Background Of English Neologisms

Languages are changing as the world is constantly changing. After the Second World War, English neologisms emerged in a remarkable way. New vocabulary came into existence due to new technologies and new discoveries such as ; computing, internet , cell phones and the like. People’s daily activities like dancing, looking and many others, renewed their popularity giving birth to new lexicon. In deed, new words are invented rapidly and are developed quickly thanks to mass communication. They appear and fall into disuse when they have served their momentary purpose ( Bernhart 54).Only a few of them will get recorded in glossaries of neologisms of general dictionaries.
The matter of neologism becomes a new hot spot of research owing to its practical and prevailing use in reality. The study of neologisms evoked a whole cluster of questions:
-What are the reasons beyond the rise of new lexicon?
-Why are some new words just a flash in a pan?
-Why are other words successful?
-What are the qualities that make a word successful?
-Are Neologisms markers of changes in societies?
Chapter 01:Literature Review
1. 1.Definition of a Neologism
The term neologism originates from Greek: neos means ‘new‘, logos means ‘word‘, i. e. a neologism is – literally – a new word.
“Neologism is the creation of a new lexical item as a response to changed circumstances in the external world, which achieves some currency within a speech community“(qtd. in Chrystal 1992: 264) at a particular time.
In linguistics, a neologism is a recently-coined word, or the act of inventing a word or phrase. Additionally it can imply the use of old words in a new sense (i.e., giving new meanings to existing words or phrases). Neologisms are especially useful in identifying new inventions, new phenomena, or old ideas which have taken on a new cultural context. The word “neologism” was coined around 1800 and was, at that time, a neologism itself. A person who develops a neologism is sometimes called a neologist; neology is the act of introducing a new word into a language.
l. 2. Background of English Neologisms
The famous American new word expert John Algeo wrote in the preface of his
book Fifty Years Among the New Words, “Although the dictionary of new word is warmly welcomed by readers only in recent years, actually the compiling of English dictionary began with the collection of new word ever since 1604.” The early English dictionaries like Table Alphabeticall (1604, Robert Cawdrey), English Expositor (1616, John Bullokar), and The English Dictionarie (1623, Henry Cockeram) all embodied some “hard words”, which were absolutely new words to people in those days. Thus, those dictionaries somehow held the characteristics of neologism dictionary. However, the scientific and systematic study of neologism began at 200 years later, the 20th century.
In 1902, Leon Mead published a book named Word-Coinage, being an Inquiry
into Recent Neologisms, also a Brief Study of Literary Style, Slang, and
Provincialisms, which said to be the first book studying neologism in the 20th.
Although it was not a neologism dictionary, it contained some articles about new words. What’s more, Mead put forward the idea of making research on new words for the first time in the history. He also provided lots of examples of new words created by some American writers at that time.
In 1920, C.Alphonso Smith, the dean of the English department of American
Navy Institute wrote a book entitled New Words Self-defined, in which 420 new
words were illustrated by examples. This had proved to be a big progress in the
research on the neologisms.
From 1937 to 1940, the famous American scholar Dwight Bolinger first applied
newspapers and magazines to introduce new word. He created a column, The Living Language, in the newspaper, Words. In 1943, the column was brought into American speech and the title was changed into Among the New Words. Then, in the next year,Professor I. Willis Russell took the place of Bolinger and became the chief-editor of the column. He wrote articles entitled Words and Meanings, New, to introduce new words and their new meanings.
War is said to be the major cradle for the born of new words. Majorie Taylor, a
librarian in New York, collected numerous neologisms created during the World War II. In 1944, Taylor compiled a word-list, The Language of World War II: Abbreviation, captions, Quotations, Slogans, Titles and Other Terms and Phrases, in which every new word was explained. Similarly, Clarence Barnhart published his Dictionary of U.S. Army Terms. At that time, some academic magazines also published articles to introduce new words. Many neologism dictionaries in the 1950s are very popular, especially the Dictionary of New Words in English compiled by Paul Charles Berg in 1953 and The Dictionary of New Words by Mary Reifer in 1955. During 1950s, Mr. Paul Charles Berg did a lot of job to collect new words about the war, which brought us his Dictionary of New Words in English in 1953.
After the World War II, science and technology development had greatly
influenced the society. Subsequently, a lot of scientific and technical words were
flooding into the language field. A lot of neologism dictionaries about words in those fields were published. Two of them are mostly welcomed: An Explaining and Pronouncing Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Words by W. E. Flood & Michael West and Words of Sciences and the History Blind Them by Isaac Asimov.
From 1970s on, the study of English neologism drew great attention from
western scholars, many of them established special column to introduce new words in English, such as William Safire who was well known for his On Language in New York Times weekly and Anne H. Soukhanow who was the chief-editor of Word Watch.
In Safire’s column, he provided a considerably clear explanation of new words by citing typical examples, exploring their origins and performing their current usage.
Besides, the American Dialect Association Dispatches introduced some new words yearly to the public. For instance, in 1994, “information superhighway” was rewarded as the newest word; “cybersex” was the most surprising word and “mosaic culture” the most unnecessary word.
The digital revolution in 1990s is the radical reshaping and restructuring of
social patterns. “Because of the wild spread of internet, America is speaking a whole new language”, said Shawn Holley in his The New Word Revolution. Lots of neologisms that have a historical significance by reason of the influence they exerted on the language field are brought into existence. According to the statistics, more than 20 neologism dictionaries have been compiled, among which some put emphasis on the academic field and some are distinctive by their popularity. Oxford English Dictionary, Webster’s Third New International Dictionary and Barhart Dictionary of New English are the ones with the highest academic value.
New words are numerous. Sometimes it seems as if a new word has about as
much chance of developing into a permanent addition to our vocabulary. Only few of them will remain as serious candidates for the dictionary. Books especially about new words are abundant. However, only a few scholars have ventured to propose factors that make for the success of new words. One is Goran Kjellmer, whose article “Potential Words” in the journal Word for August 2000 also reviews previous proposals. The other is the executive secretary of American Dialect Society, Allan Metcalf who proposed the FUDGE scale. The two reached different conclusions.
Along with books and periodicals, there is the Internet. In particular, it makes my extensive searches for examples of how words are actually used today possible. Here the author has searched thousands of pages indexed by countless times to find current uses of words under discussion.
A jump of several decades has showed us more researches on the neologisms.
Language reflects our life, and the research on the neologisms has never been stopped.
By collecting new words or phrases occurring in languages, the previous researches have provided precious materials for the further exploration in this field. Therefore, a careful look at the research background of neologisms carries an essential academic significance.
In china, the study of neologism began from 1980s. Most of the specific works
and papers are mere introduction of theories from abroad lacking of much original study. To keep up with the latest English vocabulary is really difficult, thus a thorough and systematic analysis about English new words is of practical significance both in learning and teaching of English as a foreign language.
Chapter 02: Factors for the Rise of English Neologisms
It is not language change itself that has occupied the attention of historical linguists for the past decades, but the causes and the processes of change. Early researchers, such as Saussure (1922) or Bloomfield (1933), for instance, maintained that the causes of linguistic change cannot be established despite numerous attempts at feasible explanations (Wardhaugh,1990:187). The majority of the early researchers have maintained also that the actual processes of change cannot be observed – that what one can observe and perhaps analyses are the consequences of change. The findings of later research, however, envisage the process of change as an initial fluctuation between the new and the old, with the completion of the process occurring when the new replaces the old (Fromkin et al.,1996:295). In other words, if the new form, be it phonological, morpho-syntactic, lexical or semantic, spreads “the change is in progress, if it eventually replaces the old form, the change has become a fait accompli – it has gone to completion”(Holmes,1992:212).
In regard to the causes of change, although the reasons for an aspect of a language undergoing change at a particular point in time still remain unclear, a number of theories have been proposed, depending on the orientation of individual researchers. For instance, Mcmahon M.S (1994: 179-182) discussing causes of semantic change, delineates the following:

Linguistic causes
Historical causes (subdivided into “ideas” and “scientific concepts”)
Social causes
Psychological causes (subdivided into “emotive factors” and “taboo”)
Foreign influence
The need for a new name

Quite a lot of reasons are responsible for the creating of English neologisms.
Any new thing or new concept, which takes place in our society, may provide a foundation for the creating of the new words. In the following, four of the major
reasons will be emphasized: 1) the rise of new concepts and new ideas in social
culture; 2) new discoveries in science and technology; 3) the manufacture of new products in economy, and 4) the events in the field of politics. Accompanied by a series of neologisms, we can have a clearer understanding of the current English neologisms.
2.1. Sociolcultural Changes:
2.1.1. New Concepts and ideas in Social Culture.
The improving living condition and the enhancing cultural standard have formed
a solid basis on which a large number of new things find their occurrence. It is not necessary to demonstrate that with the development of social culture, new concepts and ideas are introduced into us constantly. Since there are many more concepts than there are existing words, there will always be new words created. Changes in social outlook and manners of behavior call for new terms such as beatnik, peacenik, and hippie. Even new culinary arrangements demand new labels and in English they have some forth in the form of cheeseburger, chiliburger, mushroomburger, etc.
(Anderson, 1973)
Brian Foster presents us a striking example of how fast English vocabulary
changes. In the year 1914, a young girl named Monica Baldwin entered a convent, remaining secluded there until 1941. When she returned to the outer world, she found herself in a totally different world: the conditions of everyday life altered by technical developments and social changes were beyond recognition. What’s more puzzling to her was the language people speaking. During a railway journey, the term “luggage in advance” meant nothing to her. Reading the daily newspapers made her feel idiotic in the extreme, because words like jazz, Gin, Hollywood, Cool, noshing and Isolationism were completely incomprehensible to her. Not to mention how bewildered she was at hearing friends say, “It’s your funeral” or “believe it or not”.
(Brian Foster, 1981)
Let’s look at another example “moonlighting”. It was anything but new to the
vocabulary, and it gained a brand new meaning in 1957 as the verb to moonlight and its related noun, moonlighting. Time magazine, beamed moonlighting at its readers in its issue of July 22nd, 1957. According to Time, it was in fact not just a new name, but a new trend and a new concern. “MOON-LIGHTING,” proclaimed the headline: “A Problem Born of Prosperity.”
As a noun, moonlight goes back with the moon itself to the beginning of the
English language and even earlier to the Germanic and Indo-European ancestors of English. Presumably ever since humans could speak, they have talked about the light of the moon. As a verb, to moonlight is more recent, but it still goes back to the nineteenth century. From the start it has meant doing something by the light of the moon, but at first this was something that could get one arrested. In the nineteenth century, moonlight was a slang term for the activity of burglars, who benefited from moonlight at their work. In the twentieth century, it was also used for herding cattle and hunting deer by moonlight. Whether it was the illegal work that in 1957 caused the transmutation of moonlight into a standard term for legal work, or whether this new meaning was independently derived from the original moonlight, nobody knows. And it doesn’t matter much. Either way, moonlight meaning “the light of the moon” easily took on its second meaning of “to work a second job,” and Americans have been moonlighting ever since. This second meaning seems likely to stay in the vocabulary, as long as people continue to hold down second jobs.
2.1.2.Disguising Language, “Misnomers”
While taboo words are words that have been banned by the speech community,
“misnomers” are words that individuals have decided to coin in order to deceive the hearer by disguising unpleasant concepts. Examples: E. friendly fire instead of bombardment by own troops.
2.1.3.Prestige, Fashion
Lexical change may be based on the prestige of another language or another variety of the same language, certain fashionable word-formation patterns or certain fashionable semasiological centers of expansion. The kernel of this force is mostly found outside of language. It is often the prestige of a culture, the superiority of a group or politics which cause speakers to adopt linguistic elements (words, morphemes, morphs, sounds) from the prestigious group’s speech. Example: English, for instance, borrowed heavily from French during the ME. period because the upper social classes were made up of French
people: garment, flower, rose, face, prince, hour, question, dance, fork, royal, loyal, fine, zero are all Gallicisms. Today, English is now the most prestigious language for many parts of the world.
2.1.4.Social, or Demographic, Reasons
By social, or demographic, reasons we shall refer to the contact between different social groups. This contact may easily, and rather subconsciously, trigger off lexical change— the more intensive the social contact is, the more intensive the linguistic exchange. Example: In the history of the English language, the two prominent instances of exchanges between two social groups were the one with the Vikings in the 8th to 11th centuries and the one with the French in the 11th to 15th centuries. The force of direct contact between different speech communities must not be mixed up with the prestige force, where no direct contact with the other speech community is necessary. Thus, we
can say that the early French loans (from Northern French) rather go back to the
everyday contact with the English population and the French soldiers, not so early French loans (from Parisian French) go back to the prestige of the French aristocracy, the French loans in the official bilingual phase of England’s history may either go back to prestige or to the social contact or to both. Examples: The inherited ey is replaced by Scandinavian egg, the inherited nimen is replaced by Scandinavian taken except for theform benumb, throwen is supplemented by Scandinavian casten; early French loans are army, carpenter, catch.

