Listening to your body,
Using a checklist, Writing a language learning diary)
2.2.1 Lowering your anxiety
Three anxiety-reducing strategies are listed here. Each has a physical component and a mental component.
Firstly, using Progressive Relaxation, Deep Breathing, or Meditation: Use the technique of alternately tensing and relaxing all of the major muscle groups in the body, as well as the muscles in the neck and face, in order to relax; or the technique of breathing deeply from the diaphragm; or the technique of meditating by focusing on a mental image or sound.
Secondly, using Music: Listen to soothing music, such as a classical concert, as a way to relax.
Thirdly, using Laughter: Use laughter to relax by watching a funny movie, reading a humorous book, listening to jokes, and so on.
2.2.2 Encouraging yourself
This set of three strategies is often forgotten by language learners, especially those who expect encouragement mainly from other people and do not realize they can provide their own. However, the most potent encouragement—and the only available encouragement in many independent language learning situations—may come from inside the learner. Self-encouragement includes saying supportive things, providing oneself to take risks wisely, and providing rewards.
Making Positive Statements: Say or write positive statements to oneself in order to feel more confident in learning the new language.
Taking Risks Wisely: Push oneself to take risks in a language learning situations, even though there is such a chance of making a mistake or looking foolish. Risks must be tempered with good judgment.
Rewarding Yourself: Give oneself a valuable reward for a particularly good performance in the new language.
2.2.3 Taking your emotional temperature
The four strategies in this set help learners to assess their feelings, motivations, and attitudes, in many cases, to relate them to language tasks. Unless learners know how they are feeling and why they are feeling that way, they are less able to control their affective side. The strategies in this set are particularly helpful for discerning negative attitudes and emotions that impede language learning progress.
Listening to Your Body: Paying attention to signals given by the body. These signals may be negative, reflecting stress, tension, worry, fear, and anger; or they may be positive, indicating happiness, interest, calmness, and pleasure.
Using a Checklist: Use a checklist to discover feeling, attitudes, and motivations concerning language learning in general, as well as concerning specific language tasks.
Writing a Language Learning Diary: Writing a diary or journal to keep track of events and feeling in the process of learning a new language.
Discussing Your Feeling with Someone Else: Talking with another person (teacher, friend, relative) to discover and express feelings about language learning.
3. The Influence of Affective Learning Strategies on Speaking
This article focuses on discussing about the influences of the affective learning strategies on oral English for junior high school students, which is also the researching point. We want to find out how does them influence the junior high school students’ oral English, and then according to what we found we can make some suggestions. The following paragraphs will talk about the influences of three different affective strategies on speaking in detail.
3.1 The influence of lowering your anxiety
As we all know in recent years, more and more foreign language researchers have taken learner variables, especially affective factors into consideration. “Among the affective factors influencing language learning, especially oral English speaking, anxiety ranks high”. “Psychologically speaking, anxiety refers to the intense and enduring negative feeling caused by vague and dangerous stimuli from the outside as well as the unpleasant emotional experience involved, such as anticipation, irritation and fear”. While language anxiety is the fear or apprehension occurring when a learner is expected to perform in the second language learning, it is associated with feeling such as uneasiness, frustration, self-doubt, apprehension and tension.
In my own experience, I and also my friends and classmates have anxiety problems, when we participate in the English corner or give a speech; they impede us to carry on. There are many other similar cases can be found. So lowering your anxiety becomes very important. Lowering your anxiety can help you accomplish your learning tasks more peacefully and more efficiently.
3.2 The influence of encouraging yourself
Confidence, also called as self-confidence, is a kind of optimistic emotion that language learners firmly believe they can overcome troubles to gain success. It is also a kind of active and upward emotional inclination that their real values can be respected by other people, collective, and society. Confidence is an important quality formed in the process of people’s growth and success, and was built on the basis of their right cognition. Setting confidence is to evaluate correctly himself, look for his merits, and affirm his capability. People often say that it is important for them to know themselves wisely. This “wisdom” embodies in not only seeing their merits, but also in analyzing their shortcoming. In fact, everyone owns great potentials, and everyone possesses his advantages and strong points. If we can objectively evaluate ourselves and on the basis of knowing our disadvantages and weak points to encourage ourselves, our strong sense of self-esteem and confidence can be stimulated.
Confidence is to be a kind of active affective factor. As for foreign language learners, if you want to succeed, you should possess the major quality – confidence. It often plays a decisive role in foreign language learning. Confidence is just like catalyst of foreign language learner’s competence and can make all potentials be transferred, and let their potentials bring into play. However, foreign language learners who are lacking in confidence often hold suspicion on their competence. They often embody negative weakness, or lack stability and initiative. They should change their attitudes on the foreign language learning, build enough confidence. As a matter of fact, encouraging yourself is a very important way to gain confidence. So we can know how significant role does encouraging yourself play in improving the learners’ speaking ability.
3.3 The influence of taking your emotional temperature
Emotion, as we know plays a very important role in our life as well as in our language learning. Good emotions can help you lead a happy life and it also can help you do an excellent job when you are communicating with the others or making a speech to the public. On the contrary, bad emotions can help you nothing but ruin you instead. This strategy — taking your emotional temperature — helps learners to assess their feelings, motivations, and attitudes and, in many cases, to relate them to language tasks. Unless learners know how they are feeling and why they are feeling that way, they are less able to control their affective side. The strategies in this set are particularly helpful for discerning negative attitudes and emotions that impede language learning progress, and especially oral English learning progress. Through this set of strategies, the English learners can improve their speaking ability in a short time.
4. Findings and Analysis
In order to make this article more persuadable and authoritative, I made a questionnaire and also make an analysis. The aim of making findings and analysis is also to find the factors which impede the junior school students’ oral English ability, and then according to what we have found we can give some useful and effective suggestions to them.
4.1 Data collection
30 questionnaires were distributed and 27 were returned. All incomplete questionnaires were discarded because the results could not be described and analyzed unless all items were answered. In total, the data from 27 fully completed questionnaires were analyzed. All the questions are designed according to the affective strategies I mentioned in this thesis.
4.2 Data analysis
According to the questionnaires, I made a date analysis. I analyzed the proportion of students, who choose these options. And also I analyzed the proportion of them who had the speaking obstacles and who failed to adopt the useful ways to help them to train their affective strategies. These will be shown in the following two tables.
4.2.1 Application of affective learning strategies in a junior middle school
The table below shows that in general students sometimes use the affective strategies, although the level of use by strategy category differs in one way or another. The capitalized letter A, B, C, D, E orderly means:”I never or almost not do that”, “I usually don’t do that”, “I sometimes do that”, “I usually do that” and “I always or almost always do that”. The items from 6 to 16 refer to the questions about the affective strategies. The figures in the blanks are the percent of how many students choose the items A, B, C, D, and E. The appendix at the end of this article will give you a more detailed explanation.
From the table, a conclusion can be drawn that almost half of the students feel nervous or shy when they speak English, and the most important thing is that 51.9% of them cannot get rid of being nervous and 85.2 of them face the affective factors by themselves. They seldom talk about these things with others. And 70.4% of the students do not use music to lower their anxiety before they give a speech, when it refers to writing English diaries, it is even more serious. In all, the reason why this phenomenon occurs is that the students have a short cognition on the affective learning strategies. If they wanted to improve their speaking ability, the teachers should help them to have a comprehensive knowledge about them and help them apply them to their study. So the affective strategies should be paid attention to.
5 Suggestions
From the above analysis, besides the learner’s specific difference, social condition and learning task also greatly influence and restrict the students’ learning motivation and their learning strategy applications. The middle school students in our country need a better condition for their foreign language learning, which includes the richer understandable language input, especially the oral input; they also need more chance for practicing and using the foreign language. An ancient proverb says: “Give a man a fish and he eats for a day. Teach him how to fish and he eats for a life-time.” I think that guiding the students to improve some effective English learning strategies is a kind of approach to “give a man a fish” in order to expect him to “eat for a life-time”. So it is very important to teach the students the learning approaches and the learning strategies in order to develop their foreign language learning ability. If the students master the strategy knowledge and use the strategies freely and correctly, they can not only accelerate the foreign language learning, but also strengthen their learning sense of responsibility, autonomy, independence, and self-guiding and self- efficiency. Then the students’ inner learning motivation is aroused, so they can elaborate the facial role in the learning process, accelerate the English acquisition. Based on the above analysis and discussion, I want to give the following suggestions:
5.1 Improving speaking ability
This article has just presented the definition and the classification of the affective strategies in the first few parts. We know the functions of these affective strategies, but that is not enough. If we want to improve our speaking ability, we should know how to apply them to speaking. The following parts will talk about it in detail.
a). As it mentioned above, anxiety is a big negative factor which impede the English learners’ speaking. So we must lower our anxiety before we make a conversation. And there are some ways to help us to do that. Use progressive relaxation, deep breathing, or meditation, music, and laughter. When we are going to make a speech or do some oral exercises we can use these strategies.
b). Encourage yourself is also a very important strategy to help you to improve your speaking ability. And there are also three ways to encourage yourself. When we are studying, we can make some positive statements to remind us that we can do it, we can accomplish the tasks successfully. Here are some examples:
I understand a lot more of what is said to me now.
I am confident and secure about my progress.
I can get the general meaning without knowing every word.
And also when we train our speaking, we can take some risks wisely. May be we are always do the easy speaking tasks which may not be effective to us anymore, so we can challenge ourselves and do some difficult ones. The last way is that give yourself a reward when you gain something. But you should remember the rewards need not be tangible or visible. They can also come from the very act of doing a good job. Students can learn to relish their own good performance.
c). Taking your emotional temperature is one of the affective strategies. This set of strategies for affective self-assessment involves getting in touch with feelings, attitudes, and motivations through a variety of means. Language learners need to be touch with these affective aspects, so that they can begin to exert some control over them. The strategies described here enable learners to notice their emotions, avert negative ones, and make the most of positive ones. When the learners use this set of strategies they should take the following aspects into consideration. First, they should listen to their body. One of the simplest but most often ignored strategies for emotional self-assessment is paying attention to what the body says. Second, use a checklist. A checklist helps learners in a more structured way to ask themselves questions about their own emotional state, both in general and in regard to specific language tasks and skills. Third, discuss your feeling with someone else.
5.2 Training affective learning strategies
At the first of this article, it mentions the importance of studying affective learning strategies. According to that, we know it is important and necessary to study them. So the training of affective learning strategies is a must.
5.2.1 Goals of learning strategy training
The goal of strategy training is to teach students how, when and why strategies can be used to facilitate their efforts at learning and using a foreign language. By teaching students how to develop their own individualized strategy systems, strategy training is intended to help students explore ways that they can learn the target language more effectively, as well as to encourage students to self-evaluate and self-direct their learning. The first step is to help learners recognize which strategies they’ve already used, and then to develop a wide range of strategies, so that they can select appropriate and effective strategies within the context of particular tasks. Carrell (1983) emphasizes that teachers need to be explicit about what the strategy consists of, how, when, why it might be used, and how its effectiveness can be evaluated.
A further goal of strategy training is to promote learner’s autonomy and learner’s self-direction by allowing students to choose their own strategies, without continued prompting from the language teacher. Learners should be able to monitor and evaluate the relative effectiveness of their strategy use, and more fully develop their problem-solving skills. Strategy training can thus be used to help learners achieve learning autonomy as well as linguistic autonomy. Students need to know what their abilities are, how much progress they are making and what they can do with the skills they have acquired. Without such knowledge, it will not be easy for them to learn efficiently.
The strategy training is predicted on the assumption that if learners are conscious about and become responsible for the selection, use and evaluation of their learning strategies, they will become more successful language learners by improving their use of classroom time, completing homework assignments and in-class language tasks more efficiently, become more aware of their individual learning needs, taking more responsibility for their own language learning, and enhancing their use of the target language out of class. In other words, the ultimate goal of strategy training is to empower students by allowing them to take control of the language learning process.
5.2.2 Models for affective learning strategy training
Before talking about the models for affective learning strategies, I want to emphasize that learning environment is very important for training strategies. When the students meet some difficult problems, they should turn to advanced teaching facilities. It is not just a good way to study but also a very good learning strategy. So the school should take it into consideration.
By now, at least three different instructional frameworks have been identified. They are Pearson and Dole model, Oxford model, and Chamot and O’Malley model. They have been designed to raise student awareness to the purpose and rationale of affective learning strategy use, to give students opportunities to practice the strategies that they are being taught, and to help them understand how to use the strategies in new learning contexts. Each of the three approaches contains the necessary components of explicit strategy training: it emphasizes discussions about the use and value of strategies, encourages conscious and purposeful strategy use and transfer of those strategies to other contexts, and allows students to monitor their performance and evaluate the effectiveness of the strategies they are using.
(1) Pearson and Dole model
The first approach to strategy training has been suggested by Pearson and Dole (1987) with reference to first language, but it can also be applied to the study of second and foreign languages as well. This model targets isolated strategies by including explicit modeling and explanation of the benefits of applying affective , extensive functional practice with the strategy, and then an opportunity for transfer of the strategy to new learning contexts. Students may better understand the applications of the various strategies if they at first modeled by the teacher and then practiced individually. After a range or a set of affective strategies have been introduced and practiced, the teacher can further encourage independent strategy use and promote learners autonomy by encouraging learners to take responsibility for the selection, use, and evaluation of the affective strategies that they have been taught. Pearson and Dole’s sequence includes:
1. Initial modeling of the strategy by the teacher, with direct explanation of the strategy’s use and importance;
2. Guided practice with the strategy;
3. Consolidation , teachers help students identifiy the strategy and decide when it might be used;
4. Independent practice with the strategy; and
5. Application of the strategy to new tasks.
(2) Oxford model
As for the second approach to strategy training, Oxford et al. (1990) outline a useful sequence for the introduction of the affective strategies that emphasizes explicit strategy awareness, discussion of the benefits of strategy use, functional and contextualized practice with the strategies. This sequence is not prescriptive regarding strategies that the learners are supposed to use, but rather descriptive of the various strategies that they could use for a broad range of learning tasks. The sequence they is the following:
1. Ask learners to do a language activity without any strategy training;
2. Have them discuss how they did it, praise any useful strategy and self-directed attitudes that they mention, and ask them to reflect on how the strategies they selected may have facilitated the learning process;
3. Suggest and demonstrate other helpful strategies, mentioni

Effective Solutions to Juvenile Delinquency

Juvenile offenders are individuals who have not attained the majority age according to the law. In New York, the legal system recommends particular procedures that should be undertaken when dealing the juvenile offenders. Some of the legal system associated with juvenile delinquency in the state of New York include juvenile courts and detention facilities because some of the juvenile offense is always treated as civil cases rather than criminal cases. Therefore, they always tend to avoid certain requirements are considered in criminal cases such as the right to a public trial or right to jury trial. In New York, juveniles’ offenders are people who fit into the age bracket of below 17 years. However, if a juvenile commits a crime such as murder, they may be charged and tried like adults. In the past, many juveniles have always been arrested and many pieces of research have stated that the New York state government has a more aggressive criminal justice system rather than viewing these actions as a response to the change in the behaviors of the youth. Some of the juvenile crimes include underage smoking or drinking, vandalism which involves acts such as breaking windows, damaging road signs and defencing walls in private and public property and drug possession among others.

