Study on Enhancing Architecture Appreciation

Frank Lloyd Wright believed space was the essence of architecture. The reality of architecture is actually not in the solid elements that seem to make it, but rather – “the reality of a room was to be found in the space enclosed by the roof and walls, not in the roof and walls themselves.” Spaces have intrinsic meanings that result from their spatial and visible forms and extrinsic meanings that evolved out from each of our different experiences with regards to each individual’s own background and profession. We experience the space’s interior space in terms of their form, their structure, their aesthetics and how others and us relate to them. “This constitutes the reality of our physical experience, but spaces not only have an existence in reality, they also have a metaphorical existence.” They express meaning and give out certain messages about the space, just as the way we dress or furnish our homes gives people certain messages about us. They tell stories, for their forms and space planning give us hints about how they should be experienced or perceived. Space is meaningless without its inhabitants to experience it and to experience a space is the only gateway to understanding space.

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At certain periods architects have chosen to create exciting, complex spaces with curving, undulating walls. “The period of the baroque and rococo in Europe was one such time when interiors were designed to entice and captivate the onlooker and draw them into a world of illusion created through painting, sculpture and the curving forms of architecture.” Craftsman played the prominent role at that time when only good workmanship and complicated work pieces would amaze anyone. Now in this totally new era, right here in this century, wonders are different and expectations higher with meanings and philosophy equally deep but entirely unlike. The heightening desire and importance of communication among the space and the perceiver with the spatial experience created seem to become a dominating factor and a characteristic of spatial design in this new era.
“If architecture can be said to have a poetic meaning, we must recognise that what it says is not independent of what it is.” (Alberto Pérez-Gómez, The Space of Architecture: Meaning as Presence and Representation, Questions of Perception: Phenomenology of Architecture, 2006) Architecture is not an experience that words can translate later. Like the poem itself, it is its space as presence which constitutes the meaning and the experience. This experience in turn differs for every individual. What one perceives is a result of interplays between past experiences, including one’s culture and the interpretation of the perceived. Different aspects of the experiential spaces and the perceiver also ignite different spatial perceptions.
Understanding the different experiential components, the philosophy of perception and how spatial perception affects and reflects people differently helps us to enhance our appreciation for architecture and to heighten our enjoyment of space. My aim in this paper is to explore this hypothesis and my exposition will be presented and discussed in the following thesis.
Categories of different experiential components
Spatial experience created is the most complex and diverse of all the components of architecture, for it involves how architecture engages all of our senses, how it shapes our perception and enjoyment or discomfort of our built environment. Understanding this is perhaps the area with which most people, architects and users alike, have difficulty. This is partly because it involves, at every turn, subjective responses which differ from individual to individual.
Since the spatial experience we derive from architecture is generated by our perception of it, we must start by considering how the human eye and mind receive and interpret the visual data of architectural experience. How does the psychology of vision and sensory stimulation affect our perception of architecture? Perhaps the most fundamental concept is that the mind, particularly the human mind, is programmed to seek meaning and significance in all sensory information sent to it. The result is that the mind seeks to place all information fed to it into a meaningful pattern. The mind does not recognise that incoming data mean nothing. Even purely random visual or aural phenomena are given a preliminary interpretation by the mind on the basis of what evaluative information it already has stored away. Hence, what we perceive is based on what we already know- our knowledge. Our perception of space also differs from individual to individual, based on the person’s psychology, mentality, physical state, background, memory, observation and the overall environment together with time – Era and Culture.
The spatial experience of architectural spaces evolves and becomes established by the experience it provides and we in turn read our experience into it. Experiential spaces evoke an empathetic reaction in us through these projected experiences and the strength of these reactions is determined by our culture, our beliefs and our expectations. We can relate so well to these spaces is because we have strong feelings about our environment and about what we like and dislike. We all have our preferences and prejudices regarding certain spaces as in anything else and our experiences in these spaces determine our attitude towards that space. “People looking at pictures have a remarkable ability to enter a role which seems very foreign to them.” This can be interpreted into how these experiential spaces play an important role in affecting our mood and behaviour. When we enter these emotive spaces, we are tuned in to the frequency of the space, going through all the emotional processes with it.
Architects and designers manipulate space of many kinds:
There is first the purely physical space. One cannot see let alone touch space! Yet something that is invisible and untouchable has to be there, just to keep objects apart. This can be easily computed and expressed as how many cubic feet or cubic meters.
But there is also perceptual space, the space that can be perceived or seen. To understand this, an example will be in a building with walls of glass, this perceptual space may be extensive and impossible to quantify.
Related to perceptual space is conceptual space, which can be defined as the mental map we carry around in our heads, the plan stored in our memory. Concepts that work well are those that users can grasp easily in their mind’s eye and in which they can perceive with a kind of inevitability. Such spaces can be said to have good conceptual space.
The architect also shapes behavioural space, or the space we can actually move through and use. Architecture space is a powerful shaper of behaviour. Winston Churchill said “We shape our buildings and afterwards our buildings shape us.”