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2.1.5.Culture-Induced Salience of a Concept (“Cultural Salience”)
Sometimes concepts are not salient to humans because of gerenal human nature, but because of the concepts’ cultural values. Their salience can change with the change of culture. Example: The increased importance of arts and fashion has affected the lexical treatment of the conceptual field of colors: from a vague differentiation between dark blue and light blue to a neat distinction between cobalt blue, royal blue, indigo etc. (such neat detailed differentiations often originate in expert slang and then penetrate the language of the general speech community).
Conceptual fields which have gained salience through cultural importance may very well serve as designations in other conceptual field in the form of metaphors. Example: In the US, a lot of metaphors in general language have been taken from the field of baseball, e.g. to be off base ‘to be completely wrong’, to hit a home run ‘to be highly successful’ and from the field of entrepreneurship.
The category of word play includes humor, irony and puns. Although word-play often goes hand in hand with other factors (such as taboo, prestige or anthropological salience), it can also trigger lexical change on its own. Example: ModE. perfect lady ‘prostitute’, to take French leave ‘to leave secretly (without paying)’, to cool ‘look’ (2.2 New discoveries and Products In Science and Technology
Suppose you’re advancing the cause of science rather than pitching a product,
and you have something new to report—a new element, a new compound, or a new species. How does it get a name? No new science is possible without neologisms, new words or new interpretations of old words to describe and explain reality in new ways. How could Aristotle have developed the logic of syllogisms or Newton thetheory of dynamics without new vocabularies and definitions? They were neologists, and everybody wanting to contribute new knowledge must be. For new knowledge there is no way around the creation of new terms and concepts. For new objects and new inventions, scientific discoveries, technical theories, etc, the new name is usually the work of one man or of a very few. To reject neologisms, often despicably, is to reject scientific development. No sign of scientific conservatism is so telling as the rejection of all but the established concepts of a school of thought. Neologisms are, however, relative to the terminological paradigm actually dominating a field of
knowledge. It may be a radical renewal to introduce terms from a tradition believed to be outmoded.
Nowadays the idea of the technical highway has been very familiar to people.
Development in the science and technology has brought tremendous energy to the improvement of our civilization. And these achievements also find their reflections in language. Technical advancements in a society demand new designator terms, many of which can be found in linguistics such as hypercorrection, phoneme, allomorph, etc. The progress of science and technology gives occasion for the large majority of new words; for a new thing we must have a new name; hence, for instance, motor, argon, and appendicitis. It is interesting to see that the last word did not exist, or was at least too obscure to be recorded, when the Oxford Dictionary began to come out in 1888; but we cannot do without it now.
Take the word software for example, that computer term was invented by John
W. Tukey, a statistician at Princeton University. As long ago as 1958, he used the word in the American Mathematical Monthly. Today the “software” comprising the carefully planned interpretive routines, compilers, and other aspects of automotive programming are at least as important to the modern electronic calculator as its “hardware” of tubes, transistors, wires, tapes and the like. Tukey was already known for inventing another now- famous computer term. In 1946 he used the little word bit as the designation for a unit of information, a “binary digit” with value 0 or 1. That led a decade later to bytes (groups of bits, now always eight, a term invented by Werner Buchholz at IBM) and to today’s kilo-, mega; and tera-bytes of computer storage and information.
2.3 The Manufacture of New Products in Economy
Economic development is the mainstream of our era. The improvement of
language, to a certain extent, benefits a lot from the new phenomenon that occurs in the economic field. In this competitive world, any innovation or fresh things taking place in economy will soon find their voice in the language. If there’s anything a new product needs, it’s a brand name. To the extent that the product succeeds, the name will too. It’s a sure thing, the one way to guarantee that a new term will be a success: spend mighty amounts of money on marketing persuade people to buy and keep on buying a product, and they will call it by the name you give it.
When you want a product, a company would like you to think of its brand name.
The Coca-Cola Company wants people to think of a Coke when they want a soft
drink. But if the marketing is successful enough and the name Coke is embedded in people’s vocabulary, people will ask for a Coke and be satisfied if they get a Pepsi. In fact, in the southeastern United States, home of Coca-Cola, Coke is such a successful brand that many people there (and in the rest of the country) refer to any soft drink as a coke.
Some brand names even joined the pack of the general vocabulary. Here are
some of them:
Aspirin: a name for acetylsalicylic acid, trademarked by the Bayer Company of
Germany at the start of the twentieth century.
Elevator and escalator: both originally trademarks of the Otis Elevator Company.
Zipper: a name given to a “separable fastener” by the B.F. Goodrich Company
many years after it was invented. The new name helped the zipper attain
popularity in the 1930s.
Loafer: for a moccasin-like shoe.
Cellophane: for a transparent wrap made of cellulose.
Granola: a trademark registered in 1886 by W K. Kellogg, now used for a
“natural” kind of breakfast cereal.
Ping-pong: for table tennis, a trademark registered by Parker Brothers in 1901.
Xerox: for photocopier.
Kleenex: for facial tissue.
Band-Aid: for adhesive bandage.
Tupperware: for storage container.
Scotch tape: for transparent adhesive tape.
Jazzercise: for exercise to jazz music.
2.4. The Events in the Field of Politics.
The forming of English new words is sometimes considered as the result of the
political changes. Language reflects the society, as it has always been. Politics is an essential part of the development of the world; therefore, it can easily find its relative neologisms in the language field.
For instance, when Mr. Bill Clinton was elected as the president of the US., his
name has been associated with many political words. His policy is Clintonian, he is carrying out the Clintionism, his economics policy is Clintonomics, and his supporters were called Clintonites, he ultimately wanted to realize his Clintonization. Another widespread usage of affixes is “-gate”, which came from the historical Watergate event. People took use of Irangate to disclose the involvement of some American government office workers in U.S. selling arms to Iran. Camillagate was used to mean the love affair of British Prince Charles and his lover Camilla Parker.
Nannygate was pointed to the illegal hire of baby-sitter or the hire of illegal
immigrants. Another striking example, On September 11, 2001, the peace of a sunny late-summer morning was shattered by the impact of four hijacked airplanes on the World Trade Center towers, the Pentagon, and a field in Pennsylvania. There were more direct casualties in these disasters than on any previous day in American history, and soon the entire country felt the impact of damaged or destroyed lives, businesses,
and sense of security. Out of the ashes came patriotism, resolve, and unity. And out of the ashes came new words, too, to describe new situations never before imagined.
The events stir memories of Pearl Harbor and Oklahoma City, and we refer to other memorable occasions by their locations — Lexington and Concord, Gettysburg, Little Big Horn, and Wounded Knee — but in this case the name of place won’t work. It’s not just because several places were involved, but also because the places are too famous. New York City and Washington, DC, have too many other connotations, so do the World Trade Center and the Pentagon.
For lack of a suitable designation deriving from place, we have used the date as a reference point: September 11. That does have a well-known precedent. One other event in American history is referred to by its date: July 4 or the Fourth of July, the date in 1776 when the Declaration of Independence was proclaimed in Philadelphia.
In addition to the spelled-out month and day, the numerals 9/11 or 9-11 have
been used. Never before has such a historic event been so labeled, but because of the striking coincidence that 911 is the telephone number to call for help in an emergency, that numerical designation has been a success. Headline writers like the concision of this expression, just three numerals to take in all the events of that day. So far, the events of that day have resulted in just one new term: ground zero, for the place of impact, the center of destruction in New York City where the World Trade Towers once stood. That phrase has succeeded because it is not really new; it’s an old term for the location on the ground directly under a vast atomic explosion, corresponding to air zero, the location in the air above the ground where the bomb goes off. Ground zero had been gathering dust on the shelf in recent years because of a fortunate lack of atomic explosions. No one knows who first said ground zero in reference to the site where the World Trade Towers were attacked and collapsed, but the term immediately caught on because of its familiarity and emotional power.
Chapter 03:Success of English Neologisms
3.1. How are Neologisms Found?
The authority for a word – in fact, the authority for a language – rests with the users of the language. Thus, the process of adding new words to the dictio­nary begins with a systematic examination of almost everything printed and said in English. As far as ‘Among the New Words‘ is concerned, this important task – “citation with source information“ (qtd. in Algeo 1991a: 3) – is fulfilled by active members of the Words Committee, who contribute the words they regard as new in any material they read or listen to (Algeo 1991a: 3).
The cited word must contain the name of the publication, the day, and the page number. Concerning oral citations, the source information must consist of the day the sentence was heard and where and when one came across it (Algeo 1991a: 3). The following list shows that usually American dictionaries are consulted (with the exceptions of two British dictionaries: the OED and Webster’s Third) to check the newness of each contribution (Algeo 1991a: 2):
Random House Webster’s College Dictionary, 1991.
Oxford English Dictionary, 2d ed., 1989.
World Book Dictionary, 1989
Webster’s New World Dictionary, 3d College ed., 1988.
Random House Dictionary, 2d ed. Unabridged, 1987.
Webster’s Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary, 1983.
Webster’s Third New International Dictionary, 1961.
Only if the new word is assumed to be British, are additional British dictionaries referred to. To make sure that a neologism has not been lexicalized yet, the following dictionaries of neologisms are used:
Third Barnhart Dictionary of New English. 1990.
Chambers English Dictionary, 1988.
Collins Concise Dictionary, 2d ed., 1988.
Collins Dictionary, 2d ed., 1986.
Longman Dictionary, 1984.
Reader’s Digest Great Illustrated Dictionary, 1984.
If a word entered one of these dictionaries, then it is usually not recorded in ‘Among the New Words‘ (Algeo 91a: 2).
Since ‘Among the New Words‘ receives more citations than there is space to print, a selection has to be made. The criteria on what and when to enter a word is up to the lexicographer. As I said, lexicographers have different opinions (Algeo 1991b: 75) and therefore it is hard to give exact rules. However, two principles can be set up: the absolutely newness of a word and the reflection of the zeitgeist.
3.2. Reasons of Success of Neologisms
3.2.1 The frequency of occurrences
The most important factor is that a word appears in as many different sources as possible. The more sources (newspapers, magazines, books etc.) a word appears in, the more obvious is the frequency and range of the term (Sheidlower 33). Besides, the more a word is cited the more popular it is; and consequently the more likely it is to be included in a dictionary.
3.2.2 Range among sources
It is of interest to know the range of the new word because if a word is only common in a special field, it is not a candidate for a general dictionary but rather for a technical one. Therefore, a general dictionary excludes technical terms or terms well known in a certain field because they are not of general interest. However, there are exceptions: the term intellectual property[1]was

Globalization and the English language

Globalization is building bridges to connect people from all across the world and it plays an important role in understanding inter-cultural background of different countries. In today’s rapidly growing world, globalization has changed a lot of things though there are many benefits to this, there are also disadvantages. On one hand English is helping people around the world to unite but on the other hand it is in a way influencing them to think in western cultural point of view, where their original culture is derailed. There will be a time when language will die out and we may not have translators who would translate which means an entire language can be wiped out. Each language has its own emotions and perspective attached to it, so when a language dies the emotion and perspective dies too. The use of language is more commercial and commodity based so it loses its significance in its cultural aspect. I believe in the diversity of cultures because the knowledge we get from different cultures and language adds on to our understanding of the world. Studying languages varied is like understanding different rivers of civilization as it merges to one ocean, the world. At the alarming rate by which languages are dying I took it upon myself to raise this issue to an official forum of the world which is the “United Nations Educational Scientific Cultural Organization”. The form I choose to write would be an official letter stating the problems and solutions of varied languages of the world dying. I choose this form as this issue can be solved in a forum which unifies the world.
“Languages are dying at an unprecedented rate. A language dies every 14 days.” (Patricia Ryan)- Author of “The sun and the moon.”
I am a student from India and I am driving your attention to the subject of endangered languages and cultures and its effect on the world. I sincerely hope you understand the problem and reflect on it. I am addressing this issue to you because as a head of “UNO” cultural department, this may help pave way to finding solutions for preserving the languages of the world.
Without any dispute, English has become the most useful language in today’s world. It is a major advantage to business and travel. In this process English also holds the responsibility to the extinction of other languages and hence their cultures. Just how far can this go on ?
A language is not only a way of expression but it is connected to emotional aspect. Different cultures view the world differently and due to declination of language in today’s society a vast amount of ancestry knowledge is being lost. For example: Ayurveda which is written in Sanskrit is a branch of Indian science is derived from ancestral knowledge, Ayurveda was passed on through generations and the knowledge kept on contracting as the day’s progress. As the world is getting more and more modernized the translators are on the decline. A reason where we lose out in the essence of a culture and knowledge as the language dies. Indian written texts is rich with knowledge as there are ancient studies on Economics (Arthashastra), Sciences (Vedas), Physical and mental empowerment (Patanjali), which were all written in Sanskrit. Once a language is lost it cannot be traced back. The amount of knowledge Ayurveda possesses is incredible, the way they look at the world is astonishing. They understand the core of the nature; they can predict winds with moist of the soil. Ayurveda is an alternative to medicine; some of the techniques of Ayurveda are tested at many research facilities. This information on Ayurveda will be best known by native person who observed the knowledge from his childhood not the person who tests under different trials to obtain temporary results. The modern generation is bereft of the knowledge acquired by their ancestors .The language of learning could have been oral and scripts written in palm leaves. The records were destroyed and some handed out to the family.

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I intend to imply that what knowledge humans are seeking for or inventing has been already done or half done by our ancestors who recorded it in their own language and as a consequence of language extinction there will be death of this pre accumulated knowledge. We have to trace back and reinvent what they have done and decode the languages. This can be done best by a native speaker not a translator. The manuscripts written in Ayurveda cannot be fully understood by the translator of this generation because a lot of words were lost in between and there was less importance placed on preservation of languages.
It is culture which makes a community worth noticing. Language is the way of knowing, expressing their action . This is a prime reason why travelers go around the world looking for lost cultures. The knowledge is being passed on through generations. English has to exist as a global language which makes communication easier between different people from different backgrounds but “should it be too compulsory to an extent where it drives out the knowledge?” A person understanding is connected to their emotions and this is connected to their culture through language. Studies have shown that a person who uses his vernacular learns and understands concepts better than they do in foreign language. English should be taught a little later in life because it is helping people connect around the world but should it be taught to an extent where it acts as a barrier to knowledge?
Languages are dying in an accelerating rate some languages such as Irish Gaelic, Welsh, and Maori are already extinct and so their wisdom on life. An article on New York Times has estimated that Ninety-five percent of the world’s languages are spoken by only five percent of the population
In today’s world bi-lingualism would be a best idea. It would be a benefiting future if children all across the globe are taught about their cultural background and their own mother tongue before they learn further on western languages and their culture. The best option for this is encouraging native speakers and respecting their cultures. This not only enriches human way of thinking but also makes world more colorful and a fun place to live in. If world forgets other cultures and speaks only single language. National Geographic have come with a program which helps reviving lost languages.
Language preservation works best when the culture, language and identities of a certain community are respected by that country’s government. It’s obvious that one can’t speak a language if one is unaware of the right pronunciation. I think language should also be stored on internet with audio courses, so that in future people all around the world can access the megabytes data and enrich their own thinking style.
I conclude by saying depressingly, many linguists accept that of the 6,000 or more languages that are in use today, anywhere from 50% to 90% of them could be extinct by the year 2050.With the spread of globalization. But this is not the end; The “United Nations Educational Scientific Cultural Organization” still has an opportunity to preserve and save the dying colorful cultures all across the world which add to humanity’s evolution. This generation holds the key responsibility to decide what lives on and what dies. So I would sincerely request you to please take a stand and address this issue. Page number: 3
Thank you,
Gowtham Reddy.  

Learning Irregular Verbs In English

The present report contains the results of the investigation carried out at Higüerito Basic School. It is evident that the goal of grammar instruction is to enable students to carry out their communication, Purposes, thereby getting involved with all those difficulties students have had for years to learn and use irregular verbs is highly important for teachers of English as a foreign Language.
This Research has three Different Chapters:
Chapter I, Presents the historical context of the Educational Center, it shows the External or geographic aspects of Higüerito Basic School, There´s an analysis of the Socio Economic and cultural characteristics of the Educational Center, In addition the philosophy of Higüerito Basic School.
The second chapter of this investigation states the difficulties in Learning Irregular verbs which is the basis of this research, It is analyzed here different aspects and methods of teaching irregular verbs such as; Infinitives matching and grouping, presentation, infinitives, unfamiliarity with infinitives, infinitives matching, The present continuous tense as matter of priority, categorization of irregular verbs and some strategies to teach irregular verbs.
Chapter III, Is where the result of the investigation is presented. Firstly this chapter shows the results of the interview directed to the English teachers of Higüerito Basic School and the results of the survey applied to the students of this Educational Center.
Teachers are always trying to find new and easily comprehensible ways to teach different parts of grammar, especially for the challenge that teaching irregular verbs represents. It hasn’t been easy to deal with irregular verbs or make students understand how to use them.
We felt motivated to investigate about it, because as English students we have also had difficulties with the acquisition and usage of irregular verbs. It is highly important to have all kind of information about the process of teaching irregular verbs, because we are thoroughly sure that as future English professionals will need to use them in a current conversation or in the classroom. This research will not only be important for us, it will also be important for those readers who share the benefits of the results of this investigation.
The advantages of overcoming the difficulties that most teachers and students have with irregular verbs will contribute to improve the teaching and learning process that so far has been obstructed.
This investigation was documentary and it was carried out in the field too, considering these, and the best and ideal ways to obtain excellent results and to count with the correct tools to understand the target problem of this research.
In this investigation were used the descriptive and analytical methods, this report starts with a problem that is affecting most of the schools of our country in order to analyze a particular situation that is happening in Higüerito Basic in San Juan de la Maguana Dom. Rep.
All the possible elements that concern to this research were summarized and the results of the analysis were summarized.
For more credibility and trying to give a realistic out look to
Different sources were analyzed:
Research, Books, on line technology and surveys at Higüerito Basic School; teachers and students were interviewed
1.1- Historical context of the Educative center.
1.2 – External or Geographic Aspects
1.2.1- Socio Economic and Cultural Characteristics of the Center.
1.3 – Internal Characteristics of the School
1.3.1 – Description of the infrastructure.
1.3.2 – Philosophy of the Educative Center.
1.3.3- Strengths and weaknesses of Higüerito Basic School.
1.3.4- Problems of the Educative Center.
1.3.5- Statistics of Higüerito Basic School
General Characteristics of Higüerito Basic school
This chapter I presents important information concerning to the historical context of the Educational Center, the Geographical location of Higüerito Basic School, The Socio Economic and Cultural Characteristics of the Sector; This chapter also presents the internal characteristics of the school, it focuses the infrastructure; In addition it presents the philosophy of the Educational Center, the Strengths and weaknesses of Higüerito basic school whereas the problems of the Educational Center and the Statistics of Higüerito basic School.
I. I. Historical context of the Educational Center.
The first pavilion of the school was made of wood in 1953, by this time the principal was Mrs. Batida Ruiz, later they built three more classrooms, and three more teachers were hired.
In 1970 teacher Ana Isolina de la Cruz was in charge of the school, in 1970 there was a staff of 2o teachers. Under Mrs. De la Cruz administration a second pavilion was built in 1982.
Finally in 2001 Higüerito Basic School was managed by Lida. Francisca Mirella Rodriquez.
1.2 Geographical Location of the Higüerito Basic School
This Urban School Belongs to Region 02 District 02-06. It is located in the Northern part of the city at 151 Anacaona Avenue in San Juan de la Maguana Dominican Republic.
In the northern part of Higüerito Basic School there’s a neighborhood called, project 20 of the Ensanche Anacaona. South of the school there’s a belt way Better Known as Circumvallation San Juan Bautista. East of the school, it’s located the Fire Fighter building and to the west La Altagracia Neighborhood.
1.2.1- Socio Economic and Cultural Characteristics of the sector.
To talk about the Educational preparation of the, or background of the people, who live in this area it is necessary to present this topic focusing on the different sectors that are surrounding the educational center. The people, who live in the Eastern part of the school, are teachers, some of them are working and others are retired.
Those people who live north of the school have an average level of education, most of the students that attend this school belong to this area, and they come from humble homes lots of economic adversities.
San Juan de la Maguana is well known as “El Granero del Sur”, for its grain production, there by most of these people income depends on agriculture this activity is the economic support of the citizens, all around this educational center there are, some liquor stores.
Concerning to cultural aspects, it is well known that every educational center that provides any kind of service to the community has its own beliefs and culture, which is well identified in student’s behavior.
San Juan owns a rich culture with multiple traditions such as saint patron’s party, in honor of John the Baptist. These parties are celebrated from June 15th to June 24th each year. This belief is part of every child and it is part of the school and the community.
The school participates in all the activities promoted by different institutions of the community.
1.3- Description of the Infrastructure of the Higüerito Basic School.
The infrastructure of Higüerito basic school looks in good conditions, Nowadays the School is made of blocks. It has 17 classrooms, Higüerito School has an area of 466, 43 Mts. And each classroom measures 5.29mts. And 6.44 mts. There are only two bathrooms for the students which are not enough for the amount of pupils. The furniture’s are not in good conditions, they need to be fixed.
In the inside part of the school it could be observed certain amount of garbage in the yard and in the halls. There is a bad smell that comes out of the bathrooms this situation is affecting the students health.
1.3.1 Internal Characteristics of Higüerito Basic School
At present this School is been managed by a principal, for a better management it also has a procedures Staff, a cooperative team and a pedagogic team pretending to guarantee the application of the contents proposed by the curriculum.
1.3.2 Philosophy of the educative Center
The project of Center of Higüerito Basic School States the vision and mission of this school, it pretends to guarantee the preparation of all of the students increasing the reinvestment of values, attitudes and talents, making of those teenagers competent people. With the effort of dedicated teachers and following the guidance of the curriculum the image and the prestige of the school is going up.
Some important values that make part of this school priority are: dignity, love, solidarity, discipline, responsibility, respect, collaboration, empathy, partnership, faith, honesty, creativity, humbleness, hygiene and sincerity.
1.3.3 Strengths and weaknesses of Higüerito Basic School.
According to the information compiled from the project of center this school, it may be quoted the following strengths:
The teachers who come to this school are qualified teachers, willing to work with a high spirit of compromise, responsibility and desire to improve.
The school is located away from disturbing places in benefit of those who take classes in this Educative Center.
This Educative center contemplates as weaknesses: Lack of Library equipment, counseling Department, equipment and adequate school supplies.
1.3.4 Problems of the educative center
The problems that are quoted in the project of center of this school are : indiscipline in the classroom, the student have reading problems, The process of teaching technical areas has become one of the biggest problems of the school because those technical areas as English and French require experienced teachers and this school doesn’t have these teachers yet.
Difficulties in Learning Irregular Verbs
2.1 Difficulties Learning Irregular verbs.
2.1.1 Infinitives Matching and grouping.
2.1.2 Presentation, practice, production.
2.1.3 Unfamiliarity with infinitives
2.1.4 Infinitives matching.
2.1.5 The present continuous tense as matter of priority.
2.1.6 Categorization of irregular verbs.
2.1.7 Database making and strategies to teach irregular verbs.
THE Difficulties in Learning Irregular verbs
The chapter II of This research is based on the analysis of the difficulties in learning irregular verbs, here it is presented the infinitive matching and grouping activities and some methods such as presentation, practice and production, it is also treated here the unfamiliarity with infinitives, infinitive matching, the present continuous tense as a matter of priority as well as the categorization of irregular verbs and some strategies to teach irregular verbs.
2.1 Difficulties Learning Irregular Verbs.
For learner of English, irregular verbs represent one of the most difficult aspects of the language.
Normally because they are presented in the form of alphabetical lists. Never take into account the actual occurrence of these verbs.
Irregular verbs haunt learners of English from the beginning to the end of their studies.
Teachers are always trying to find new and easily comprehensible ways to teach different parts of grammar. The past tens and the perfective aspect on the verb are two rather difficult areas for ESL Learners all over the world. ESL Learners usually try several hypotheses before they can handle the past tense confidently. Especially, the irregular past poses problems for learners. If they could be organized in a morphonemic classification, to make it easier for the learners to create file/ folders that they can easily accommodate them in their learning process, and if the learning load can be reduced thereby, learners can grasp and remember them better and faster. In English, majority of the verbs go through 4 forms, with an exception of modal auxiliary verbs. These forms are: 2 tense forms and 2 aspects for
The verbs in English behave in four different ways in the past tense:
I. There is a regular past tense form:
2. There is an irregular past tense form wherein it takes any shape, which is not easily predicted.
3. There is a vowel change past tense form in which on vowel in the verb changes to form the past tense, while the rest of the verb shape remains the same.
4. There is a no change past tense form wherein the verb remains as it is. The irregular verbs have hardly any resemblance with the original form of the verbs and therefore their past form is unpredictable.
2.1.1 Infinitives matching and grouping
The students are encouraged to match and group infinitives in a logical way. Hence, when they star dealing with the past simple tense, they have become familiar with the infinitives, so the primary barrier is eliminated. The list of irregular verbs with all three forms is then cat into pieces and the students are asked to categorize the irregular verbs on the basis of resemblance. This proceeds from a classification of irregular verbs as stated in a comprehensive grammar of the English language.