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Some of the individual traits of juvenile offenders in New York state include gender. In New York state, most of the violent crimes are always committed by male juveniles. According to a study conducted in the New York state, of the 2,686 juvenile offenders who were sentenced for committing 4 most serious violent crimes which include rape, robbery, homicide, and aggravated assault, male offenders accounted for 82% of all the offenders (Beaver, 2008).  Furthermore, male children were more likely to show early signs of aggressiveness particularly through methods such as bullying and male children are also more likely to engage in physical actions that female children. The causes and correlates study found that in general, a higher percentage of male children are likely to get engaged in serious violent behavior than their female counterparts. This finding confirms past studies which state that violence is more rampant in males. However, the research also stated that a smaller percentage of females are also likely to get involved in serious violent behaviors.

Age also plays an important role as a trait of juvenile offenders in New York state. Studies have also shown that most of the juveniles who get involved in violent behaviors start at the age of 15 years. According to a study conducted on 2,686 juveniles who were charged with the 4 most serious offenses were mostly 15 years old and below. In the study, the mean age of all the juveniles who were charged with homicide was 15.8, the mean age of juveniles who were charged with assault-related crimes was 15.6 and the mean age of teenagers who were charged with serious offenses was 51.1 years. The study also stated that the peak of violent behaviors in male juveniles is between 15 and 17 years then the violent behaviors start to decline. In females, the peak age for violent behaviors was at mid-adolescence and then starts to decline after (Vaughn, Howard & DeLisi, 2008). The race is also an important characteristic of juvenile offenders in New York State. The study showed that many African-American juveniles were more likely to be unreasonably arrested for violent behaviors. In the New York state, African American youths make up about 65% of the juveniles in incarceration. Among the 2,686 juveniles who were charged with the four most serious violent crimes, 98% of the total population of youths was made up of African American juveniles. However, in other states such as South Carolina accounted for about 30% of all the juveniles in all the juvenile correction facilities in the state. Another study also stated that 82% of the juveniles in correctional facilities in New York state are African Americans, 16% of the juveniles were Caucasian and 2% were made up of the other races in the United States. However, the African American juveniles were mostly found to have committed more serious crimes such as homicide and assault crimes as compared to other races in the United States.

Juvenile personal relationships and interactions also play an important role in juvenile offenders’ traits. At childhood, family interactions are very important because they have a lasting effect on the juveniles. At early adolescence, a youth’s relations and interactions with their peers is also important because the individual’s peers have the ability to influence the adolescent to act in a particular way. Research indicates that many children who are raised by single parents are more likely to get involved in antisocial behaviors. In many cases, where juveniles are raised by single parents who are not economically well off, they are likely to join gangs to find a means of survival. Single parents who have to work to support themselves do not always have time to take care of their children and monitor the activities of their children (Wilson & Petersilia, 2010). The youths always take advantage of the situation and develop delinquent behaviors because their parents are not around to correct them when they act in the wrong way. The risk is always higher in case, the mother of the child is a teenager. Children who are also raised in the family of more than four people are also likely to develop delinquent behaviors because of the size of the family. In this case, children are not strictly supervised because the parents have to divide their attention to all the members of the family. Therefore, there are some antisocial behaviors of the children that may go unnoticed by the parents. By the time the parents of the child will be able to notice the antisocial behavior of their child, the behavior would have developed and the child has been affected by the behavior. Parenting is the most important in the development of a child because this is the stage where children get to learn things that they should and things that they should not do.

An individual involvement with deviant peers is also a trait of juvenile offenders in New York state. A teen’s involvement with deviant peers had a greater effect on the development of antisocial behavior of the juvenile because of factors such as peer approval of a particular delinquent behavior, level of the attachment to the peer and the amount of time the juvenile spends with his or her peers. The level of teenage delinquency will increase if the teenager finds out that his or her peers approve delinquent behavior. Before the age of seventeen, the teenagers always value their peers and they are more likely to get involved in any activity that their peers get involved in. Therefore, if the teenager’s peers are getting involved in any antisocial behavior, they are more likely to get involved in the behavior because they do not want to feel like they have been exempted by their peers (Hinduja & Patchin, 2008). Therefore, the effect of peers on a teenager will be worse if the child has poor parenting where the child is not monitored by their parents. In this case, they will have more freedom to behave in any way want to.

Juveniles are also influenced by other environmental factors such as a neighborhood. Growing up in a hostile neighborhood increases the likelihood of the juveniles getting involved in serious criminal activities in their adolescence. In the New York state, crime is unequally distributed in space. The geographic distribution of juvenile crime arises in different areas of aggregation in certain cities in the state. For example, cities with higher levels of poverty in New York state and are highly populated always experience higher rates of juvenile crime. There are many cases of juvenile crime in New York state because of the existence of organized crime and gangs in the state. The many gangs and organized crime in the state always recruit teenagers to perform for them some of the criminal activities such as getting involved in the sales of drugs and other criminal activities such as robbery with violence and murder among others (Carver, Timperio & Crawford, 2008). In the New York state, the African Americans and American Indians have also experienced a great level of residential segregation and poverty in the cities. Many juveniles always get involved in some criminal activities with the aim of escaping poverty. In this case, they always get involved in organized crime and gangs in their neighborhood so that they may be able to earn a living through the crimes committed by the gang and gangs also provide these juveniles with security.

Other factors such as school suspension and expulsion also influence juveniles to get involved in crimes because once expelled or suspended, the juvenile gets the opportunity to involve in the issues they were expelled or suspended for. In New York state, a study showed that juveniles in urban areas are more likely to be expelled or suspended, they are followed by the suburban areas and it is lower in juveniles from rural areas. Expulsion and suspension also vary among the youths depending on the race, sex, social economic background and family characteristics of the teenagers. Male students are more likely to be expelled or suspended from schools that female students. The study also indicates that students from minority groups are more likely to be suspended disproportionately (Beaver, 2008). Schools have always played an important role in making attempts to change the behavior of students. There are many programs in schools such as guidance and counseling which aims at correcting the characteristics of students. However, when students are expelled or suspended, they are always given the opportunity to go and participate in the activities that they could not take part in because of the attending classes. Therefore, it is very important for schools to ensure that they find a way of correcting students’ behaviors without sending them away from schools.

Mental illness also causes Juveniles to get involved in crimes. In cases where a juvenile with mental illness get access to a loaded gun, they are likely to use the gun to shoot themselves or shoot other people because sometimes they may not be aware of their actions. Some people also take advantage of the juveniles with mental illness and use them to commit crimes. Criminals are more likely to use juveniles with mental illness to commit crimes such as the distribution of drugs. Some of them easily get convinced to transport drugs from one place to another because most of them are not aware of the substance they are transported and when caught they fail to mention the names of the people who sent them and they suffer on behalf of the criminals.

Many juveniles in New York state always get into crime for different reasons. Some of the major reasons include family background where some children come from poor families and they start committing crime as a means of survival. Some of the youths from the poor families may commit crimes on their own on decided to join gangs to commit crimes as a group because it is more secure in that manner. According the past researchers, male children are more likely to commit crime that females because they always start showing hostile behaviours at a tender age. The study also found out that neighbourhood plays an important role in the process of shaping a child’s future and decisions. Children who are born in poverty-stricken neighbourhoods are more likely to engage in crimes because many gangs exist in such neighbourhoods. On the other hand, children from rich neighbourhood are less likely to commit crimes because the of nature of rich neighbourhoods. Finally, parenting is also very important, the study showed that children with single parents are likely to commit crimes because of cases of poor parenting. Therefore, New York state government should look into these issues and form solutions which will be effective in solving the problems of juvenile delinquency.


Beaver, K. M. (2008). Nonshared environmental influences on adolescent delinquent involvement and adult criminal behavior. Criminology, 46(2), 341-369.

Carver, A., Timperio, A., & Crawford, D. (2008). Playing it safe: The influence of neighborhood safety on children’s physical activity—A review. Health & place,  14(2), 217-227.

Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2008). Cyberbullying: An exploratory analysis of factors related to offending and victimization. Deviant behavior, 29(2), 129-156.

Vaughn, M. G., Howard, M. O., & DeLisi, M. (2008). Psychopathic personality traits and delinquent careers: An empirical examination. International journal of law and              psychiatry, 31(5), 407-416.

Wikstrom, P. O. H., & Butterworth, D. A. (2013). Adolescent crime. Willan.

Wilson, J. Q., & Petersilia, J. (Eds.). (2010). Crime and public policy. Oxford University Press


Effective Communication in Midwifery

A discussion on how the midwife demonstrates her professional accountability through effective communication, including an awareness of factors, which may contribute to poor communication. 
The Nursing & Midwifery Council (2004a, p. 17) in addressing the responsibilities and sphere of practice for midwives under Rule number 6 of their “Midwives rules and standards” brings forth the importance of communication by stating that midwives “Should work in partnership with the woman and her family” and “Should enable the woman to make decisions about her care based upon her individual needs, by discussing matters fully with her”. Rule number 6 adds that the midwife also “Should respect the woman’s right to refuse any advice given” (Nursing & Midwifery Council, 2004a, p. 17). In furthering the roll of effective communication, Rule 7 under “Administration of medicines” as put forth by the Nursing & Midwifery Council (2004a, p. 19) advises that “A midwife must respect the right of individuals to self-administer substances of their choice”.
The preceding specifications have been brought forth as they help to set the foundational context for this examination, that seek to explore how the midwife demonstrates her professional accountability through effective communication, including an awareness of factors, which may contribute to poor communication.
The Nursing & Midwifery Council (2008a) under a document titled “The Code: Standards of conduct, performance and ethics for nurses and midwives” begins its document by stating that “The people in your care must be able to trust you with their health and well-being”, and that in order for nurses and midwives “To justify that thrust …” they need to be able to conduct effective communication in a broad sphere of activities and actions. In elaborating upon the foregoing “The Code” adds that midwives need to “be open and honest…” along with acting with integrity (Nursing & Midwifery Council, 2008a). The preceding means that they must and are accountable for their actions, means that accordingly that they must “… treat people as individuals …” respecting their dignity, as well as acting “… as an advocate for those in …” their care, aiding and assisting them in accessing “… relevant health and social care, information and support” (Nursing & Midwifery Council, 2008a). The importance of effective communication is further underscored in the dictates of “The Code” that states midwives must “Respect people’s confidentiality”, mandating that midwifes need to respect their patient’s “… right to confidentiality”, informing them as to the “… how and why information is shared …” among those providing for their care, and importantly, that midwifes “… must disclose information … (if they) … believe someone may be at risk of harm …” in accordance with the law (Nursing & Midwifery Council, 2008a).