One very good example to support this statement is the Houses of Parliament in Germany. When Parliament first begun to meet in the thirteenth century, it had been given the use of rooms in the palace and had later on moved into the palace chapel. A typical narrow and tall Gothic chapel with parallel rows of choir stalls on two sides of the aisle down the center. The members of Parliament sat in the stalls, dividing themselves into two distinctive groups, one the government in power and the other usually the opposition members. During Parliament meetings, members from both parties have to take the brave step of crossing the aisle to change political allegiance. In my opinion, this enforced behaviour has a negative impact on the overall operation of the government bodies as this form of meetings unintentionally made politicians from both sides to feel and sense hostility and unconsciously insinuated the perception of challenge.
When the Houses of Parliament had to be rebuilt after a fire in 1834, the Gothic form was followed but Churchill argued that the rebuilding of the Parliament ought to be done with a fan of seats in a broad semicircle, as used in legislative chambers in the United States and France. To change the environment, to give it a different behavioural space, would change the very nature of parliamentary operation. The English had first shaped their architecture, and then that architecture had shaped English government and history. Through Churchill’s persuasion, the Houses of Parliament were rebuilt with the revised layout. Space can determine or suggest patterns of behaviour and perceptions by its very configuration.
There is yet another way of determining spatial experience, and although it is not strictly architectural, architects and designers nevertheless must take it into account. This is personal space, the distance that members of the same species put between themselves. For most animals, this zone of comfort is genetically programmed. However humans have proved themselves to be extremely flexible in their determination of personal space; they seem not to have any programmed genetic spatial code. Instead, human’s personal space is culturally determined and is fixed in childhood, so that enforced changes in personal distance later in life which they experience in different spaces may produce different perceptions and emotions. The Italians and the French prefer much more densely packed arrangements in their cafes, compared to the English. Even in the same culture, different sets of rules and factors determining experiences are adopted by men and women. Two unacquainted men will maintain a greater distance than two unacquainted women. If an architect or designer violates these unstated rules of personal space and places people in a space that is not catered to these needs, the result may prove to be an environment that is resisted by the users with negative perceptions and responses that follows.
Philosophy of Perception – Categories of different Perception
Historically, the most important philosophical problem posed by perception is the question of how we can gain knowledge via Perception. The philosophy of perception concerns how mental processes the space and the spatial perception depends on how spaces are observed and interpreted by the perceiver. In order to grasp this, we need to understand the different categories of spatial perception.
We can categorize perception into 4 categories:
Just as one object can give rise to multiple percepts, so an object may fail to give rise to any percept at all. If the percept has no grounding in a person’s past experience, the person may literally not perceive it. No perception occurs.
Specifications are 1:1 mappings of some aspects of the world into a perceptual array; given such a mapping, no enrichment or experience is required and this perception is called direct perception. This is usually knowledge or information gained through education or other mediums like books, television programmes etc. Direct perception occurs when information from the environment received by our sense organs forms the basis of perceptual experience and these sensory inputs are converted into perceptions of desks and computers, flowers and buildings, cars and planes etc.
Some argue that perceptual processes are not direct, but depend on the perceiver’s expectations and previous knowledge as well as the information available. This controversy is discussed with respect to James J. Gibson (1966) who investigated what information is actually presented to the perceptual systems. This theory of perception is a ‘bottom-up’ theory and this bottom up processing is also known as data-driven processing or passive perception. Processing is carried out in one direction from the environment to the sensory inputs, with our brains carrying out more complex analysis of the inputs which affects our reaction or behaviour.
Passive perception can be surmised as the following sequence of events as:
Surrounding — input (senses) — processing (brain) — output (reaction/behaviour)
For Gibson: sensation is perception: what you see is what you get. However, this theory cannot explain why perceptions are sometimes inaccurate, example in illusions and perceptual errors like overestimation. Although still supported by main stream philosophers and psychologists, this theory is nowadays losing momentum as more and more people turn to believe in the next one – Active Perception instead.
The theory of active perception has emerged from extensive research, most notably the works of Richard L. Gregory (1970). This theory is increasingly gaining experimental support. Gregory argued that active perception is a constructivist (indirect) theory of perception which is a ‘top-down’ theory. Top down processing refers to the use of contextual information in pattern recognition. One simple example to explain this: understanding difficult handwriting is easier when reading complete sentences than when reading single and isolated words. This is because the meanings of the surrounding words provide a context to aid understanding. For Gregory, perception involves making inferences about what we see and trying to make a best guess. Prior knowledge and past experience, he argued are crucial in perception. Thus, active perception can be surmised as a dynamic relationship between “Description” (in the brain) and the senses and the surrounding, all of which holds true to the linear concept of experience. What one perceives is a result of interplays between ones past experiences and knowledge (the brain) and the surrounding, including one’s senses and the interpretation of the perceived space (surrounding). A lot of information reaches the eye, but much is lost by the time it reaches the brain. Therefore the brain has to guess what a person sees based on past experiences. According to Richard Gregory, we actively construct our perception of reality. Our perceptions of the world are hypotheses based on our past experiences and stored information.
How Spatial Perception reflects Being