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The students are encouraged to create their own positive negative compound sentences, which they can as the fourth step- develop in stories. The fifth step is fixing phase, during which the students organize and reorganize the irregular verbs depending on how familiar the students are with them – having learnt the infinitive, past and past- participle forms by heart, however, the students are found unable to recognize any of the forms if written in English, there is a method elaborated by: “Jeremy Harmer”, consists of the following elements: Engage, Study, Activate.
In the engage phase, the teacher s effort is to awake the students interest, arouse their curiosity, and engage their emotions, employing numerous means, such as games, pictures, audio or video recordings, or dramatic stories.
Most of us can remember lessons at school which were uninvolving and where we, switched off from what was being taught. We may also remember lessons where we were more or less paying attention, but where we were not really hooked. We were not engaged emotionally with what was going on; we were not curious, passionate or involved. Yet things are learnt much better if both our minds and our hearts are brought into service. Engagement of this type is one of the vital ingredients for successful learning.¨ Harmer, (200:52).
Hence, instead of being passively taught the infinitives of irregular verbs, students are encourage to play with them, in the activate phase, those exercises and activities are comprised, which gave been designed to make students use the language communicatively. The students are discouraged to focus on the language construction or practice of its particular patterns. On the contrary, the activities are to help the students to use their full language knowledge in the selected situation or task. The objective in the activate phase is, to use all and any language which may be appropriate for a given situation or topic. In this way students get a chance to try out real language use with little or no restriction, a kind of rehearsal for the real life.
Story – making is an activity typically employed within the activate phase. The students are assigned to create a story, being allowed to use limited or unlimited group of vocabulary.
2.1.2 Presentation, practice, production.
This is a widely spread approach, in terms of which the teacher present the language and then encourages the student to practice it at first by means of highly controlled activities the p.p.p model is employed efficiently when most isolated grammatical items are being dealt with. From the teacher’s point of view, it is highly favorable since it allows the teacher to time each stage of the lesson fairly accurately and anticipate and solve the possible problems the students may encounter.
2.1.3 Unfamiliarity with Infinitives
According to the structure of a elementary English course, students are expected to acquire the principles of the past simple tense and past forms of numerous irregular verbs, one difficulty the have is that the encounter approximately one hundred verbs fewer than half of which are irregular for example. Buy, come, cost, do, draw, drink, drive, eat, fall, find, fly, get, give, go, have, hear, know, leave, make, mean, meet, put, read, ring, run, say, see, sing, sit, sleep, speak, spend, stand, swim, take, tell, think, understand, wear, write. Then the biggest problem the students have is that they are not given enough opportunities to get familiar with them. When they have managed to learn the infinitives of hardly twenty irregular verbs, the students are confronted with both a new grammatical phenomenon the principles of making the past simp0le tense, and a flood of irregular verbs. They become showered with the infinitives and past forms of so many new irregular verbs that they start drawing, losing their motivation
2.1.4 Infinitives Matching.
It’s a teaching aid that consists in encouraging students to match and group infinitives in a way which they find logical. This method is of double benefit to the students. First it makes the infinitives easy to remember, and secondly, it forces the student to enrich their vocabulary by looking up synonyms to the given verbs.
Vocabulary cannot be taught. It can be presented, explained, included in all kind of activities, and experienced in all manner of associations, but ultimately it is learned by the individual.
Language teachers must arouse interest in words and a certain excitement in personal development in this area. Teachers must help the students by giving them ideas on how to learn, but each will finally learn a very personal selection of items, organized into relationships’ in a individual way” (1983). Wilga Rivers.
2.1.5 The present continuous tense as a matter of priority
Dealing with the present continuous tense before starting to do the past simple one is another way how to imprint on students memory as many infinitives of irregular verbs as possible, before confronting the principles of making and using of the present continuous tense is considerably easier than the past simple.
Describing various pictures, a method typically applied when teaching present continuous, encourages students to look up a considerable number of verbs in a dictionary. This method. By choosing appropriate pictures, the teacher can give the students the right direction towards irregular verbs without the students realizing that they are being controlled.
“Successful language learning in a classroom depends on a judicious blend of subconscious language acquisition and a kind of study activities.” Harmer.
The inquired system is according to krashen, “A product of a subconscious process very similar to the process children under goes when they acquire their first language”
The learned system, on the contrary, is defined by krashen as a product of formal instruction, comprising a conscious process with results in conscious knowledge about the language. In other words learning is less important than acquisition with the method of describing pictures being applied, students are able to learn the infinitives of all the eighty or ninety most commonly used irregular verbs on cards, which they are encourage to employ when describing routines or making bubble diagrams. In this way, the students are able to get familiar with a substantial number of verbs in an easy, natural manner.
Other problem when teaching irregular verbs is that having instilled the infinitive forms of the most commonly used irregular verbs into the students, teacher are sometimes confronted with another problem. They have to decide whether to involve past participles and teach all three forms at once, or to postpone teaching of the past participles until the present perfecto tense is being done.
2.1.6 Categorization of irregular verbs.
The students are expected to memorize all three forms of the following eighty- six irregular verbs. Be, beat, begin, break, bring, build, burn, buy, catch, choose, come, cost, cut, deal, do, draw, drink, drive, eat, fall, feel, find, fly, forget, forgive, get, give, go, have, hear, hit, hold, hurt, keep, know, leave, lend, lie, lose, make, mean, pay, put, read, ride, ring, run, say, see, sell, send, sing, sleep, speak, spell, spend, stand, swim, teach, tell, think, throw, understand, wake, wear, win, wrote etc…
Irregular ones in that either the past inflection or the ed participle inflection, or both of these, are irregular. The irregular verbs either do not have the regular -ed inflection
According to a comprehensive grammar of the English language irregular verbs differ from else. Irregular verbs typically, but not invariably, have variation in their base vowel; irregular verbs have a varying number of distinct forms…
The base form past and the ed participle. These are traditionally known as the principal parts of the verb- most irregular verbs have, like regular ones, only one common form for the past.
The 250 or so irregular verbs can be, classified on the basis of criteria derived from similarities and differences. In other to make the irregular verbs easier to memorize, the students Endeavour to discover as many similarities and differences as possible.
There is a method that consists in students creating positive – negative – questions triplets of sentences.
This method is called reversing the students choose a card with the infinitive are asked to provide a triplet in the past simple tens. For example: see I saw Jane yesterday but I didn’t see Bob – Did you see Antonio?
This method of reversing is possible to extend and apply later on when dealing with the present perfect tense. Not only do the students practice recalling the past form and past participle of the particular verb, they also learn to recognize the difference between the past simple tense and the present perfect one in terms of usage. Come: Pedro came to our house last Saturday but Jessica didn’t come. Did Robert come? Pedro has come but Jessica hasn’t come yet. Has Robert come?
When learning irregular verbs other strategy very effective for learning them is creating story, employing the cards with the past forms of the irregular verbs on them. At the beginning, the students are preferably supposed to use verbs within a group or subgroup, in order to fix the patterns in their minds. Gradually, however, they are encouraged to introduce verbs from the other groups or subgroups.
2.1.7 Database Making and strategies to teach irregular verbs
In order to conclude the process of intensive irregular verbs learning, the students are asked to create a database of the cards witch they made and used during the process itself. Such a card index is to be at the students’ disposal ever after while revising or when they are confronted with a new tense or grammar.
There lots of useful programs teachers could use as a support for teaching irregular verbs. These programs focus on high – frequency irregular verbs and train them in their base, present. Present progressive, past, and past perfect forms, some of the resource that these programs use are: Flash, multiple choice with sentences not read, spelling activity. In all activities, there are teacher choices to set interface, level of difficulty, speech and /or text options, response time, and background reinforcement animation.
Games (to memorize form), there are several games that can easily be adapted to practice past tense verbs.
Bingo: Students are asked to make a 3×3 grid on a piece of paper, look at their list of irregular verbs and to complete their grid with infinitive verbs. When they have finished, start reading student hears the past form of a verb they have on their grid, they cross it out. The first to cross out all the verbs on the grid calls “Bingo” – and wins. Follow this up by asking students to work in pairs and to prepare a story using the verbs on their grid, in the past tense.
Tennis or volleyball, this activity involves students calling out verbs to each other, as if they were passing a ball over and invisible net.
Ex. Student I. Says the infinitive of the verb (Run)
Student 2. Says the past form. (Ran)
Student 3. Says the past participle (Run)
If a student gets a word wrong (or pauses for more than 10 seconds), they lose. Students can do this in pairs, although with smaller classes you may set up two facing chairs in front of the class and have students come up and play each other in front of the others. The students who win stays (as the reigning champion) and another student come up to challenge.
Permanism (or Memory), prepare a set of cars with the infinitive on them (set A), and a set of cards with the past tense on them (Set B). Put both sets face down on a table. Invite a student to pick up two cards. He / She must read the verbs aloud on the cards and decide if they match. If they match, he/she keeps them- If they don’t match him /she shows them to the others and puts them back down. Another student comes up and tries to get a matching, pair in the same way.
It could be done with large or small classes. With a large class put the students into groups of four and ask each group to prepare their own cards. Working with pronunciations: give students a list of irregular past tense verbs and ask them to group them according to the main vowel sound in each. If this seems too hard, you could give them verbs and find others that sound the same. For example, find the matching pairs of verbs in this list: wrote could taught read eat drank gave had waked went took bought. You could group the irregular verbs according to similar sounds and put them and a poster on the wall.
Meaningful practice, Listen and recap: In this activity you give the students a list of irregular verbs in the students a list of irregular verbs in their infinitive form (on a worksheet, or written on the board). You then tell a personal story, incorporating the past tense of the verbs. It’s best to prepared this ahead of time, bearing in mind what your students understands. As the students listen, they must number the verbs they hear in order. When you finish, tell the students to compare their order in pairs. They should then write the past form of all the verbs they heard. Check the answers with the whole class. Then ask the students to try and are tell the story together using the past tense verbs as cues. Finally ask students to tell a similar story based on their own experience.
Monday morning conversation, one way of getting a lot of past simple verbs out of the students is to simply start an informal chat with them at the beginning of the class, The simple what did you do last weekend? On Monday morning should throw up some past simple verbs. You can also go around ask the students some questions and allow them to answer.
Teaching English irregular verbs is indeed challenging.
However the goal of grammar instruction is to enable students to carry out their communication purposes irregular verbs are verbs themselves. The fourth grade is when those verbs start getting hammered into kids’ brains so that they might not mess them up quite so much when they’ re older. Irregular verbs are verbs that don’t follow normal conjugation rules as thy traverse temporal space. They are the source of a great deal of frustration if you let them, unfortunately the only way to learn irregular verbs is to memorize their freaky conjugation as you encounter them.
The irregular verbs might be the hardest part of fourth grade grammar.
Chapter III
Presentation and Analysis of the data’s of the investigation
In this chapter are presented the results of the investigation carried out in the Educative Center Higüerrito basic School. The results of the interview to the principal of the School and the surveys applied to teachers and students of this Educative Center.
3.1. Interview Applied to the Principal of the Educative Center Higüerito basic School.
In this section are analyzed the answers obtained from the interview to the director of the school.
The principal of Higüerito basic School was asked if she supervises the English teachers while they are on duty and her answer was affirmative, but she specified, that is the teacher in charge of the grade who teaches English because they don’t have a teacher for the area so far. She was also questioned if she has received any kind of complaints from the students for the lustration they receive, and she answer,54 “not yet” she was asked if the school trains the teachers in order to have better results during and after the process of teaching and learning She replied, “no.” She was also questioned about the resources that the teachers of English need as a complement to their teaching process and she said that is a teacher´s responsibility because public Schools do not provide these resources, when she was asked how she evaluates the English teachers´ work, her reply was, that she evaluates it very good, because they are not English teachers actually, and believe it or not they have been teaching well taking in to considerations the limitations.
Here´s the key of the problems, as this Educative Center is Subsidized by the State and the fact that there aren’t languages teachers: The teachers in charge of the grade are obliged to mange to teach. In the project of center the principal States as an advantage the preparation of the teachers who work for this school but they don’t have qualified English teachers, and this is a serious problem because either the teachers or the students might feel frustrated, the teachers feeling unable to do their job and the students getting drowned in their attempt for learning the language.
3.2 Survey elaborated for the English teachers of Higüerito basic School.
In this section are analyzed the answers obtained from the survey applied to teachers of English of Higüerito basic School.
I. Years of experience of Higüerito basic school English teachers.
In this square it could be observed that 3 teachers have from 1-5 years of experience teaching and 2 teachers have from 5- 10 years of experience.
These years of experience are a good indicator to guarantee the quality of teaching of the Educative Center Higüerito.
2. Techniques used by teachers of the Educative Center Higüerito to teach irregular verbs.
Participation in class
Oral Practice
Home works
Written Exams
All the previous Alternatives
None of the Alternatives
According to what it seen in this chart, 20. % of the English teachers use as a teaching technique, the oral practice and 80 % use written ex

Themes of Racism And Discrimination in English Literature

In recent months, we were reading different books; many of them gave us a new knowledge and a new perspective about the different themes that they talk. This time I decided to read and present the incredible book, “Invisible Man”, by Ralph Ellison, where the topics more relevant in my personal point of view are Racism and Discrimination, for that reason I want to compare and contrast how these themes are used in another books named “House of Sand and Fog” by Andre Dubus III and “The Kite Runner” by Khaled Hossein. I want to show the importance that these themes have in each book, of course they are presented in different ways.