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The foregoing represents rules of ethics as well as conduct that provide the foundational understandings for the conduct of midwives. Importantly, the underpinning of the relationship between midwives and patients reside in collaboration. That communication means listening to their patients, along with responding “… to their concerns and preferences”, and the support of their patients “… in caring for themselves to improve and maintain their health” (Nursing & Midwifery Council, 2008a). The critical facet of effective and ongoing communication and trust resides in the trust between patients and midwives, as this is the foundation of care. That foundation includes the respect as well as recognition of “… the contribution that people make to their own care and well-being”, and sharing information, conversation and professional advice in a manner their patients can understand (Nursing & Midwifery Council, 2008a).
The preceding means the meeting of language as well as communication needs, along with gaining consent before beginning any treatment or care programs to ensure patients are absolutely clear on what such entails (Nursing & Midwifery Council, 2008a). The preceding means that the patient’s right to either accept or decline care and or treatment is inherent in their rights, along with their being fully informed as well as involved in decisions as such relate to their care and treatment (Nursing & Midwifery Council, 2008a).
Effective communication and accountability in the conduct of duties as a midwife includes their relationship with their supervisors as well as doctors, hospitals and other staff, organisations. The foregoing was detailed in another document from the Nursing & Midwifery Council (2007) titled “Standards for the supervised practice of midwives” whereby the important of communication and professional practice means that midwives need to maintain a communicative relationship with their supervisors and the aforementioned support staff to further their own development. In addition, midwifes need to be able to honestly evaluate their own performance to shore up areas that they are either weak or not proficient in (Nursing & Midwifery Council, 2007). Communication goes to the heart of delivering effective care, as the patient needs to develop an ongoing rapport, and advise the midwife of all facets connected with their care
‘Prep’ stands for ‘post-registration education and practice’ that represents standards as well as guidance in the providing of care and practice that maintains high levels (Nursing & Midwifery Council, 2008b). Under the preceding, nurses and midwives are required to record continuing professional development, in compliance with standards and practice (Nursing & Midwifery Council, 2008b). One provision under this requirement is that midwives, as well as nurses, are required to be able to demonstrate their “… ability to use appropriate communications, teaching and learning skills”. The importance of the preceding is that effective communication is stressed in every Nursing & Midwifery Council (2008) document. The significance of the preceding is detailed in the Nursing & Midwifery Council’s (2004b) document “Complaints about unfitness to practise: A guide for members of the public” that deals with allegations concerning care practice by midwives. This guide for patients indicates that issues concerning complaints encompasses “… verbal abuse …” “… failure to provide adequate care …” “… concealing unsafe practice …” as key areas, all of which can potentially have their roots in poor communication between midwives and patients. Such instances can be avoided through proper and ongoing communication with patients in a professional manner that emanates from the beginning of the relationship, on through every meeting and or communication exchange.
The scope of the preceding, communication, as an important facet in the professionalism and accountability of a midwife is contained in the Nursing & Midwifery Council’s (2004c) “Reporting lack of competence: A guide for employers and managers” that states that one of the characteristics the indicates and or demonstrates a lack of competence includes a “… difficulty in communicating with colleagues, patients or clients”, the “… inability to work as apart of a team …”, and “… poor judgement …” (Nursing & Midwifery Council, 2004c). In looking at the foregoing, one can see that communication is either at the heart of, or a symptom. Further importance, as well as administrative recognition of communication as a core foundational aspect in the practice of midwifery is contained in the Nursing & Midwifery Council’s (2004d) “Reporting unfitness to practise: A guide for employers and managers” that states that fitness to practise might be impaired by a “… persistent lack of ability in properly identifying care needs and accordingly planning and delivering appropriate care”.
Accountability and Communication
The critical nature of health care delivery entails listening and communicating with patients as an active and ongoing dialogue. The critical nature of effective communication as well as accountability and the ramifications of poor communication skills can be a result of the creation of a non-harmonious rapport with the patient that results in misunderstood communication concerning the methods of care and or options open to them, as well as a host of associated factors. In a document as prepared by the Nursing & Midwifery Council’s (2008c), listening to patient concerns regarding their care is the first of a list of areas that includes the creation of an “… environment that facilitates effective communication …”. The emphasis on communication is paramount in the health care profession (Ellingson, 2002).
In a study conducted Catherine McCabe (2004, pp. 41-49) she starts her report advising “Patient centred communication is a basic component … and facilitates the development of a positive nurse-patient relationship … (that) … results in the delivery of quality … care”. Her study uncovered that a lack of communication, along with empathy were two of the most cited reasons by patients in complaints about their health care delivery. The diversity that exists in the UK makes the subject of effective communication even more compelling. Language, educational, believe systems, unsureness and or suspicions regarding the role and or competence of midwifes, tales involving others negative experiences with midwives, as well as a host of other factors represent impediments to the profession that a midwife needs to be aware and cognizant of in establishing contact with a patient, and developing an atmosphere of trust and confidence (Devries et al, 2001).
In an article published by Medical News Today (2007), it stated that the NMC Code “… requires each nurse and midwife to act at all times in a such a manner as to justify public trust and confidence”. The article went on to add that “Nurses and midwifes are personally accountable for their practice …” stating that their professional accountability requires them to “… work in an open and co-operative manner with patients and their families …” recognising patient input and involvement in their care and health planning (Medical News Today, 2007). While the bulk of this study has focuses on the midwives communication with their patients, which is the core of their responsibilities in their profession, as members of a team, midwives also must exercise and exhibit effective communication with their peers and administrative bodies as well.
Supervisors are an important part of this process in that they are there to assist and help midwives stay abreast of new developments, evaluate and aid them in enhancing their care delivery as well as being working partners in the midwife / patient relationship (Nursing & Midwifery Council, 2008d).
The supervisory practice aids midwifes in their accountability, as well as assisting them in their potential or real communication issues with patients, and stand as an aid in the process. Their role in the effective monitoring of midwifes is in the interests of the public as well as the midwife, through their ongoing monitoring of midwives (Nursing & Midwifery Council, 2008d). Jones and Symon (2000, p. 27) point to the preceding as being one of the strengths of the profession in the UK, “…the statutory supervision of midwives”. They state that the system’s priorities are the assisting of midwives in the assessment of their own needs, as well as those of their patients, maintaining the adherence to the Code as their guide (Jones and Symon, 2000, p. 27). The preceding is referred to as ethics that represents the role of midwives, their supervisors and the entire structure of health care that is in the public trust. The aforementioned layer of accountability has been established to oversee midwives as well as provide them with a framework to foster communications with patients, and also provide patients with a structure as well. Good communication, as stated throughout this study, wards off potential issues and problems, and is the cornerstone in establishing effective care for the midwife and patient. Its importance cannot be over emphasised, as miscommunication in health care can have consequences that are life threatening.
Devries, R., Wrede, S., Teijlingen, E., Benoit, C. (2001) Birth by Design: Pregnancy, Maternity Care, and Midwifery in North America and Europe. Routledge. London, United Kingdom
Ellingson, L. (2002) Communication, Collaboration, and Teamwork among Health Care Professionals. Vol. 21, No. 3. Communication Research Trends
Jones, S., Symon, A. (2000) Ethics in Midwifery. Mosby Publishers. Edinbergh
McCabe. C. (2004) Nurse-patient communication: an exploration of patient’s experiences. Vol. 13, No. 1. Journal of Clinical Nursing
Medical news Today (2007) Resuscitation of Patients, UK. 1 November 2007. Medical News Today
Nursing & Midwifery Council (2004b) Complaints about unfitness to practise: A guide for members of the public. Nursing & Midwifery Council. London, United Kingdom
Nursing & Midwifery Council (2004a) Midwives rules and standards. Nursing & Midwifery Council. London, United Kingdom
Nursing & Midwifery Council (2008d) Modern supervision in action: a practical guide for midwives. Nursing & Midwifery Council. London, United Kingdom
Nursing & Midwifery Council (2004c) Reporting lack of competence: A guide for employers and managers. London, United Kingdom
Nursing & Midwifery Council (2004d) Reporting unfitness to practise: A guide for employers and managers. Nursing & Midwifery Council. London, United Kingdom
Nursing & Midwifery Council’s (2008c) Support for parents: How supervision and Supervisors of Midwives can help you. Nursing & Midwifery Council. London, United Kingdom
The Nursing & Midwifery Council (2008a) The Code Standards of conduct, performance and ethics for nurses and midwifes. The Nursing & Midwifery Council. London, United Kingdom
Nursing & Midwifery Council (2008b) The Prep handbook. Nursing & Midwifery Council. London, United Kingdom

Most Effective Management Style for a Modern Workplace

Executive Summary
This leadership project is a study of effective leadership in modern business organizations.
This project begins with an introduction on leadership, a review of leadership theories throughout the history and distinguishes between the focus of earlier literature on leadership which is central around leader characteristics & styles and the new leadership theories of leadership development, transformational leadership, charismatic leadership, and visionary leadership.
The next section is on the different leadership models and frameworks being applied and used in modern organizations. These models identify the responsibilities required of people holding leadership positions.
The following section introduces Juthoor Development Services and discusses the type of leadership strategies and approaches that are used and applied in the company. The focus of leadership then is shifted to that of team leadership due to the practices in Juthoor Development Services.
The section on Personal Leadership describes and evaluates my own leadership style and the leadership skills that need to be developed and enhanced. This section includes personal reflections and an extensive action plan on individual leadership.
The project concludes with an overview on what was discussed and recommendations for better leadership which results in better performance.
A leader is an individual that possesses a mixture of skills and styles that makes a team want to follow the leader’s direction; hence leadership is the ability to motivate and influence a team to achieve a specific target and goal. Leadership is all about creating a vision and comprises the power to convert the vision into reality. Different styles of leadership, different kinds of leaders lead to different results in an organization. In the business world, leadership is generally related to performance. Effective leaders are those who have the ability to add value to their company by increasing its bottom lines. It is widely known that organizations all around the world lose because managers are not adequately skilled and knowledgeable. The main reason behind this issue is that managers are not aware of how important their role is in an organization. They are unaware of the necessity of “leadership” issues that should enter into all their decision-making activities.

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Literature Review
Strategic leadership is fundamental for accomplishing and sustaining competitive advantage in this century (Ireland and Hitt, 1999). Effective leaders have been repetitively distinguished for their important role they play in identifying opportunities and making the right decisions that overall affect an organizations procedures and bottom line (Finkelstein et. Al, 1996). The effective and efficient skill leaders’ practice adds substantial business value to the organization.
Review of academic research and studies on leadership expose a changing series of “schools of thought” starting from the “Great Man” theory to Transformational Leadership theory. Earlier, majority of leadership literature and study was mainly centered on leaders’ characteristics and leadership styles. According to (Yukl, 1998), great attention of earlier leadership studies were centered on the performance of lower-level management and how they should perform as they offer supervision, support and constructive feedback to their team However, this new century and modern research shows a new interest and fresh new perspective on leadership. Nowadays, research, studies and theories are focusing on leadership as a whole, followers and the relative nature of leadership in an organization. The rapid change in the business environment has made people think about leadership on different levels. Leithwood et al. (1999) believe that instead of looking only at the quality and characteristics of a leader, our focus needs to be shifted to the leadership challenges in organizations and companies. They viewed leadership in term of their nature and the challenges faced which will result in developing leadership as a whole instead of just a single leader.
The result and materialization that has come out from the new interest of studying leadership – mainly focused on managing invariable change – is called the “New Paradigm” model. Today, leaders steer a world that is undergoing continuous change. The New Paradigm model involves modern theories and styles such as charismatic leadership, visionary leadership and transformational leadership. Visionary leadership refers to the act of creating a practical, sensible, and solid vision of the future for a company (Nanus, 1992), Charismatic leadership involves creating a personality that is so influential that people are naturally drawn to the leader, and transformational leadership is a leadership style that forms positive transformation in followers. Transformational leadership is the style being promoted in modern organizations. Old models view leadership as a process that that entails motivating others takes place within a team and entails goal achievement (Northouse, 2001). Modern leadership focuses on leadership development and development of social capital. Other modern studies have emphasized on the relationship between leaders and their followers, some authors stress the importance of studying “follower ship” because leaders are followers and followers are leaders. The two entities are interconnected and are equally essential for the success of the organization.
Leadership Is Not a Solo Act
The picture of a heroic person who leaps in to save the day is what is engraved into our minds. But all gathered facts from studies imply that the constant success of a company is a collective and group effort rather than a single effort. Kouzes and Posner (2002) confirm that after studying numerous cases on effective leadership, they did not find any example of astonishing accomplishment that happened without the dynamic participation and support of many individuals. What is understood from this is that Leadership is a team endeavor. Without team work and the support of people a single person cannot get astonishing things done in a company.
Dispersed Leadership
A theory that is currently gaining interest and getting plenty of attention is the “dispersed” leadership. This type of leadership, with its basics in sociology and psychology defines leadership as a practice that is spread throughout a company rather than exclusively with the officially elected ‘leader’. The importance therefore transfers from developing leaders to developing ‘leaderful’ companies with a communal accountability for leadership.
The significances of group of people relationships in the leadership agreement, the requirement of a leader to be recognized and accepted by his/her followers and the understanding that no single person is the perfect leader in all situations have set a rise to a new school of leadership thought. The dispersed leadership theory introduces a less official approach to leadership where the leader’s responsibility is separated from the organizational hierarchy. It is suggested that people at all levels in the organization and in all jobs can apply leadership influence over their peers and consequently influencing the whole leadership of the organization.
Heifetz (1994) differentiates between the practice of “leadership” and the practice of “power” – hence separating leadership from formal organizational power roles. Raelin (2003) discusses of developing “leaderful” organizations through simultaneous and combined effort. The first thing to do is make a clear distinction between the concept of “leader” and “leadership”. Leadership is referred as a method of logic-making and direction-giving inside a team and the leader can only be defined on the base of his/her association with others in the team who are acting as followers. Along these lines, it is fairly probable to visualize the leader as emergent rather than predefined and that the leader’s responsibility can be implicit in the course of exploratory of the relationships within the team (other than by giving attention to the leader’s personal character or qualities).
Dispersed leadership demonstrates on notions such as organizational culture and environment to emphasize on the appropriate nature of leadership. It is a communal conception and suggests for a shift from the growth of individual leader characteristics to recognition of what comprises an effective leadership practice within a company. A shift in the spotlight from the individual leaders to the leadership relationships (amongst the leader and followers).
Leadership Development
Leadership development is the process of developing leadership practices and leaders in an organization. It focuses on creating and sustaining social assets as a whole. At the core of leadership developments involves the combined capability of individuals to set goals and successfully carry out leadership functions and roles to build a strong team that meets commitments and attains organizational goals. The accomplishment of goals and leadership activities should come with and without official authority.
Saxenian (2006) has branded the new type of leaders that have emerged as “New Argonauts” who challenge the business and dynamically lead an organization despite the ongoing change in the business environment. According to Saxenian, these ‘Argonauts’ leaders certainly echo today’s leadership. (Argonauts where a brand of heroes in ancient Greek, source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Argonauts).
Transformational Leadership in modern organizations
When companies adopted themselves to the constant evolutionary change, transactional management was in good turn of managing those changes. However, with the circumstances and situations of present organizations performance need undertaking some essential, transformational changes. And managing these changes needs new traits; one of these traits is applying transformational leadership in organizations.
The book “Leadership” written by James MacGregor Burns in (1978) was one of the first books to introduce the concept of transformational leadership. Transformational leadership is where leaders transform their followers. This leadership theory holds high importance in this century especially in recent literature. Transformational leadership builds on the foundation of transactional leadership. Nevertheless, as Burns clearly affirms “what is needed today is not the old traditional style of Transactional leadership, but the new style of Transformational leadership”.
Tichy and Devanna (1986) have researched leadership throughout the years and came up with a list of specific characteristics which distinguish transformational from transactional leaders. Some of these characteristics are listed below:

Agents of Change: Transformational leaders encourage flat structures and flexible workplaces. They are able to get the organization to adapt quickly to change.
Courage: Transformational leaders face reality and do not fear risk.
Confidence in the followers: Transformational leaders have faith in their team members. They give them a boost and push when required and try their best to empower them.
Life-long Learning: Transformational leaders believe in life-long education and attempt to extract lessons from experiences.
Vision Capabilities: Transformational leaders see the big picture. Their visionary abilities are excellent.
Live by their Values: Transformation leaders have values they live by.
Passion and Enthusiasm: They pump their followers with their enthusiasm to get them going.
Ability to face the unknown: Transformational leaders do not life with fear and are ready to face the worst situations knowing that they can handle anything that comes their way.