The different ways in which we experience a painting, a sculpture, or a work of architecture reflects on each of our individual being. Our environments ( built environments ) are a reflection of ourselves. Architecture should express our aspirations and our sense of optimism about the future. Nothing can possibly show us better or clearer of our innermost self, BEING, other than the very own living space we create. It shows how we want things to be and what we really want in life- freedom, happiness, power, health, luck, love, etc which reveal our characteristics, attitude and most importantly our being. It is also used to express emotions and symbolise ideas that give out certain messages about the owner.
What is happening above is actually personalising your own space. This has two meanings to it: One is to personalise it and the other is to personify it. The latter is the main point in this whole essay, the living space representing the person who created it with a hint of the creator’s being in every corner of the space. This is why we can relate better to our own houses (personal space) than the outside world. But all in all to personalise the space, you personify it and to personify it, what you are doing is simply personalising that living space of yours. This is crucial in understanding the spaces created, the reasons for creating these spaces and how others perceive these spaces (personifying it).
This same conception is expressed in Greek columns by a slight outward curvature of profile, the ‘entasis’ which gives an impression of straining muscles – a surprising thing to find in a rigid and unresponsive pillar of stone. This is exactly what happens when we are personifying our own personal space. To personify a thing or the entire space so that it overflows with your being, so that it tastes, smells and feels like you, is so amazingly overpowering over a person who owns it personally. None other than the owner can feel the sense of belonging and comfort created in that amount of space. You own that space and it completely belongs to you, you can even see yourself in that space, you are the space and the space is you. “Even civilized people more or less consciously treat lifeless things as though they were imbued with life.”
Designing one self’s own space to make sure it is unique and truly belongs to you depends very much on your background, interests and expertise. This will make it special and personalised to the person with regards to his or her living space. But nowadays architecture designs are restricted by so call Style and Taste – ‘Superficial Cosmetic’ Professor Colin Stansfield Smith. This problem shows not only how things should be built but also what should be built. “Today, in our highly civilized society the houses which ordinary people are doomed to live in and gaze upon are on the whole without quality.” This is also why some important buildings are Monuments; some are considered Architecture while others are simply termed ‘buildings’.
In order to prevent this from happening, we need to have an understanding of the living space. Understanding Living Space does not only mean the way it looks or its construction and materials. “Understanding architecture does not mean just the way they look but the creative process of how the building comes into existence and how space is utlized.”¹ We need to visit buildings, look at the processes whereby it came into being, the sense of form, space, light and shade, the size and shape of spaces, the relationship between spaces and how space is utilised. We are looking at the Interior Beings. “You must observe how it was designed for a special purpose and how it was attuned to the entire concept and rhythm of a specific era.”
“Architecture provides the physical framework for our lives, so it has a public role” a social responsibility. But it is also where we live, work and play, so it has a private role. It has a material form, but it also represents our ideals and aspirations. Consciously or unconsciously everyone is affected by his or her environment. “He experiences the house in its reality and in its virtuality, by means of thought and dreams.”
This can be further explained by using an example. When we look at a portrait of someone laughing or smiling we become cheerful ourselves. If on the other hand, the face is tragic, we feel sad. “People looking at pictures have a remarkable ability to enter a role which seems very foreign to them.”¹ This can be interpreted into how architecture plays a vital role in affecting our mood and behaviour. Buildings have their own characteristics and emotions, some buildings are feminine and some are masculine, some buildings are joyous and some are solemn. When we enter these emotive spaces, we are tuned in to the frequency of the buildings, going through all the emotional processes with the architecture.
“We get to the point where we cannot describe our impressions of an object without treating it as a living thing with its own physiognomy.”¹ This is exceptionally true with architecture as such animation of a building makes it easier to experience its architecture rather than as the addition of many separate technological details. Instead of using professional jargons (architectural vocabulary) that most people do not understand or could not fully understand, causing misunderstanding and confusion when perceiving space, using metaphors to convey certain ideas is so much easier and understandable by people from all professions and social levels. That is one of the many reasons why people like to personify spaces literally. Architecture should be appreciated by everyone from everywhere, which is also another crucial criteria for good architecture as it has a social responsibility once it is erected on the ground.
Spatial Perception in the context of ART
Whether architecture makes an impression on the observer and what impression it makes, depends not only on the architecture itself but to great extent on the observer’s “susceptibility, his mentality, his education and his entire environment.” It also depends on the mood he is in at the moment he is experiencing the architecture. We all have our preferences and prejudices in architecture as in anything else and our experiences determine our attitude towards it. This can be interpreted in the same way like above. The same painting can affect us very differently at different times and that is why it is always so exciting to return to a piece of art work we have seen before to find out whether we still react to it in the same way. This proves that a single building or a specific space can affect us differently, gives us a different feeling each time we experience it again and again.
What do you get when you put Art and Building together? Architecture. What do you get when you put Living Space and Architecture together? Living Sculpture. Architecture has been understood as the art of establishing place by bounding space. To distinguish between arts of space and arts of time, between formative and expressive arts, and therefore also between arts of presence and arts of absence. Painting, sculpture and architecture are included among the former, poetry and music among the latter.
The most dominant similarity between art and architecture is – “Art should not be explained; it must be experienced.” Architecture is not just simply looking at plans, elevations and sections, there is something more to it – it must be experienced, just like art. No photograph, film or video can reproduce the sense of form, space, light and shade, solidity and weight that is gained from visiting buildings. It is not enough to see architecture; you must experience it.
