Potential for Pedagogical Documentation to Enhance Children’s Participation

Introduction

The problem to be addressed by this study is that despite the potential for pedagogical documentation to enhance children’s participation, little is known about whether it is used for this purpose (Emilson & Pramling Samuelsson, 2014; Knauf, 2017; MacDonald & Hill, 2018; Pettersson, 2015; Rintakorpi, 2016). Specifically, it is unclear if, or how early childhood educators in the United States use pedagogical documentation to enhance children’s meaningful participation.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

In fact, researchers have found that early childhood educators have the power to give children voice but trivialize their meaningful involvement (Leinonen et al., 2014; Paananen & Lipponen, 2018; Pettersson, 2015). Therefore, research is needed to explore early childhood educators’ perceptions on their use of pedagogical documentation to understand children’s perspectives and enhance their participatory pedagogy. This knowledge can then be shared with other educators to facilitate their own practice of documentation to make children’s perspectives visible and increase children’s meaningful participation.

The purpose of this chapter is to introduce the research methodology for this qualitative study regarding early child educators’ perceptions about their use of pedagogical documentation to enhance children’s participation. Through a social constructivist lens, the application of a qualitative methodology using a case study design with a phenomenological approach will be discussed in detail in this chapter. The population and sample, materials and instruments, study procedures, data collection and analysis processes, assumptions, limitations, delimitations, and ethical assurances will be discussed and supported with literature.

Research Methodology and Design

A social constructivist worldview allows researchers to understand the world in which we live (Creswell, 2013). Through social constructivism, researchers seek meaning through the complexity of views, rather than narrowly confine meaning to a few groupings or concepts (Creswell, 2013). Social constructivism is an appropriate paradigm for a qualitative methodology, which allows for an interpretive, subjective approach to research.

Qualitative research allows the researcher to explore a phenomenon in its natural setting to gain a deeper understanding of said phenomenon; it is not mean to be generalizable, as in quantitative studies (Denizen & Lincoln, 2011). Lincoln and Guba (2000) indicate that qualitative research begins with a broad question, which allows for the inductive process of data collection and analysis and facilitates an in-depth understanding of a phenomenon. Merriam (2009) states, “Qualitative researchers are interested in understanding how people interpret their experiences, how they construct their worlds, and what meaning they attribute to their experiences (p.5). To understand another’s perspectives about their own experience with a phenomenon, it is critical to collect data that are rich and thick in content (Denizen & Lincoln, 2011; Moustakas, 1994).

Single case studies are used to investigate real-life phenomena that are contextually bound, as they occur in their natural context (Yin, 2003). Additionally, case studies allow researchers to examine data on a smaller, more personal level to gain an in-depth understanding of the phenomenon (Merriam, 2009). Through case studies, researchers develop an understanding of the participant’s lived experiences as expressed in their own words (Merriam, 2009). In this way, case studies can give insight into the complexities that relate to the reader’s real life, everyday experiences (Crawford, 2016). Yin (2003) further notes that the rationale for selecting a single case study is when one wants to capture the essence of a representative, or everyday situation.

According to Moustakas (1994), phenomenological researchers explore the lived experiences of a group of people within a certain context, when it is important to understand the shared experience to develop a deeper understanding of the phenomenon. Asking broad, general, open-ended questions allows the researcher to understand the common experiences of the participants, while the interpretive and flexible nature of phenomenology allows the researcher to be prepared for anything unexpected or unplanned (Bloomberg & Volpe, 2015; Creswell, 2013; Moustakas, 1994). Additionally, phenomenological researchers strive to understand the essence of a phenomenon from the perspectives of the participants and rely as much as possible on the participants’ own views, bracketing out their own experiences as much as possible (Creswell, 2013).

A qualitative, single case study using a phenomenological approach is well aligned to nature of this study which is to gain a deeper understanding of early childhood educators’ perspectives on their use of pedagogical documentation. For this particular study, a phenomenological single case study was selected for its ability to provide a deeper understanding of early childhood educators’ perspectives about their use of pedagogical documentation. In Reggio-inspired preschools, pedagogical documentation occurs on a daily basis; therefore, a single case study on Reggio inspired early childhood educators’ use of pedagogical documentation to enhance children’s participation can yield results that may be transferrable to other Reggio-inspired preschools (Bloomberg, 2017). Yin (2003) delineates between the case and the boundaries of the case. The cases in this study are the early childhood educators who use pedagogical documentation, bounded by the preschool setting and Reggio-inspired context.

Taking a phenomenological approach will help provide rich, thick descriptions of how early childhood educators experience and perceive pedagogical documentation. A phenomenological approach will also allow me to begin with broad, open ended questions and gradually narrow the focus to determine the common, shared experiences of the educators’ use of pedagogical documentation (Moustakas, 1994). In this way, it will be possible to better understand if and how early childhood educators use pedagogical documentation to enhance children’s participation.

A constructivist approach to grounded theory, as explained by Charmaz (2006) was considered for this study, however, due to the exploratory nature of this study, it would be presumptuous to attempt to develop a theory regarding early childhood educators’ use of pedagogical documentation to enhance children’s meaningful participation at this early stage of research.  Grounded theorists move beyond describing a phenomenon, as is the purpose of this study, and seek to generate a theory based on participants’ experiences (Charmaz, 2006).

Neither the narrative approach nor an ethnography was considered appropriate for this study, for the former focuses on the life of an individual, while the latter focuses on a long-term study of a shared culture (Creswell, 2013). The central purpose of a phenomenological case study is to study a concept or phenomenon as experienced by the individuals in a specific case (Creswell, 2013). In this study, the specific case is early childhood educators bounded by a Reggio-inspired preschool and the phenomenon under study is their use of pedagogical documentation to enhance children’s meaningful participation.

Population and Sample

The target population for this study are early childhood educators who use pedagogical documentation in their everyday practice. Purposive sampling will be used to collect data from early childhood educators to better understand their perceptions on their use of pedagogical documentation to enhance children’s participation. Purposive sampling is a method whereby participants are deliberately chosen for their ability to provide the necessary data to better understand the phenomenon under study (Creswell, 2013). Data will be collected from a purposive sample of 12 early childhood educators from a Reggio-inspired preschool in Southern California. This site was selected for its self-proclaimed social constructivist, Reggio-inspired philosophy.

The educators at the selected site embrace the Reggio notion of the hundred languages of children and understand that educators have a significant role in the process of children’s learning. At this site, educators create environments, activities, and opportunities for children through the process of talking, listening, and observing young children. In this way, these educators collaborate with children in the co-construction of their learning. Additionally, the educators at this center had previously traveled to Reggio Emilia, Italy where they participated in an International Student and Professor Study Group. At this conference, these educators toured the Infant/Toddler and Preschools of Reggio Emilia, spent time with the teachers and children, participated in discussion groups, and viewed documentations at the Loris Malaguzzi Center. It is expected that this sample of educators and administrators will provide useful information about their perceptions about the use of pedagogical documentation to enhance children’s participation.

In qualitative research, data saturation “relates to the degree to which new data repeat what was expressed in previous data” (Saunders et al., 2018, p. 1897). It is a criterion for knowing when enough data has been collected until no new data emerges. In phenomenological research, data saturation can be understood in relation to information provided by an individual participant in the course of an interview or through questionnaires (Saunders et al., 2018). Legard, Keegan, and Ward (2003) state that data saturation occurs when “the researcher feels they have reached saturation, a full understanding of the participant’s perspectives” (p. 152). Differing from the deductive approach of theoretical saturation, data saturation is an inductive approach which occurs during data collection, rather than the process of analysis (Legard et al., 2003). Van Manen, Higgins, and van der Reit (2016) suggest that saturation is not associated with interpretative phenomenological analysis, however, judgments of data saturation will be made during this study by the researcher based on each participant’s responses and the notion of informational redundancy, meaning, when no new information is forthcoming.

Materials/Instrumentation

An open-ended survey using the online software tool Qualtrics will be used to collect the data for this study. For the participants, an online survey is convenient, for they can answer questions at their own chosen time and place. For the researcher, an online survey is inexpensive to use, saves time, and reduces potential errors in data transcription (Ponto, 2015). The questionnaire will be developed by the researcher using an open-ended format which will allow each of the educators to answer honestly and candidly, and so that educators may clarify their answers if they desire.

 Questions will be developed based on literature previously reviewed, including Hart’s ladder of participation and Shier’s pathways toward participation, and will be aligned to answer the research questions involving educators’ perceptions about their image of the child, children’s perspectives, children’s participation, and pedagogical documentation (see Appendix B; Bloomberg, 2017a). The answers to the questionnaire will be manually evaluated for emerging themes throughout the survey responses. It is understood that themes originate from the review of the literature, from common sense constructs, and from the researcher’s own values, theoretical orientation, and personal and professional experience (Bloomberg, 2017b). However, Bloomberg (2017b) does caution against too much prior theorizing, which can hinder the construction of new ideas and the ability to make unexpected associations.