According to Bass (1998), ‘the transformational leader motivates followers to do more than formerly expected’. Bass reveals that a leader is able to transform his/her followers by:

Emphasizing on the significant of goal and task, by creating awareness
Encouraging the followers to direct their efforts for the company
Meeting the followers needs.

Bass and Avolio (1994) have proposed five transformational styles that leaders typically display; these styles and behaviours are illustrated in the table below:
Transformational Style
Leader Behaviour
Idealized Behaviors

Speak about their values
Emphasize the significance of having a sense of purpose
Take into consideration the consequences of decisions made
Support new opportunities
Discuss the issue of trust amongst each other

Inspirational Motivation

Have an optimistic look about the future
Talk with enthusiasm about what needs to be accomplished
Articulate a compelling vision of the future
State confidence about goal attainment
Present a thrilling image and picture of what to consider

Intellectual Stimulation

Examination of critical issues
Search for differing views when attempting to solve issues
Encourage individuals to look at things from different perspectives
Propose new methods of how to complete tasks

Individualized Consideration

Make time for mentoring and teaching
Help others to build on their strengths
Spend time listening to others personal needs
Encourage personal development

Idealized Attributes

Lets others know that it is a pride being connected with them and
Work to build others respect
Show power and capability
Assure everyone that barriers will be overcome

In 2007, Hooper and Potter broaden the concept of transformational leadership and identified 7 types of competences of “transformational leaders”, these competences are:

Building direction
Being a Role Model
Arrangements and Grouping
Get the best in his/her people
Leader as a change representative
Suggesting decision in a crucial situation

Nature of Leadership in Modern Organizations
Contemporary organizations take up a range of HR management and leadership activities to boost staff contentment and satisfaction. Efforts are centered on enhancing and raising the quality, expertise and capabilities of the employees. In addition, providing intensive training and development activities helps in improving the quality.
– Recent studies have given a lot of attention to emotional intelligence, especially transformational leadership. Emotional intelligence has become a major part of leadership in modern organizations. Emotional intelligence is a leader’s capability to one’s ability to be alert of one’s personal feelings, be alert of employees’ feelings, to distinguish between them and to use the information to direct the leader’s thoughts and behaviour. Emotional Intelligence contains three types of capabilities: assessment and expression of feelings, directive of feeling and using feelings in the decision-making process. According to Goleman (1998) “emotional intelligence is twice as important as technical skills and IQ for jobs at all levels.”
– Motivation is also an important element in leadership in modern organizations. The abilities of any employee will be limited if they are not encouraged and motivated to execute their jobs. According to Bass (1998), compensation, appraisals, incentives and job security can motive employees to achieve their assigned goals and execute their jobs effectively. As a leader, part of the job involves understanding employees and learning motivational strategies to enhance performance. The main challenge is that every employee is different, therefore, what may work for one employee wont work for the other.
Communication has also been a major part of leadership. Up-ward and down-ward communication are equally important and need to be transparent and effective. A Leaders responsibility is to ensure such communication takes place and should eliminate all obstacles in the way of corporate communication.
Team leadership is the most rapidly growing area of current research. Modern leaders in organizations do not think of themselves simply as a body of authority, but rather a team leader because they understand the significance of a team compared to just individuals. By understanding the skills of the team members and what motivates them, leaders earn respect from their style not solely because of their position.
Culture and leadership
Modern theory has shifted its attention to figure out what the link between leadership and culture and how leadership changes from one culture to another. Collins (2001) has revealed proof of leadership behaviours that are cross-cultural, and others that are culturally focused. However, studies and evidence on the relationship between the two elements (leadership and culture) are still very limited.
John Adair Action Centred Leadership Model – a model for team leadership
According to Adair, the effectiveness of the leader relies on meeting three areas of need within the work group.The three parts of Adair’s model are generally represented by 3 overlapping circles; this model is a helpful technique in assessing what effective leader’s responsibilities are. The challenge for the leader is to manage all parts of the circles successfully.

definition of task to be achieved
Action plan
allocation of job and resources
managing the quality and time of effort
monitor performance aligned with action plan
amending the plan


sustaining regulation and control
encourage team work
motivate team
assign junior-leaders
encourage and inspire team communication
develop and build the team


listen to personal troubles and issues
Appreciate and honour individuals
give positions and ranks
distinguish and use individual capabilities
develop he individual

To be able to meet the three areas within the work group, specific leadership roles have to be executed, these functions are:
Awareness of what is happening in the work group and its processes. Being alert at all times.
Understanding the functions and tasks that are required and the skill to accomplish and complete the task successfully.
Case Study: Juthoor Development Services
Juthoor development services are an organization comprising a team of real estate development professionals who provide comprehensive services to clients across the Middle East. Juthoor works with its clients through out the three critical phases of the development process (project feasibility, project implementation and development control). The complete organization is based on Team work, although each employee has an important role to play, their combined efforts is much more valuable. Jose Lora, is the CEO of the company and leader, heads the entire team of professionals.
Juthoor’s vision
Juthoor Development Services vision is to build the Oman of tomorrow. The employees’ key responsibility is to work towards this vision. The success of the organization lies in the employees’ ability to work as a team and build the Oman of tomorrow.
Leadership in Juthoor Development Services
The leader’s relationship with his/her followers is extremely important. An organizations failure or success rate all relies on the leader and the nature of leadership. According to Robbins and Finley (2000), involvement and empowerment of the employees are two key behaviours a leader must possess. There are many ways a leader can strengthen the relationship with his/her followers. At Juthoor, the leader of the company understands the significance of the relationship between himself and the rest of the team. He adopts the following two behaviours:
Asking questions instead of giving answers (For example, asking an employee “How do we proceed on this?” “What do you think we should do next”). This involvement gives a sense of purpose and satisfaction to the employees. This helps employees envision the goal and improve their efforts to achieve and excel in their part of the job.
Giving followers the opportunity to lead (For example, asking an employee to lead a meeting or put an employee in charge of a task that the leader is taking part in). This empowerment gives the employee the confidence and helps him take ownership).
Juthoor Development Services is a team-based organization. Therefore, the focus of this case study will be around team leadership.
The Functional Model
This model focuses on how a company and how the work group is being led rather than whom the leader is. This results in lesser time spent focusing on the person who is in the leadership role and instead put all the attention on the leadership function that is taking place. This model emphasizes on the nature of the work group and the followers of the leader. This is exactly what is taking place in Juthoor Development Services, work is done in teams and the team spirit in the company is high and ensures transparent communication.
Due to the fact that Juthoor is a service provider for real estate development, the key to success is the collaboration of the team. The business is based on team work. A group of people together is not necessarily a team. A team is a number of people that get together that have high level of interdependence, working towards a common goal. (http://www.teal.org.uk/et/page5.html)
A team has a number of advantages for an organization:
Maximization of HR: team members are trained, coached by other members. Success or failure is not pointed at individuals, but rather the team as a whole.
Greater outputs and results. A team is known to outperform a group of individuals.
There is continuous improvement and development.
The way a team is lead has a huge impact on the success. The leader in Juthoor is responsible and holds these values:
Commitment to the team members as well as the mission that needs to be achieved
The desire to support a team, serve and lead
Experience, enthusiasm, and energy.
The ability to build a team and achieve more as a team
Team Leadership
It is known that team work and team spirit are fundamental in enhancing the growth in an organization. The saying goes, “Two heads are better than one”. Taking up all the responsibility and working alone will only reach you so far; team work is required and is vital for desired results. Different individuals have different skills and talents, bring them together to work on a specific task or certain goal will prove that they would outperform any individual.
According to Belbin (1993), there are two types of leaders; Solo leader and Team leader. The major difference between the two revolves around the behaviour and participation of the two as seen below:
Solo Leader

This type of leader interferes and sticks his/her nose in everything
This type of leader delegates tasks and roles without interfering
Attempts to mold the team members into specific standards
Develops team members and encourages them to grow
Collects acolytes
Seeks talent and does not fear team members with special talents

Team Leader

Team leadership differs from Solo leadership in the following ways: (http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/educatrs/leadrshp/le2diffs.htm)
Responsibility is shared among the team members and is not only burdened by the leader
Control is left to the group and not just the leader.
The leader views the team as a whole and not as individuals.
Expression of needs are encouraged by the leader

In today’s business world with the rising complexity and the irregular nature of modern workplaces promote Team leaderships as opposed to Solo leadership. According to Belbin (1993), team leadership is not as natural as solo leadership, however he suggests that team leadership can be learned and developed.
Jose Lora, the CEO of Juthoor takes the approach of Team Leader. It was his idea to start Juthoor Development Services and he understands how important an effective team is in the success of the organization. He ensures communication, reads feelings and emotions, practices emotional intelligence and takes time to understand each team member to know what his/her personal needs are and what motivates him or her. The nature of leadership in Juthoor is revolves around team leadership and transformational leadership. Jose Lora is a true e leader who inspires the work group to put their efforts towards a shared vision of the future. The leadership style in Juthoor is highly visible, and built on communication. Jose Lora doesn’t lead from the front, as he gives responsibilities to the team members.
Juthoor is a team-based organization, therefore, is there is any problem or issues, all heads are put together to solve the problem and make a decision. Team meetings are conducted daily between the team members to ensure proper communication, transparency and to tackle issues before they arise.
Juthoor’s Leadership Framework
The leadership model used by Juthoor has 9 key fundamentals and they are:

Builds Shared Vision
Team Building and teamwork
Strategic thinking and planning
Focuses on outcomes
Maximizes Potential Opportunities
Managing and developing staff
Transformational Leadership
Motivates & Coaches
Delivers Results

Many organizations develop their own leadership frameworks because there is no “one size will fit all” framework, although most frameworks in organizations are similar, they are not exactly the same. I believe that it is not the framework that is significant, but rather the process by which it is developed.
Case Study Discussion and Recommendations
Management needs to obtain and use their compassion and social expertise to improve their personal transformational leadership. Thus, the challenge for any modern organization, including Juthoor development services is to build and develop the emotional intelligence of the management. Suitable involvements may be required to improve and build on their competencies and that would entail education and intensive role-related training.
Managers’ ought to be encouraged to improve and develop their skills by constant self-education and learning. Companies must offer encouraging supports for staff learning and improving management and supervisors vital emotional competencies, motivation and team building techniques required for their roles. Companies should recruit individuals that hold a vision and have a pleasant personality that is also known as charisma. There should also be suitable shifts in the company’s organizational structure and to encourage flat structure and less complicated hierarchy. Changes in organizational culture are also required to reward staff for learning and self development.
The changes in organizational culture and structure should encourage managers will encourage attain emotional intelligence competencies required for employee motivation. It is well known that, the most complex part of leading a team is motivation of work group members. In practical and theory, motivation plays a vital role in a organizations management. Motivation is an essential part of effective performance.
Throughout my experience in working at Juthoor, I believe the factors Affecting Leadership Effectiveness in an organization are the following:

The leader’s personal characteristics including personality, skills, and outlook.
The leaders experience with dealing with teams and work groups
The features of the team, their attitude and expectations.
The relationship between the leader and the work group
The type of company
The organization culture & structure
The type of tasks that need to be accomplished
The external business environment