“You must dwell in the rooms, feel how they close about you and observe how you are naturally led from one room to the other.”
The most dominant difference between art and architecture is – An architect works with forms and mass just as the sculptor does, but his is a functional art. It solves practical problems. In other words, the former has a decisive factor to it: Utility. Indeed, one of the proofs of / criteria for good architecture is that it is being utilized and perceived as the architect or designer had planned, even after a long period of time.
We stand before a picture; most sculptures invite us to change our position, perhaps even to walk around them; architecture not only invites us to change our position, but to enter and move around within it. Generalizing, we can say that body and body awareness become more important as we turn from painting to sculpture to architecture. Our experience of sculpture involves the body in a more obvious way than does painting; most sculpture invites us to explore it by moving past it. Robert Morris celebrates the observer’s relationship to sculpture; his works let observers recognize that they themselves are establishing relationships as they “apprehend the object from various positions and under varying conditions of light and spatial context.” In a more obvious way, architecture is experienced by the moving body: we approach a building, walk by or around it and perhaps enter it. “Architecture is the art into which we walk; it is the art that envelops us.” As noted, painters and sculptors affect our senses and perception by creating changes in patterns, and in proportional relationships between shapes, through the manipulation of light and colour, but only architects shape the space in which we live and through which we move.
Architecture Appreciation through Perception
Architectural spaces are more than just a stage of our lives; they also reflect the society, the image of an era and most importantly the culture. Therefore the spatial experience provided has become an important factor in the communication of the architecture and the perceiver. The virtue of a successful architecture is based on the language of the experience provided rather than the form itself, which mediated between the perceiver and the space. A successful architecture is also capable of transmitting the philosophy and concepts that the space wants to convey and the experience the space provides is vital in terms of introducing the perceiver to the personality of the space. The spatial experience should be something to be enjoyed and shared by the majority of people. If it is shared more widely because more people understand it, take it seriously; chances are the space has being perceived and appreciated by the public and fulfilled its social responsibility.
Enjoyment of space and form is a birthright. This enjoyment can be heightened in two basic ways: through the thoughtful design of buildings and related spaces and through the user’s development of awareness and perception of architecture. Architecture can be important to the enrichment of life. And after so many years, architects and designers are still learning how users interact with space and form and how skilfully designed space and form respond to human needs.
Scenario: Two men attend a concert.
One studied music. Has a trained ear. Spent years developing a high degree of music appreciation. Loves great works of great composers. This concert is heaven to him. To the other man, the concert is a bore. He has had little exposure to serious music. No real knowledge of music. Never learned to listen and does not even know that he has been deprived of the pleasure of fine music. He can hardly wait until the concert is over…
During intermission, the same two people react very differently as they walk around and within the concert building experiencing its space and form.
Now the music lover is bored. He knows almost nothing about buildings. He is visually illiterate. The other person, however, has spent years developing an appreciation of buildings. He has a trained eye. He derives pleasure from the quality of space and form of the great hall. He is stirred to maximum enjoyment. To him, architecture is visual music.
The term “architecture appreciation” is used to promote the idea that architecture can be enjoyed, much as the performing or visual arts, physically through the senses. Architecture appreciation, like music appreciation or art appreciation is learned. In music, it is learning how to hear. In art, how to see. In the case of architecture, it is learning how to perceive. Enjoying buildings requires some knowledge and some practice in perceiving space and form. You need to know something about buildings, you need to hone your awareness and you need to know something about yourself too. How do you respond to space and form?
Architecture is a personal, enjoyable, necessary experience. A person perceives and appreciates space and form from three distinctly different but interrelated attitudes: from the physical, from the emotional, and from the intellectual. The architecture experience evokes a response which fulfils physical, emotional, and intellectual needs, effecting an enjoyable interaction between the person and the building.
Space perception is happening everywhere, anytime. Wherever people are, there are buildings. Where buildings are, there are spatial experience. Appreciation of the works of creative architects and designers demands creativity from our part. Through accumulated experience and knowledge we design our own appreciation and experience.
References
Frank D.K Ching, 2007, Architecture: Form, Space & Order, John Wiley & Sons Inc. , Hoboken, New Jersey
Morris Hicky Morgan, 1960, The Ten books of architecture, Dover Publications, New York
Panayotis Tournikiotis, 1965, The Historiography of Modern Architecture, Faber & Faber, London, Chapter Six: Architecture, Time Past, and Time Future, pg 181
Pierre Von Mesis, 1998, Elements of Architecture: From Form to Place, E & F Spon, New York, Chapter 4, Measure and Balance, pp 57-72
Thomas Gordon Smith, 2003, Vitruvius on Architecture, Monacelli Press, New York
Steen Eiler Rasmussen, 1959, Experiencing Architecture, Chapman & Hall
Hazel Conway and Rowan Roenisch, 2005, Understanding Architecture – An introduction to architecture and architectural history, London ; New York : Routledge
Christopher Alexander, 1979, The Timeless Way of Building, Oxford University Press, New York
Malcolm Quantrill & Bruce Webb, 1991, Constancy and Change in Architecture, College Station, Texas A&M University Press.
Leland M.Roth, 2007, Understanding Architecture: Its elements, history and meaning, Boulder, Colo. : Westview Press.
William Wayne Caudill, 1978, Architecture and You – How to experience and enjoy Buildings, New York : Whitney Library of Design
Steven Holl, 1949, Questions of Perception – Phenomenology of Architecture, Tokyo : San Francisco : a+u Pub. ; William Stout
Gaston Bachelard, 1994, The Poetics of Space, Boston, Mass. : Beacon Press
 