The choice to create original questions for the survey instead of previously formulated questions was due to this newly emerging area of research. Before implementation, the survey questions will be appraised by two experts in the field of early childhood education to ensure that the questionnaire will elicit the necessary information to answer the research questions.

Study Procedures

Institutional Review Board (IRB) will be sought from Northcentral University prior to any data collection. Once approval is received, the researcher will send an email to the center director informing her of IRB approval and asking permission to send a letter of recruitment (see Appendix C) and Northcentral University’s informed consent form (see Appendix D) via email to recruit potential participants at the site. After reading the letter of informed consent, those who wish to participate will sign and return the form, then click the link to the Qualtrics survey provided in the body of the email.

To ensure confidentiality, no demographic data will be collected from the participants, and no distinguishing characteristics of the site will be disclosed. Although the researcher will know which participant filled out which survey, participants will be assigned a letter (A, B, C, etcetera) to identify their individual responses. Physical data will be stored in a locked file cabinet in the researcher’s home office and online data will be stored on a password protected computer that is accessed only by the researcher (Creswell, 2013). According to NCU’s IRB policy, data will be kept for a period of seven years after the close of the study.

Additionally, participants will be assured that they may skip any question they do not wish to answer, as well as opt out of the study at any time with no adverse consequences. Participants will have two weeks to complete the survey. An email reminder will be sent to those participants who have not yet completed the survey one week after the initial email, and then again one day before the survey closes. Data will be analyzed from those that responded to the survey.

Data Collection and Analysis

Data will be collected from a sample of 12 early childhood educators from a Reggio-inspired preschool in Southern California via Qualtrics, an online survey tool, and analyzed using a variety of techniques to ensure that all themes are identified (Bloomberg, 2017b). Data analysis will begin with line by line coding and a thorough exploration of the text via word-based and tactile approaches.

Survey responses will be read line by line to identify key words in context (KWIC), color-code clearly visible themes, and re-read to search for themes that remain unmarked (Bloomberg, 2017b). Bloomberg (2017b) recommends that researchers live with the data, therefore, tactile approaches, such as pawing the data and cutting and sorting will also be utilized. Pawing the data consists of proofreading the material and underlining key phrases so the researcher can get a feel for the text by handling the data multiple times and waiting for patterns to emerge (Bloomberg, 2017b). Cutting and pasting is a more sophisticated form of pawing, whereby the researcher cuts and pastes quotations in context and physically sorts and organizes these quotes into piles. These piles then become themes. Bloomberg states that cutting and pasting “systematically describes how themes are distributed across participants” (slide 18). Bloomberg (2017b) cautions novice researchers against overfitting the data, meaning, finding only what they are looking for. To avoid this, Bloomberg suggests that researchers search for missing information within the data as well.

In qualitative studies, it is imperative that issues of credibility, dependability, confirmability, and transferability be addressed (Bloomberg, 2017c). Credibility will be established through the process of triangulation through verifying sources via literature as well as member checking (Bloomberg, 2017c). Additionally, after reflecting on her own personal expectations and assumptions about early childhood education and pedagogical documentation, the researcher will strive to read and analyze the data with transparency of any personal biases. Keeping a journal about any thoughts and ideas that occur during the analytic process will further ensure reflection and transparency on the part of the researcher. These field notes may also be used as an audit trail to address any concerns regarding dependability and confirmability (Bloomberg, 2017c). Finally, readers will determine whether results will be transferable to their specific sites through the descriptions that were provided regarding the purposive sample and the rich, thick descriptions that will be provided in the results and discussion sections of this study (Bloomberg, 2017c).

Assumptions

Assumptions in research are what one presumes to be true, without which the study would become irrelevant (Simon, 2011). One assumption for this study is that the participants have some experience with the process of pedagogical documentation. This was determined by their status as a Reggio-inspired preschool where pedagogical documentation is a daily practice. Additionally, because confidentiality will be assured, it is assumed the participants will be honest and accurate in their responses to the questions asked (Simon, 2011).

Limitations

Limitations are potential weaknesses in a study, and as such, the researcher must be transparent in their acknowledgement of a study’s limitations and attempts to mitigate them (Simon, 2011). One limitation to this study is the inclusion of educators from only one early childhood center. It is acknowledged that including educators from other Reggio-inspired preschools might yield a more information about phenomenon of pedagogical documentation; however, in qualitative research, it is understood that to achieve thick, rich descriptions, quality is preferred over quantity of responses. Another limitation is the use of a survey questionnaire. While this means of data collection is convenient for the researcher and participants, it is acknowledged that there may be a low response rate. Furthermore, an online survey does not afford the researcher an opportunity to clarify participant responses (Roberts & Allen, 2015). However, a benefit of this method of data collection is that it limits any undue influence on the part of the researcher and saves valuable time in the process of data transcription (Simon, 2011).

Delimitations

Delimitations in research are boundaries set by the researcher to ensure the goals of the study will be reached (Simon, 2011). For this study, early childhood educators from one Reggio-inspired early childcare center in Southern California were selected as participants of this study. The choice of limiting the number of childcare centers to one was due to the phenomenological nature of this study. An online survey questionnaire was selected for the ease and convenience of data collection.

Ethical Assurances

According to the Belmont Report (United States, 1978), there are three ethical principles when conducting research with human subjects: respect for persons, beneficence, and justice. In the proposed study, respect of persons is ensured by participants signing an informed consent document assuring that their participation is voluntary, that they can choose to not answer certain questions, and that they may withdraw from the study at any point.

Beneficence is achieved by promoting the benefits and minimizing the risks when conducting research. In this study, there are no inherent risks from the survey process. It is the belief of the researcher that a better understanding of teachers’ experiences with pedagogical documentation will help provide professional development opportunities to early childhood educators in pedagogical documentation practices. It is also believed that this study will lead to further studies that acknowledge the competence and capabilities of young children.

Lastly, the Belmont Report states that justice, meaning, what is fair and who should receive the benefits of the research, must be assured. In this study, every educator at this school site will have an equal opportunity to participate if they choose. It is the researcher’s belief that the benefits of the study will help all early childhood educators in their practice of pedagogical documentation, not just those who participate. International Review Board (IRB) approval will be sought prior to any data collection, which assures the proposed study will meet all the ethical requirements of research with human subjects.

Summary

In this chapter, the methodology of conducting a qualitative case study with a phenomenological approach was discussed in detail. Through a social-constructivist lens, the perceptions of 12 early childhood educators from a Reggio-inspired preschool will be collected via an open-ended, online questionnaire. Once data has been collected, the researcher will analyze the data using multiple approaches, including KWIC, line by line coding, identifying themes across participants, and looking for missing information. The researcher will live with the data through the process of pawing and cutting and pasting to ensure enough time is given for all patterns and themes to emerge. Issues of credibility, dependability, and confirmability will be addressed through triangulation of the data, journaling the researcher’s thoughts and research process, and providing an audit trail to be evaluated by an independent party. Assumptions, limitations, and delimitations were discussed, as were the ethical assurances of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice, as outlined in the Belmont Report.

References

Bloomberg, L. (2017a). The methodology chapter of a qualitative dissertation: Content and process [online seminar]. Retrieved from https://commons.ncu.edu/group/33456/pages/dissertation-webinars

Bloomberg, L. (2017b). Analysis techniques to identify themes in qualitative data [online seminar]. Retrieved from https://commons.ncu.edu/group/33456/pages/dissertation-webinars

Bloomberg, L. (2017c). Addressing standards of trustworthiness in qualitative research [online seminar]. Retrieved from https://commons.ncu.edu/group/33456/pages/dissertation-webinars

Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing grounded theory. London, England: Sage.

Crawford, K. M. (2016). Developing the whole teacher: A phenomenological case study of student teachers’ emotions in one teacher education program (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://digitalcommons.georgiasouthern.edu/curr_etd/

Creswell, J. W. (2013). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Sage.

Denzin, N. K. & Lincoln, Y. S. (2011). Introduction: The discipline and practice of qualitative research. In Denzin, N.K. & Lincoln, Y.S. (Eds), Handbook of qualitative research (4th Ed.) (pp. 1-20). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Emilson, A. & Pramling Samuelsson, I. (2014). Documentation and communication in Swedish preschools. Early Years, 34(2), 175-187. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09575146.2014.880664

Knauf, H. (2017). Documentation as a tool for participation in German early childhood education and care. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 25(1), 19-35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1350293X.2015.1102403

Legard R., Keegan J., & Ward K. (2003). In-depth interviews. In J. Ritchie, & J. Lewis (Eds.), Qualitative Research Practice: A Guide for Social Science Students and Researchers (pp.139-169). London, England: Sage.

Leinonen, J., Brotherus, A., & Venninen, T. (2014). Children’s participation in Finnish pre-school education: Identifying, describing, and documenting children’s participation. Nordic Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 7(8), 1-16. Retrieved from http://tampub.uta.fi

MacDonald, M. & Hill, C. (2018). The intersection of pedagogical documentation and teaching inquiry: A living curriculum. Learning Landscapes, 11(2), 271-284.