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I consider that Racism and Discrimination are among the most important themes presented by the books mentioned above; however, although the context in which the stories are develop is different from ours, it is essential to mention the importance and the controversy that these themes still having in the different social environments nowadays. I also think it is important to discuss these themes because through this essay, I will try to show people that Racism and Discrimination do not have a good justification, because in spite of that that, they are used to control people in order to have the complete power in many different aspects.
Based on my previous experiences in the subject, I can say that Racism and Discrimination are closely linked and they are defined as an ideology and action of rejection and intolerance towards people whose characteristics are not the same that people who discriminate, which means that if someone has a creed, color skin or different nationality, they become subject of ridicule, rejection and hostility. As a consequence of this ideology the mass have the control to the state, region or country.
As we can see, Racism and Discrimination are based on a psychological problem, but the damage they can cause is often irreversible, as we can see in the case of Mr. Behrani in the book “House of Sand and Fog.” Mr. Amir is looking for a new opportunity and a new lifestyle in a country where he is looked as an immigrant invading the country with his family. That is why during the course of the book situations will become more and more difficult for him, because people who are around, I mean Lester and Kathy, do everything possible to take advantage of the conditions and take advantage of Amir´s ignorance and innocence.
The case that the book presents only is a case lived in the United States of America, where day by day, through the news we see a series of injustices committed to immigrants in that country where fear plays an important role. Most of people who live in a foreign country think that they do not have rights so when they find people like Lester they feel threatened, because they are afraid to lost everything they have and they are afraid to be deported and return to the place they wanted to leave behind.
In this book, as we see, the actions that show the racist treatment towards Amir will rise as the novel is developing. The book ends with a tragic death of the Amir´s son which is one of the most serious consequences of Discrimination. Racism in this book is presented in a subtle way, because we can only say that the protagonists are the family of Amir. However, if we took the story to a real context, the family of Amir is the representation of all the families of immigrants in the United States, not just Ireland but from all over the world. The case that this book shows is very common, because even in Mexico it is and will remain difficult to win cases in legal matters when people are arguing with people who belong to the country, not for the fact that foreign rights are not taken, but closed mindedness that many people have and the little justice that occurs when people make decisions.
On the other hand, in the book “Invisible man”, we can see more clearly how Racism and Discrimination are given in an open, pathetic, cruel and above all sad racial discrimination. However, unlike the book “House of Sand and Fog”, where discrimination is to foreign people, in this book it is worse. Racism is between people of the same country, but this time it is between whites and blacks.
I think it is important to talk about the context because as we have studied throughout the major in the south part of the United States has always lived a large number of black people, on the other hand in north white people abounded . The separation of these two races was obvious, but not only for the location of each of them, but by the great social differences that they had, black have been seen as the working class and white people as the entrepreneurs.
In the book “Invisible man”, a person recounts the experiences he had when he decided to stop being just a black guy like the others. The “narrator”, which is how the book presents him, realized that life for black people is very difficult, not only because it was surrounded by a white supremacist, but because the majority of black people who had an important place always are trying to keep these posts but cheating on their own comrades. In the book, the protagonist faced with a myriad of humiliation by white people to get a job more or less respectable, but later he realized that he not only had to take care of white people, but more than that he should care of the interests that each people were looking, because sometimes it is not matter the color of their skin, because every person has a different mentality than a cause often not join. For that reason at the end of this magnificent book, “the narrator” gives readers a great lesson: he realizes that if he wants to make a real change he must start from himself before he pretend to convince other people.
With these books the readers can get an idea of the magnitude of these problems, Racism and Discrimination in the United States because through the chapters we can see literally how white people saw and tried black people as an objects, sources of distraction and income at low prices; but especially like a group of people capable of follow their orders in any circumstance in order to get a place in this racist society. As we can see, racism goes beyond mere speculation and denigration of other people. In fact, racism is the denigration of the human race in general, and there is no a logical reason to support the conduct of the people to judge other people. However it is difficult to say which of the two cases mentioned above is worse, the judge people by the color of their skin and their origin or to discriminate against people with whom we share more things, like, country, skin color, beliefs and above all ideals.
In the book “The kite runner” the author shows how difficult is to live in a society where Discrimination is present. Pashtun and Hazaras are two tribes who live and share the same traditions and land, however the different status do not allow them to live in harmony, because Pashtun think that they are better than Hazaras, they do not realize that all of them are very important for their society and also their need each others.
The reasons for Racism and Discrimination between people are many, like we can see in the books, power, ambition, skin color and the absurd ideology of superiority that many people have, but all these cases are caused by the lack of information of people and also an education separated from reality, where everyone sees a constant enemy in people who are not physically equal to them., but the government plays an important role in these delicate themes, for example in education programs always talk about discrimination and how it happened but how many times have we seen people from different places talking about the same theme or sharing their different cultures???The answer is very easy, never.
The books are the result of the reflection of a society tired of the same, tired of seen situations that happened and also the helplessness of not being able to do anything to solve them. The way in which Ralph Ellison, Andrei Dubois III and Khaled Hossein handled the stories, shows that anyone can be the protagonist of any of these novels, because none of us is immune to being racially discriminated. The important thing is that people, who read these books, read them not only because someone said that they have to do it, people have to read them because those books give us knowledge that we can use in real life. Racism and Discrimination are very sensitive themes in any area in which they are presented, and as we see in the book “Invisible man”, the fact that the narrator say speeches and talk about equal rights does not really exist, is something we have to keep fighting but it is something that people have to educate, because equality is not a privilege, it is a right.
In the books, “Invisible Man” and “House of sand and fog”, the authors use the same stage to talk about Discrimination and Racism; we refer to the United States. However, in my point of view I believe that racism and discrimination are everywhere; it is clear that the United States is a country where those topics are much mentioned, as we see it now with Arizona law which has as a main goal, deporting and deprive rights to all persons who are not United States citizens. The problem is not that people do not want foreigners in their country, but the way in which discrimination may judge a person by the manner of how they look. That fact is clearly a racial discrimination even when we are supposedly in a new century, full of changes.
It is important to note that now the United States president is black, because for years African-Americans have been fighting for their rights, which do not reach them until 1871 but it is until now that a president with these characteristics comes to power. This would seem a significant progress for this country so criticized, however it is the same period where the law Arizona is approve. I think this approbation comes as a reaction of white people as an act of rebellion against his president just because his skin is black.
Talking about Racism and Discrimination it is talking about topics that have no place of origin, it means that as well as criticizing the United States in both books, the same way we can criticize people any part of the world, like Afghanistan where the story of Amir take place or our own country, Mexico. The treatment that Mexican people give to people from the villages who wear traditional clothes is not too much different than the cases that the books present. In Oaxaca for example, people from the city ridicule and humiliate people from towns or poor people.
In Oaxaca, discrimination is present every day, we just need to take a look around us and we could see what it is happening to poor people or people who come from far away or from a poorly communicated town. They are generally treated differently than people who dress in a common way. Sadly we can see that Oaxaca is one of the states where there is greater discrimination for economic status reasons. However, when equal than in the United States, maybe because the history of each place, because the past plays an important role, for example in Mexico people are more discriminated when they came from Oaxaca, because I suppose that people from other states think that we do not have the tools in education to defend what we think and we are and in the United States people are discriminate because the actions that their country have done.
To conclude the themes of Racism and Discrimination is important to mention that the books “Invisible man”, “House of sand and fog” and “The Kite Runner” are books that only show one side of the balance, but the truth is that Discrimination and Racism are mutual between the people involved and it is why everyone should be aware of this. It is very important if we want to stop talking about these themes that all people begin to create individual action to achieve a society that can live in harmony, without prejudices and falsehoods. “Invisible man”, “House of sand and fog” and “The Kite Runner” are titles that show the delicacy of the themes, but they also give us the lesson that could help us to stop doing and repeat actions over and over again and continue with the same stories.

Teaching English As A Foreign Language

The aim of this study is to assess the performance of the teachers of English for the first year of the secondary schools in Missalata in: the new textbook. It also investigates other factors that influence teachers’ presentation, such as: the time allocated to the teaching of English and the lack of important materials such as tape recorders, dictionaries and other teaching aids.

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The main tool through which the researcher collected data is checklists adopted from a well known figure in teaching English as a foreign language named Jack Richards. The study consists of five chapters. Chapter one looks at defining some of the concepts involved in the TEFL teaching process as well as emphasizing the role of the teacher. Chapter two examines the background to TEFL teaching in Libya. It also includes a literature review. Chapter three outlines the background to the study and introduces the learning environment of it. It also discusses the methodology of the study and looks at the applied checklist as well as the parameters used as part of the research. Chapter four analyses the collected data. The last chapter comprises the conclusion and recommendations which are thought to be helpful to improve the English language teaching in Libyan schools.
Chapter one
1.1- Introduction
Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) is a complicated process because it comprises a number of elements where the absence or the weakness of any one would affect the whole process. Al-Akhdar (2001: 1) says in this context
” The success of a course of English as a FL depends on several factors…”
He discusses the issue of methodology in detail as one of the factors influencing the successful outcomes of the teaching operation. Another factor is to be discussed here: it is the teacher. This study examines the important role of the teacher in relation to the methodology employed.
The reasons behind the important role played by the teacher in the teaching process is illustrated by the following points:
1. The teacher can compensate for any shortage of material or poor material, either by using other sources, or by tailoring the material to suit his particular class.
2. The teacher can balance the variations of the students’ levels. It is natural for the teacher to notice this heterogeneity in any class. It is the teacher who knows how to deal with such a situation.
3. He is also the one who deals with oversize classes (i.e. classes with more than 16 students) when it is quite difficult to carry out certain tasks and activities. Harmer (2002: 128) maintains that:
“In big classes, it is difficult for the teacher to make contact with the students at the back and it is difficult for the students to ask for and receive individual attention. “
He goes on to give reasons for the difficulty in teaching big classes by saying:
“… big classes mean that it is not easy to have students walking around and changing pairs etc. Most importantly, big classes can be quite intimidating for inexperienced teachers.”
Ur (1997: 303) also lists some problems in teaching large classes such
• Discipline
• Correcting written assignments.
• Effective learning for all.
• Materials.
• Individual awareness.
• Participation.
4. It is the teachers’ responsibility as well to overcome the problem of the shortage of classroom timetabling. Some syllabus timing is longer than that allocated by the Education Authority.
All of the above points encompass the teacher’s responsibilities and distinguish him as a crucial factor in the educational process. Dubin and Olshtain (1986:31) however, put it well when they said:
“The teacher population is the most significant factor determining success of a new thinking and what it involves in practical terms are crucial”.
Alien and Valette (1977: 3) also stress the important role of the teacher. They say that:
“The teacher is the key figure in the language course. It is the teacher who sets the tone for the learning activities.”
They add that:
” The teacher plays a prime role in effecting student progress or lack thereof.”
The teacher’s role, therefore, in creating a successful learning environment for EFL secondary school students studying in Libya is of paramount importance to the successful completion of their course. This dissertation examines the teacher’s role and undertakes an analysis of the complications involved and the possible solutions to these difficulties. This analysis takes the form of an evaluation of teachers’ lessons at secondary schools in Missalata, Libya.
1.2-Elements Involved in English Language Teaching:
Before this analysis is undertaken, however, the process behind EFL teaching in general needs to be examined in some detail. This will place the teacher’s role in context and illustrate the overall complexity inherent In the EFL process
This process according to Al-Mutawa and Kailani (1998: 6) consists of ‘central determinants’ which include the pupil, the EFL teacher, the method of teaching, the teaching materials and the classroom environment. These EFL learning and teaching elements are briefly discussed from a Libyan perspective in the following section:
1. 2.1-The Pupil:
There are two types of English language learners in the Libyan environment; a full time student in an academic institution (school, college or university) and those who are enrolled on private courses which are run by private language centres. The objective behind learning English at these types of language centres is either to fulfil the need of the learner himself or that of his employer for work requirements, or to develop further the learner’s capability in a specific field such as, English for medicine, English for engineering, etc. The difference between the two can be summarised as follows:
A. The syllabus for the learner at the academic institutions is a standard one which is taught all over the country, while the syllabus for the private institutions varies from one organisation to another.
B. The learners’ age at the academic institutions are fairly similar Whereas it can vary at the private centres.
C. Private language centres care a lot about the number of learners in
one class, but public classes are always oversized which in turn can affect their learning process.
1.2.2- The EFL Teacher:
Each job has its own specification or what is called a job description. Accordingly it is necessary, when recruiting a teacher to fill a position in any school to match him against the requirements for the job. But what are the criteria that we can apply in this process?
It is quite difficult to base the answer on a checklist of a number of criteria such as a university degree. However, Richards (2001: 209-210) points out that two main factors should be considered carefully in employing EFL teachers: The Teacher’s Knowledge.
In this respect he outlines the following:
• practical knowledge: the teacher’s repertoire of classroom techniques and strategies
• content of language knowledge: the teacher’s understanding of the subject of TESOL, e.g., pedagogical grammar, pronunciation, teaching theories, second language acquisition, as well as the specialized discourse and terminology of language teaching contextual knowledge: familiarity with the school or institutional context, school norms, and knowledge of the learners, including cultural and other relevant information
• pedagogical knowledge: ability to restructure content knowledge for leaching purposes, and to plan, adapt and improvise
• personal knowledge: the teacher’s personal beliefs and principles and his or her individual approach to teaching
• reflective knowledge: the teacher’s capacity to reflect on and assess his or her own practice. “ Teaching Skills:
Teaching skills refer to knowledge or the ability to perform certain skills. A similar taxonomy is provided by McDonough and Shaw ( 1993: 297) who lists the following:
“Knowledge of the language system
Good pronunciation
Experience of living in an English-speaking country
Qualifications (perhaps further training taken, or in-service
Classroom performance
Evidence of being a good colleague
Length of time as a teacher
Ability to write teaching materials
Careful planning of lesson
Same LI as students, or a sound knowledge of it
Experience of a variety of teaching situations
Personal qualities (outgoing, interested in learners and so on)
Knowledge of learning theories
Wide vocabulary
Ability to manage a team of teachers. “
In addition to the above points education authorities at all levels (planners, inspectors and headmasters) are asked to follow up and assist
English language teachers in order to improve further their ability and make cope with any development that might arise. Richards (2001: 218). Lists a number of conditions to achieve and maintain good teaching standards:
• Monitoring: in this respect he states that to upgrade the level of teaching, monitoring can play a major role through:
“group meetings, written reports, classroom visits, and student evaluations.”
• Observation: This can also play a part in upgrading teaching and he
proposed different ways to implement this task. He suggests: “self-observation, peer observation or supervisor observation.”