Enhancing Engine Efficiency in Modern Internal Combustion Engines

A PhD Proposal on the Enhancing Engine Efficiency in Modern Internal Combustion Engines by Lubricant Formulations

 

Chapter 1

Introduction

 The overall program goal is to investigate, develop, and demonstrate low-friction, environmentally-friendly and commercially-feasible lubricant formulations that would significantly improve the mechanical efficiency of modern engines by at least 10% without incurring increased wear, emissions or deterioration of the emission aftertreatment system.

 The specific project objectives include identifying the best lubricant formulations for individual engine subsystems, identifying the best composite lubricant formulation for the overall engine system, and demonstrating the mechanical efficiency improvement for the optimized lubricant formulation via engine testing.     

Background of Study

This study is motivated by the need to improve fuel economy and reduced harmful emissions from diesel internal combustion engines. Reducing wear and oil change intervals are related motivations. Options for improving fuel efficiency and emissions are many, and already fill volumes. This study focuses specifically on the engine lubrication system. Common to all internal combustion engines, the lubrication system serves two primary purposes, reducing friction and controlling engine wear and corrosion [1] . Friction reduction has a direct benefit on fuel economy, as mechanical efficiency is on the order of only 90% for today’s engines.  Migration of oil to the exhaust stream due to oil consumption has a significant impact on emissions, allowing for gains through proper formulation. This proposal summarizes results contained in several works that will be developed over the course of the research.

1. Fuel Economy:

The estimated places diesel fuel costs at 25-35% of total haulage firm overheads [6]. In 2011 the first U.S. medium and heavy-duty vehicle fuel efficiency standards were announced, affecting 2014-2018 model years, with a goal of efficiency improvements for combination tractors of 20%, and up to 15% for heavy duty pickups [5][6][7].

A large portion of engine energy losses are a result of mechanical friction. Richardson estimated mechanical friction accounted for 4-15% of total energy losses [8].

Mechanical efficiency is a measure of that portion of the gross indicated power used to do useful work. It is the ratio of the brake power to the indicated power as defined in [1]. A thorough discussion is also provided in [2]

 

2.  Emissions:

Emissions regulations influence lubricant development as a result of fuel sulfur reduction, motivated by reductions in sulfur dioxide, and additive limits, motivated by particular matter and nitrogen oxide (NOx) reduction. Diesel engines oil consumption primarily contributes to engine out emissions of particulate matter (PM). Ash and volatile organic compound levels in the PM are largely due to oil consumption [9].  

Figure 2 Diesel engine contributions to harmful emissions [2].

 3.  Oil Change Intervals:

Harsh engine environments eventually degrade lubricants through complicated mechanisms. These place considerable burdens on lubricants. Drain intervals create increased hazardous waste, providing a secondary avenue for pollution from internal combustion engines. Increasing intervals is attractive, as it reduces maintenance requirements and the need for hazardous waste disposal. Passenger car change intervals typically vary from 3,000 miles for short trip and severe service to over 7500 miles for less severe service [10][11]. 

4.  Engine Durability and Failure:

Engine durability is directly related to lubricant composition and aging. When lubrication problems occur, it tends to be due to the entrainment of combustion products and lubricant degradation. While lowering viscosity is of great benefit for fuel economy, failures may result from increased wear due to metal to metal contact. The valve train is often considered the most vulnerable subsystem for such contact; however, the power cylinder may also suffer from significant wear.  Excessive soot is known to cause wear and subsequent failure in valve trains. Recent studies show that soot plays a significant role in wear in low viscosity applications [6].  Such failure concerns are the motivation for many valve train durability tests in oil API category certification. Valve failure may also occur due to corrosion of the valve from the combustion or head side of the valve. In a dual loop lubrication system protection from valve stem corrosion may be achieved if acid levels in the lubricant are reduced. Valve train parts not exposed to the combustion chamber should receive greater protection. Deposit buildup and, or, corrosion on the valve stem or tip may also develop from degraded lubricants. Wear, pitting, and scuffing are of concern for cam lobe and follower wear as well. 