Merriam, S.B. (2009). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenological research methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Paananen, M. & Lipponen, L. (2018). Pedagogical documentation as a lens for examining quality in early childhood education. Early Child Development and Care, 188(2), 77-87. https://doi.org/10.1080/03004430.2016.1241777

Pettersson, K. E. (2015). Children’s participation in preschool documentation practices. Childhood, 22(2), 231-247. doi: 10.1177/0909568213513480

Ponto J. (2015). Understanding and evaluating survey research. Journal of the Advanced Practitioner in Oncology, 6(2), 168–171.

Roberts, L. D. & Allen, P. J. (2015). Exploring ethical issues associated with using online surveys in educational research. Educational Research and Evaluation, 21(2), 95- 108. doi: 10.1080/13803611.2015.1024421

Saunders, B., Sim, J., Kingstone, T., Baker, S., Waterfield, J., Bartlam, B., … Jinks, C. (2018). Saturation in qualitative research: exploring its conceptualization and operationalization. Quality & Quantity, 52(4), 1893-1907. doi: 10.1007/s11135-017-0574-8

Simon, M. K. (2011). Dissertation and scholarly research: Recipes for success (2011). Seattle, WA: Dissertation Success, LLC.

United States. (1978). The Belmont report: Ethical principles and guidelines for the protection of human subjects of research. Bethesda, Md.: The Commission.

van Manen M., Higgins I., & van der Reit, P. (2016). A conversation with Max van Manen on phenomenology in its original sense. Nursing Health Science, 18(1), 4–7. doi: 10.1111/nhs.12274.

Yin, R.K. (2003). Case study research: Design and methods (3rd ed.) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Appendix A

I am writing to request site permission to conduct a research study at Cerritos College’s Child Development Center. I am currently enrolled in the Early Childhood School of Education at Northcentral University in San Diego, CA, and I am in the process of authoring my doctoral dissertation. The study is entitled Early Childhood Educators’ Perceptions on the Use of Pedagogical Documentation to Enhance Children’s Meaningful Participation.

I visited the CDC last October 2018 for an educator’s tour and again for the Voices of Children exhibit in April 2019. I truly feel your educators can provide valuable information regarding their pedagogical documentation practices. I am awaiting Northcentral University’s Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval for this study and gaining site permission is the first step in this process; therefore, your permission to conduct this study at your site would be very much appreciated.

If IRB approval is granted, participants will be asked to complete an anonymous online questionnaire this fall (August/September 2019). The survey results will be pooled for the research project and individual results of this study will remain absolutely confidential and anonymous. Should this study be published, only pooled results will be documented, and no costs will be incurred by either your school or the individual participants.

Appendix B

Survey Questionnaire

Thank you so much for your time in filling out this questionnaire. As you are aware, I am interested in understanding the role pedagogical documentation has on young children’s participation. Please note that there are no ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ answers; I am interested in your authentic use of pedagogical documentation to better understand how it is applied in everyday settings and your honest and thorough answers are very much appreciated.  Your answers will provide valuable insight into how pedagogical documentation is used in practice by Reggio-inspired educators. Again, I am grateful for your willingness to take the time to answer the following questions as thoroughly and honestly as possible.

Background:

1. What is your role as an educator?

2. What is your image of the child?

3. How important is it for you to understand children’s perspectives? Why?

4. How are children’s perspectives taken into account in your classroom?

Participation:

5. What is your view of children’s participation in the classroom?

6. How are children involved in the decision-making process in your classroom? Please provide examples.

7. How do children’s interests influence their daily interactions?

Pedagogical Documentation:

8. What professional development or training have you had on pedagogical documentation?

9. How would you describe your practice of pedagogical documentation?

10. Does pedagogical documentation help you understand children’s perspectives? If so, how?

11. Do you believe that your practice of pedagogical documentation supports children in making their own decisions throughout the day? If so, how?

12. Do you believe your practice of pedagogical documentation leads to children’s shared power and responsibility in decision making? Please offer some specific examples from your classroom practice.

Appendix C

Letter of Recruitment

If you take part in this research, you will be asked to access an online survey link. The survey has twelve (12) open-ended questions. These questions are about your role as an educator and your documentation practice. This process should take 60 minutes of your time.

You may take part in this research if you:

1. Are an early childhood educator

2. Use documentation in your teaching practice.

If you have any questions, please feel free to contact me:

Appendix D

Letter of Informed Consent

Introduction: 

I am conducting a research study on the use of pedagogical documentation to enhance young children’s participation. I am completing this research as part of my doctoral degree. Your participation is completely voluntary. I am seeking your consent to involve you and your information in this study. Reasons you might not want to participate in the study include not having the time to answer the survey questions. Reasons you might want to participate in the study include gaining a deeper understanding of the potential for pedagogical documentation to enhance young children’s meaningful participation in making decisions about their own learning. An alternative to this study is simply not participating. I am here to address your questions or concerns during the informed consent process.

PRIVATE INFORMATION

Certain private information will not be collected about you in this study. I will not collect any personal or demographic information from you. Even with this effort, there is a chance that your private information may be accidentally released. The chance is small but does exist. You should consider this when deciding whether to participate.

Activities: 

If you participate in this research, you will be asked to:

1. Access an online survey link to answer twelve (12) open-ended questions about your role as an educator, your teaching philosophy, and your pedagogical documentation practice via an online survey questionnaire. This process should take approximately 60 minutes of your time.

Eligibility: 

You are eligible to participate in this research if you:

1. Are a Reggio-inspired early childhood educator of children aged 3-5 years.

2. Use pedagogical documentation in your teaching practice.

You are not eligible to participate in this research if you:

 1. Are not an early childhood educator (children ages 3-5).

 2. Do not practice pedagogical documentation.

I hope to include twelve (12) people in this research.

Risks: 

There are minimal risks in this study, such as the time it takes to answer all 12 questions.

To decrease the impact of these risks, you can skip any question, or stop participating at any time.

Benefits:

 If you decide to participate, there are no direct benefits to you.

The potential benefits to others are a deeper understanding of how pedagogical documentation will aid in providing early childhood educators professional development opportunities in pedagogical documentation practices. It is also believed that this research will lead to further studies that acknowledge and make known the competence and capabilities of young children.

Confidentiality: 

The information you provide will be kept confidential to the extent allowable by law. Some steps I will take to keep your identity confidential are not using your name; rather, I will identify your responses by randomly assigning a letter in place of your name. Additionally, no identifying characteristics of your school site will be discussed within the study.

The people who will have access to your information are: myself and my dissertation chair. The Institutional Review Board may also review my research and view your information.

I will secure your information with these steps: all manually coded data will be locked in a filing cabinet; data stored on a computer will be password protected.

I will keep your data for 7 years. Then, I will delete electronic data and destroy paper data.

If you contact us you will be giving us information like your phone number or email address. This information will not be linked to your responses if the study is anonymous.

If you have questions about your rights in the research, or if a problem has occurred, please contact the Institutional Review Board at: irb@ncu.edu or 1-888-327-2877 ext. 8014.

Voluntary Participation:

Your participation is voluntary. If you decide not to participate, or if you stop participation after you start, there will be no penalty to you. You will not lose any benefit to which you are otherwise entitled.

Future Research

Any information or specimens collected from you during this research may not be used for other research in the future, even if identifying information is removed.

Signature:

A signature indicates your understanding of this consent form. You will be given a copy of the form for your information.

Participant Signature  Printed Name    Date

_____________________         _____________________                       ____________

Researcher Signature     Printed Name    Date

_____________________        _____________________                       ____________
 

Does Australia’s Liberal Democratic System Enhance the Well-being (Rights and Freedoms) of its Citizens?

Australia’s political system today is considered a liberal democracy. This is a term used to describe some Western democratic political systems including Australia, the United States, Britain, Canada and New Zealand, among others. The term ‘liberal’ can be traced back to ‘liber’, a Latin word which is the root of ‘liberty’ and can be used to describe a system or person of broad-mindedness, inclusive values, a tolerance for change and individualistic freedoms. The term ‘democracy’ is defined as a system of governance whereby the majority hold the powers of decision making. A system of liberal democracy holds the principles of belief in the individuals of society, an expectation of reason and progress, a notion that society is a reciprocal benefit association based on co-operation and order rather than conflict, and a wariness towards individuals, governments or groups wielding large amounts of power.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

Australia’s citizens have been greatly benefited by our political system, though it has been slow progress for a number of minority groups such as our Indigenous population (not receiving the right to vote until 1965) and the LGBQTA community (Legalized same-sex marriage in 2017, and same-sex adoption being legal nation-wide in 2018).  One of the values of the liberal democratic system of Australia is that the people can vote for a political party or candidate who best represents their personal values and beliefs. This is of course overwhelmingly positive, though it can have a negative effect on the remainder of the population if the majority of voters are seeking to serve their own interests as opposed to what may be seen as objectively ‘best’ for society.