• Identification and Resolution of Problems: problems that may face the teacher should be identified well in advance and should be tackled immediately in order to be avoided in future.
• Shared Planning: This task can be done through the collective work among teachers on planning a course of study.
EFL teachers in Libyan secondary schools are prepared to teach a certain syllabus not teaching English. Moreover, they are not taught how to teach the new textbooks.
1.2.3-The Method of Teaching:
Before discussing the different methods it is worth distinguishing between the two terms method and approach. Richards et. Al. (1985: 228) give very simple definition. They say method is:
” (in language teaching) a way of teaching a language which is based on systematic principles and procedures, i.e., which is an application of views on how a language is best taught and learned. “
They go on to say that these views include:
a. The nature of language
b. The nature of language learning
c. goals and objectives in teaching
d. the of syllabus to use
e. the role of teachers
f. the techniques and procedures to use
As with regard to the definition of approach, Al-Mutawa and Kailani (1988: 12) say in this respect:
” The term ‘approach ‘refers to principles or assumptions underlying the process of language teaching and learning. “
They give the following clear example to illustrate their definition:
“one of the assumptions underlying descriptive linguistics is that language is a set of habits, i.e. habit formation which is acquired by the process of stimulus, response and reinforcement. “
Below is a discussion of the major teaching methods. Grammar Translation Method:
The history of Grammar Translation method dates back to the decades of teaching Latin in the nineteenth century. The objective behind
The application of this method includes as Rivers says ( 1983: 29)
“an understanding of the grammar of the language and training the student to write the new language accurately by regular practice in translating from the native language. It aims at providing the student with a wide literary vocabulary …… It aims training the student to extract the meaning from texts in the new language by into the native language. “
Students are taught, according to this method, deductively by having sufficient explanations of the rules as well as long lists of vocabulary and asked to memorise them by heart in order to translate texts. The teacher’s role however, is exemplified in the use of the learner’s first language to explain the rules and the vocabulary of the targeted text and then assists the learner to translate it. (Baker and Westrup: 2000). Less emphases is made on accurate pronunciation thus listening and speaking are ignored in this method.
The Grammar Translation method is known to be very useful as Baker and Westrup( 2000: 4)) point out:
“in teaching academic work and for passing written exams “. The Direct Method:
The Direct Method was brought to existence by the end of the nineteenth centaury in rejection for the ignorance made by the Grammar Translation method to listening and speaking skills. Voices started to be heard at that time for reform and that is why the direct method was known as the Reform method. The method is also known as the Natural or the Psychological Method for the fact that it makes an analogy between the child who learns his mother tongue and the way the learner learns L2. In contrary to the Grammar Translation Method, the Direct Method stresses the need to use the target language right from the regaining and to avoid the use of the mother tongue. In this respect Rivers (1983: 32) says:
“This renewed emphasis on the target language as the medium of instruction in the classroom meant that correct pronunciation became an important consideration. “
The classroom teaching concentrates on practising the target language through the use of listening and speaking while reading and writing are considered less important. Students are encouraged to memorise phrases and dialogues. Baker and Westrup( 2000: 4) list the following limitation in learning L2 through the use of the Direct Method:
• “Students may not always understand what they are repeating;
• Students cannot make their own responses in new and different situations;
• Teachers may not be confident enough to use English throughout the lesson;
• They are not so useful for advanced learners. “ The Audio-lingual Method:
One of the main reasons for the emergence of The Audio-lingual Method came as a result of the need of the American forces to use and understand the language of the invaded countries in the 40s and 50s. Kara
(1992: 82) says in respect of the application of the Audio-lingual the
“…then being used by the American Army to train their men to understand a native speaker and speak a Language with a near-native accent.”
She goes on to describe the mechanical application of the method by saying:
“Classes were small and staffed by linguistic by linguistic experts who taught using graded materials based on structural analysis and demanded long hours of drill and active practice with native speakers as models for imitation. “
This method has based its grounds on the Behaviourist Psychology where the following assumptions are embedded:
a) Language learning is primarily mechanical habit formation.
b) Language is a form of verbal behaviour.
c) Priority goes for mastering spoken first in order for the other skills to be effectively gained.
d) Analogy is a better foundation for language learning than analysis, therefore pattern practice in context precedes the presentation of rules.
e) Teaching language involves teaching the cultural norms of native speakers of the target language.
The major criticism addressed to the Audio-lingual method is represented in Rivers (1981: 47) words as follows:
“If Audio-lingual training is given in a mechanical way, students may progess like well trained parrots-able to repeat whole perfectly when given a certain stimulus, but uncertain ,;t meaning of what they are saying and unable to use ::^.zed materials in contexts other than those in which they earned them. Student must be trained from the first lesson to apply what they have memorized or practiced in drills in communication situations contrived within classroom group. “ Communicative Approach:
The Communicative approach first emerged in the UK in the mid to “.ate 1970s. It was brought up as a result of the dissatisfaction with the structural and behaviourist methods of language teaching. This is the methodology which is currently widely used in text books not only in the West but even in our schools and training centres in Libya. Besides the preparatory and secondary schools text books, most of the oil sector and banks training centres are applying this approach in their teaching of English. The focus, in this approach, is on using language for communication while accuracy is seen as secondary. The function of language, or the way it is used, is considered more important than the form.
As with regard to classroom teaching, the communicative approach gives a large proportion of class time to student-centred activities. Students are given the chance to use the language in realistic situations where they must use the language for real communication. The use of authentic materials and realia is encouraged wherever possible. The role of the teacher however, is seen as a group manager and activity leader or facilitator. In this case, he is advised to allow considerable time for the learners to work at their pace and ensures that the learners should proceed from
guided to freer practice of language items. The teacher has also to encourage group and pair work. The Eclectic Approach:
Some teachers however, prefer to adopt an eclectic approach. The teacher in this case adopts some of the above mentioned methods during one single lesson. The teacher in this situation carries out a certain task in the class using grammar translation methodology and the other task performed through the audio-lingual method. In this regard Al-Mutawa and Kailani (1988: 27) say:
“Teachers often incorporate features of different approaches in their particular methodology”.
Most of the English language teachers nowadays think that teaching grammar is the objective of teaching the language. Functions and notions for them are considered as secondary targets or they are used mainly to illustrate or highlight grammar rules.
1.2.4- The Teaching Materials:
Teaching materials include; textbooks, workbooks, newspapers and magazines, posters, blackboards, whiteboards, language laboratories, overhead projectors, tape recorders, videos and realia (such as real fruits, Vegetable, Kitchen objects) etc . Teachers can always try to create in the use of these materials. Some schools may lack some of above if not most. The teachers, therefore, can manage this shortage of materials. They can for example use his personal items from home or bf can seek the help of his students.
1.2.5- The Classroom Environment:
Most of the classrooms in Libya are built compatible with educational specifications. That is all of the classrooms are large enough to accommodate (between 25 to 30) students in each class.
They have enough windows to provide light and fresh air. The physical building itself is not enough, however. There are of course, other things complementing the physical structure such as ventilation, particularly in winter when these classes need to be warm enough, and electricity supply that is just as important. Students and teachers desks as well should be convenient. All of these compose an environment that might help create an appropriate educational atmosphere.
Further to the above discussion, it is necessary for purposes of clarification to discuss other terminology that can appear confusing. Terms such as curriculum, syllabus, methodology and teaching materials are interrelated and are sometimes mistaken for one another.
Since this study uses these terms very frequently, it becomes essential to define what each one of them means.
Nunan(1988:6) defines curriculum as follows:
curriculum is a very general concept, which involves consideration of the whole complex of philosophical, social and administrative factors, which contribute to the planning of an educational programme.”
On the same line, Lim (cited in Richards 2001: 41) also includes the following parameters as part of the curriculum process:
“needs analysis, goal setting, syllabus design, material design, language programme design, teacher preparation, implementation of programmes in schools, monitoring, feedback and evaluation”.
Curriculum can be divided into three different groups:
• Planned Curriculum
• Implemented Curriculum
• Realized Curriculum Nunan (2000) describes these stages as follows:
“I like to draw a distinction between the planned curriculum, the implemented curriculum, and the realized curriculum. The planned curriculum includes everything that is done prior to the delivery of instruction. The implemented curriculum refers to what happens in the moment-by-moment realities of the classroom. The realized curriculum refers to the skills and knowledge that learners actually acquire as a result of instruction”.
This study will be mainly dealing with the implemented curriculum.
Chapter Two Literature Review
2.1.- Secondary School Syllabus (Past and Present): 2.1.1- Introduction.
The teaching of English as a foreign Language has attracted great interest in Libya since the mid 40’s. Imssalem( 2001: 8) said in this context:
“Since the start of British administration in 1943, English was introduced into the school system and has become the first foreign language”. English is also currently a core subject from the first year of preparatory school to the university stage. It is also a core subject in all university colleges. The preparatory and secondary school English textbooks in Libya, however, have seen remarkable developments. These developments fall into two main stages:
2.1.2-Secondary School Syllabus Before 1996.
Libya was one of the Italian colonies and it was very much affected by the Italian imperialistic policy, particularly in the field of education. In this regard, Mahaishi (1999: 9) maintained that:
“education was affected by the policies made by the colonisers, ‘where they had abolished the schooling system created by the Ottoman rule during the last years of their empire. Consequently the colonisers imposed an Italian curriculum from the early education stages in order to Italianise the life of the Libyan Arab citizen through imposing the Italian language”.
This stage lasted nearly half a century.
Afterwards, and by the start of the British administration in Libya in 1943, English language started to take its place in the Libyan school curriculum in a different way to that employed by the Italian invaders. Whereas the Italian curriculum aimed at Italianising the Libyan education system, English language during the British administration was introduced as a school subject. Other subjects such Maths, Chemistry etc, were introduced in Arabic.
Moreover, education in Libya, generally, was very limited for many reasons, for example, poverty and the fact that the country was the scene of ferocious imperialistic wars between foreign forces, to the extent that John Wright (1972: 206 ) in his book “The History of Libya” put the rate of illiteracy at 90%. until 1964 the English Language syllabus was exemplified in English textbooks imported from Egypt. Imssalem (2001: 8) says that:
“The curriculum for English language teaching in Egypt was introduced into Libya by British-trained Egyptian teachers. “
In the late 60s, M. Gusbi in collaboration with R John produced a new syllabus, which lasted around three decades as reliable, local Material used in Libyan secondary schools. Mr. Gusbi’s material (Further English for Libya, Revised edition 1974) was based on the audio-lingual method, which was characterised by concentration on structure and form rather than on meaning as an objective of teaching. This approach has relied on introducing a topic, familiar to the learner’s culture, followed by some drills and exercises.
The lessons were gradually graded in linguistic complexity, aimed at consolidating the rules in order to develop the learner’s linguistic competence. For instance, if you look at the exercises used in Lesson One (Gusbi and John, Seventh Impression, 1983: 4-5) only section C is different with the introduction of some comprehension questions. One finds them concentrating on grammar, for example, Section D (Make sentences from this table), Section E (Put these sentences into negative etc.
With regard to the skills, the focus was only on listening and speaking in the first stages. Reading and writing, however, were postponed to the advanced stages until the first two skills were mastered. This method implies a teacher centred approach, where he/she finds himself/herself taking the big share of talking and directing as well as correcting any type of error that might arise to ensure the development of the learner’s accuracy.
The case of the Libyan English textbook, (Further English for Libya) which was built on structural bases, was almost the same as that in some other Arab countries. Kharma and Hajjaj, (1986 : 60) describe the syllabus in the Arab Gulf States before the mid 70’s by saying:
“With the introduction of the structural approach the syllabus continued to be thought of as materials content in terms of lexical and grammatical items, and particularly sentence patterns.”
At that time the Communicative approach was introduced into the curriculum in Europe and the USA.
2.1.3-Secondary School Syllabus After 1996:
In order to discuss the secondary school syllabus in Libya after 1996 this section highlights the development of the communicative approach since the Libyan secondary school textbooks are now based on a communicative approach of teaching.
The communicative approach came into existence by the end of 1960s and early 70s as a result of the dissatisfaction with the then current approaches and methods, such as the Grammar-Translation method, Direct method, Audio lingual method etc, that concentrated on language structure instead of the real use of the language itself as means of communication. Richards (1995: 66) in this context quoted Littlewood when he describes the communicative language teaching by saying:
“One of the most characteristic features of communicative language teaching is that it pays systematic attention to functional as well as structural aspects of language. “
This approach has incorporated the teaching of the four language skills besides grammar and vocabulary which according acknowledges the interdependence of language and communication. Thus it supersedes the previous methods in unifying these two concepts i.e. language and communication.
This shift however, from merely teaching language structurally to teaching it communicatively met with different views, some in favour and others against. In China for instance, Xiao Qing Liao (10/10/2001) says:
“In spite of the resistance [to the introduction of the communicative approach in China], there were still many teachers in favor of CLT”.
Although communicative language teaching was introduced to the Libyan secondary school textbooks in 1997, which is considered relatively late, it can be said that these textbooks are improved for the following reasons:
• They can be described as comprehensive multi-strand textbooks i.e. they introduce in each unit of the books; vocabulary, grammar and the four language skills listening, speaking, reading and writing.
• The textbooks’ content of vocabulary, grammar and the four language skills serve the theme of each unit in a communicative way.
The authors (Tankard and Tankard 2001:1) give an example of this point in their introduction to the First year Secondary School Textbook by saying:
” Unit 5 has the theme Countries and Regions. In this unit the vocabulary relates directly to the theme: the students learn new words and expressions to describe geographical regions. The grammar point covered is comparative adjectives, and the communicative functions are comparing people and things and talking about countries and regions.”
• The variation in the topics included in the course book supports the learner’s command of the language and can help him to use English in real life situations.
• Contrary to the previous textbook (Further English for Libya by Gusbi and John 1970 Longman publications), which dominated the process of teaching English as a foreign language in Libyan schools for nearly three decades, the new textbook can also be considered as a dynamic one and not static. For instance, in terms of student participation, most of the tasks were set in order for the students to interact among themselves, to play certain roles or to solve a problem, whereas the old textbook concentrates mainly on grammar issues where there is no chance for group work. The possibility of performing the exercises in the old text book can only be done between the teacher and a student or one student and another. Accordingly, the chance for involving the whole class group work or pair work is not available.
• The other advantage of the new textbook is represented in the use of Visual aids. The pictures are very helpful and very motivating for the learner to learn, to understand the task and accordingly participate actively in the class. For instance, in Unit Two (p. 6,7and 8) the topic is about Towns and cities in which the authors introduced the city of Bath in England as an example. At first they present an introduction about the city on page 7, supported by a map of the city using colours (red, blue and green) to show the most famous places like the museum, Post office, car park and recreational park. The objective behind the passage, in page 7, is to provide the learner with necessary vocabulary. In page 8, the picture is used for further drills of the vocabulary in listening and speaking e.g. giving and following directions. These drills are of course, supported by drawings. Besides dealing with vocabulary, listening speaking and reading, it also deals with grammar inclusively (using WH questions and demonstrative pronoun there). Pictures in the old syllabus, however, were very limited and did not serve the theme or any learning activity.
In spite of this improvement of the new English Language textbook in Libya, it did not take into account the other elements of the learning and teaching process i.e. the pupil, the EFL teacher, the method of teaching applied in the Libyan schools, teaching material, and the classroom environment. So the questions that should have been posed by the authors of English for Libya (Alan and Fiona Tankard) and the Libyan educational authorities before writing the textbook could have been:
• Is the teach