My Leadership Development Plan
This part of the report is central around my leadership style and my leadership development needs. This section addresses a number of questions like, “Do I have the right combination of skills to lead an organization?”, “What skills need to be developed to lead effectively?” How can I develop and establish myself? How can I influence others?”
Throughout my career, I have spent a lot of time observing myself and the nature of leadership in the organizations I worked for. At the beginning of my journey, the main challenge for me was trying to understand the difference between managers and leaders. Once that was figured out, I shifted my entire focus to understanding, observing, and learning from the leaders I worked for. One of my professional goals is to become a leader one day, and to be able to influence and motivate a team to achieve and succeed. Therefore, I spent an incredible amount of time studying and observing the leaders in my life.
I have studied the leadership theories including characteristics, styles, and modern leadership theories of transformational leadership, etc. and based on the findings of the literature review conducted in the second section of this report, I assessed my leadership skills and checked my ability to execute and implement effective leadership in my job and contribute to the leadership functions of the organization. Out of all the different types of leadership styles, can say that I take the approach of situational leadership style. I don’t view a leadership position as an authority position, I view it as the ability to touch other people’s lives and help them grow. I actually feel that I best relate to situational leadership style because I am extremely flexible when situations arise and occur. Situational leadership is the approach of changing your style to best suit the circumstances. However, earlier I used to not be an expert at this because I always resisted change and felt like I lost focus when things didn’t happen the way I expected them to. But as I changed jobs and got more experience, I understood that change is required and I must learn how to handle and adapt to situations instead of getting angry over things not working out the way I wanted them to.
There are a number of ways I have practiced my leadership in my job, for example, when I am heading a group I make sure to emphasize the importance of working together. Although I am the leader of the group, I do not show it to other. I work just as hard as they work and try to give as much constructive feedback as I can. My approach is all centered on listening to the team members, understanding their point of view, asking them what their recommendations are and I try to encourage participation. I would say that I am always very fun to be around. When a task needs to be accomplished, I don’t give out orders, I give each member the choice about what part they want to handle. Once we complete a task or reach a specific goal, I usually show my appreciation for their work through celebrating together, either inviting them for lunch or dinner.
I have assessed my skills and used a number of tools and techniques to evaluate my

Barriers To Effective Communication

Barriers to Effective Communication
An effective communication barrier is one of the problems faced by many organizations. Many social psychologists opine that there is 50% to 70% loss of meaning while conveying the messages from a sender to a receiver. They estimate there are four basic places where communication could be interpreted wrongly. A few barriers of effective communication in an organization are given below.
Physical Barriers – One of the major barriers of communication in a workplace is the physical barrier. Physical barriers in an organization includes large working areas that are physically separated from others. Other distractions that could cause a physical barrier in an organization are the environment, background noise
Language – Inability to converse in a language that is known by both the sender and receiver is the greatest barrier to effective communication. When a person uses inappropriate words while conversing or writing, it could lead to misunderstanding between the sender and a receiver.
Emotions – Your emotions could be a barrier to communication if you are engrossed in your emotions for some reason. In such cases, you tend to have trouble listening to others or understanding the message conveyed to you. A few of the emotional interferences include hostility, anger, resentfulness and fear.
Lack of Subject Knowledge – If a person who sends a message lacks subject knowledge then he may not be able to convey his message clearly. The receiver could misunderstand his message, and this could lead to a barrier to effective communication.
Stress – One of the major communication barriers faced by employees in most of the organization is stress. When a person is under immense stress, he may find it difficult to understand the message, leading to communication distortion. At the time of stress, our psychological frame of mind depends on our beliefs, experiences, goals and values. Thus, we fail to realize the essence of communication.
The above-mentioned barriers to effective communication are considered as filters of communications. You can overcome the barriers to communication through effective and active listening.
By Maya Pillai
Many people think that communicating is easy.
It is after all something we’ve done all our lives.
There is some truth in this simplistic view.
Communicating is straightforward.
What makes it complex, difficult, and frustrating are the barriers we put in the way.
Here are the 7 top barriers.
1. Physical barriers
Physical barriers in the workplace include:
marked out territories, empires and fiefdoms into which strangers are not allowed
closed office doors, barrier screens, separate areas for people of different status
large working areas or working in one unit that is physically separate from others.
Research shows that one of the most important factors in building cohesive teams is proximity. As long as people still have a personal space that they can call their own, nearness to others aids communication because it helps us get to know one another.
2. Perceptual barriers
The problem with communicating with others is that we all see the world differently. If we didn’t, we would have no need to communicate: something like extrasensory perception would take its place.
The following anecdote is a reminder of how our thoughts, assumptions and perceptions shape our own realities:
A traveller was walking down a road when he met a man from the next town. “Excuse me,” he said. “I am hoping to stay in the next town tonight. Can you tell me what the townspeople are like?”
“Well,” said the townsman, “how did you find the people in the last town you visited?”
“Oh, they were an irascible bunch. Kept to themselves. Took me for a fool. Over-charged me for what I got. Gave me very poor service.”
“Well, then,” said the townsman, “you’ll find them pretty much the same here.”
3. Emotional barriers
One of the chief barriers to open and free communications is the emotional barrier. It is comprised mainly of fear, mistrust and suspicion. The roots of our emotional mistrust of others lie in our childhood and infancy when we were taught to be careful what we said to others.
“Mind your P’s and Q’s”; “Don’t speak until you’re spoken to”; “Children should be seen and not heard”. As a result many people hold back from communicating their thoughts and feelings to others.
They feel vulnerable. While some caution may be wise in certain relationships, excessive fear of what others might think of us can stunt our development as effective communicators and our ability to form meaningful relationships.
4. Cultural barriers
When we join a group and wish to remain in it, sooner or later we need to adopt the behaviour patterns of the group. These are the behaviours that the group accept as signs of belonging.
The group rewards such behaviour through acts of recognition, approval and inclusion. In groups which are happy to accept you, and where you are happy to conform, there is a mutuality of interest and a high level of win-win contact.
Where, however, there are barriers to your membership of a group, a high level of game-playing replaces good communication.
5. Language barriers
Language that describes what we want to say in our terms may present barriers to others who are not familiar with our expressions, buzz-words and jargon. When we couch our communication in such language, it is a way of excluding others. In a global market place the greatest compliment we can pay another person is to talk in their language.
One of the more chilling memories of the Cold War was the threat by the Soviet leader Nikita Khruschev saying to the Americans at the United Nations: “We will bury you!” This was taken to mean a threat of nuclear annihilation.
However, a more accurate reading of Khruschev’s words would have been: “We will overtake you!” meaning economic superiority. It was not just the language, but the fear and suspicion that the West had of the Soviet Union that led to the more alarmist and sinister interpretation.
6. Gender barriers
There are distinct differences between the speech patterns in a man and those in a woman. A woman speaks between 22,000 and 25,000 words a day whereas a man speaks between 7,000 and 10,000. In childhood, girls speak earlier than boys and at the age of three, have a vocabulary twice that of boys.
The reason for this lies in the wiring of a man’s and woman’s brains. When a man talks, his speech is located in the left side of the brain but in no specific area. When a woman talks, the speech is located in both hemispheres and in two specific locations.
This means that a man talks in a linear, logical and compartmentalised way, features of left-brain thinking; whereas a woman talks more freely mixing logic and emotion, features of both sides of the brain. It also explains why women talk for much longer than men each day.
7 Interpersonal barriers
There are six levels at which people can distance themselves from one another:
Withdrawal is an absence of interpersonal contact. It is both refusal to be in touch and time alone.
Rituals are meaningless, repetitive routines devoid of real contact.
Pastimes fill up time with others in social but superficial activities.
Working activities are those tasks which follow the rules and procedures of contact but no more.
Games are subtle, manipulative interactions which are about winning and losing. They include “rackets” and “stamps”.
Closeness is the aim of interpersonal contact where there is a high level of honesty and acceptance of yourself and others.
Working on improving your communications is a broad-brush activity. You have to change your thoughts, your feelings, and your physical connections.
That way, you can break down the barriers that get in your way and start building relationships that really work.
The acronym AIDA is a handy tool for ensuring that your copy, or other writing, grabs attention. The acronym stands for:
Attention (or Attract)
These are the four steps you need to take your audience through if you want them to buy your product or visit your website, or indeed to take on board the messages in your report.
A slightly more sophisticated version of this is AIDCA/AIDEA, which includes an additional step of Conviction/Evidence between Desire and Action. People are so cynical about advertising messages that coherent evidence may be needed if anyone is going to act!
How to Use the Tool:
Use the AIDCA approach when you write a piece of text that has the ultimate objective of getting others to take action. The elements of the acronym are as follows:
1. Attention/Attract
In our media-filled world, you need to be quick and direct to grab people’s attention. Use powerful words, or a picture that will catch the reader’s eye and make them stop and read what you have to say next.
With most office workers suffering from e-mail overload, action-seeking e-mails need subject lines that will encourage recipients to open them and read the contents. For example, to encourage people to attend a company training session on giving feedback, the email headline, “How effective is YOUR feedback?” is more likely to grab attention than the purely factual one of, “This week’s seminar on feedback”.
2. Interest
This is one of the most challenging stages: You’ve got the attention of a chunk of your target audience, but can you engage with them enough so that they’ll want to spend their precious time understanding your message in more detail?
Gaining the reader’s interest is a deeper process than grabbing their attention. They will give you a little more time to do it, but you must stay focused on their needs. This means helping them to pick out the messages that are relevant to them quickly. So use bullets and subheadings, and break up the text to make your points stand out.
For more information on understanding your target audience’s interests and expectations, and the context of your message, read our article on the Rhetorical Triangle.
3. Desire
The Interest and Desire parts of AIDA go hand-in-hand: As you’re building the reader’s interest, you also need to help them understand how what you’re offering can help them in a real way. The main way of doing this is by appealing to their personal needs and wants..
So, rather than simply saying “Our lunchtime seminar will teach you feedback skills”, explain to the audience what’s in it for them: “Get what you need from other people, and save time and frustration, by learning how to give them good feedback.”
Feature and Benefits (FAB)
A good way of building the reader’s desire for your offering is to link features and benefits. Hopefully, the significant features of your offering have been designed to give a specific benefit to members of your target market.
When it comes to the marketing copy, it’s important that you don’t forget those benefits at this stage. When you describe your offering, don’t just give the facts and features, and expect the audience to work out the benefits for themselves: Tell them the benefits clearly to create that interest and desire.
Example: “This laptop case is made of aluminum,” describes a feature, and leaves the audience thinking “So what?” Persuade the audience by adding the benefits “.giving a stylish look, that’s kinder to your back and shoulders”.
You may want to take this further by appealing to people’s deeper drives “…giving effortless portability and a sleek appearance and that will be the envy of your friends and co-workers.”
4. Conviction
As hardened consumers, we tend to be skeptical about marketing claims. It’s no longer enough simply to say that a book is a bestseller, for example, but readers will take notice if you state (accurately, of course!), that the book has been in the New York Times Bestseller List for 10 weeks, for example. So try to use hard data where it’s available. When you haven’t got the hard data, yet the product offering is sufficiently important, consider generating some data, for example, by commissioning a survey.
5. Action
Finally, be very clear about what action you want your readers to take; for example, “Visit www.mindtools.com now for more information” rather than just leaving people to work out what to do for themselves.
Key points:
AIDA is a copywriting acronym that stands for:
Attract or Attention
Using it will help you ensure that any kind of writing, whose purpose is to get the reader to do something, is as effective as possible. First it must grab the target audience’s attention, and engage their interest. Then it must build a desire for the product offering, before setting out how to take the action that the writer wants the audience to take.
Stress Interview
Stress interviews are used to see how the jobseeker handle himself. You may be sarcastic or argumentative, or may keep him waiting. You may also lapse into silence at some point during the questioning, this is used as an attempt to unnerve the jobseeker.
One-On-One Interview
In a one-on-one interview, it has been established that the jobseeker has the skills and education necessary for the position. You want to see if the jobseeker will fit in with the company, and how his/her skills complement the rest of the department. In a one-on-one interview the jobseeker’s goal is to establish rapport with the interviewer and to show that his/her qualifications will benefit the company.
Screening Interview
A screening interview is meant to weed out unqualified candidates. Providing facts about the skills is more important than establishing rapport. Interviewers will work from an outline of points they want to cover, looking for inconsistencies in the jobseeker’s resume and challenging his/her qualifications. One type of screening interview is the telephone interview.
Lunch Interview
The same rules apply in lunch interviews as in those held at the office. The setting may be more casual, but it is a business lunch and the jobseeker has to be watched carefully. The jobseeker must use the lunch interview to develop common ground with your interviewer.
Committee Interview
Committee interviews are a common practice. Jobseeker will have to face several members of the company who have a say in whether he/she is hired. In some committee interviews, you can ask the jobseeker to demonstrate his/her problem-solving skills. The committee will outline a situation and ask him/her to formulate a plan that deals with the problem. The interviewers are looking for how the jobseeker apply his/her knowledge and skills to a real-life situation.

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Group Interview
A group interview is usually designed to uncover the leadership potential of prospective managers and employees who will be dealing with the public. The front-runner candidates are gathered together in an informal, discussion-type interview. A subject is introduced and the interviewer will start off the discussion. The goal of the group interview is to see how the jobseeker interact with others and how use him/her knowledge and reasoning powers to win others over.
Telephone Interview
Telephone interviews are merely screening interviews meant to eliminate poorly qualified candidates so that only a few are left for personal interviews. The jobseeker’s mission in this interviewed is to be invited for a personal face-to-face interview.
Informational Interview
Typically this is an interview set up at the jobseeker’s request with a Human Resources Manager or a departmental supervisor in the career field he/she is interested in. The purpose of this interview is to help the jobseeker find out more about a particular career, position or company. He/she is seeking information from these people in hopes that they might refer him/her to someone else in their company or to somebody they may know outside their company who could use your skills.
The Informational Interview is a part of the “cold-calling” process whereby jobseekers are generating their own job leads.
Screening Interview
Typically this is the first step a company takes after the resumes have been scrutinized. The purpose of this meeting is to assess the skills and personality traits of the potential candidates. The objective ultimately is to “screen out” those applicants the interviewer feels should not be hired due to lack of skills or bad first impressions. The interviewer must also “screen in” those candidates she/he feels would make a valuable contribution to the company. Your job during this preliminary meeting is to convince this person you are worthy to take the next step.
The General/Structured Interview
Frequently the Screening Interview is combined with the General Interview due to time constraints many companies have during the hiring process. Often the jobseeker will meet with the supervisor over the position for which he/she is applying. During this interview he/she will be discussing the specifics of the position, the company and industry.