Australia has an aging population, data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (2018) shows that 15.7% of the current population is aged 65 and over, with this forecast to grow to between 21% and 23% by 2066. A Parliament of Australia report (2017) shows that Australian citizens age 45+ proportionally have more invested in property than people aged 18-45, and as such are more likely to vote for parties that propose or continue to support policies that are personally financially benefit. For example, negative gearing, minimum/maximum property tax breaks, and the capital gains tax breaks. If a larger portion of the population benefits from policies and laws that are taking benefits

According to report “The wealth of generations” by the Gratten Institute, Generation Y (people born between 1977-1995) are on track to be the first generation with a lower level of affluence and manner of living than that of their parents at the same stage of life. The report compared household wealth in 2003 and 2011/2012 and found that people in the age range of 25-34 had less financial substance than that age range had 8 years ago, despite the fact that they had put aside in savings more than people of that age in the past. This contrasts with every other age group’s finding; 35 to 44-year old households were $80,000 richer, 55-64-year old households were $173,000 wealthier, and the typical 65 to 74-year old home was $215,000 more prosperous over the same time span. In 2010, in households over 65, governments are spending $9400 more per household than they were 6 years previously. Future taxpayers are going to have to repay this debt as the extra spending has been mostly funded by budget deficits. (Daley & Wood, 2014.)

The benefits that the National Liberal Party produce for people over the age of 65 are in alignment with voting statistics, with primary vote and two-party preferred voting percentages at 57% and 61% respectively for the over 65s (Roy Morgan, 2013). As the older generations have the greatest voting power, and one of our political parties favors policies that benefit those generations, naturally the other policies and parties that provide less benefit to the older generations over environmental or younger generations will somewhat fall by the wayside. Discussing John Howard’s contribution to Australia disproportionate effects of tax policies, Stilwell (2013) stated that the Prime Minister’s viewpoint was that “the key to economic success is the creation of individual material incentives” (p. 33). This seems to be the case as increasingly, policies relating to the wellbeing of current younger and upcoming generations are not viewed as priorities, rather a focussed interest in what is going to serve a larger portion of voters (our aging population) today and tomorrow. It is difficult to cast a vote in our elections as the systems we are choosing between can seem like picking between the lesser of two evils. With minor party options such as ‘Yellow Vest Australia’, an anti-Islamic nod to the French populist movement, The Small Business Party, who seek to cut taxes and duties to benefit small businesses – also seeking to reduce levels of immigration, and The Seniors United Party of Australia who want increased funding into aged care, opposing Labor’s franking credit reforms and propose an enquiry into retirement incomes. Those parties among many others can be viewed as self-serving, backwards thinking and an overall negative influence, should they receive any political power.      Additionally, as Maddox (2005) notes, can we really claim to be a two-party system while Labor is opposed by the coalition of Liberal and National parties? (p. 248).

As previously mentioned, Australians can thank our current system for the continuing progression of Individual and group rights. Through a voluntary postal survey in 2017, it was determined that 61.6% (7,817,247) of the population responded with a ‘Yes’, while 38.4% (4,873,987) of people responded against changing the law to allow same-sex couples to marry (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2017). In this instance, although the margin was smaller than one would hope for, it was enough to begin a process of parliamentary vote on the bill. As an interesting sidenote, The Australian Capital Territory has the highest proportion of ‘Yes’ votes, at 74% of participants voting ‘Yes’ to 26% recording ‘No’. Although this is a case of ‘better late than never’, it does show that when the majority of Australia was ready to make a change in our laws, we were given the option to have our say and make the change.

However positive recent reforms have been for some groups and individuals, including same-sex marriage, single parent fostering and adoption and Indigenous rights, the Australian public appears disillusioned. In a recent data analysis of the Australian Election Study by Andrew Charlton and Lachlan Harris (2018), 40% of respondents indicated that they were unsatisfied with the way democracy is working in Australia. Between 2007 and 2016, levels of trust that individuals had in the people in government dropped from 42% to 26% when asked if politicians can be trusted to ‘do the right thing usually or sometimes’. Over half of voters believe that politicians are out of touch, with minor parties receiving more support and votes from the public. Perhaps the now de-registered Democrat party famed catchcry that they would “keep the bastards honest” will once again gain mass appeal through the minor parties. A. J. Brown (2003) found that “Only 22 percent of local government respondents indicated a preference for the federal system to remain the same in another 100 years, against 70+ percent preferring significant structural change” It seems the disillusionment is not only rife in members of the public, but members of local governments are also ready to seek changes to the system.

Australia’s liberal democracy is continuing to fail many groups of Australians, including generations of individuals who are on track to pay the price of their well-off parents and grandparents, both financially and environmentally. As our population continues to age, the amount of support the aged care industry will require will continue to climb. Perhaps the extra funding required could be taken from decreased tax cuts to multiple homeowners? Regardless of the budget specifics, if changes are not made to the efficacy of the Australian public’s decision-making rights, public discontent may grow into civil unrest. If our government systems are to recover from this downward spiral of distrust from the public, bowing to pressure from Big Business and self-serving groups, they need to commit to policy-making on an evidence based process, returning to the roots of liberal democracy with the Australian public’s input and decision making abilities at the forefront, and dialling back Big Business influences.

References:

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2018). Population Projections, Australia, 2017 (base) – 2066. Retrieved from https://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@nsf/mf/3222.0

Daley, J., & Wood, D. (2014). The wealth of generations. Retrieved from https://www.grattan.edu.au/report/the-wealth-of-generations/

Parliament of Australia. (2017) Trends in home ownership in Australia: a quick guide. Retrieved from https://www.aph.gov.au/About_Parliament/Parliamentary_Departments/Parliamentary_Library/pubs/rp/rp1617/Quick_Guides/TrendsHomeOwnership

Roy Morgan. (2013). L-NP (51%) takes the lead over ALP (49%) with only 3 weeks to go. Retrieved from http://roymorgan.com.au/findings/51115-morgan-poll-august-19-2013-201308181432

Stillwell, F. (2000) Work, wages and welfare. Croydon, Vic : Tertiary Press.

Maddox, G. (2005) Australian parties and the party system. Frenchs Forest : Pearson Education Australia.

Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2017). Australian Marriage Law Postal Survey, 2017. Retrieved from https://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/1800.0

Charlton, A., & Harris, L. (2018).  Sydney Morning Herald. The fundamental operating model of Australian politics is breaking down. Retrieved from https://www.smh.com.au/politics/federal/the-fundamental-operating-model-of-australian-politics-is-breaking-down-20180322-p4z5o9.html

Brown, A. J. (2003) Subsidiarity or subterfuge? Resolving the future of local government in the Australian federal system. Australian Institute of Public Administration. 61. 24-42. Doi: 10.1111/1467-8500.00297

 

Case Study of Climate Change Education to Enhance Sustainability

Rationale
Sustainability requires that we not only focus on the survival of the current generation but also on the prosperity of future generations (Sleurs, 2008). To be able to do this, it is important that the education offered to the students stress the importance of sustainability and teaches them to envision the future. Also, acquiring personal behavior that will encourage sustainability and critically analyze the current systems and see if they are sustainable as they move into the future, encourage teamwork in finding solutions, and empowers them to take part in the decision making (Chang & Pascua, 2017). Therefore, education for sustainability will be essential in encouraging sustainable development as it will open the students into the idea of building a sustainable future in different sectors including the environment, social, economic and governance (Tilbury, 2011).

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

Finding ways to deal with climate change should be included in the ways of ensuring sustainable development. It is important that much effort is put in place to ensure that the human activities that lead to climate change are done away with, reduced or done in a way that we balance their benefits and their effects to the environment (Mochizuki and Audrey, 2015). As mentioned, humans contribute a lot to climate change, and there is no way that the war on climate change can be waged without engaging the humans. Most of the activities carried out by humans that lead to climate change are mostly done as economic activities meant to provide livelihood to those involved. However, the activities have drastic effects on the environment. For example activities like logging and mining for instance lead to destruction of trees which are very important in the absorption of carbon gases that contribute to global warming. Mining also leave a lot of open spaces, with soil which has been contaminate by the chemicals that are used in the process which is not able to support any sought of vegetation. Other human activities like the production of smoke, and carbon gases from vehicles and factories also contribute to global warming.
To deal with global warming caused by the human activities, a lot of investment and emphasis should be put in ensuring the students are given education that will give them knowledge. This knowledge will encourage a different set of thinking, which will foster economic prosperity for the current generations. It will also ensure that they become responsible enough to come up with systems and climate management trends which will ensure that the future generations survive and even prosper (Chang & Pascua, 2017). The sustainability of the climate change will require that teachers and schools define systems which will encourage the conservation of the environment. Such systems will also help in minimizing the factors that contribute to global warming, by offering sustainable ways of economic prosperity which do not interfere with the prosperity of the future generations (García, Junyent & Fonolleda, 2017). This paper will explore a sample case study of how climate change education is being carried out to enhance sustainability.
The Case Study
Spreading climate change literacy on wheels: a science express- climate action special
This is a government program that features a mobile science exhibition, that moves all over India educating people about the effects of climate change, and how they can step in to help in mitigation. The science expressed climate change action special, the exhibition was led by the government of India and the Department of Science and Technology (DST), and the Vikram A. Sarabhai Community Science Center (VASCSC) was responsible for management. The 16 coach has travelled across India for approximately 1.5 million kilometers since 2007 and visited over 483 locations and reaching over 16.2 million people among them 589,000 students and 30,000 teachers (Sharma, n.d.).
This case study

Is a partnership between the public and private sectors, and this has enabled it to have a broader reach and impact more people.
Focuses on adaptive management, which has allowed the program, to modify exhibitions to address more pressing environmental issues.
The participatory nature of it, has led to increased understanding of scientific facts about the impacts of climate change and how individuals can tackle climate change and their willingness to act on climate change.