History Of English Language Teaching

Today, English is the worlds most widely studied foreign language. Five hundred years ago, Latin was the most dominant language to be studied because it was the language of business, commerce and education in the western world. In the sixteenth century, however, French, Italian and English gain in importance as a result of political change in Europe and Latin gradually became displaced as a language of spoken and written communication (Richards and Rodgers, 2001).

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Latin became a dead language. It was being started to read in the books as classic language. Children started to enter in the ‘grammar school’ in sixteenth and eighteenth centuries to learn grammar rules of Latin. To learn Latin language became a “mental gymnastic”. In the eighteenth century, when modern languages began to enter in the curriculum of the European countries, these languages were taught by the same methods as Latin language was taught. Grammatical rules were memorized. Written practices were done. The passages were translated from the second language to the first language and vice versa (ibid).
By the nineteenth century, this method was considered as a standard method of teaching language. The textbooks were divided into chapters. Each chapter contained a certain grammatical rule and rule was practices with a lot of written exercises (ibid).
Methods and Approaches of English Language Teaching
According to Asher and James (1982), Methods are the combination of techniques that are used and plasticized by the teachers in the classrooms in order to teach their students and approaches are the philosophies of teachers about language teaching that can be applied in the classrooms by using different techniques of language teaching. For example, if a teacher has an approach that language is the communication and learning a language is in fact learning the meanings, functions and uses of language. So the techniques will be based on the communicative language teaching and task based methods.
According to Freeman (2000), Methods which are taught to the teachers make a base and give them thinking about the applicable techniques and principles according to the situation where they stand. They are clear about their attraction towards certain methods and also think that why have they repelled certain method. The knowledge of method is very necessary because their knowledge is base of teaching.
Grammar Translation Method
Grammar translation method was the most popular and widely used method for language teaching between the ages of 1840 to 1940. But this method was first used for teaching and learning Latin language which was not the language of common use at that time. Latin was considered as a classic language. The learners were made able to study the literature of Latin language through learning the grammatical rules of language and learning the vocabulary so that learners may translate the language in their first language and in the second language. Grammar translation method was criticized intensively in the nineteenth century because it was considered that this method cannot fulfill the demands of language learning in nineteenth century.
Direct Method
The direct method was the outcome of the reaction against the grammar translation method. It was based on the assumption that the learners of foreign and second language should directly think in English. This method is against the translation of written and oral text and focuses on telling the meanings of the words through action, demonstration or real objects. This method focuses on directly thinking, doing discussion and conversation in second language (Richards and Rodgers, 2001).
Purwarno (2006) described the aims of the direct method. He described that direct method is an attempt and effort to form a link between thought and expression and between experience and language.
Direct method was criticized due to the following reasons:
Direct method is successful in private language schools because this method can be applied only in small classes where all the learners can get individual attention.
In Direct method, the teachers extravagantly excel in keeping the mother tongue of the learners away from them.
Direct method demands the learners to do oral communication in the second language and it also demands the pronunciation and accent to be just like the native speakers so there is need for the language school to hire the native speakers which actually can be very expensive.
The success of the direct method depends on the teacher’s skills and personality more than on the methodology (Richards and Rodgers, 1986).
Structural Approach
The structural approach mainly employs the techniques of the direct method but the reading and writing skills are not wholly neglected. The structural approach is based on the sound principles of language learning. The structural approach says that the arrangement of the words in such a way as to form a suitable pattern and that pattern may make the meanings of the language clear to us. Any language has its own structure and skeleton which gives this language a decent appearance. A structure is a pattern and a particular arrangement of words which to indicate grammatical meanings. It may be a word, a phrase or a sentence (Gauridushi, 2011).
Structural approach was criticized because it was only suitable for lower grades. Continuous teaching of structures and their repetition make the atmosphere dull and boring. It also neglected the reading and writing abilities and there was also a lack of skilled teachers (Sharma, 2011).
Oral Approach/ Situational Language Teaching
The oral approach is a method in which children to use whatever hearing they get from their surroundings. They also take help from the context to understand and use language. The target is to develop the skills in the individual so that he can communicate and function independently. This approach helps in the development of reading and writing skills (Richards and Rodgers, 2001).
The oral approach was developed from 1930s to the 1960s by British applied linguistics such as Harold Palmer and A.S. Hornsby. The main difference between oral approach and the direct method was that the methods which were developed under this approach had theoretical principles about the selection, grading and presentation of the content and material. This sequencing of the content would lead to better learning with a good knowledge of vocabulary and grammatical patterns. In this approach all the points of language were to be presented in “situations” which led to the second name of the approach i.e. situational language teaching. Although, the teachers are not aware of this approach today but it had long lasting impact on language learning. However, its focus on oral practice, grammar and sentence patterns is still supported by the teachers (ibid).
Audiolingual Method
Audiolingual method is also known as ‘Army Method’ because after the outbreak of World War II, the army soldiers decided to be proficient in the languages of their enemies. So a new learning method of foreign languages was discovered which is known as audiolingual method. This method is based on a linguistic theory and behavioral psychology. The audiolingual method was widely used in the 1950s and 1960s and the emphasis was not on the understanding of the words rather on acquisition of structures and patterns in common everyday dialogues (Richards and Rodgers, 2001).
The teaching of the oral skills with accurate pronunciation, grammar and the ability to respond quickly and accurately is the main objective of audiolingual method. Reading and writing skills may be taught but they are dependent on the oral skills (Richard and Rodgers, 1986).
Total Physical Response
In Total Physical Response (TPR), the teacher gives the students instructions and the students follow the instructions by using whole body responses. James J. Asher, a professor, of psychology at San Jose State University developed the method Total Physical Response in late 1960s to help in learning second languages (Richards and Rodgers, 2001).
According to Asher (1977), “TPR is based on the premise that the human brain has a biological program for acquiring any natural language on earth including the sign language of the deaf”. We can see this process if we observe the language learning process of an infant. The communication between parents and the child consists of both verbal and physical aspects. When the child is not able to speak, at the time he/she is internalizing the language. This is the time when code breaking occurs. After this process the child becomes able to speak and reproduce language. In TPR, the teacher repeats the process in the class. Students respond to the commands of the teacher which require physical movement. TPR is most useful for beginners. TPR is also used for teaching students with dyslexia or related learning disabilities.
Silent Way
Silent way is the method of language teaching which was proposed by Caleb Gattegno. This method is based on the view that the teachers should be silent in the classroom as much as possible but the teacher must encourage the students to speak and use the language. The most important aspect of this method is its elements that are used for language teaching i.e. colored charts and colored rods (Richards and Rodgers, 2001).
This method focuses on the learners to discover on their own rather than they remember or memorize something. The learners are facilitated in learning by giving them some problem to solve which involves the materials that are needed to be learnt (ibid).
Communicative Language Teaching
Communicative language teaching was developed in the era of revolutions in British language teaching traditions from late 1960s. Before communicative language teaching, situational language teaching was in practice in Britain for language teaching. Communicative language teaching was actually developed in the opposition of audiolingual method which focuses on drilling and memorization. Communicative language teaching focuses on developing the ability of communication in learners in real life situations. It focuses on meaning rather than accuracy (Richards and Rodgers, 2001).
Natural Approach
In 1977, Tracey Terrell proposed the natural approach of language teaching. This approach was influenced by Stephen Krashen’s theory of language acquisition. The natural approach focuses on communication as the major function of language. In this approach, language is considered as the vehicle or means of conveying a message and information. The natural approach was actually based on the observation and understanding of the acquisition of the first and the second language in informal settings (Richards and Rodgers, 2001).
Task-based Language Teaching
Task- based language teaching is an approach that is based on the assumption that tasks are the major unit of language learning. This approach is based on the problem solving view that the learners should be given some tasks to be solved. These tasks are related to the language structures that are required to be learnt. The learners interact and communicate with each other during solving these problems. In these way, they learn the language (Richards and Rodgers, 2001).
Comparison between Grammar Translation Method and Communicative Language Teaching
Grammar Translation Method
Grammar translation method was first known in the United States as Prussian Method. Grammar translation method dominated European and foreign language teaching from 1840 to 1940.
Characteristics of grammar translation method.
According to the Richards and Rodgers (2001), the principle characteristics of Grammar Translation Method are:
In Grammar Translation Method, the goal of learning a second or foreign language is mainly to be enabling to read the literature of that language and is to get benefit from intellectual development that results from foreign and second language study. Grammar Translation Method enables to learn detailed grammatical rules of target language and enables to translate into and out of the target language.
In Grammar Translation Method, reading and writing skills are focused while listening and speaking skills are totally ignored.
In Grammar Translation Method, the memorization of grammatical rules of foreign language and of the vocabulary items is focused. Vocabulary items are limited to the text that they are taught. Vocabulary items are memorized with the help of their meanings in the native language.
In Grammar Translation Method, sentenced is the basic unit of teaching and language practice. The learners are enabled to do detailed analysis of a sentence through this method. The learners are enabled to translate a sentence into and out of the target language.
In Grammar Translation Method, accuracy is emphasized rather than fluency. The basic purpose of this method used to be able to pass the written examinations.
In Grammar Translation Method, grammar is taught deductively i.e. by presenting and practicing the detailed grammatical rules of target language. A syllabus of grammatical rules if followed in which rules are systematically put in to a sequence starting from the simple rules to the complex rules.
In Grammar Translation Method, students are directed and instructions are given in the student’s native language so that they may easily understand the instructions. The students’ native language is used to explain new items and to enable them to compare two languages i.e. native language of the learners and foreign language.
Main techniques associated with grammar translation method.
There are some major techniques that are adopted in the teaching of second or foreign language through Grammar Translation Method.
Translation of a literary passage. Students translate a reading passage into and out of the target language. In checking of the translation, the focus of the teacher is on vocabulary and grammatical structures. The translation may be written or spoken or both. Students should not translate idioms but must understand their meanings.
Reading Comprehension Questions. A passage for reading and understanding is given to the students and they have to answer the questions given at the end of the passage in the target language. The questions are put into a sequence. The first group of questions is related with the information drawn from the passage, second group of questions require students to make inferences based on their understanding of the passage. The third group of questions requires students to relate the passage with their own experiences.
Antonym and synonyms. Students are given a list of words and a passage. The students have to find out the antonyms of those words in the passage. Similarly, the students can also be given a list of words and can be asked to find out the synonyms of the given words from the passage.
Deductive application of rules. Grammar rules are presented before the students with the all possible information that can be given to the students relating to the grammatical rules. The rules are also explained with examples. Once students understand a rule, they are asked to apply it for some different examples.
Fill in the blanks. The students are given a series of sentences with some missing words. The students have to fill in the blanks with some suitable grammar items such a preposition and verbs with different tenses
Memorization. The students are given a list of vocabulary to memorize them with their meaning in the native language. Students are also required to memorize the grammatical rules.
Use words in sentences. In order to check the understanding of the meaning and sue of vocabulary, the students are asked to use the list of typical words in their own sentences.
Composition. The teacher gives a topic to the students to write about that topic in the target language. The topic is based on some aspect of the reading passage of the lesson (Freeman, 1986).
Advantages of grammar translation method.
Nazir (2002) narrated as “The structure of a foreign language is best learnt when compare and contrasted with that of the mother tongue.”
According to Ishtiaq (2005), the Grammar Translation Method is based on a system and is in a sequence because in this method all the grammatical rules are arranged into a sequence for the convenience of the students. This sequence starts from the simple rules and eventually leads to the complex rules. When a book is written by an author on grammatical rules keeping in view the sequence, he writes one lesson that is completely based on one rule of grammar. Each lesson is divided into certain rules and these rules dominate the lesson.
Larson (1986) narrated importance of Grammar Translation Method as “in Grammar Translation Method, students are made to learn new words. Therefore, this method helps in improving vocabulary. Reading and writing are the two primary skills that are developed most so as to enable the students to read the literature in target language. Grammar is taught deductively and it makes use of students’ mother language.
Disadvantages of grammar translation method.
Neilson (2003) stated that in Grammar Translation Method, oral skills i.e. speaking and listening skills are totally neglected while the whole attention is given to just reading and writing skills. Through this method, the students become able to read the literature of the target language by translating it into their native language but cannot communicate into the target language and even cannot understand the target language spoken by any native speaker.
In Grammar Translation Method, the authority of the classroom is totally in the hands of the teacher and teacher is at the centre of the classroom. The communication is just from teachers to students not from student to teacher and not even from students to students. The students are considered empty minded which have needed to be filled with all the possible vocabulary and grammatical structures that can be filled in their minds (ibid).
The main disadvantage of the Grammar Translation Method is that it is almost impossible to translate all the phrases and sentences into the target language because the main focus is the translation of this method so such students who have been taught through this method become fail to communicate well in the target language (ibid).
In the Grammar Translation Method, accuracy is emphasized rather than fluency and students go on thinking to accurate the grammatical rules which actually hinder their fluency. In Grammar Translation Method, the teacher abruptly interferes and stops the students wherever they make the mistakes so they become conscious while speaking and communicating in the target language and become unable to be fluent (ibid).
Criticism of the grammar translation method.
There have been various criticisms on the use of Grammar Translation Method for the teaching of modern language particularly English. There are some objections that have been put on the Grammar Translation Method.
Grammar Translation Method emphasizes on the reading and writing skills on the expense of listening and speaking skills. But learning the listening and speaking skills of a language is more important than leaning reading and writing skills because it is a natural way of learning a language. In Grammar Translation Method, writing gives learners a reflective chance to look at their writing that whether they have written correct spellings, vocabulary and grammatical rules. The main aim and goal of most of the learners in learning modern languages is not just to develop reading and writing skills whereas they want to communicate well and understand the native speakers’ language.
Grammar Translation Method demands the arrangement of the grammatical rules in a structure starting from the simple rules and leading to the complex rules. While most of the learners especially adult learners want to start using the language straight way because they have not got time to learn all the grammatical rules one by one and start using them after then. Grammar Translation Method emphasizes to make the students learn each rule and practice it one by one and after commanding a rule move to the next one. So there remains the need to revise all the rules again and again so that they may not get washed out of the learners’ mind.
In Grammar Translation Method, sentence is the basic unit of the language. The learners are made able to memorize certain rules of grammar and certain vocabulary which they have to fit everywhere they find a chance to use them. But if learners find some unusual situation they become unable to fit their memorized rules to fit in that situation.
In Grammar Translation Method, grammatical rules and vocabulary is memorized in modern ways of teaching a language memorization is not regarded while exposure of a language, experience and use of language is preferred and recommended. People have different learning styles. Some people like to learn vocabulary, grammar rules, phrase and sentences through memorization. But when they have to sue them, they must have time to stop and recall the memorized items.
In Grammar Translation Method, the focus of the learners is the manipulation of the grammatical rules and words to write correct sentences with prescribed content. But in learning the modern languages, it is recommended that the major focus should be more and more on the oral practice and expression of the personal meanings. The expression of the personal meanings may spoil the structure of the grammar rules and sentences.
In Grammar Translation Method, the teachers and the learners mostly speak in their first language or native language. While it is highly recommended that use of second and target language should be maximized in learning the language but here maximization does not mean teachers and learners should all the time speak in the target language. The speaking of the second language is also advantageous because in language classrooms we may also have multilingual learners that may belong to different languages so a single language i.e. second or target language will be convenient to use without pointing a single native language.
In Grammar Translation Method, teacher should explain, describe the grammatical rules, tell the meanings of the words, translate the passages, conduct grammar practices, correct mistakes and teacher should authorized the classroom and learners. But now it is highly recommended that teachers role in the class should be as a guide and facilitator. Teacher’s role in the language classroom should be less. Teacher should act behind the scene. Teacher should give the problems to the learners to solve, interact among each other and generally it leads the learners to be independent learners.
In Grammar Translation Method, translation is the basic technique. Translation is a way of understanding the meanings of the written and oral texts by converting the texts into the first or native language of the learners. Translation is a way of comparing and contrasting two languages i.e. first language and second language. But now it is highly recommended that translation should be avoided because it leads to such a mental process which hinders or stops learning. The learners should be encouraged to speak and even think in second language as much as possible.
In Grammar Translation Method, accuracy is emphasized rather than fluency but it is now highly recommended that accuracy should come at the last and fluency should preferred first. If the learners are corrected on their mistakes from the very beginning, they will become hesitant to speak in the target language. When they will start to speak, their minds will abruptly become read to look upon the grammatical rules that they are using so I this way they will become unable to be fluent in language (Jonathan, 2012).

Use Of Standard And Non Standard English

Context: The speaker it talking about other musician Lilly Allen’s anti-file-sharing campaign. Analysis: The speaker uses the word ‘innit’ which is a reduced form of Standard English ‘isn’t it’ but more widely used. It is used in this case as a general purpose tag meaning ‘is that not the case?’. The tendency to add a tag question is very common among Estuary speakers at the Cockney end of the spectrum. Short and snappy tags are particularly popular, just like ‘innit?’, ‘right?’, ‘do I?’. Tag questions do not expect an answer. They are only used to increase a dramatic effect or to check that the person being addressed is actually listening. In this case speaker is trying to increase a dramatic effect of his annoyance with the issue.
Item 2
“I am gutted to be injured.”
Speaker: Footballer Wayne Rooney
Audience: Readers of Daily Mirror
Date: Collected at 23/10/2010
Context: He is talking about that he will not be able to assist United on the pitch because he will spend the next three weeks recovering from an ankle injury.
Word ‘gutted’ is a informal (slang) term commonly used all over the country by many speakers. It is also very widely used by footballers after a disappointment like in this case when speaker tells the audience that he is upset about his injury.
As Online Slang Dictionary gives the definition as:
1. Upset, disappointed. British slang. (Adjective)
Word ‘gutted’ was added to the OED in its 1993 edition, with quotations going back only to 1984 (but, of course, it could be much older in speech). Their senses for it are: ‘bitterly disappointed; devastated, shattered; utterly fed up’. Speaker is using this word to express his disappointment.
Item 3
“Why, it’s what I’m obliged to keep a little of in the house to put into the blessed infants’ Daffy, when they ain’t well, Mr. Bumble,” replied Mrs. Mann as she opened a corner cupboard, and took down a bottle and glass.”
Speaker: Mrs. Mann, one of the characters of Charles Dickinson’s novel ‘Oliver Twist’.
Audience: Novel readers
Date: Collected at 10/11/2010
Context: The speaker, Mrs. Mann is a woman who runs the orphanage where Oliver grows up and she is talking with other character Mr. Brumble about orphan children.
Analysis: The character use word ‘ain’t’ which is a colloquialism and contraction for “am not”, “is not”, “are not”, “has not”, and “have not”. Charles Dickens used ‘ain’t’ form in the speech of many working- or middle-class characters in his works as a Cockney dialect. It is typically associated with working class citizens of London, who were called cockneys which as a word come from a Middle English ‘cokenei’, which means “city dweller.”This kind of dialect has many primary characteristics and one of them is using ‘ain’t’. Many of the traits of cockney speech suggest the lower classes to some observers and not perfect understanding of the English language.
Item 4
“I don’t want no drink”
Speaker: Friend
Audience: Me
Date: Collected at 17/11/2010
Context: Spoken by my friend when I have offered to buy him a drink.
Analysis: Speaker uses double negative which is use of more than one negative to make a negative statement. In Old English, the more negative particles thrown in the stronger the negative and I think this is what speaker was trying to achieve. Emphatic double negative has a long history in English. Although today it is used in informal language to intensify a negative meaning, it’s considered unacceptable in Standard English language. It is because of the construction of standard language. When we use double negatives they are canceling each other out, leaving a positive meaning, rather than intensifying a negative.
Item 5
“He’s my mate.”
Speaker: Friend
Audience: Me
Date: Collected at 10/11/2010
Context: Conversation between me and my friend on Facebook about his close friend.
Analysis: Speaker used the word ‘mate’. It is a non-standard from and in Standard English we would use ‘friend’. Word ‘mate’ is tend to use by Estuary English speakers. In this case speaker is using this form with intention to create a bond of solidarity with the person being addressed. ‘Mate’ is a social class word and tends to be dropped by Estuary speakers as they progress up the social scale.
Item 6
“Still, You gotta admit”
Speaker: One of the characters in teenager’s comic book “Buffy the Vampire Slayer”.
Audience: Teenagers
Date: Collected at 10/11/2010
Context: Dialog between two characters in comic book.
Context: This word is used as a short for ‘got to’. It is form of non-standard English and is we change it to standard form it will say ‘You got to admit’. This form is used because teenagers are the audience, and it is mainly used by them as a ‘slang’ word. So by using this form the author makes a piece easy to read and understand for young audience.
Item 7
“C U later”.
Speaker: My friend
Audience: Me
Date: Collected at 15/11/2010
Context: Text message received from my friend.
Analysis: This message is written in nonstandard English. SMS language does not always obey or follow standard grammar. In Standard English this sentence should say “I will see you later”. SMS language is a term for the abbreviations and slang most commonly used due to the necessary brevity of mobile phone messaging. It can be likened to a rebus, which uses pictures and single letters or numbers to represent whole words. For words which have no common abbreviation, users most commonly remove the vowels from a word, and the reader is required to interpret a string of consonants by re-adding the vowels. This type of language is used because it saves more time in communicating between each other.
Item 8
“To move is to stir; and to be valiant is to stand:
therefore, if thou art moved, thou runn’st away.”
Speaker: Gregory, on of the characters of William Shakespeare play ‘Romeo and Juliet’.
Audience: Readers
Date: Collected at 18/11/2010
Context: Dialog between two characters in a play.
Analysis: Shakespeare uses word ‘thou’. The word ‘thou’ (in most dialects) is a second person singular pronoun in English. It is now largely archaic and it’s been replaced in almost all contexts by ‘you’. It is now used today as a Standard English language but it is still used in parts of Northern England, some Scots dialects, and a handful of US towns.
Item 9
“The internet is often held up as the main reason for declining newspaper sales and dwindling revenues”.
Speaker: University of Oxford on University website.
Audience: Readers of the website
Date: Collected at 15/11/2010
Context: Article about “The future of the international news industry”.
Analysis: It is Standard English Language. It is used because it is spoken by University of Oxford which use high level of spoken language and use correct grammar.
Item 10
“Every time you open your mouth to speak, there are infinite possibilities in terms of the words which you might choose and their potential combinations”.
Speaker: Teachers notes
Audience: Students
Date: Received month ago
Context: Notes about language
Analysis: Teacher used Standard Language because of the importance of notes, document for students which should be written in this form of language.
Section 3
There is a big argument about if strong accents and dialects are dying out. It is important first to explain meaning of those two terms which are used very often interchangeable but in linguistic terms they refer to different aspects of language variation. ‘Accent’ as a term is reserved for whole patterns of pronunciation typical of a particular region or social group. The term ‘dialect’ covers more differences including pronunciation and distinctions in vocabulary and sentence structure. Based on many surveys, researchers declare that it’s a big misunderstanding that regional dialects and accents in English Language are disappearing. They try to prove that all languages are constantly changing and some words will disappear from common use only to be replaced by other. Those changes might be a result of political or social pressures, such immigration, colonisation or invasion. Language changes the most by people influencing each other. Through interactions with speakers of different age, gender and ethnicity, social and educational background and from different geographical places we encounter and integrate in our own speech new words, pronunciations and expressions. Work of Lesley Milroy shows how open social networks are important factors in language change. I her famous study in Belfast she investigated three poor working -class communities with a high incidence of unemployment: Ballymacarrell, Hammer and Clonard and she were introduced to them as ‘a friend of a friend’. She was able to maintain contact with these groups over a period of time during which she was able to investigate the connection between the integration of individuals in the community and the way they speak. She incorporated into her analysis a description of two types of social networks to which her speakers belonged: open in which the number of community ties in the network is low (not everyone knows everyone else) and closed in which each member of the network has several ties with other members of network. Result of her study showed the importance of closed networks for dialect maintenance. Those networks tend to be conservative force on change in language in the community. They enable people to maintain non-standard dialects, rural or urban, despite pressure from standard language through education or media. Because people are tend to be more socially and geographically mobile these days we are more possible to live in opened networks and those present more favorable conditions for language change as such networks lack a linguistic norm of their own.