Evaluation of Fiscal Decentralization as an Effective Tool for Government Reform

1. Introduction

Fiscal decentralization is the re-formation of governments where power is being transferred from the central government to local government authorizes. Fiscal decentralization enhances corporation, participation, transparency and accountability in public service delivery (Kwon, 2012; Faguet, 2014). The last few decades have seen a lot interest in fiscal decentralisation globally by public administration scholars, development experts and governments. Fiscal decentralisation has been used by developed countries to reform their intergovernmental fiscal activities in order to provide public goods and services to their citizens (Bennett, 1990; Wildasin, 1997; Manor, 1999; Faguet, 2004; Arowolo, 2011; Faguet, 2014). Several developing countries have also used fiscal decentralisation to promote to effective and efficient governance, macroeconomic stability, economic growth and development (Bird and Vaillancourt, 1999). Some countries have also used fiscal decentralisation to improve governance by strengthening their relationships with private sector and civil society (Arzaghi and Henderson, 2005; Shah, 2005; Faguet, 2014). Studies over the past few decades have provided important information on the effects of fiscal decentralisation on government reforms. The purpose of this study is to critically evaluate the role of fiscal decentralization as an effective tool for government reforms. This study is divided into five (5) sections and section one (1) is the introduction to the study. Section two (2) discussed literature on the concept of fiscal decentralisation. Section three (3) reviewed relevant literature on the effects of fiscal decentralization on government revenue. Section four (4) contains literature on the effects of fiscal decentralization on government accountability and corruption, and section five (5) reviewed literature on economic growth local development and economic development.

2. Concept of Fiscal Decentralization

It is necessary to clarify exactly what is meant by fiscal decentralisation before talking about the effects of it. Fallati (2004) sees fiscal decentralization as the set of procedures intended to increase the revenues or fiscal independence of local government. Fiscal decentralization is the process of using applying the principles that helps in designing financial relationship between the central government and local government (Sharma, 2005). Fiscal decentralization enhances the transfers of revenue from the central government and the creation of new local taxes to local government authorities (Kokor and Kroes, 2000). Fiscal decentralization is the transfer of fiscal authority to local governments. Fiscal decentralization gives empowerment to local authorities to generate and spend revenue (Bahl, 2008). Bird (2009), conceptualised the fiscal decentralization theory focused on situations where different levels of government provide public goods and services in their jurisdictions.


3. The effects of fiscal decentralisation on government revenue

The academic literature on the effects of fiscal decentralisation on government revenue has revealed several contrasting views. Fiscal decentralization has the potential to ensure a more equitable distribution of resources due to local competitiveness and attention on critical local preferences. The inputs and incomes must be monitored to ensure that the intended objectives of fiscal decentralization to achieved (Rodriguez-Pose & Ezcurral, 2010). One of the vigorous principles of fiscal decentralization is that the absent of various sorts of externalities, decentralized governments that rely on own-source revenues should be more fiscally efficient than decentralized governments that rely on grant financing (Goodspeed, 2011). Local governments being closer to the people are more accountable to its citizens. The measure of fiscal decentralization that best reflects incentive effects at the sub-national level is revenue autonomy, or the share of local government expenditure financed by own-source revenue (Ahoi, 2010). This means that sub-national governments must have the authority to own-finance locally provided services. More complete revenue autonomy requires at a minimum, the authority to set tax rates, and an assignment of at least one significant tax source. Another study was conducted by Guang (2018) on the revolutions in China’s inter-governmental fiscal system. The study found that tax-sharing system (established in 1994) provides for revenue centralization, spending decentralization, and large central transfers to local governments. Fiscal decentralization may unpredictably increase both central and local government size even when they are funded by their own taxes (Cassette and Paty, 2010). The influence of fiscal decentralization instruments on local government size shows that only property taxes have a negative and significant impact on the size of the local public sector (Liberati and Sacchi, 2013). Property tax is normally assigned on tax separation schemes at a local level. Fiscal decentralization raises trust not only in government but also for other political entities such as political parties and parliaments (Ligthart and Van Oudheusden, 2015).

5. The effects of fiscal decentralisation on corruption

Fiscal decentralization that is accompanied by revenue decentralization is likely to discourage corruption while expenditure decentralization that is funded by grants tends to encourage corruption (Goodspeed, 2011). Fiscal decentralization may affect governments’ quality is through its effect on corruption. Goodspeed (2011) reports that better informed citizens and more reliance on own source revenue reduces corruption. He argues that poverty which is interpreted as measuring uninformed citizens leads to greater corruption as suggested by political agency models. He further argues that greater use of own tax revenues lowers corruption while greater use of grants increases corruption. This suggests that fiscal decentralization that is accompanied by revenue decentralization is likely to discourage corruption while expenditure decentralization that is funded by grants tends to encourage corruption. Fan, Lin, and Treisman (2009), used cross-country data and revealed that countries with a greater number of government tiers or a greater number of public employees are associated with more corruption, although countries with governments that constitute a larger share of GDP are associated with less corruption.

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Fisman and Gatti (2001) found that countries with a greater fiscal measure of fiscal decentralization are associated with less corruption. Lockwood, (2005), ague that fiscal decentralization may reduce centralized regimes’ incentives to corruption; national officials in centralized regimes would seek re-election by selectively pooling on a minimum majority of regions while extracting maximum rents from the rest. Ivanyna and Shah (2011) used data from 158 countries and revealed that decentralization has a significant and robust negative effect on corruption regardless of the estimation technique or the measures of corruption used. Similarly, Altunbas and Thornton (2012) found, for a data set comprising 64 developing and developed economies, that the larger the share of sub-central fiscal revenues and expenditures the lower the country’s corruption index. Moreover, when financial decentralization is applied to both side of the budget, it reduces corruption over time (Padovano et al., 2013). This means fiscal decentralization has both negative and positive impact on corruption.

Decentralized systems are more corrupt, in part because local politicians are more likely to give in to pressure from local interest groups (Bahl and Wallace, 2005). Lessmann and Markwardt (2009) in a study on corruption in sixty four countries concluded that the level of corruption is found to be lower in decentralized countries as decentralization has been assumed to be an appropriate instrument for tackling the issue of corruption. This study also confirms previous literature on corruption that effectiveness in monitoring bureaucrats’ behaviour is an important determinant of the relationship between decentralization and corruption. In another study conducted by (Fisman and Gatti, 2002), looking at the cross-country relationship between fiscal decentralization and corruption suggests that devolution in government expenditure is strongly and significantly associated with lower levels of corruption when decentralization emanates out of the country’s legal system. Decentralization is therefore a feasible instrument for reducing corruption if the monitoring of bureaucrats works they perceive. Otherwise, if those institutions don’t work sufficiently well, decentralization can contribute to high levels of corruption. Studies have shown that in Russia in the absence of monitoring at the local level there was high scale corruption (Blanchard and Shleifer, 2000, Lessmann and Markwardt, 2009) as against other previous communist countries where there was monitoring of local corruption was less.

Kwon (2012) Fiscal decentralization: An effective tool for government reform? The study used regression analysis using data 17 developing and 17 developed countries. The study found that fiscal decentralization reduces government effectives in developed economies. The study also found that budget for both developed and developing countries increases when through fiscal decentralization. The study further revealed that fiscal decentralization reduces corruption in developed countries and increase corruption in developing countries.


6. The effects of fiscal decentralisation on government accountability

Accountability is lower when expenditure but not revenue is decentralized, leading to more corruption in this type of decentralized setting (Goodspeed, 2002; Rodden, Eskeland, and Litvack, 2003). A soft budget constraint influences both accountability and corruption in decentralized local governments. This happens when local governments are financed by grants and the central government is unable to commit to not increase grants in the face of local government extravagance (Goodspeed, 2002; Inman, 2003). Fiscal decentralization has the tendency of improving local governance through accountability (Blair, 2000). A comprehensive fiscal decentralization reform improves accountability and responsiveness of government by increasing citizen voice and the incentives those public officials (Faguet, 2012). Fiscal decentralization also makes local governments more responsive to citizens’ needs (Faguet, 2014). Kyriacou and Roca-Sagalés (2011) posit that fiscal decentralization involves a positive effect on institutional quality in a sample of OECD countries, but this positive effect is mitigated in the presence of regional elections and multi-level government. Electoral accountability of government officials may be undermined when individuals do not know whom to assign blame or praise for policy outcomes. When different parties rule at the national and sub-national level, political accountability decreases because voters face difficulties assigning responsibility among different levels of government (Lago Peñas and Lago Peñas, 2010). Elected officials face substantial incentives to exploit the fiscal common by over-borrowing in order to increase local public goods provision (Goodspeed, 2002). More taxing power and more autonomous taxes may induce responsible local spending behaviour and governments’ accountability (Martinez Vazquez, 2008). Fiscal decentralization therefore has greater impact on accountability. Proponents of fiscal decentralization argue that if sub-national governments are responsible for administering their own tax revenues, they will be held accountable by local populations (Golem, 2010). The decentralized form of government, therefore, brings about welfare-enhancing results and makes local officials more accountable and responsible. With fiscal decentralization, sub-national governments are closer and more responsive to the needs and preferences of local residents, thereby allowing a closer match between the preferences of the population and the mix of public goods and services delivered by government.

Fiscal decentralization has an effect on government reform by increasing accountability in governance. It make government official more accountable by transferring responsibility of service delivery to the citizens in their jurisdictions (Bahl, 2008). As populations migrate to urban areas with increased demand for services, fiscal decentralization provides the opportunity to reinforce local government involving it more closely (Shah 1994, McCluskey and Franzsen 2005) in the provision and delivery of demanded services. Having increased property tax revenues would go a long way in providing these needed services. This makes the localisation of the tax a critical issue in many developing countries (Manor 1999, World Bank 1999, Fjeldstad and Semboja 2000; McCluskey and Franzsen 2005). Additionally, fiscal decentralisation brings other expected benefits such as enhanced transparency, accountability, probity, frugality, efficiency and equity (McCluskey and Franzsen 2005) improved accessibility, local responsibility, and the effectiveness of government (Bird and Vaillancourt 1999) and increased citizen voice (Fauget 2012, 2014).

Oyun, G. (2016) Interstate spillovers, fiscal decentralization, and public spending on Medicaid home – and community-based services. Traditionally, central government is given the responsibility of stabilization and distribution while allocation is assigned to local government based on the demand for local public services (Smoke 2001).

This study examines the interstate spillover effect of Medicaid expenditures for home- and community based services (HCBS) and tests the relationship between fiscal decentralization and public spending. The study is estimated by applying spatial econometric methods to panel data for the 50 U.S. states for 2000–2010. The study reveals that there is a positive interdependence in state HCBS expenditures that is contingent on similarity in citizen ideology between states. The study further show that there is a positive relationship between fiscal decentralization measured by transfer dependence and revenue autonomy and Medicaid HCBS spending.

Midwinter (2012) Fiscal autonomy in Scotland: An assessment and critique. The Scotland Bill’s proposals to increase the tax powers of the Scottish Parliament are currently under scrutiny. Although the Calman Commission rejected full fiscal autonomy within the UK as a viable option under devolution, the Scottish Government is considering its inclusion in the independence referendum, as a fallback position should independence fail to attract majority support. The real choice for Scotland is between devolution and independence: there is no middle way.

Muldoon-Smith abd Greenhalgh, (2018) Real estate value – what next for fiscal decentralization in England? There is a rabid interest in the value of land and property and its potential taxation as a panacea for the largely unfunded requirements of welfare, infrastructure and economic development. Land value capture, infrastructure premiums, local asset backed vehicles, direct property investment, more efficient exploitation of local authority assets and the sweating of local anchor institutions, have all received new attention in recent years.

One of the flagship policies for this agenda in the UK is the 50% Business Rate Retention

Strategy (BRRS), introduced in 2013, and the more recent announcement of the 100% BRRS (planned for introduction in 2020). Rarely has a policy been so ill-defined, and received so little scrutiny, aside from the political corridors of central government, the technical environment of the Local Government Association (LGA) and the opaque deal-making of privileged locations. More recently, the future of the BRRS has been put in doubt. Perhaps reflecting the lack of detail on, and realistic pathway for, fiscal decentralization in England, none of the major political parties mentioned BRRS in their election manifestos.

Raidla, R., Douglas, J.W., Randma-Liiv, T. & Savi, R. (2015) “The impact of fiscal crisis on decision-making processes in European governments: Dynamics of a centralization cascade”. Public Administration Review, 75(6).

The objective of this study was to explore how European governments reacted during the recent crisis. The study focused on the interlinkages between shifts toward more centralized decision making. The study used the survey of thousands of public sector executives in 17 European countries. The reveals evidence of a centralization cascade, such that centralizing one element of the decision-making process leads to greater centralization throughout the system. The study also found that having a high number of organizational goals and facing clear sanctions for failing to achieve goals lead to greater centralization, but greater organizational commitment reduces the need to centralize.

Sharma, C.K. (2011) Beyond gaps and imbalances: Re-structuring the debate on intergovernmental fiscal relations. Public Administration, 90(1).

The paper aims to clarify the multiple usages of the symbolically loaded terms VFI and VFG (Vertical Fiscal Gap) by critically engaging the fundamental assumptions and premises underlying these ostensibly similar notions. It proposes an alternative conceptual framework and introduces the concepts of Vertical Fiscal Asymmetry (VFA) and Vertical Fiscal Difference (VFD) that have the potential to better structure public debate on issues of vertical fiscal relations and stimulate a sensible appreciation of the problem and possible remedies.

Wang Li, Y.H. & Jerry, Z.Z. (2018) Central-provincial sharing of financial responsibilities for China’s social safety-net. Public Money & Management, 38(6).