This particular case is made necessary by the fact that climate change is a very complicated and global issue with a lot of ramification. As India grows its economy and improves the living standards of its citizens, it has to find ways of reducing the impacts of climate change to ensure sustainable growth. The Indian government is determined in making sure that action is taken to help mitigate these impacts and reducing dependence on carbon powered growth. To achieve this, the government knows how important education and awareness will be important in the war against climate change. This case study focuses on educating people about the impacts of climate change and how they can take part in the fight against it by creating awareness (Sharma, n.d.).
Sustainability as a future-oriented concept has much relevance regarding climate change. This is because as time goes on, there is a general concern and a realization that climate change is growing to be a significant area of concern (Mochizuki and Audrey, 2015). Finding ways to maintain sustainability as far as climate change is concerned, there is a very important and valid case for this essay.  There are several reasons for this assertion top being the dangerous effects of climate change which if left unchecked, will soon affect the economy of the world and even how the world socially associates. By creating awareness and educating people about the impacts of climate change and letting those involved know how they can do something to help in the war against climate change; this case study offers a chance of ensuring the survival and prosperity of the future generations.
Creating awareness and educating people on how to handle the impacts of climate change and what they can do to help deal with climate change is very important in combating climate change. Climate change is one of the issues that are very peculiar in EFS (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, 2012). Taking climate change education to people enhances their understanding of climate change.  The exhibitions give them a practical idea of how to tackle climate change and its impacts.  Therefore, this case study ensures a deepened understanding of climate change. Through this understanding, it ensures that those who are reached have enough knowledge to tackle climate change and ensure that the future generations are able to prosper (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 2017). The case study which was pushed by the desire to have sustainable growth in India fits so much in the EFS standards, as it seeks to do away with development that is carbon intensive, and focus on development that also cares about the future of the environment and the nature of the world (Goel, 2018).
Research and literature review
Henderson, Long, Berger, Russell and Drewes (2017) indicated that education is the key in ensuring humans mitigate and adapt to climate change, and due to this, there is need to encourage educational research on the climate change. This is made necessary by the fact that currently, little is being done to help address the climate change problem either now and even as we move into the future. The current education systems do not pay much attention to this sensitive issue.
Education for sustainability especially concerning climate change requires that the learners are given knowledge that will help people have a different understanding of what climate change is, and this is what this case study all about. Thus, this case study focuses on teaching people what the effects of climate change are and what they can do to help in its mitigation.
The Supreme Court ruling on compulsory environmental education in schools
In 1991, the government through the Supreme Court ruling, made it compulsory for the education system to make it compulsory for the learners to be given the education that will make them aware of the environment and its related problems like pollution. Due to this ruling, it was a must that all areas within the Indian jurisdiction comply with the idea of providing environmental education. To enable easy implementation, the National Council for Education Research and Training (NCERT) mandated with the formulation of a syllabus sought to include environmental education in the education system. They decided to infuse environmental education into the existing subject areas such as social studies, mathematics and the languages among other subjects instead of coming up with an entirely new subject.  NCERT further focused on making several improvements on the way environment studies were made, with focus on ICT, material development, teacher preparation, evaluation systems among others. This means that there were some efforts put in place to help the learners aware of the environment and to help protect it (Padma, 2018). 
Science express was designed with the desire to involve young learners in the matters of science and technology through a mobile exhibition which utilized a 16-coach train. Although the exhibition meant for the entire society, its main focus is the students and teachers and has so far touched almost 600,000 students and 30,000 teachers (Sharma, n.d.). The problem of climate change is complex in India because even as it strives to mitigate the impacts of climate change, there is a challenge posed by the national situation. As a rapidly developing country, it mostly utilizes carbon-emitting sources of energy to drive that economy thus dealing with climate change will require that the country cuts on the carbon-emitting activities which might slow down its growth. This means that there is a possible conflict that will emanate especially if attempts are made to interfere with activities that are sources of livelihood. However, it should be noted that India as a country wants to work towards ways of ensuring that they have a development plan that would is less carbon intensive and adopting lifestyles that will encourage adopting to the effects of climate change. This is being done not in isolation, but also with collaborations with other nations.
o go around this, creating awareness will be very important in influencing actions that can be taken by individual people concerning the mitigation of climate change. This is because education and awareness are the most important drivers in getting people to take action on climate change. By making people aware of the impacts of climate change, there is an improved probability that the individual might decide to change their lifestyle and discard activities that pose a risk to the environment. This will in turn do away with activities that contribute to climate change and embrace those activities that might help them mitigate these impacts. This awareness will also help them concentrate on those activities that can help them adapt to the effects of climate change. The awareness inspires people to suggest ideas that can be implemented as part of the solution in reference to the problems of climate change. This is where the science express comes in. Through its trained team and exhibitions, the science express mobile train seeks to create awareness of the effects of climate change. They do this by showing people strategies they can use to adapt to the impacts of climate change, and the options can explore as they seek to fight climate change (Science Express Climate Action Special, n.d.).
Importance of awareness in the fight against climate change
This case study focuses in demystifying climate change, by giving scientific facts about the impacts of climate change and underlines the actions that individuals can take to help tackle climate change and their willingness to do so (Sharma, n.d.). This means that the program plays on the creation of awareness to help the people take part in the mitigation of climate change thus ensuring sustainable development. This kind of awareness goes a long way in putting sustainability in terms of climate change at the center, thus ensuring that the knowledge imparted can be applied in the practical sense as it seeks to compel the learners to act rather than just gathering it for keeps. This is done by organizing activities in every station that the train stops.  This involves engaging the visitors in climate change activities that gauge their knowledge on the subjects and which appeal to their interest in coming up with solutions. Some of the activities include availing places where the learners can perform experiments that will enhance their understanding of climate change, and also avail training facilities for the training of teachers. The exhibitions also include the showcasing of selected innovations which can be important in enhancing climate change education and those that illustrate technological ideas that can help in developing solutions to climate change.
To ensure that the kind of education given to students is deep and sustainable in terms of gaining a better understanding of climate change and encouraging critical thinking that will encourage prosperity in the future. It is important that teachers are well equipped with adequate knowledge to enable them to impart the appropriate knowledge to the students. According to Henderson et al. (2017), acknowledges that several teachers are not well prepared in tackling the content that relates to climate change. The science express exhibition has managed to reach over 30,000 teachers from different 6,000 schools and colleges (Sharma, n.d.). The kind of knowledge gathered by the teachers during these exhibitions, therefore provide them with the valuable background for imparting climate change education to the students. This will ensure that the teachers are always prepared to impart knowledge on the climate issue. Because the exhibition is only at a particular place for a short period of time, the training offered will not of much benefit, if the learner would not be guided and reminded of the important concepts associated to climate change. By training the teachers, science express makes sure that the learners have a constant guide in matters of climate change, thus compounding what has been taught and making the climate education sustainable (Science Express Climate Action Special, n.d.).
The kind education that is capable of ensuring deepened understanding of climate change, and sustainability in terms of climate change mitigation, the education system must strive to change and take the different approach from what is currently available in the system. The system should be effective and help the students acquire skills that would enable them to live and prosper in the future (García, Junyent & Fonolleda, 2017). These changes are made necessary because the projection of the effects of climate changes for instance in the next century will be more serious than they are now. The effects will reduce the water available to people even as the population would have grown immensely. This will be occasioned by the increased droughts as the temperatures will continue to rise. This means we will have more people sharing the limited water resources. The high temperatures will also lead to an extinction of approximately 25% of the species, more so the amphibians. The wildfires made worse by the increased temperatures will also be more rampant.  The food production will also be hampered by the high temperatures, meaning that the world will struggle to feed its burgeoning population. The coast regions will experience, a lot of damage due to flood and storms; this will affect the livelihood and make the areas inhabitable. As the food production will go down and disasters rise, there will be health risks involved, as cases of malnutrition, infectious diseases, respiratory diseases and even diarrhea will become rampant (Oskamp, 2002).
Thus, it is important that the learners are equipped with this kind of knowledge so that if they find themselves in that future they should be able to survive these effects, or better still they get skills which will help prevent the realization of that bleak future. Adapting to climate change is an instrumental part of the science express program. With the effects of climate change getting severe, the program realizes that there is a necessity of ensuring that the learners are equipped with strategies of surviving such conditions. Through its exhibitions and knowledge offered, people have a thorough understanding of the impacts of climate change and adjust accordingly.
This case study plays a role in ensuring that the learners are made aware of these impacts. Through the Vikram A. Sarabhai Community Science Centre (VASCSC) which travels by the train and includes qualified and well-trained science communicators, the learners are able to get firsthand information on climate change (Science Express Climate Action Special, n.d.). This is mostly because this team takes part in explaining and interpreting the exhibition, answering questions and conducting activities all aimed at making climate change education sustainable. Activities like celebrating important days related to science and mathematics like the World Ozone Day and World Environment Day further help in the generation of awareness among the learners. By coming up with activities puzzles, and games on the issues of the environment and climate change, the program manages to instill the sense of climate change to young children, some as young as 11 years (Sharma, n.d.).
Knowledge for creating impact
The climate change education through the science express focuses on individual behaviors and how these behaviors contribute to climate change as well as ways of consolidating efforts to ensure collective success. This is done by focusing on reducing the impact of climate change, through encouraging changing the behaviors of people by for instance giving better options that can be applied in their day to day life. These options include driving less to reduce the carbon emission; the case study also has its tentacles in aiding collective engagements by bringing to the learners what the rest of the world is doing in combating climate change. They also help to build a group of learners that will take up the fight against climate change and see how threatening it is to their future.  The science express focuses on the international negotiations for climate change including the Kyoto protocol and other efforts in place to do so. This helps the learners to know what they are all about and also get to know that the fight against climate is global and thus they should be encouraged to play a part in that fight (Sharma, n.d.).  This will mean that as efforts are made at encouraging the learners to focus on driving less which in reality may not be that effective because people obviously want to move. The focus should also be laid on ensuring that the learners understand that it is possible to do away with using modes of transport that run on sources of energy that have the immense effect on climate change. Instead, they can concentrate on getting modes of transport that run on clean energy that won’t lead to carbon emission such as the use of electric vehicles. Though expensive, it can be encouraged through government grants and subsidies to the clean energy sector. This is mostly considered under the international negotiations which seek to come up with agreements that can be implemented internationally by several countries to consolidate efforts to be assured of better results (Science Express Climate Action Special, n.d.). The educations system should also focus on equipping the learners with the skills and knowledge that they will need to survive in the future. This will greatly be different from the current education system, as the consequences of climate change are bound to severe in the future than they are now. The science express program is very constant in the offering of science as a solution to the several problems that bedevil the human world. This is done by highlighting the current discoveries and innovations which the visitors of the exhibition can learn about through the various exhibits and the audio and video presentations. By knowing these solutions, the learners can seek their application in the future to help tackle the problem of climate change as they move into the future and because the problems will be more severe.
All in all, this case study is anchored on very strong concepts of sustainability. On education for sustainability, the science express seeks to increase the amount of knowledge that the learners will have. This is ensured by seeking them out where they are and bequeathing them with this important knowledge. This knowledge would be necessary for the fight against climate change and coming up with strategies of surviving the impacts of climate change and ways of mitigating these impacts (Cebrián & Junyent, 2015). The mobile nature of the exhibition makes sure that the program reaches more people than it would have done if it was in one location. The higher the number of people reached, the more impactful becomes, as climate change can only become effective, if the efforts are compounded and so many people pull into the fight of its impacts. The program further train teachers on climate change. This ensures that the students will always have constant guidance on matters of climate change and who will always remind them if they have learned making the process sustainable. The education is also sustainable in terms of ensuring prosperity for the future generations (Stibbe, 2009). The education encourages them to come up with ways of maintaining and sustaining the environment, and ways of adapting to it so as to make sure that the human race continues to survive in the future. This makes the efforts of science express as a program very important in making sure that climate change education is sustainable in India (Wiek, Withycombe & Redman, 2011).
Implications
Making the study of climate change sustainable is very important as far as making sure that the learners are equipped with necessary skills that they will need, this not only to survive in the future world, but also help spearhead to fight against with climate change (Mochizuki and Audrey, 2015). This case study through an evaluation study carried in 20 schools and five colleges; indeed, there was an increased understanding of facts concerning the impacts of climate change. The evaluation sought to find out if the learners who had visited the climate change exhibition had an increased awareness of climate change. Awareness of the solutions that could be applied to help mitigate it had also increased. It was also established that there was an increased willingness among the learners to take personal initiatives in the fight against climate change. This point out the positive impact this exhibition had on the students. It also illustrates the effects of the exhibition on climate change education. Learners who attended these exhibitions were more aware of these facts compared to the learners who did not take part in the exhibition.
The case study through its programs that employed different coaches to handle different areas ensured that the learners benefited immensely from the experts handling different areas. The learners were able to benefit from more knowledge in the areas of getting a clear picture of what climate change is, what causes it, and its relation to human activities like mining and other activities that will contribute to emission of carbon gases. The learners also got insight on the impacts of climate change including the rising temperatures, the monsoon variations, the rising sea level and other effects in the sectors of agriculture, forestry and human health among others. They were also inducted on the strategies they could use to adapt to the changing climate in their daily lives and the strategies they could apply in the mitigation to help reduce the impacts (Sharma, n.d.).
This includes suggesting several remedies aimed at cutting the carbon emissions including the individual efforts and initiatives, to initiatives that will require lobbying so that they can be implemented at a large scale and affect several sectors (Han, 2015). The learners are therefore equipped through this exhibition to take part in those efforts. This is done by encouraging them to engage in activities like planting trees so as to increase the forest cover and reduce the usage of fossil fuels. This can be done by for instance cutting on driving cars that use oil products or even buying electric cars. They are also made aware of international treaties and negotiations on climate change including the Kyoto Protocol.
The biggest challenge of this case study is its inability to reach all the people. In a country of hundreds of millions, only 2.3 million people had managed to attend these science exhibitions. This points out at its low capacity to create massive impact especially if only a few people are aware of climate change, its effects and what they are supposed to do to help mitigate it.
The possibilities of coming up with sustainable climate change education include equipping the learners with relevant knowledge and skills that will help them survive in the future. That information will increase their understanding of climate change and its impacts and expanding their influence in making a difference. This is only possible if there are numerous intentional initiatives to push facts on climate change to the people by outlining its effects, and telling people what they can do about it like this science exhibitions are doing.
References