5.  Lubrication System Design:

In this study the term ‘conventional system’ is used to describe a system with one pump delivering lubricant to all subsystems as is typical of current engine designs for which a common system serves the valve train and crankcase subsystems. While a useful hardware configuration, it creates lubricant design tradeoffs. Recent implementation of emissions aftertreatment systems increased the impact of these tradeoffs [9]. Splitting the lubrication system may decouple some of these requirements as discussed in [2] in terms of axiomatic design principals. This provides opportunities for reduced friction, emissions, and overall oil dependency. The term ‘dual’ or ‘split’ system is intended to describe an engine lubrication of atypical design for which the valve train and power cylinder subsystems have separate lubrication loops which do not interact. The term ‘split’ or ‘segregated’ may also be used more broadly to describe any configurations for which one part of the engine’s lubrication system is segregated. 

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 The experimental studies in this work will relate to a particular small diesel engine with a crankshaft driven mechanical oil pump which draws oil from the main engine sump and delivers it to the main bearings and the valve train camshaft journal bearings and rocker arms by way of a single oil filter. The oil lubricates other components in the engine by splashing. Oil is delivered to camshaft journals and rocker arms by pressurized passages. Other valve train components are lubricated by splash. A schematic of the system, modified from the Kohler shop manual, is given in Figure 4. The subject system differs from many automotive engines in that it has a belt driven camshaft. Many engines employ a chain driven camshaft, or a gear box, with lubrication draining back to the main sump. 

Lubricant system for 3 cylinder Kohler KDW 1003 (turbocharger removed) [15][3

 6. Lubricant Formulation:

Typical automotive lubricants consist of base oil and an additive package. The base oil accounts for roughly 75-90% of an engine oil formulation by mass. Viscosity modifiers, if used, account for approximately 10% of the total formulation. The rest of the additive formulation consists of the detergent inhibitor (DI) package and other additives, with dispersants accounting for 6%, antiwear 1.5%, and detergents 3.5% [13]. Additive impacts, other than the viscosity changes from viscosity modifiers, may have a limited effect on overall fuel economy as compared to viscosity changes This is likely due to the significantly greater portion of friction that is attributed to hydrodynamic losses in the power cylinder system as will be discussed. Additive optimization is expected to have greater impact on valve train friction [13]. A more thorough discussion of base stocks and additive packages is presented in [2].

 

Statement of Problem

This research is aimed at identifying the best lubricant formulations for individual engine subsystems, identifying the best composite lubricant formulation for the overall engine system, and demonstrate the mechanical efficiency improvement for the optimized lubricant formulation via engine testing

Significance of Study to the Oil and Gas Sector:

Offshore applications of thermal fluid heating systems can be employed in a wide range of offshore applications such as edible oils, reactors, heat tracing, heat exchangers, as well as fuel, cargo and tank heating.  Heating press platens, including OSB and plywood presses, laminating presses, rubber and plastic molding presses and circuit board presses

Heating chemical, petrochemical and other process equipment such as reactors, heat exchangers, dryers and evaporators

It can be also be develop as a customized solution to meet the requirements of any indirect heating applications for:

               Hot oil pumps filtering systems and components.

               Electric hot oil heaters

               Heat recovery systems

               Hot oil / thermal fluid filtering systems, pumps, valves, controls, tanks, as well as heating  and cooling loops

               Replacement parts for hot oil pumps, valves, burners and controls

               Field service, annual inspections, startup and engineering consultation

               Process and secondary skids

               Natural gas and liquid fuel thermal fluid systems

 

Aim and Objectives:

The following will the accomplish at the end of the research:

Built, tested, and quantified the benefits of a dual lubricating loop engine 

Demonstrate fuel economy benefit through segregation of lubrication subsystems:

Demonstrate oil drain benefit through segregation of lubrication subsystems:

Demonstrate emissions benefit through segregation of lubrication subsystems:

Identify opportunities for improved fuel economy and wear performance along liner through novel composition-based modeling approach 

Contribution to knowledge:

This research will provide significant opportunities for the training and professional development of graduate students.  Professional development and training of participants will be included in experimental design, development of analytical tools, and work with partners, suppliers, co-workers, and superiors in technology sharing and procurement procedures.

Chapter 2

Literature Review

Chapter 3

 

Chapter 4

 

Results and discussion:

 

Motivation and related studies

This study is motivated by the need for improved fuel economy and reduced harmful emissions from diesel internal combustion engines. Reducing wear and oil change intervals are related motivations. Options for improving fuel efficiency and emissions are many, and already fill volumes. This study focuses specifically on the engine lubrication system. Common to all internal combustion engines, the lubrication system serves two primary purposes, reducing friction and controlling engine wear and corrosion [1]. Friction reduction has a direct benefit on fuel economy, as mechanical efficiency is on the order of only 90% for today’s engines.  Migration of oil to the exhaust stream due to oil consumption has a significant impact on emissions, allowing for gains through proper formulation. 