Using Chinese provincial panel data from 2004 to 2014, this paper describes the division of fiscal responsibilities in basic social assistance and services (BSAS): China’s social safety-net programme. The results suggest that there has been a recentralization—provinces with weaker economic conditions rely more on central governmental transfers, showing signs of fiscal equalization. The authors did not find any evidence of ethnicity-based preferential treatments.

Xie, D. & Zou, H. (1999) Fiscal decentralization and economic growth in the United States. Journal of Urban Economics, 45, pp.228-239.

In a simple model of endogenous growth with spending by different levels of government, we demonstrate how fiscal decentralization affects the long-run growth rate of the economy. Applying the model to the U.S. economy, we find that the existing spending shares for state and local governments have been consistent with growth maximization. In this sense, further decentralization in public spending may be harmful for growth.

Zhang, T. & Zou, H. (1998) Fiscal decentralization, public spending, and economic growth in China. Journal of Public Economics, 67(2) pp.221-240.

This study of China demonstrates how the allocation of fiscal resources between the central and local governments has affected economic growth since reforms began in the late 1970s. We find that a higher degree of fiscal decentralization of government spending is associated with lower provincial economic growth over the past fifteen years. This consistently significant and robust result in our empirical examinations is surprising in light of the argument that fiscal decentralization usually makes a positive contribution to local economic growth.

Zhao, Z.J. (2009) Fiscal decentralization and provincial-level fiscal disparities in China: A Sino-U.S. comparative perspective.

Since China’s 1994 fiscal reform, increasing concerns have been voiced about fiscal disparities across the country. Can local governments fairly and effectively fulfill basic public services such as primary education, public health, and social welfare? This essay traces the evolution of intergovernmental relations in China since 1978. The fluctuation of provincial level fiscal distribution over time and the underlying factors behind fiscal inequality, as compared to a decentralized American revenue system, are analyzed.


5. The effects of fiscal decentralisation on economic growth and economic development

Fiscal decentralization is very critical to a successful delivery and implementation of government policies and programs globally especially at the local level. Fiscal decentralization has contributed immensely to the growing of middle class in developing countries (Wibowo, 2011).

Davoodi and Zou (1998) Fiscal decentralization and economic growth: A cross-country study. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of fiscal decentralization on economic growth. The study used panel data from 46 countries from 1970-1989. The study found that there exist a negative relationship between fiscal decentralization and economic growth in developing countries. The study also found no relationship between fiscal decentralization and economic growth in developed countries.

Guess (2007) Adjusting fiscal decentralization programs to improve service results in Bulgaria and Romania. This study explores how the design of fiscal decentralization programs, in the form of assigning intergovernmental expenditure roles and responsibilities, affects service performance. The study found that fiscal decentralization needs an appropriate transfer of power meet the expenditure policy and administrative capacity.


The study critically evaluated the role of fiscal decentralization as an effective tool for government reforms. The study used 30 articles and reviewed relevant literature on the effects of fiscal decentralization on government revenue, government accountability, corruption, economic growth and development. On a careful review of relevant literature it was observed that little studies have been done on the effects of fiscal decentralization in Africa especially Ghana. th

List of References

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Muldoon-Smith, K. & Greenhalgh, P. (2018) Real estate value – what next for fiscal decentralization in England? Public Money & Management, 38(1).

Oyun, G. (2016) Interstate spillovers, fiscal decentralization, and public spending on Medicaid home – and community-based services. Public Administration Review, 77(4).

Raidla, R., Douglas, J.W., Randma-Liiv, T. & Savi, R. (2015) The impact of fiscal crisis on decision-making processes in European governments: Dynamics of a centralization cascade. Public Administration Review, 75(6).

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Importance of Effective Communication in Nursery Environment

Explain why it is important to maintain effective communication within the nursery environment mentioning the barriers that may be experienced by some staff members
Maintaining effective communication? I believe that it is important to maintain effective communication as this is the channels in which the nursery will be run. Effective communication is a two way process which can be verbal or written. Managers must firstly know their staff and what type of communication works best for them, for example do they prefer a more direct approach or are they the sort of person who prefers a team briefing that allows them to communicate with other staff around them or do they prefer to have all the communication written down for them and then given a chance to write their reply.

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Barriers to communication could be caused by the environment as it could be too noisy or too much information to take in at any one time as a person can loose concentration if they are being over loaded with info or the actual language being used is too hard to understand, keep it simple which again comes back to knowing your staff or audience. Also the time of day should be considered before communicating with staff as they may have their own appointments to keep or other personal business to attend to so they could become distracted with the time and not hear what is being said to them.
Noise within the nursery environment could also be a barrier as again if it is too noisy only partial communication may occur so the area in which the communication is to take place should also be considered.
Sometimes the office itself can be the barrier because if you as the manager do not make yourself available but instead hide away in the office for the majority of the day then this would not help.
Phones can also be a barrier as not everyone likes to talk on the phone but prefers a more personal approach but also things can be misheard on the phone. As well as these physical barriers there can be perceptual barriers too because you think the person doesn’t understand you before you even speak to them and that can come across in your body language as well. There are emotional barriers too which some people don’t like to speak out etc. As managers we must consider the cultural and language barriers as the society that we work and live in is much more culturally diverse than ever.
A barrier to communication is also the manager’s inability to actually listen as well!!!
To me the bottom line to effective communication is to know your staff on a personal level, know what makes them tick therefore you can adapt your style of communication to suit the individual staff member. Also to be approachable to your staff and to listen to verbal and non verbal communication
Discuss the importance of the appraisal process for staff and managers and how it can be carried out
The performance appraisal provides employees with the recognition of their work efforts. It shows that bosses are interested in the development of their staff and not just getting their ‘monies worth’ that it is more that just a job.
The appraisal process for staff and managers is a period of time out from the daily tasks of the running of the nursery in order to focus on work related activities and to correct any existing problems and encourage better performance.
Managers should make an appointment with the staff member at a time which suits both and there will be no distractions. A blank appraisal form should be issued to the staff member for them to complete and comment on how they have performed throughout the year, this is then discussed with the Manager.
The Manager and staff member will then discuss the information written on the form and what areas need to be improved upon and agree on what training is required. It’s also a good time to discuss any other outstanding issues not necessarily related to the appraisal itself.
When setting the goals, managers should be specific at what is to be achieved. The goals should be measured against what is to be achieved. Set a time frame in which to achieve the goal, make sure the time frame is realistic. The goals should also be relevant to the role in which the staff member is working. Make sure the goal that is being set has a purpose and not just for the sake of it.
It is best to carry this out on the anniversary of when the staff member has joined and then goals can be set for the coming year.
Managers should get behind the appraisal process and sell it to their staff.
Explain the disciplinary and grievance procedure, paying particular attention to how the manager should conduct the process
The policy documentation for this process should be made accessible for all staff. The processes are necessary to ensure that all staff are treated fairly and are protected.
If there are good procedures in place and good communication then the risk of tribunals are minimised.
If possible managers should try and resolve the issues first and a disciplinary and grievance procedure should be the last resort.
A letter should be issued to the employee at least 72 hours in advance of the meeting. Additional staff should be present in the meeting to take notes. Time should be given for an appeal if necessary. All records, emails, telephone calls should be kept in order to act as a reference and evidence to what steps the manager has taken to try and resolve the issue from the beginning.
A meeting should be set up to include additional staff for note taking. Managers should remain impartial and if necessary can call witnesses to strengthen the evidence. Enough time should be given in the meeting for the employee to put their case forward. Should new evidence come to light in the course of the meeting then it should be adjourned. When a decision is reached it should be given in writing and include information on the appeals process.
The outcomes from the meeting can be no action, warning or dismissal. There can be a verbal warning administered, a first written warning or a final written warning.
The informal grievance procedure should be displayed and available to all staff, to be honest early intervention limits the need for a disciplinary procedure.
Evaluate the recruitment and selection process making reference to policies nurseries are required to hold
The recruitment and selection process within the nursery setting is straight forward; vacancies should be advertised at the same time in various locations making sure under-represented groups within the community also have an equal chance of applying.
Completed applications should be scored by the manager and another person either the deputy or the new employees line manager this gives a fairer approach to the scoring process. It is then up to the manager how many persons should be interviewed. The scoring sheets should be kept a minimum of three months after the application process should any unsuccessful applicants contact the manager for feedback it also shows transparency in the process. All persons involved in this process should be equal opportunity trained prior to the commencement of the process again this is a fairer why to carry out the process.
Once the interviewing stage is completed and the new employee chosen then it is a good idea that prior to them starting they should be given a copy of the nursery policies and sign to say they have received them. They should also be made aware of the Health and Safety policy, fire safety and child protection issues and the policy on arrival and departure. It is important that they are made aware of whatever medication the children may be taking and what allergies they may have. This can be done in the staff induction morning and then they should spend the rest of their time shadowing a staff member who can show them the daily running of the nursery. This shadowing will ensure that the new employee sees first hand what is expected of them on a daily basis and what standards they are to achieve. I think this is a much better way of settling anyone in and they can take much more in during this “hands on” approach then they could just being told about it. It also gives the new employee a chance to ask questions which may not arise during interview.

Effective Leadership and Teamwork in Nursing

Effective leadership and teamwork in nursing, with particular reference to psychiatric (mental health) nursing, within the context of professional practice and client (patient) perspectives
As part of the campaign to deliver effective health and social care, the Government’s modernisation agenda focuses on strengthening nursing leadership and developing inter-professional teamwork. It is proposed that having good quality clinical leadership skills among all health professionals is perceived as vital to the provision of high-quality, effective patient-centred care, as well as for the development and future of the National Health Service (NHS) (Department of Health (DOH), 2000, pp59-71). Nurse leadership has developed significantly over the past decade and now nurses can become nurse consultants, nurse practitioners, and modern matrons or run nurse-led units. It is debated that high calibre nurse leadership can produce more motivated and effectual staff, reduce the risk of errors in drug management, decrease staff turnover and rates of sickness, result in fewer patient complaints and most importantly improve patient care (Williams et al, 2001, pp1-3). This essay will critically analyse effective leadership and teamwork in nursing, especially within a mental health nursing context, with respect to professional practice and patient perspectives.