Cebrián, G., & Junyent, M. (2015). Competencies in education for sustainable development: Exploring the student teachers’ views. Sustainability, 7(3), 2768-2786.
Chang, C. H., & Pascua, L. (2017). The state of climate change education–reflections from a selection of studies around the world. International Research in Geographical and Environmental Education. Volume 26, 2017 – Issue 3: Climate Change EducationPages 177-179
Garcia, M. R., Junyent, M., & Fonolleda, M. (2017). How to assess professional competencies in education for sustainability?: An approach from a perspective of complexity. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 18(5), 772-797. doi: 10.1108/IJSHE-03-2016-0055
Sharma, P. (n.d.) Spreading Climate Change Literacy on Wheels: Science Express – Climate Action Special. Retrieved from https://naaee.org/eepro/groups/global-ee/case-study/spreading-climate-change-literacy-wheels  
Goel, M. (2018). The need to invest more on climate change education. Retrieved from https://www.livemint.com/Opinion/0FVi6JI6LjMwzM9aJ5IJON/The-need-to-invest-more-on-climate-change-education.html  
Henderson, J., Long, D., Berger, P., Russell, C., & Drewes, A. (2017). Expanding the foundation: Climate change and opportunities for educational research. Educational Studies: Journal of the American Educational Studies Association, 53(4), 412-425. doi: 10.1080/00131946.2017.133
Mochizuki, Y., & Bryan, A. (2015). Climate change education in the context of education for sustainable development: Rationale and principles. Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 9(1), 4-26. doi: 10.1177/0973408215569109
Oskamp, S. (2002). Environmentally responsible behavior: Teaching and promoting it effectively. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 2(1), 173-182.
Padma, T. (2018). India & climate change: Facts and figures. Retrieved from https://www.scidev.net/global/climate-change/feature/india-climate-change-facts-and-figures.html
Han, Q. (2015). Education for sustainable development and climate change education in china: A status report. Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 9(1), 62-77. doi: 10.1177/09734082155691
Rachel, T. & Yoko, M. (2015). Climate Change Education for Sustainability in Brazil: A Status Report Journal of Education for Sustainable Development Vol 9, Issue 1, pp. 44 – 61 https://doi.org/10.1177/0973408215569113
Science Express Climate Action Special. (n.d.) About Science Experience. Retrieved from: http://www.sciencexpress.in/about-science-express.html
Sleurs, W. (2008). Competencies for ESD (Education for Sustainable Development) teachers: A framework to integrate ESD in the curriculum of teacher training institutes – Comenius 2.1 project 118277-CP-1-2004-BE-Comenius-C2.1. Retrieved from: http://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/env/esd/inf.meeting.docs/EGonInd/8mtg/CSCT%20Handbook_Extract.pdf
Stibbe, A. E. (2009). The handbook of sustainability literacy: Skills for a changing world. Green Books.
Tilbury, D. (2011). Education for sustainable development: An expert review of processes and learning. Paris, France: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc. unesco. org/images/0019/001914/191442e. pdf.
UNECE. (2012). Learning for the future: Competences in Education for Sustainable Development. Geneva: UNECE. Retrieved from: http://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/env/esd/ESD_Publications/Competences_Publication.pdf
UNESCO (2017). Education for Sustainable Development Goals: Learning Objectives. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002474/247444e.pdf
Wiek, A., Withycombe, L., & Redman, C. L. (2011). Key competencies in sustainability: a reference framework for academic program development. Sustainability science, 6(2), 203-218.