 

 

Chapter5

 

Conclusions

The majority of power cylinder friction is determined to be hydrodynamic in nature. This is shown extensively with modeling results, as well as experimental results on a 16 hp twin cylinder diesel engine.  Measured friction reductions corresponded to reductions in hydrodynamic friction anticipated as a result of reduction.  The use of conventional friction models, with detailed consideration of parameters in modern heavy-duty diesel engines, indicated different functional requirements may exist for different portions of the cylinder liner. Friction along the liner due to ring and skirt travel was shown to be predominantly hydrodynamic, particularly in the presence of low cylinder pressures loads against the top ring. The exception is that boundary loads, and therefore wear concerns, are greatest near TDC. Opportunities exist to reduce friction and wear through in situ control options such as the use of Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) as well as tailored lubricant compositions aimed at taking advantage of the different requirements along the liner.

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There may be considerable benefit to varying the ratio of light to heavy hydrocarbons, and even viscosity modifying polymers, to take advantage of the potential wear reduction benefits near TDC of the liner for a specific vaporization environment. First of its kind lubricant composition friction modeling indicated several opportunities for formulation improvement.  The dual loop lubricating system configuration facilitated an improvement in mechanical efficiency.

The dual loop lubricating system also allowed for improved mechanical efficiency by allowing the use of higher viscosity multigrade oils in the valve train and lower viscosity multigrades in the power cylinder, allowing for improved wear protection in the head. The hesitation to shift to lower viscosity lubricants in the engine is driven by wear concerns. Electrohydrodynamic pressures in the power cylinder subsystem should be lower than in the valve train. 

 

 

Reference

[1]        Heywood, J. B., Internal combustion engine fundamentals. McGraw-Hill, ISBN 9780070286375, 1988.

[2]        Plumley, M. J., “Design and Prototype of Dual Loop Lubricant System To Improve Engine Fuel Economy, Emissions, and Oil Drain Interval,” Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2015.

[3]        Martins, T., “Enhanced Engine Efficiency Through Subsystem Lubricant Viscosity Investigations,” Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 2014.

[4]        Bansal, J., “Fuel Efficiency Without Tears,” 2013_12 – December 2013 – LNG: 42–44, Dec. 2013.

[5]        “Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for  Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles.” Federal Register, Vol. 76 No. 179, Sep. 2011.

[6]        NHTSA, “White House Announces First Ever Oil Savings Standards for Heavy Duty Trucks, Buses | National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA),” Aug. 2011.

http://www.nhtsa.gov/About+NHTSA/Press+Releases/2011/White+House+Announ ces+First+Ever+Oil+Savings+Standards+for+Heavy+Duty+Trucks,+Buses, Apr. 2013.

[7]        US EPA, “Fact Sheet – Paving the Way Toward Cleaner, More Efficient Trucks,” Fact Sheet EPA-420-F-11-032, Aug. 2011.

[8]        Office of the Press Secretary, “Remarks by the President on Fuel Efficiency Standards of Medium and Heavy-Duty Vehicles | The White House,” The White House Press Office, Feb. 2014. http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-pressoffice/2014/02/18/remarks-president-fuel-efficiency-standards-medium-and-heavyduty-vehicl, Nov. 2014.

[9]        Richardson, D. E., “Review of Power Cylinder Friction for Diesel Engines,” J. Eng.

Gas Turbines Power, 122(4):506, 2000, doi: 10.1115/1.1290592.

[10]    Schwarze, H., “Lubricants and the Lubrication System,” in Handbook of Diesel Engines, Mollenhauer, K. and Tschöke, H., Eds. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2010.

[11]    Rango, R., “Let the numbers talk!,” Lubes N Greases, Dec. 2014.

[12]    Lombardini, KOHLER WORKSHOP MANUAL FOCS Engine Series, 1st–5302nd–

351st ed. 2008.

[13]           Wang, Y., Introduction to Engine Valvetrains: Yushu Wang. Society of Automotive Engineers, ISBN 9780768010794, 2007.

Effective Communication for Enhancing Leadership

Main Title of Article Review : Role of Effective Communication for Enhancing Leadership and Entrepreneurial
Introduction
Effective communication plays a vital role nowadays in affecting a person’s life whether in his working life or daily lifestyle. A person needs to master the effective communication skills so that he could succeed in his career or relationship with others. Effective communication helps us better understand a person or situation, so that we can resolve conflict. Besides, effective communication also can build trust and respect, and established creative environments and problem solving. An improper communication or ineffective communication will likely to cause misunderstanding and finally leads to frustration and conflict. One has to learn how to communicate effectively so that the information can be shared with his listener smoothly and to prevent unwanted negative feelings from others.