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There is another increasing evidence that Standard English dialects are coming under pressure by Estuary English, regional varieties spoken in and around London and as the originator of the term ,David Rosewarne, described it :’a mixture of non-regional and local south-easter English pronunciation and intonation’ (Rosewarne,1994: 3).The broadcast media are playing the biggest role in these changes. Sociolinguists (Stuart-Smith et al., 2006) have observed that young working-class adolescents in Glasgow, who had no direct contact with Southern English but are keen viewers of network soap operas such as Eastenders, are capable of reproducing ‘Media Cockney’ forms in spontaneous interaction with each other. This shows how broadcast media are opening up a repertoire of different speaking styles (including accents) especially for younger speakers and how they influence them.
Through many years, some English dialects have been treated more positively than others. People always have been making assumptions based on the way how we speak by judging some dialects or accents as being too posh, aggressive, unfriendly, harsh, ‘unintelligent’ or ‘common’. For example speakers of prestige accent, known as Received Pronunciation (RP) are rated more highly than regionally accented speakers in terms of general competence (e.g. ‘ambition’, ‘intelligence’, ‘self-confidence’, ‘determination’ and ‘industriousness’. This accent was spoken by merchant classes of London in the fourteen century and was familiar to students attending the universities of Oxford and Cambridge in the Middle Ages and today it is a preferred pronunciation for reading BBC news bulletins and for teaching English as a second language. This is how use of RP by members of middle and upper classes was a sign of prestige and status when more regionally marked accents were treated opposite. In conclusion : the ‘higher’ up the social scale, the more likely is to find the single accent-RP, the ‘lower’ down the social scale, the more likely is to find regional variation. This is how Birmingham accent is often disliked in terms of its ‘nasal whine’, because of its association with a large industrial conurbation. Much more positive reaction will be registered for the Southern Irish accent which will be praised for sounding ‘soft’ and ‘warm’. Same as other accents with similar ethnic rural associations such as Welsh, Scottish and West Country accents will evoke positive judgments.
Many people suffer because of this irrational prejudice. I’m polish and I speak with a different accent and most of the time people are making deductions from it about my person, my job, character and my status. But I believe that the fact that we judge some of the dialects and accents as more ‘posh’ or ‘intelligent’ than others is based more on social, rather than linguistic criteria. I think dialects and accents should be a source of pride and a reflection of cultural identity but in the same time I think that language change should not be perceived as a negative thing. Most of the contemporary linguistic commentators accept those changes in language like changes in society which are unavoidable. English language has always been changing and will continue to do so, but I think we need to think about this as a positive process, process occasionally regrettable but mostly the one which is renewing and refreshing English language making it flexible and very modern but still showing huge links to its past.
Section 4
Use of standard and non-standard English may cause many difficulties in many educational situations. To explain this I would like to concentrate first on what standard and non-standard language is. Standard language is the type of language which is thought as a ‘correct’ in schools, using ‘correct’ grammar and avoiding slang words and expressions and mostly used in formal situations. This type of language is written in a ‘correct’ form of spelling and it is spoken in a ‘standard’ accent such as English Received Pronunciation. Non-standard language is mostly used in informal situations and it’s using grammars and words and accents which are special to a particular place. It often contains expressions which are regarded as ‘incorrect’ in standard language.
Children first identify themselves with language of their parents and they construct language system which accords well with those around them. As they increasingly interact with siblings and other relatives, they learn the language of interaction with peers or language of the neighborhood (the local dialect).In school they meet different form of language, Standard English. Therefore they start to learn that they have different identities which they share with their families, friends and community and that they have a linguistic loyalty to them. Children usually cope well with this mismatch: they learn there is a ‘school’ language and how to switch from that language to language they speak at home. This process is called code switching. But it also cause lots of difficulties and teachers are trying to help children to become more aware of the grammatical differences between the formal “Standard English” and the informal home language. These way children learn how to select appropriate language to use in the given context. As a part of a government pilot programme, banning British children from speaking patois in school, student at one of the schools at South London were taught that speaking non-standard language is only appropriate in certain circumstances and that they need to use Standard English. Inspectors found that children were using very often in their work local speech, colloquial phrases and Creole. Bill Cosby, one of the most famous American comedians was backing up this campaign. He was mainly concerned about constant use of street slang contributing to educational failure of black pupils, particularly boys from Afro-Caribbean backgrounds. This “playground patois” has become the only way of communication for some children very badly affecting their educational achievements. Emma Thompson, famous British actress also commented about the necessity of speaking two different types of English. Her comments were based on recent studies which have shown that half of teenenagers can’t see the difference between Standard English grammar and colloquial language. This is all happening because of use of social networking websites and the popularity of mobile phone text messaging which is undermining children’s literacy skills. Also TV programmes which use a great deal of slang are an issue. Some parents and teachers have complained in the past that children are picking up slang and catchphrases from watching TV programs, and the hearing poor English on television can affect the way kids write and speak. Even some of the MPs were worried about the use of slang and non-standard English on children shows. They were worried that children would pick up bad habits and they will start using some of the phrases like ‘ain’t’ and ‘you was’.
I think teachers should have a biggest impact on children in using the right form of language by showing children that all equivalent forms of language are correct when they are used appropriately. Instead of regarding that Standard English is correct in all cases and outlawing all dialect forms we need to explain to students that both, their Standard English and local dialects are good to use but in the different context for which they are appropriate. Secondly teachers should encourage students to use spoken Standard English in the classroom, not by correcting them but by giving them experience of speaking in many different kinds of public roles such as judges, newsreaders or interviewers. They could take part in oral presentations presented to several classes or even had a chance to ask questions some of the visitors to the school like of policemen or firemen.
Children should be able to see difference between standard language and colloquial language and should be able to know when to use it. I believe not being able to do so could hugely affect their future. Children who are only fluent in non-standard language are more likely to have problems in academic field. Those who only speak nonstandard form of English have often difficulty reading and writing with proficiency in Standard English. This leads to situation that children are uneducated and in a future they are less likely to advance their careers. Using ‘proper’ language overall leads to higher pay jobs, bigger social mobility and a great social success. It creates powerful impression when we speak Standard English. Other people see us as intelligent and well informed when we use ‘correct’ grammar and when we show high level of vocabulary. It opens up opportunities that are closed for those who use any form of non-standard language.
Class notes “Assorted information for Access English Language Level 3”
Coggle, P. (1993). Do you speak Estuary? Bloomsbury
Milroy, J. & Milroy, L. (1999). Authority in Language: Investigating Standard
English. 3rd edn. London and New York: Routledge.
Milroy, L. (1980). Language and social networks. 3rd edn. Oxford.
Milroy, L. (1987). Observing and Analysing Natural Language: A Critical Account
of Sociolinguistic Method. London: Basil Blackwell.
Montgomery, M. 1995. An introduction to language and society. 3rd edn. London.

The Importance Of English Language English Language Essay

The usage of English Language has become significant in our daily life. It is a fact that English Language is the language that is used globally in the world nowadays. Many countries’ governments practise English Language as the formal language to carry out their jobs and to complete the paper works. In conjunction with the global trend, the English Language society of SMK Pandan Indah has planned some activities to be carried out in the school compound since the beginning of the year. This is implemented so that the students of the school can be exposed to the importance of English Language.

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Aims and Objectives of Programmes
With the support from school administration, the English Language society manages to carry out the English programmes for all the students to participate in. There are few aims for the programmes to be held. First of all, the English Language society wishes to fully make English Language to be visible in the school compound. To make the English Language to be visible in the school compound, five essential skills are needed to be promoted among the students, that are reading, listening, speaking, writing and grammar. All the students must master all these skills to avoid being eliminated from the global trend.
Besides, the second aim English Language society conducts English programmes is to make use of English as the medium of communication. Nowadays, english has become vividly important in the world. Many countries use English as the mean in carrying out the administration work. Being able to speak in English is not a strange anymore. Students who are not able to communicate English with people will be eliminated from the global trend. As we all know, the world nowadays becomes very competitive and undergoing rapid changes. Students must be able to improve themselves from time to time. Mastering English Language is unavoidable anymore.
To support with the aims being set, English Language society has planned two activities to be carried out throughout the year. The first programme is “learn a phrase a day”. The objective is to boost up students’ confidence by standing up on the stage to speak in English. This activity will provide a medium for students to practise their English publicly. Through this programme, the students are also able to improve their pronunciation of English. Students of new era are weak in pronunciating the correct way of English words. From this activity, students are expected to learn the correct pronunciation of English words. Moreover, students will have the chances to boost up own confidence when presenting in English in front of the audience.
The second programme is “English Fortnight”. In that two weeks, many activities will be organised by English Language society. This is to promote the use of English when participating in competitions.The students will be exposed to the importance of English Language through a series of activities being carried out. They should not only focus on their ‘mother tongue’ respectively, but to learn other languages as well. Through the activities, students are expected to equip themselves with fluent English as it will be very helpful to them in the future.
Duration of Programmes
At the beginning of the year, English Language society officiated the “learn a phrase a day” activity at the assembly. An opening ceremony was held on 10th of January, 2011. This activity was being carried out throughout the whole year. Everyday before assembly commences, the activity was held on. It took up around 5 to 10 minutes for every presentation.
For “English Fortnight”, it was held at the midst of the year, which was around the end of April to the beginning of May. The opening ceremony for “English Forthnight” was held on 25th of April, 2011. The programme lasted for two weeks consecutively. A series of activities was planned to be organised for all the students to participate in.
Both programmes were carried out during schooling hours. For morning session, the programmes were held on from 7.20am until 1.20pm for Mondays to Thursdays, and from 7.20am until 12.45pm for every Friday. Meanwhile, for afternoon session of schooling, it is from 1.20pm until 6.45pm for every Monday and Friday, and for Fridays, the schooling hours are from 2.20pm until 6.45pm.
Target Group
Both programmes were being carried out with its specific target group. For the programme “Learn a phrase a day”, students of form four were required to take turn to present at the daily assembly. For afternoon session, students of form one and form two needed to send representatives for each class to give presentations on the stage everyday. Students of form three and form five were excluded as they were informed by the school administration to concentrate fully on government examinations, that were PMR and SPM.
Meanwhile, “English Fortnight” was planned to involve every student of each form. There were numerous activities that took place for specific form of students to join. For examples, essay writing competition was held and targeted on form three and form five students. Choir singing competition was held for every form of students. Form one and form two’s students were involved in poem recitation competition. Impromptu speech competition was organised targeted for form four’s students.
Report on implementation of Programmes
Learn A Phrase A Day
“Learn a phrase a day” was the major programme that was held according to the school policy. The programme was subdivided in to two parts. On Mondays, students selected were required to deliver speeches in English. For Tuesdays to Fridays, students were required to choose a phrase to present on the stage. The phrase could be selected from idioms, vocabularies, and so on. One week before the presentation of phrases, English teachers would guide the classes to elect few students for the presentation. For every presentation, two students would be selected. One would hold a manilla card written with the phrases of the day while the other one would explain the phrases to all the students in the assembly. The meaning, and the example are needed to be provided by the presenter so that all the students would get to understand the phrases better.
For every Monday, one student would be needed for the presentation only and the respective student was required to present a speech. The speeches presented by the students must be conducted in English Language.
The mean to select students for the presentations was on the teachers’ discretion. They could either choose the representatives by themselves, or being democratic by organising the voting session. In the morning session, form four students were involved in it only. Hence, every of the students in form four had to take turn to present on the stage according to the ascending order of the class name lists. Excuses such as sore throat, stomachache, or headache were not being accepted for them to skip the presentations, unless they could have the medical certificate verified from the doctors as the proves. Nevertheless, they could exchange the position for presentation with their classmates, with the base that the particular student agreed with the exchange.
For form one and form two’s students, the programme started from students of form two. This was because form two’s students had adapted to the new studying environment after studying in the school for one year. Form one’s students were still undergoing a period to adapt to the new studying environment and new rules and regulations. Their session started after March of 2011.
The school’s top administration would become the panel of judges to evaluate the performance of each presenter. The marks were allocated based on the pronunciation of the phrases, the content of the presentation, and the combination of gesture. The marks were collected to be accumulated until the end of the year. It was not an individual competition, but a class competition. Classes accumulated with the highest marks would be awarded with the RM500 and hamper worth RM200. Eventually, 4K class won the champion away for morning session while for afternoon session, 1S defeated other classes and took the prizes away.
English Fortnight
“English Fortnight” was the second major programme organised by English Language society. It was held from 25th of April, 2011 until 6th of May, 2011. A series of activities and competitions were planned accordingly.
The first activity of the programme was choir singing competition. Every form of students were required to take part in it. Every class had to prepare a song to perform. The selection of songs was on their discretion, but with one criteria that all the songs must be performed in English. One week was given to them for the preparation work. The competition held on 3rd of May, 2011 in the school hall. The performance will be judged by few criteria, that were the combination of gesture, the rhythms of the songs and the content of the songs. Use of costumes was optional too. They could prepare some equipment to aid in their performance. Each class had to finish their performance within 8 minutes. There were 3 judges responsible for the adjudication, that were Mr. Herman, Ms. Wong, and Ms Geraldine. The competition went well as scheduled. Each of class performed well and the judges had the hard time to choose the winners. For the morning session, 4K emerged as the champion with the song titled “Love is Colour Blind”. The first runner up went to 3S with their song “You Raise Me Up”. The second runner up went to 5K, who sang “Hero”. Meanwhile, 2B won the champion away for the afternoon session. 1M won the first runner up while third place went to 1K. The champion received cash RM 200 and hamper worth RM100. The first runner up would receive cash RM 150 and hamper worth RM50 while cash RM 100 was given to the second runner up. The champion teams were required to perform once again on the stage during the closing ceremony.
Essay writing competition was another activity being held on. The competition targeted on form three and form five’s students. Each class had to send two representatives to take part in the competition. The competition was held in the language room. The title of the essay writing was “The role of English Language in the future”. All the participants were given one and a half hour to complete the essay. The essay must be at least 350 words. Mr Illamaran and Ms Toh were the judges to mark the essays. The winners name list was announced during closing ceremony. The champion would receive hamper worth RM100. The first runner up would have a hamper worth RM50 while the second runner up would receive hamper RM30. Eventually, Cedric Koh from class 5K emerged as the champion and Mohd Hashim Hafiz won the first runner up place. The master pieces of them were pasted on the board and were uploaded into the school buletins.
Besides, there was an impromptu speech competition which was specially for form four’s students. Each class had to send a representative to participate the competition. The competition was carried out on 28th of April, 2011. On that day, all the participants were needed to gather at language room at 9am sharp. Participants were given the topics on the spot. They chose the topics by drawing from a box prepared. 5 minutes was given to them to prepare after they getting their topics respectively. Marks will be allocated on the combination of gesture, the content, the fluency of the speech, and the vocabularies. Ms Jamielah and Mr. Lim were the judges to evaluate the participants’ performances. Some gave up as the topics they got were too difficult and they were not able to think critically for the speech. Meanwhile, some students managed to perform well and they spoke in English fluently. Both panels had the hard time choosing the final winners for the competition. Damian Phun from class 5K emerged as the champion with the score 91 out of 100 marks. He took away hamper worth RM200 and cash RM200. Both judges were stunned with his impressive performance when his turn to deliver the speech.
For the poem recitation competition, it took place in the school hall. Every class in the afternoon session were required to have a representative to participate in the competition. It was the last activity carried out in English Fortnight. Each participant was allowed to recite the poem of their choice within 5 minutes. Mr. Ong and Ms Lim were the panels to evaluate the performance of all the participants. They allocated the marks for the pronunciation of the grammars, the gesture, and the rhythm of the poem. All the participants prepared well as they managed to recite the poems with different rhythms. All the students applaused for their great performances to show their supports. The champion of the competition was Caryn Chang from class 2S with the poem entitled “Road Not Taken”. She took away cash RM200 and hamper worth RM200. Derek Lim for class 1M scored the first runner up place and take away cash RM100 and hamper worth RM100. His poem was “Mama”. The second runner up went to Audrey Lim from class 2B with the poem titled “Loneliness”.
Strengths and Weaknesses of Programmes
The implementation of both programmes were a success. All the activities went well smoothly. To have a better performance in organising programmes in the future, English Language society had numerous meetings to discuss about the progress of the programmes and to analyse both programmes.
For the strengths analysed, English Language society appreciated for teachers and students’ full cooperation. All the teachers had played their part according to the organising committees set. Any arguments incurred the teachers would calm down first before discussing in order to find out the solutions. The students were cooperative too as most of them were active in participating in the programmes designed. They were not shy to take part in it, vice versa, they volunteered themselves to represent the class respectively in the competitions.
Through the programmes planned by the English Language society, all the students were given a chance to expose to the use of English. They had the opportunity to practise English in the daily life. Some of the students realised the importance of English and began to speak in English when communicating with students or even teachers. As the saying goes “Rome was not built in one day”, learning English is not simple, and we should figure out the different ways to improve English respectively. Through writings, students would be able to increase the vocabularies. The writing skills would be increased too. Through speaking, students would be confidence to communicate with others in English. They would not be shy to speak in English. Though listening, students would tend to understand what others say. They would not be blurred with what others say. Indirectly this will greatly enhance the discussions among students and establish good relationship among each other. In short, the programmes provided a medium for all the students to learn English and to speak English among them.
Without support from parents and school administration, both programmes would not success. During the planning of the programmes, English Language society received great support from both parties. This indirectly boost up the progress of the plannings and the programmes were very successful. School administration had contributed the equipment needed such as PA system, the classroom and so on. Meanwhile, parents had played their part in encouraging their children to take part in the competitions organised.
Morever, English Language society managed to seek for sponsorship from outsiders. The committee members approached to local companies to request for sponsorships of the hampers. The companies were willing to play their part in corporate social responsibilities by sponsoring the hampers and providing the incentives as the fund of the programmes.
Nevertheless, English Language society had noticed few weaknesses that are needed to improve. First of all, in some competitions such as impromptu speech competition, most of the participants were “old faces”. All these participants were the school representatives for speech competitions. Indirectly this will discourage other students to take part as they think that they will definitely lose to the school representatives. Their confidence was gone before competing.
Besides, the PA system of the school was old and not modern enough. During competitions such as choir singing competitions, the committee members often faced the problem that PA system was malfunctioning. The competition could not go smoothly. The malfunctioning of PA system nearly caused the competition to be delayed and could not finish on time.
Furthermore, in the progress of the competitions, some students tend to give excuses such as going to toilets to leave the classroom. Indeed they went to watch the competitions and support their classmates. They would rather played truancy to watch the competitions that staying in the class to study. School’s disciplinary will be affected when the outsiders know.
Suggestions and Recommendations
In order to maintain the English programmes at high spirit, English Language society would like to share some suggestions and recommendations for improvements. First of all, English Language society would wish that the school administration would give the permission to extend the activities to be carried out outside the formal schooling hours, regardless the time and places. This is to enable the students or parents to watch the competitions and to give support to the participants. For the broken PA system, the school administration is advised to take immediate action to send the PA system for repairing and maintenance in order to maintain the good quality of the equipment.
Furthermore, teachers should often encourage the students to speak English in the class through a series of indoor activities. Teachers are the ones who colour the students’ life, hence they should be good role models by speaking English with the students. Monitors are ought to lead the class to talk in English too. Students will be influenced when most of the students speak in English. Students should not tease those who are weaker in English, vice versa, they should become guiders to help them improve their English.
In a nutshell, the programmes planned by English Language society had hopefully generated positive effects towards the students, teachers, or even parents. As the saying goes, “Practices Make Perfect”, students should always bear the quote in mind and begin the trend of speaking English. The English Language society will keep the hard work up and plan the similar programmes next few years to benefit all the students and make English Language becomes more visible in the school compound.