 

Activity to Enhance Emotional and Social Skills for Child with ADHD

SCENARIO

Present an activity to enhance a child (Paul) with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) emotional and social skills.

NAME OF ACTIVITY

Snakes and Ladders

AIM OF ACTIVITY

To promote social skills, to encourage turn-taking and to help improve level of concentration and patience.

RATIONALE FOR CHOICE OF ACTIVITY

I chose this activity because it has been researched as one of the best activities for children with adhd because it is not a complicated game and the less complication for Paul the better. Also as stated in the Disability Act 2001 inclusion is very important for children with special needs in a mainstream school (Alcott, 2007).  As this activity consists of two or more players, playing with other children will help Paul feel included. I also chose it to help Paul to express his feelings, to help him to understand the concept of turn-taking and to increase his level of concentration. Also, to help him interact with the other children.

DETAILS OF ACTIVITY

The game consists of a dice, four pawn and a board with numbers one to a hundred covered with snakes and ladders.  The object of the game is to take turns throwing the dice then starting from the bottom and working the way to the top.

PREPARATION FOR ACTIVITY

Before doing any research, I spoke to Pauls teacher and principal, I explained to them how I was going to use this activity to help Paul to work on his social and emotional skills. Both teacher and principal agreed to support my strategy and allowed me to go ahead with the activity. I then researched both ADHD and Snakes and Ladders.  I learned that adhd is not a learning disability, but it can affect the learning process and, that adhd is more common in boys than girls. The child with adhd can become easily distracted, does not like to sit for a long period of time, does not follow instruction very well.  They may also find it hard to express their feelings, become frustrated and lash out.  I also learned that a child with adhd does not take well to turn-taking and can be very inpatient (WebMD, 2005). When researching the game snakes and ladders I found it was a game that two or four players can play, this will promote Pauls social skills, encourage him to share and take turns and enhance his concentration.

 

IMPLEMENTATION OF ACTIVITY

I asked Paul to sit with two other children

I introduced Paul to the other children

We had a little chat before starting the game

I then placed the game on the table

Using clear and short instructions I explained the object of the game

Each child chose a pawn in the colour of the choice

I allowed Paul to take the first turn

I then passed the dice to the next child to help Paul understand the concept of taking turns

REFLECTION UPON ACTIVITY

At first, I wasn’t sure about this activity for a child with ADHD but, once I researched the game and ADHD, I felt it would be a task but a good one. What may seem like a basic easy board game may just be a challenge for Paul. This game involves patience, sharing and concentration, traits that Paul does not portray. Snakes and Ladders anticipates success and teaches how to deal with failure.  Ladders to climb (success) snakes to slide down (failure). Children get frustrated with the sliding down but, quickly learn that a ladder is not far away.  I found that Paul was a little uncomfortable when he set down with the other children, so I decided that maybe a little chat would help. When Paul became settled, I placed the board on the table Paul seemed to take an interest but, he was not totally focused he was looking around the room too. I started to ask Paul what he seen on the board.  He replied saying the snakes and the ladders, so I asked him and the other children what they thought the snakes and ladders meant. Once they understood the concept of the game we began to play.  I kept encouraging the children to wait their turn especially Paul. It took a while for Paul except this but once he got into it, he seem to gradually learn that he had to wait his turn.  I noticed Paul would look angry when he had to slide down a snake, I would ask him how he felt about it and I used a positive approach by encouraging and praising Paul each time he took his turn.  The encouragement seemed to help keep him involved and focused on the game. It was hard work keeping Paul interested and focused however, I felt the tactics of the game helped increase Pauls frustration tolerance and promoted a more positive connection between Paul and the other children.

On reflection of the game and overall activity I realised that it can take a very long time to connect with a child with adhd.  Also, that the child is easily frustrated when they found it hard to understand something.  I, therefore thought the snakes and ladders game was an easy game for Paul to understand and follow. Clear and basic instructions and information are best for Paul.  Being patient is also very important when working with children with adhd.  Positive reinforcement is also extremely important not only for a child with special needs but for all children. The child’s best interest and wellbeing are the most important factors when helping and caring for and them.  I just want to add that while having patience when working with a child with mild general learning disabilities is so important, I feel that when working with a child with adhd your patience is tried and tested a lot more.  I enjoyed my time with Paul and the other children but, I found that it may have just been a game of snakes and ladders to the other children I was a lot more stressful for Paul and that it took longer than I thought to get him interested and relaxed.  With a lot of time, patience and care Paul will improve and progress.

CHILDREN WITH ADHD ARE NOT BOLD THEY JUST NEED A LITTLE MORE PATIENCE AND CARE.  POSITIVE INFLUENCES NOT NEGATIVE ONES.  

References

Alcott, M., 2007. An introduction to children with special educational needs. 2nd ed. london : Hodder Arnold .

WebMD, 2005. What Is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder?. [Online] Available at: https://www.webmd.com/add-adhd/childhood-adhd/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd#1[Accessed 28 08 2019].

 

The importance of enterprise computing to enhance business performance

Introduction
Nowadays Information technology has a rapid growth. Almost every day there are new ideas to improve the performance of technology. It cannot be denied that people who lives today unconsciously depends on technology. Each task did by the people gets many help from technology. For an instance, a hand phone that help us to communicate with our colleagues, the internet that serve certain time information for us and many more technology which made our daily activity become easier. At least we can follow the technology progress so that we don’t left behind.

Get Help With Your Essay
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!
Essay Writing Service