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As mentioned leadership skills have for a long time been acknowledged as a solution to the provision of good health care. In order to achieve first-rate health care, healthcare personnel especially senior nurses must be able to effectively lead teams, particularly across professional, clinical and organisational boundaries (Taylor, 2007, p30). Two of the key roles of a lead nurse or senior nurse manager are that of supporting staff and overseeing nursing in the provision of patient care (Castledine, 2004, p119).
It is proposed that meeting staff needs improves satisfaction, productivity and efficiency and it is debated that productivity is now an important concept within health and social care sectors. It is suggested that productivity within the healthcare industry is defined by the quality of patient care. Arguably, productivity is not exclusively dependent upon how hard and well individuals work, but about meeting staff needs and support from leaders and colleagues (Moiden, 2003, p19). Debatably, where team leaders or managers are concerned about the needs and objectives of their staff, and are aware of the social and physical conditions that affect their working environments, productivity and efficiency will improve. It is possibly that a lack of working environments that support staff affects the quality of care for patients. It is suggested that it is vital that the nurse manager has leadership skills that allow a team to work together effectively (Moiden, 2003, p19). Nurse leaders should be seen frequently by those they lead as high visibility could ensure that support is obtainable when most needed. Similarly, nurse leaders must ensure that staff skills are used in such a way that patients’ obtain the greatest benefit from their abilities. This can be achieved by the nurse leaders enabling others to act and giving positive responses to work-related performance. This will facilitate motivation, increasing job satisfaction and promoting better patient care (Clegg, 2000), p44).
Within a psychiatric nursing environment whether it is in the community or in a mental health unit teamwork is imperative for both the staff and the service users. In the field of psychiatric nursing, nurses work as a team with other professionals such as psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, occupational therapists and social workers. Therefore, responsibility for the service users is shared across the whole multi-disciplinary team and each service user relates to several team members (Williams, 2005, p39). Arguably, the team approach to patient care within mental health nursing has advantages in terms of reducing dependency on team members, and reducing levels of burnout. It is debated that teamwork is vital in order to provide a safe and therapeutic environment that respects the service user’s dignity while promoting independence and preparation for life in society. The team approach can be supportive and creative but it is not without its problems (Machin, 1998, p17).
Onyett et al (1997) studied a sample of four hundred and forty-five team members across various disciplines working in fifty-seven Community Mental Health Teams (CMHTs). Emotional exhaustion, low personal accomplishment, depersonalisation, job satisfaction and sick leave was examined in relation to the perceived clarity of the role of the team, personal role clarity, identification with one’s profession and the team, caseload size, composition and the frequency with which users were seen. Excessive emotional exhaustion was reported, predominantly among consultant psychiatrists, social workers, nurses and psychologists. High job satisfaction, high individual achievement and “low depersonalisation” were also found. Job satisfaction was associated with “team role clarity” and identification with the team. Caseload size, assemblage and the frequency with which service users were seen were not associated with job satisfaction or burnout. Important disparities were found between disciplines on all variables except sick leave. Therefore, on the evidence presented it could be argued that team membership has different implications for different disciplines. Debatably, greater attention is needed to the composition, training and leadership of CMHTs rather than hope that the disciplines will spontaneously work effectively together. It is important to note that the research used here of evidence of effectiveness of teamwork has various limitations. Firstly, the small sample size makes it not viable to relate the findings to all CMHTs in the United Kingdom. Secondly, the questions asked in the study might be seen to be leading questions and this makes the study unreliable. Thirdly, this study does not take into account the personal views of the members of the team. The individual views on the effectiveness of multi-disciplinary teamwork from the nurses, occupational therapists and social workers could make this research more valid as relationships and issues of skill mix between the disciplines could have been explored within the context of patient care.
Teamwork appears to be more effective in enabling first-class patient care within hospital based mental health units. Flockhart and Moore (2002, p96) assessed the effectiveness of teamwork on patient care at the psychiatric intensive care unit that is part of the Maudsley NHS Trust in South London. The unit admits some of the most challenging patients who cannot be safely managed on general wards. Many patients suffer from paranoid schizophrenia or bipolar affective disorder and can be violent or aggressive, suicidal, harming themselves or be abusing various substances. Patients are only admitted on the unit for clinical reasons, not for safety. The main ethos of the unit is to help the service users achieve their maximum level of functioning so that they can be cared for with the fewest possible restrictions. It is important therefore that in this unit and in others like it in the United Kingdom the nurses need to be good team workers and be able to deal with issues calmly. Patient involvement and collaborative working has been addressed by joint care planning with the family and other key disciplines such as social workers, probation officers and various psychiatric and psychology therapists and this had led to rapid improvements in patients’ mental state and behaviour. The collaborative teamwork that focuses on the patients’ safety has improved team communication and effectiveness. Arguably, this particular unit has an efficient team that has empowered and enabled the staff to provide the best and most effective care for the service users. This is because the team is organised, supported and valued by each of the other members and the skill mix is ideal for improving patients’ mental health.
It is also important to note that this unit has one dedicated team leader or co-ordinator that provides a consistent approach that meets all the needs of the service users and staff. Routine physical proximity appears to contribute to constructive working relationships and this has been illustrated by the effective interprofessional working relationships observed in this unit. Debatably, in contrast, within a community setting each discipline will have its own team leader or manager and this might lead to inconsistencies, differences and confusion in policy and decision making.
In reviewing the literature for this essay the author would like to propose the following recommendations. Debatably, more evidence based research is needed on how effective leadership leads to enhanced practice and improved patient care, especially within mental health nursing. There appears to be some literature on the effectiveness of teamwork within the mental nursing profession. Arguably, this is because the provisions needed by mental health service users are wide and varied and historically multi-disciplinary teams have always been the solution to providing care and support for service users whether that care was deemed to be of good quality or of inferior quality. However, there is room for more evidence-based literature on the effectiveness of teamwork within mental health nursing. Similarly, it is suggested that there is a need for more evidence-based literature on the effectiveness of teamwork in nursing in general. Correspondingly, there is little or no evidence-based literature that expounds service user’s perspectives about how efficient teamwork improves their care.
From the evidence presented it can be said that many factors lead to better team performance and arguably, one of the most significant is that of team leadership. Good quality leadership skills are the solution to enabling teams to provide high quality effective patient care. Effective team leadership improves satisfaction among team members and patients and improves productivity. In order to be effective as a leader the team leader must be visible and approachable. Team working within a hospital setting is generally more effective in delivering good quality patient care than that often achieved within a community setting where multi-disciplinary teams are involved. The stress on team members in CMHTs is related to the standard of leadership as well as the composition and training of the team. Experience in the Maudsley NHS Trust illustrates the importance of good team working and leadership in determining the quality of outcomes for patients. Evidence in the literature studied is presented from the perspective of staff in healthcare teams while there is little or no evidence of the views of service users on the subjects of leadership and teamwork.
Castledine, G (2004) Nursing leadership must keep its roots in nursing, British Journal of Nursing, 12, 2, 119.
Clegg, A (2000) Leadership: improving the quality of patient care, Nursing Standard, 14, 30, 43-45.
Department of Health (2000) The NHS Plan. A Plan for Investment. A Plan for Reform. London, HMSO.
Flockhart, G and Moore, S (2002) Teamwork is the key, Nursing Standard, 17, 3, 96.
Machin, T (1998) Teamwork in community mental health, British Journal of Community Nursing, 3, 1, 17-24.
Moiden, N (2003) A framework for leadership, Nursing Management, 9, 10, 19-23.
Onyett, S, Pillinger, T and Muijen, M (1997) Job satisfaction and burnout among members of community mental health teams, Journal of Mental Health, 6, 1, 56-66.
Taylor, V (2007) Leadership for service improvement, Nursing Management, 13, 9, 30-35.
Williams, T, Taylor, S and Petts, S (2001) Assessing leadership development training, Nursing Times, 97, 42, 1-3, www.nursingtimes.net, date accessed 11/02/2007.
Williams, C (2005) Assertive outreach: the team approach, Mental Health Practice, 9, 2, 38-40.

Effective Strategies to Close the Gap Early Elementary Students in Literacy


There is a lot or research and talk on how to close the gap. However, during the 70’s and through the 80’s the achievement gap was closing.  In fact, the achievement gap between minority students and whites’ students was cut in half.  Unfortunately, it seems to come to a stop around 1988, and the gap seems to start to widen again.  It has continued to widen since then.  It is up to teachers and administrators to come up with effective strategies to cut this gap again.  In this Literature Review, it will discuss the strategies to cut it for the future.


Key terms: Socioeconomic, Achievement Gap, Instructional strategies, Effective strategies,



 The purpose of this Literature Review is to bring light to a problem that has plague our schools year after year.  There is a gap between at-risk students and their peers.  Specifically, Socioeconomic Status (SES) students from poverty schools. Unfortunately, minorities’ students are two times likely to be academically behind than their peers. Effective strategies can be used to close the achievement gap. The classroom needs to have more comprehensive interventions to tackle achievement gaps. This literature review will describe the tested research-based strategies that will hopefully close this gap.   Through this review, I will discuss the academic performance gap that is shown early on in lower elementary. 

Literature Review

Significant research was done on instructional strategies to help close the achievement gap.  Topics included teacher factors, after school assistance, and early childhood education. 

Early Childhood Education

Year after year, there is a lot of discussion on how we should make quality preschool available for all students.  When students have a quality preschool experience, it has shown that students have a better chance of doing well in the classroom.  Magnuson & Waldfogel (2005) observed Black, White, and Hispanic children had differing experiences in early childhood programs.  They wanted to discover connections between their experiences in early childhood program and racial and ethnic gaps in school readiness. Students who can attend a daycare or preschool programs enter school more ready to learn, but unfortunately, the quality of care is differ by race and ethnicity. Magnuson & Waldfogel (2005) found that Black children are more likely to attend preschool than white children but may experience lower-quality care. In addition, Hispanic children are much less likely than white children to attend preschool.

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Even though Black children do go to a preschool program, they tend to differ from their white counterparts. If we can make sure all students get a quality early childhood, this may help stop the education gap in education.  Magnuson & Waldfogel (2005) believes making preschool enrollment universal for three- and four- year-old children in poverty and increasing the quality of care could close to 20 percent of the black- white school readiness gap and up to 36 percent of the Hispanic-white gap.


It is known that having effective early education is important for academic achievement and positive life outcomes, especially students in low socioeconomic backgrounds. One of strategies is to focus on neuroscience, specifically on self-regulation.  Self- regulation is when learners become successful because they control their learning environment. They exert this control by directing and regulating their own actions toward their learning goals. Blair & Raver (2014) hypothesized that educational practices designed to support the development of self-regulation will lead not only to higher academic achievement but will also be associated with beneficial change in measures of children’s attention, executive functions, and stress response physiology.  A tool to accomplish this strategy is called “Tools of Mind.”  Tools of Mind gives teaching professionals tools to help each student to become a successful learning.  The program is helping teachers to develop cognitive, social and emotional skills.  The program builds on insight of Lev Vygotsky (1930). Tools of the Mind (1993) is a pedagogical approach that included the use of specific tactics to support of memory and learning, and the organization of “shared cooperative activity” designed to promote social-emotional as well as cognitive development.   Teachers can use the tools to focus on student academic progress and social competencies.

Blair & Raver (2014) believes it can enhance children’s engagement in learning and establishing beneficial academic trajectories in the early grades.  They did a study that focused on students who were in Kindergarten and having them use the approach of self-regulation into literacy, mathematics, and science.  The study chose to use a cluster randomized controlled trial involving 29 schools, 79 classrooms, and 759 children.  The results demonstrated improvement in reading, vocabulary, and mathematics at the end of kindergarten.  This helps prepare these students for first grade.  They found that several effects that were specific to high-poverty schools, aspects of self-regulation in early elementary education hold promise for closing the achievement gap.

Strong Background Knowledge

Maximizing the learning outcomes of students requires lessons from teachers with strong domain knowledge (Haycock, 2001). When teachers do not have strong backgrounds in the subject’s students’ learning motivation may diminish, which would likely impede students from fully demonstrating their abilities. Teacher expectations and teaching methods are also established as important factors that affect students’ self-effect (Haycock, 2001). It is important that there is balanced discipline might contribute to lagging achievement among students of color.

(Gregory et. At., 2010) It is important that teachers know what they are teaching and how to teach content to their students, especially in lower elementary.  Teachers need to have strong knowledge of what they are teaching, so students can learn and grow and understand the material they are learning.  If students have a highly effective teacher, this will help in closing the gap. Based on the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, they indicated that pedagogical content knowledge is the basis for effective teaching.



Using technology is an effective strategy that will reach each student.  Specifically using a hand-held tablet technology.  This technology is an interactive intervention learner-centered software that is aimed at supporting the development of early math skills.  

Outhwaite, Guiliford, & Pitchford (2017) found there was immediate and sustain gains in mathematics compared to math performance before, immediately after, and 5 months after the intervention.  In the study, it focuses on 133 students from the age of 4-7.  Class teachers were instructed to implement the math intervention for a specified period.  In the study, the findings indicated that the tablet technology can provide a form of individualized effective support for early math development.  Finally, the study shows apps that incorporate repetitive and interactive features are beneficial to low-achievers and could help close the gap in early math skills in preschool.

Increased Instructional Time

Researchers have summarized the strategies (Brown et al., 2011) and characteristics of schools (Leithwood, 2010), which demonstrated the effects of narrowing achievement gaps.  Leithwood’s research gave an example of state of Kentucky which provided extra funds annually to low-SES schools to extend instructions, such as providing after-school assistance in academic subjects. The city of San Diego also did the same as Kentucky.  San Diego doubled instructional time, and schools saw improvement in their test scores.


Mindfulness is an intervention designed to help student’s focus on self-affirming values and lessening their psychological threat related to being negatively stereotyped was effective in reducing the racial achievement gap.  Similar methods were able to reduce gender achievement gap in a college-level introductory physics class. (Miyake et al. 2010)

Justification / Feasibility

Big gaps with children who are low-SES are the ones who are struggling.  Children from low-SES families enter high school with average literacy skills five years behind students of high-income (Reardon et. al., 2013). According to the U.S. Census Bureau (2014), individuals within the top family income quartile are eight times more likely to obtain a bachelor’s degree by age 24 as compared to individuals from the lowest family income quartile. Schools and the community are not doing enough to stop the gap occurring every day.

Children from lower SES households are about twice as likely then high-SES households to display learning-related behavior problems. Many schools are seeing an increase in these behaviors and are not sure what to do.  A mother’s SES is also related to her child’s inattention, disinterest, and lack of cooperation in school (Morgan et al., 2009). If teachers can start early with these instructional strategies it can start to close the gap. 


Achievement gap is complex; solutions must be address with all school staff.  Effective instructive strategies are the answer to help reduce the achievement gap in low SES students specifically minorities students.  Research identified varying factors that can help reduce achievement gaps.  Teachers need to have strong background knowledge in order to help students.  If teachers don’t have the strong background knowledge, teachers can further lengthen achievement gap for SES students.  Schools should have afterschool programs to help SES students to gain the knowledge they are behind.  Students will have opportunity to learn in a safe environment on the knowledge they are behind in.  Teachers should also use mindfulness, to help students.  Mindfulness will give students the courage and esteem to help them achieve their goals.


Aikens, N. L., & Barbarin, O. (2008). Socioeconomic differences in reading trajectories: The contribution of family, neighborhood, and school contexts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 235-251. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.100.2.235.

Blair, C., & Raver, C.C. (2014). Closing the achievement gap through modification of neurocognitive and Neurocognitive Function: Results from a cluster randomized controlled trial of an innovative approach to the education of children in kindergarten. Plos One, 9(11). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0112393

Blustein, D. (2013). The psychology of working: A new perspective for career development, counseling, and public policy. Abingdon-on-Thames, England: Routledge.

Diemer, M. A., & Blustein, D. L. (2007). Vocational hope and vocational identity; Urban adolescents’ career development. Journal of Career Assessment, 15, 98-118. doi:10.1177/1069072706294528

Morgan, P. L., Farkas, G., Hillemeier, M. M., & Maczuga, S. (2009). Risk factors for learning-related behavior problems at 24 months of age: Population-based estimates. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37, 401-413.


Outhwaite, L., Guiliford, A., & Pitchford, N. (2017). Closing the gap: Efficacy of a tablet intervention to support the development of early mathematical skills in UK primary school children. Computers & Education,108, 43-58.

Reardon, S. F., Valentino, R. A., Kalogrides, D., Shores, K. A., & Greenberg, E. H. (2013). Patterns and trends in racial academic achievement gaps among states, 1999-2011. Retrieved from https://cepa.stanford.edu/content/patterns-and-trends-racial-academic-achievement-gaps-among-states-1999-2011.www.gale.com

Sung, Y., Tseng, T., Chang, T., & Chiou, J. (2014). Evaluating the effects of programs for reducing achievement gaps: A case study in Taiwan. Asia Pacific Education Review, 15(1), 99-113.  http://dx.doi.org.nmu.idm.oclc.org/10.1007/s12564-013-9304-7