Psychological Novel in English Literature

“A psychological novel, also called psychological realism, is a work of prose fiction which places more than the usual amount of emphasis on interior characterization, and on the motives, circumstances, and internal action which springs from, and develops, external action. The psychological novel is not content to state what happens but goes on to explain the motivation of this action. In this type of writing character and characterization are more than usually important, and they often delve deeper into the mind of a character than novels of other genres. The psychological novel can be called a novel of the “inner man”, so to say. In some cases, the stream of consciousness technique, as well as interior monologues, may be employed to better illustrate the inner workings of the human mind at work. Flashbacks may also be featured.” (

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The period (1900-1950) witnessed a great change in the novel and a variety of many and different kinds of novels emerged within this period. Before the rise of the psychological novel, there used to be the traditional novel in which the writer “told his stories for their own sake, keeping himself and his ideas out of them, and drawing his characters mainly from the outside, clearly seen figures in a clearly observed world.” (133) However, writers like Richardson and Fielding involved their own philosophy of life to their novels. Dickens started using the novel as a tool for the reform of “social evils” in his society.
Psychoanalysis began to appear with the late Victorian writers. With the late Victorian period, “psychological analysis” began to appear in novels like that of Henry James. James focused on the motives and psychology of his characters rather than their actions. This depended on the reader’s part in the novel; the reader not reads the novel, but also analyses the characters. (132, 133)
Both the French and Russian Novels influenced the English novel to a great extent. There was and an attack on the traditional English novel. By the nineties, George Moore and Someres Maugham were greatly influenced by the French novel. As Collins puts it, “French influence meant in part an aggressively frank realism… but more importantly it meant greater attention to structure and expression.” (137)
The Russian novel, however, had a much more and deeper impact on the traditional English novel after the publication of the translations of great writers such Tolstoy and Dostoevsky.
The Russian novel stressed the importance of the inner self and the subconscious. As Collins mentions in his book,      By the work of the Russian masters it was possible to realize      How much more deeply one could penetrate into the human soul      than English novelists had so far attempted. Many felt that in      comparison with such work the English novel appeared      provincial and soulless, half-blinded to the psychological      wonders of human personality. The influence of the Russian      novel came to a head in time to join the forces with the      psychology of the subconscious mind…The time was ripe for an      attempt to revolutionise the English novel. (137)
The stream of consciousness is one of the distinguishing features of a Psychological Novel. It is an important aspect of a Psychological Novel. The term “stream of consciousness” was coined by the American philosopher and psychologist, William James. It was used for the first time in the review that the novelist/philosopher, May Sinclair, in 1915, about the first volume of Samuel Richardson’s Pilgrimage. The stream of consciousness      refer[s] to a method of presenting, as if directly and without      meditation, the flowing or jagged sequence of thoughts,      perceptions, preconscious associations, memories, half-      realized impressions, and so on, of one or more characters-the      attempt, in fiction, to imitate the complete mental life as it      manifests itself in the ongoing present. (233)
The stream of consciousness technique has been widely used by many famous 20th century English and American novelists. It is used by James Joyce in his novel Ulysses. It is employed in nearly all of Virginia Woolf’s novels, namely; To the lighthouse, Mrs. Dalloway, The Waves, Jacob’s Room and Between the Acts. It is also used in William Faulkner’s The Sound and the Fury, As I Lay Dying and Absalom! Absalom!. Moreover, Samuel Beckett’s trilogy: Molloy, Malone Dies, The Unnamable as well as D.H. Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers and Women in Love are good examples of such a technique. However, the origin of the stream of consciousness technique is believed to go back to the eighteenth-century fiction.
William Faulkner’s The Sound and the Fury (1929), which is the main subject of this paper, is rich in the stream of consciousness technique, particularly the first three sections. In the first section, Benjy’s section, Faulkner uses the stream of consciousness to reflect the flow of thoughts inside Benjy’s mind. There is no chronological order in anything Benjy mentions. Rather, there are rapid time shifts for he relates a certain event and then goes on to speak about an entirely different event. Then he moves back to complete the first event or he might not. (revise the novel and provide example using quotation).
Another aspect that is related to the stream of consciousness technique and is obvious in this section is the association of images or the “preconscious associations” as Kawin so describes it. For example, the sound of the word “caddie” reminds Benjy of his sister Caddy. This shows that the reader is not only reading the novel and following its events, but the reader is also making deductions. Benjy is not saying that “caddie” reminds him of his sister Caddy, but it is the reader who deduces this idea. This is the role of the reader and this is what makes a psychological novel unique and different; the reader has a role in the novel. The characters do not say that they are using the stream of consciousness technique, but it is the reader who finds out this. In this respect, Kawin points out that      Benjy is not aware that X reminds him of Y and that he has      an attitude toward the difference between X and Y (he does not      say to himself that he misses Caddy, for instance). But the reader      deduces the meaning of the juxtaposition of X and Y, which is      his ‘thought,’ and his occasional bellowing can be taken as      further evidence (that he misses the Caddy he “thought of” when      he heard ‘caddie,’ though he cannot say this). (253)
Although the style of Benjy’s section is very simple and so is the vocabulary, this section is considered the most difficult in the whole novel. This is due to the fact that Benjy is an idiot with the mind of an infant. In addition, the present and the past are one thing for Benjy; he has no sense of time.
Faulkner again employs the stream of consciousness technique in the second section of this novel, which is Quentin’s section. Quentin’s section is easier to read than Benjy’s. One can follow with what he is saying whether italics are used or not to indicate his moving to relate a memory from the past. Unlike Benjy, Quentin completes every event that he relates to the very end. However, and like Benjy’s section, Quentin’s section is characterized by an extreme flow of thoughts when remembering certain memories during his last day before committing suicide.
Quentin, for example, describes his confrontation with Herbert, Caddy’s suitor, telling him to leave town and never try to see Caddy again:      I came to tell you to leave town      he broke a piece of bark deliberately dropped it carefully      into the water watched it float away      I said you must leave town      he looked at me      did she send you to me      I say you must go not my father not anybody I say it      listen save this for a while I want to know if shes all right      have they been bothering her up there      thats something you dont need to trouble yourself about      then I heard myself saying Ill give you until sundown to      leave town (159)
This is a typical example of the stream of consciousness technique, where there is no punctuation, no capitalization, and no full stops. This helps Quentin to reflect his thoughts without any kind of interruption. In addition, Quentin uses a past stream of consciousness in relating certain episodes in his life. This is due to the fact that the day in which he is speaking is the last day before his death. Quentin will commit suicide shortly after the last page of this section. This day is the only present for Quentin; everything else is past for him.
Quentin’s section is clearly different from Benjy’s and in explaining this difference, Chase claims in The American Novel and its Tradition:      In the Quentin section of The Sound and the Fury [the reader]      find[s] some of the same evocativeness of the Benjy section.      Events…assume new dimensions, because now they are called      forth in a fairly complicated and sophisticated mind. Quentin’s      mind like Benjy’s, in this respect, is obsessive and returns again      and again to a few images and ideas; and this gives a necessary      consistency to what might otherwise be an inchoate flow of      reminiscence and perception. (228)
The stream of consciousness technique is not used in the third section, Jason’s section, as much as it is used in Benjy’s and Quentin’s. Jason is not really obsessed with the past as Benjy and Quentin are. He is rather obsessed with his present financial situation; he only thinks of money and how to gain larger amounts of money. He is even ready to steal others if this is the only way for him and this is what he does with his niece, Quentin. He takes most of the money sent by her mother, Caddy, and leaves her very few pennies. Dilsey better describes Jason when she tells him, “You’s a cold man, Jason, if man you is” (207).
An example of the stream of consciousness technique in this section is when Jason remembers a series of past events such as having an idiot brother and a second brother who is a Harvard student who committed suicide. He also remembers his sister who committed promiscuity and since then it was ordered that her name should not be mentioned anymore in the house:      Like a man would naturally think, one of them is crazy      And another one drowned himself and the other one was      turned out into the street by her husband, what’s the rea-      son the rest of them are not crazy too. All the time I could      see them watching me like a hawk, waiting for a chance to      say Well I’m not surprised I expected it all the time the      whole family’s crazy. Selling land to send him to Harvard…       (233)
As for the fourth and last section, Dilsey’s section, it focuses on Dilsey, the negro servant in the Compson house and mentioning any missing details in the previous three sections. Although this section is devoted to Dilsey, after whom this section is named, it is narrated in the third person point of view unlike the other three sections of the three brothers. The stream of consciousness technique is not employed in this section. On the other hand,      [t]he final section offers us the first straightforward narrative.      Here Faulkner adjusts his style to fit the character of Dilsey. We      have a quiet, dignified style; the reader is presented the events of      the fourth section without any comment or without any      complicated sentence structure. And in the light of the other      three sections narrated by a Compson, this final section has      a strong sense of control and order.
Faulkner uses the stream of consciousness technique in the first three sections and this narrative technique indeed distinguishes these sections. However, when Faulkner dispenses with it in the last section, he is still able to give Dilsey’s section an air of uniqueness. Of all the characters in The Sound and the Fury, Dilsey ‘appeals’ much to the readers. This is something intended by Faulkner in his novel. Dilsey accepts things as they really are; she lives in the real world. As a result, when all the other characters are at loss, Dilsey is “morally active”.
Another important feature of a Psychological Novel that is employed by William Faulkner in The Sound and the Fury, particularly the first three sections is the interior monologue. The interior monologue is “[a] technique of recording the continuum of impressions, thoughts and impulses either prompted by conscious experience or arising from the well of the subconscious.” The interior monologue is the inner voice of the character. It does not only reveal the psychology of each character, but also how each character differs in their reaction toward certain people or events. The interior monologue shows that not all the characters think the same way.
William Faulkner has used the interior monologue narrative technique with Benjy, Quentin and Jason to uncover the attitude and feelings of each towards their sister, Caddy. In the first section, Caddy is portrayed as the caring and loving sister. She is a source of joy and comfort for Benjy. She is always looking after him and that is why he loves her more than any of his two brothers. When reading the first section, one can realize that nearly all of Benjy’s memories are associated with Caddy. She is the one whose picture is still present intensively in his mind because she has played the greater role in his life.
In the second section, Quentin’s inner voice makes the reader find out that he truly loves his sister, Caddy. Even when he knows about her promiscuity, he tries to help her and stand by her side rather than pose difficulties upon her; he confesses to his father that he has committed incest with his sister in order to make it appear that it is his own fault.
In the third section, the interior monologue reveals how much Jason hates his sister, Caddy. He greatly supports the idea that her name should not be mentioned anymore in the house in order to forget the shame she has brought the family. However, he takes from the money she sends her daughter and he leaves his niece very few amounts of what her mother sends her.
Thus the sound and the fury is a good example of a psychological novel in exemplifying through the stream of consciousness technique.

Growth and Change in the English Language

English is a rich and colorful language that is constantly in flux. The English language has evolved over time, the way all languages do. As members of a society grow and develop, so too must the tools they use to communicate with each other. As Coulmas points out, ‘languages are often said to reflect the social realities of their speech communities’ (1989, p. 2). Since social realities are constantly shifting, the language that reflects them must adapt as well. This is particularly true of English. One reason for this is that there are so many variations of the language itself. In addition, it is such a widely spoken language, and it is spoken by people in all parts of the world. ‘Non-native speakers of English now outnumber native speakers 3 to1’, according to a recent Newsweek report (Power, 2006, par. 4). In addition, non-native speakers of English not only learn the language, they change it: ‘the new English-speakers aren’t just passively absorbing the language they’re shaping it’ (Power, 2006, par. 5).
Changes in Grammar and Vocabulary
Even among native speakers of English, the language constantly evolves. ‘Language itself provides the seeds of change, and social circumstances provide fertile ground for their growth and spread’ (Wolfram,2005, par. 3). We can see this in the grammar and syntax of the language, as well as in the vocabulary. Grammar, for example, has changed gradually over the years. A recent example of this is the need to reflect a new awareness of gender equality. In contemporary usage, instead of always using the male pronoun, speakers and writers employ a variety of ways to acknowledge the equality between the genders. At times, he or she is used. As an alternative,many times people will simply use the plural forms, since they refer to both males and females.

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Vocabulary changes because new things are constantly invented, and we need ways to name them, and to communicate about them. When new inventions,or new concepts, become part of our lives, we need to have words for them. For example, with the invention of the Internet, new words had to be coined so that people would have a way of discussing it. And since the influence of the Internet continues to grow, new words are continually invented, or borrowed, to categorize the many concepts that have become pertinent to our lives. ‘Innovation in language is necessary because there is a constant need to name novel objects, processes, and relations, asserts Coulmas (1989, p. 15). The options available to a speech community when it needs a new word for a new idea or invention are limited, however. Coulmas breaks it down as follows: ‘When a speech community wants to express a concept for which there is no word in its language it can either borrow one from another language or coin a new one; it can, in other words, borrow the form and the meaning or the meaning only'(1989, p. 15).
English Language from a Linguistic Perspective
Linguists explain that language, by its very definition, must change and develop overtime in order to meet the needs of an increasingly complex society. Language is seen by linguistic experts as a fluid and constantly evolving tool, one that must adapt in order to continue to meet the needs of the individuals who use it. Occasionally, a language may suffer a period of stagnation, or it may even go through a period of deterioration. Coulmas discusses this, and explains that languages tend to have a basic resiliency that allows them to get past these periods and continue to develop: ‘In the course of history, languages have been known to adapt successfully, thus recovering their full communicative potential after a period of retardation or degeneration’ (Coulmas, 1989, p. 4).
Aitchison explains that human language is a communication system used by humans, but that it is hardly the only system that exists. Other life forms communicate, too,although their medium is not words. The methods these other life forms use to communicate shift over time to accommodate changes in the needs of those who use it. Human language is no different. ‘Human language is not unique among animal communication systems in its tendency to alter itself continually’asserts Aitchison (2001, p. 95). However, she swiftly points out that it is only recently in the twentieth century that linguists have come to develop plausible theories about the ways in which language changes, and the reasons those changes occur (Aitchison, 2001, p. 95).
One of the pioneers of linguistic research is Labov, whose years of research in the field have provided a basic framework for later investigation by other linguists. Labov’s studies on language and language change have been hugely influential. His basic premise is that ‘one cannot understand the development of a language change apart from the social life of the community in which it occurs’ (Labov, 1972, p. 3). This means that the study of language alone is insufficient; the language must be studied within the larger framework of the culture it reflects. The conditions of that culture, historically, socially,economically all play a role in the evolution of that culture’s language.
In keeping with Labov’s theory, Aitchison suggests that language developments happen as a direct consequence of events that occur with in a cultural setting. According to Aitchison, ‘a social trigger is needed to ignite a change’ (2001, p. 98). She then goes on to explain that these changes do not happen at random, but that there are deeper causes at work. She separates these causes as being either “natural tendencies” or “therapeutic changes’ (p. 98). Natural tendencies, she explains, are part of a normal and expected linguistic process. An example of this is the tendency for members of a speech community to drop the final consonants of their words. This has happened in other languages, and it is now happening in English as well(Aitchison, 2001, p. 99). Therapeutic changes, on the other hand, are forged by speakers of the language for purposes that may not be initially evident. An example of this is politeness, and the desire to avoid confrontation. Humans learn to create constructions that will be less likely to stir up unpleasant interactions (Aitchison, 2001, p. 100).
‘Some changes have overt prestige: speakers regard certain pronunciations as “classy”, and they want to talk that way themselves’ (Aitchison, 2001, p. 96). Speakers of a language consciously and unconsciously become aware of certain levels of speech within their language.In order to advance socially, then, some people adopt the words that are spoken by individuals they perceive to be on a higher social level. In so doing, they believe that they will improve their own status. This may work to greater or lesser degrees. However, this can also result in other consequences, such as’ hyper correction’ ‘Hyper correction’, Aitchison explains, ‘tends to occur in fairly formal styles, when people are trying to speak in a careful way,especially if they are insecure, and want to impress those around’ (Aitchison,2001, p. 96).
Once a language is no longer capable of growth and change, it dies out. Languages that are no longer used, then, are no longer growing. Languages like Ancient Greek and Latin are examples of this. They are alive only in the sense that they area key to past civilizations, but they are no longer used as a means of verbal communication. One linguist writes, ‘change is one of the inevitable facts in the life of any language. The only language not in a perpetual state of flux isa dead language’ (Wolfram, 2005, par. 3).
English, clearly,is alive and thriving, and it continues to change in ways that were never thought possible. As Power notes, ‘all languages are works in progress. ButEnglish’s globalization, unprecedented in the history of languages, will revolutionize it in ways we can only begin to imagine’ (2006, par. 6).
As this paper has demonstrated, English is a rich language that is spoken all over the world, by natives and non-natives alike. As such, it is in a constant state of evolution. As members of a speech community grow and develop, their language must grow and adapt along with them. Social realities constantly shift, and language clearly reflects that shift, through grammar and syntax as well as through the vocabulary itself. Linguists describe and explain these changes in a number of ways; the discipline of linguistics, much like language itself, is continually evolving and developing as new researchers and new theories come along. English is unique in its ubiquity and in its ability to adapt and reinvent itself, and will certainly continue to change and thrive in years to come.
Reference List
Aitchison, Jean.2001. Language Change. Pps. 95-104 in The Routledge Companion to Semiotics and Linguistics, ed. Cobley, Paul. London: Routledge.
Cobley, Paul, ed.2001. The Routledge Companion to Semiotics and Linguistics. London: Routledge.
Coulmas, Florian.1989. Language Adaptation. Pps. 1-25 in Language Adaptation, ed. Coulmas, Florian. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Labov, William. 1972. Socioloinguistic Patterns. Philadelphia: University of
Pennsylvania Press.
Power, Carla.2006. Not the Queen’s English. Newsweek International Edition.
Accessedon February 14, 2006, from
Wolfram, Walt. 2005.The Truth About Change. Accessed February 14, 2006, from