Technology has an important role both in our lives and business. A company or organization need to know about the technology to help them to running their task in easier way. They must change their manual way to the automatic one. The automatic system will help finishing several tasks easier. There are several benefits if an organization or a company applying the automatic system. One of the benefits is reducing the production time. Time is an important aspect furthermore now. One second its look like very expensive. Customer wants a product or services which available in certain time. This condition forces a company to work harder for supplying customer requirements. Another benefit is reducing a cost to hire an employee. The automatic system doesn’t need many resources to handle the task. For an instance is a telecommunication company. The company doesn’t need require many operators to answer customer question about their products or services. The customer only needs to dial a particular number suitable to the call center provided by the provider and they will be served by a voice system that will give all the information suitable with the customer requirement. With a hand phone, a customer can get all the information regarding their requirements anytime, anywhere they want.
This is a fact that enterprise computing is helping to run a business whatever its scale or to made our daily activity easier. Suitable to the benefits offered by enterprise computing, it can be a references or as a base to keep developing an enterprise computing in the company it selves. Adopting an automatic system is a brilliant way for a company to keep producing and inventing for their own customer satisfaction. See how it is important of enterprise computing for a company to grow up their business and get more rating from their customer.
Enterprise computing shouldn’t only for a big scale business but also for intermediate and small business too. Essentially an intermediate and small business are need to make an invention to grow their scale to be a greater company that follow the competition with another company. In this case is about customer satisfaction and the effectiveness of work. There is a chance to grow up the scale of business to be the greater on is they can see the opportunity and keep adapt the technology which always change every time. It is because the technology can be applied to all business sectors. For an instance are healthy, agronomic, trading, farming and many others. It is why a company required the technology and enterprise computing in particular.
The Enterprise Computing
A company has its vision and mission to keep growing. It was suitable with their target stated before. A company commonly wants an improvement at all business sectors. Begin with the essential aspect such as competent human resources, smooth production process and of course good result for its customer. There is no company who wants regression happen on their business. Both Production Company and Service Company want a real improvement for their business. They want increase the effectiveness in doing their tasks, reducing production cost and get a good result. Then when the time has coming to a company to step their business level to the higher one. This company is on transition phase between small business to the intermediate or to the higher level. This phase force a company to change their system in doing all tasks. They must keep an eye to the technology trends. This is related to the pattern or the way how they do all the tasks. Usually it was triggered by customer requirements regarding their success providing a product or services.
From the above illustration, a company must have a planning to make a brand new system for improving their available system now. In this case an enterprise computing is the best solution for a company. Enterprise computing offering an easier way to solve a complex task and produce a better results in the end. Enterprise computing it selves is an integrated system that helps a complex task by applying an automatic system or a computer. Enterprise computing has a tight relation with information and technology. In the other side information and technology has a rapid development. Because of that a company requires to follow the development of information and technology for applying enterprise computing it selves.
Enterprise computing has a various methodology. It might be too complex to explain. But the main idea is changing the manual system to the automatic one. Imagine the old way of hiring an employee to the company. The HRD staff urgently needs to publish the recruitment opportunity with an advertisement. Then when the employee candidate know about the advertisement, he must be go to the company and asking whether the job still available or not. This way is wasting too much time. Let we compare with the automatic system. The HRD only need to post the job at the internet and providing a form for the employee candidate then when the registrant is enough, the HRD just need to call a several candidates to the next interview process. See how it more effective than the old way.
High analysis technique and right implementation of enterprise computing are required. Enterprise computing is not an easy method. A company required to prepare all the plans in a good form and deep analyzing to what their requirement and in where aspect they need to change. The transition phase looks like a challenge for a company to determine their futures. It might be success or failed depends on what their plans before. They must think and forecast what probably happen with their plan yet. Then the percentage of success is higher then failed. In the end there will be a great result of changing their system to be an enterprise computing. There are several benefits of enterprise computing. But it also has a weakness. These two aspects required to analyze before applying enterprise computing for the company suitable with their own condition yet.
Advantage and Disadvantage of Enterprise Computing
There are several reasons why the enterprise computing might be failed to construct. As mentioned above that an enterprise computing required a deep analysis before implementing it to the current system. The company required to see from many points of view and recognize the information technology development. Then after all carefully analysis the plan should be conducted in a good form. The plan must cover all company requirements. The most important aspect to analyze before all steps of conducting enterprise computing are the advantage and disadvantage of it selves. With these comparisons, the expertise in the company can determine the best way and look for good opportunity to implement enterprise computing.
Here are several main points of advantage and disadvantage of enterprise computing in improving business process.
Advantage
1. Increase productivity
This is the main advantage of enterprise computing. With the enterprise computing applied, a company is able to increase their production. Then they will be generating a product or services suitable to their customer requirements.
2. Reduce operational cost
Enterprise computing doesn’t need many resource involved in the system. For an instance is a process of recruiting an employee. The old system might be requiring a two or more HRD to handle the task. With enterprise computing applied, it might be able to do with only one HRD. The HRD only sit at the front of his desk and wait the candidates fill the recruitment form online.
3. Reduce operational time
An instants product or service became a main aspect today. The faster is better. Enterprise computing is offering a minimal production time. The main concept is the different of conventional system and the automatic one. Automatic system is offering a better production time than conventional way. Each complex task can be done by automatic system without a problem.
4. Gain more result
Customer satisfaction is the good result parameter for a company. Customer doesn’t care how the process, they only want their requirement provided by a company anytime they need. This condition forces company to gain more result. Again enterprise computing is offering this.
Disadvantage
1. Required high problem analysis
It might be hard in the beginning of enterprise computing. As mentioned above that high analysis is required before conduct the system. There are many aspects to be analyzing in the beginning. Then the company did not made any mistakes in their planning.
2. Complex at the beginning
The complexity of enterprise computing might be hard enough to implement for the beginning but it will not be a trouble anymore in the future. The complexity happens if there are no deep analysis to the problem occurred. This aspect also needs to get attention for developing enterprise computing.
3. Threat from external resource
External resource such as a virus needs to get particular attention. The integrated system has a rapid data exchange inside the network. It triggers a new thread of virus attack. The system must able to defense itself from external threat. Installing a suitable antivirus is a good idea to keep the system running healthy and free from virus attack.

Implementing Enterprise Computing
Planning something is easier than implementing it. There are several main steps that need an attention to implement an enterprise computing to the current system. Here are the steps required.
1. Identify
This is the root step of implementing enterprise computing. The entire problem needs to be identifying first. Each company has their own profile, condition and goal. They must gather it’s carefully. Essentially a company has a challenge to work more maximal. This is related to customer requirement. Customer has a requirement and a company need to satisfy them. If a company doesn’t indentify it carefully, customer might be changed their mind to move to another company which can provide an interesting product. In the end this condition would be affecting to company income. Customer satisfaction is an instance of identification required aspect. A company must be more carefully in this step. So that the entire required aspect for developing would be indicate in a good pattern for smoothing the next step.
2. Analysis
After the entire factor has been identified, the company needs to analyze it one by one. At this analysis procedure, a company required an expert. A good expertise can analyze a complex problem and break it down in to a part. Then each part is able analyzed by them. The main goal is to determine a plan and solving the problem suitable to a company profile. If each factor analyzed in a good ways then it will be easier to determine the plan. In the end of this step is a planning together with its functional concept and technical field that will be applying for the future. The concept of analyzing it selves must be applied at all business sector without ignoring a little aspect. So that the entire process will be generating a good plan which suitable to company profile.
3. Planning
The entire factors that has been analyzed needs to determine a plan. For an instance are the determining of who will handle each task in the process, how far the anticipation if there any problem and the availability of the resource. The right plan will make a company easier to run the system in the future. In a planning process a company needs to compare with their condition right now. The goal is to use all available resource maximally. Then when the implementation is running this problem will not contradict against the internal condition of the company. A good determination of a plan will make the process smoother. The plan to develop an enterprise computing is only the beginning of all steps. The company needs to run this process faster and to the point to reduce the time. There are several complex steps forward.
4. Implementation
Implementation is the main step of all recommended stages. The implementation step essentially is applying all plans conducted before. In fact, implementation is the most complex step. However a company doesn’t feel afraid to face it. The prerequisite are they already identified, analyzing and planning a good strategy for this. Then at the implementation step they will not face a big problem. The implementation step needs a tight attention so that each plan conducted can be doing smoothly. Diligence of all staff also required at this step to prevent any problem occur that can be disturbing when running the implementation it selves.
5. Running
The next step after the implementation of enterprise computing is running the new system. This is the time for the new system to get tested. A good testing is a testing process that covering all details of the system. Then if there any defect found, it can revise faster. A good system is a system with a minimum defect but usually there is no perfect system. Suitable with the previous statement, a company should be investigating the system carefully for their own benefits in the future. A company needs to compare the new system with the old one so that if there is any useful part of old system, it can be applied to the new one to get supported.
6. Maintenance
Maintenance phase is a right step to review the new system which has done. At this phase, it might be raising any unpredictable defect. The defect raised can be the bigger or just a little. If this thing happened, the company needs to make a right problem solving in a certain time so that the running system will not disturb with any revising system. A stability of a system is a dream for each company in the world and its might be a prestige to another company for them. A company may get an award if they invented a new system that running smoothly. When the system is running properly then a company will get benefit of doing the entire jobs.
They are six steps that need to get special attention from the company in developing an enterprise computing system. A company required to run the entire steps in the right way, so the process of developing an enterprise computing system can be running smoothly and generate a good system in the end. When building the system all staff need to work together. The goal is to gather all information regarding to the current condition of a company. It was important because each staff have a different point of view that maybe conducted to be a good idea. Then when the system is ready to use, all staff will know how to run the system properly. In the end it might be not easy to develop an enterprise computing system but for the internal improvement of the company this method can be implementing to the current system.
Conclusion
Great improvement of doing all tasks means great result too. This is a dream for each company. Then how to turn the dream in to reality is depends on the system applied. The enterprise computing is the important method. Learning how to apply it might be not easy as the theory but at least the concept of it covered the main sector of a business. With enterprise computing all task done effective and produce a good result. Its only requires a few resources to run the system. It means that the company doesn’t require pay too much for employee’s salary. At this point, it can be conclude that the company reduces the operational cost. There are other benefits of enterprise computing. They are figured that enterprise computing is very useful to improve the business performance.
The main idea of enterprise computing is business agility. A business performance is very important in this case. The complexity of each task is needed to break into a part. It is why an enterprise computing is very important here. Enterprise computing is able to do each task effectively. With its capability of doing task effectively, an enterprise computing is suitable for any kind of business sector. Talking about business agility means that the company needs to always ready for the external changes. For an instance if there is any new technology which made their current system left behind, they must adapt the new system as soon as possible. It is because keep the system always update are necessary for the company so that the behavior of the system always adapt the new technology.
Enterprise computing not only applicable for big scale business but also for small or intermediate business scale. The different might be only the form of a system development. It can’t be denied that big scale business has more chance to develop an enterprise system in a good form. A big scale business has more resource and of course more expertise to analyze the problem occurred. However the smaller business scale has a chance too, even with their restricted resources. Both of them have a same opportunity to improve their business performance. The ideas of enterprise computing are applicable for them no matter about their level. It was their right to be more success on their business.