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We send, receive, and process an enormous amount of messages every day. But for effective communication, it is not merely exchanging information, it is also about understanding the emotions behind the conversations. Effective communication can at home, work, and in social situations to improve relationships, by deepening your connections to others, to improve teamwork, decision-making, and problem solving. It enables you to create no conflict or communication difficulties even negative news or threatening trust. However, effective communication often comes with a set of four primary skills, which are: reading, writing, listening, and speaking. One has to learn those four skills to fully master effective communication.
There is one of the most important aspects for effective communication, which is listening. A successful listening means not just understanding the words or the information being communicated, but also need to understanding how the speaker feels when they communicate. However, speaking gives others the most significant impact. A person who is good at expressing, they have a better chance to succeed in his academic and professional career as he poses a more confident personality. Self-confidence leads to the development of the leadership and entrepreneurial qualities. Due to the leaders and entrepreneurs display the quality to implementation plans, it shows that they are good human resource managers. Besides, they also show that they are able to take their team forward to achieve goals in the right direction.
In a nutshell, effective communication skill is very crucial in our daily lives nowadays. Many of our achievements depend on this skill. Therefore, as students, we must learn effective communication skill not only to foster relationship with other students, but also to secure our profession in the near future.
Summary
This review is about the role of effective communications for enhancing leadership and entrepreneurial skills is getting more important to every individual in today’s society. An excellent expression, the use of right words at the right time is the key in becoming a first-class leader. The four primary skills, reading, writing, listening and speaking have been now practiced by every individual throughout the world to enhance their inner potential. It is obvious that good communication skills are needed for everyone.
Working in an organization, having a good leadership is more preferable than having a good managerial performance as it is easier to perform and accomplish tasks and objectives for the organization. A self-confidence person is able to come out with a qualified plan and lead his team towards the right direction to achieve the organization’s goals. Entrepreneurism is not a foreign concept to the academic world in this 21st Century. The development of knowledge is providing employability and entrepreneurship skills which is a logical expression for a university student.
An excellent manager should consist of the listening, speaking, group contribution and interaction of information as most significant business students in this 21st Century. A manager should have the ability to bring up and motivate the members so that they will perform better and achieve the objectives. A manager should also have the psychomotor ability that involves in the communication competence. Listening and understanding are the ways of being a thoughtful communicator for manager.
In the nutshell, the development of leadership qualities, speaking skills is the most important in development of leadership qualities effectively. Communication is the human connection and it is the key to personal and career success.
Critique According to Manshoor Hussain Abbasi, Attiya Siddiqi and Rahat ul Ain Azim (2011), they have stated that people who want to success in their academic life, they need to have own communication, leadership and entrepreneurial skills together to generate the full potential of an individual. The authors had accomplished the article with their objectives and it is a useful article for university students. Through this article, we know that good communication skills had become very important in this 21st century. Students who are able to express themselves will gain a better chance to succeed in his or her career. They should take part in university events frequently to develop a good communication skill. For example, they can be event organizer or committee to gain some experience in order to train their entrepreneurial and leadership skills. Throughout the event, they may learn how to maintain a good interpersonal relationship and two-ways communication with each other.
In this article, we found that there have several grammar and spelling errors. For example,

Paragraph

Errors

Corrections

Introduction
( paragraph 2 of line 7)

N

In

Introduction
( paragraph 2 of line 8)

Robe

Role

Introduction
( paragraph 4 of line 10)

it obvious in

it is obvious in

Introduction
(paragraph 7 of line 10)

being an thoughtful

a thoughtful

Question 25 of first questionnaire

as compare to

as compared to

Conclusion
Question 11 of first questionnaire

to built

to build

There are 22 references in this journal, indicating high accuracy. Although the citations are clear, there are plenty of citations causing the view of this article messy and crowded. Other than that, the level of language in the article is easy to understand for the university students. Moreover, the weakness of Methodology part is the questions were asked and analyzed without numbering it. Thus, this has caused trouble to the reader when they have to keep on referring back to the questions frequently while reading the article.
From this article, have several ideas had been over emphasized. For instance, from paragraph 2 of the Introduction part, the paragraph had over emphasized the difference between the manager and the leader. It is irrelevance with the topic of this article. Moreover, the last paragraph of the Introduction part, which is discussing about the four skills that integrate with communication, entrepreneurial and leadership skills. Unfortunately, the paragraphs just focus on one of the four skills which are listening and without elaborate the other skills.
For the Methodology part, these authors had implemented a good method of presenting the data analysis which related to entrepreneurship, leadership and students’ general responsibilities and integrity. There have 25 questions to show the result of five-pint Likert scale in percentages. Every question had interpreted that the recommendation to solve the particular affair. For example, the Question No. 25 had stated that we should provide environment in our educational institution to resolve the young entrepreneurs have many obstacles as compare to the experienced one. Therefore, young entrepreneurs will become a confident person and accomplish their goals easily. Other than that, the article used table to present the data analysis in Second Questionnaire is clearer than data analysis in Methodology. In our review, the method of data analysis in Methodology is complicated and it is time-consuming because we need to read the data word by word. On the contrary, reliability statistics in second questionnaire is easy to understand by the reader and delivered the information to the audiences quickly without wasting of time as the table show the distribution of information separately.
Conclusion
In summary, we know that the author’s position that there are 3 important skills in leading an individual to a successful academic life. The authors have stated that a strong communication, leadership and entrepreneurial skills leading an individual to success in their academic life and it have been effectively supported. This article is successful although there are some flaws such as several grammars, spelling error, untidy references, omitting in numbering the questions, and also the over emphasizing some of the points but the author has elaborated the importance and integration of communication, leadership and entrepreneur skills by providing various of reference, making the article’s level of language is easy to be understood by university students, well prepared and analyzed questions, good method in presenting the data by showing the result of five-pint Likert scale in percentages and the information in articles are well delivered to the readers. The article has contributed in delivering an important message to the students that the keys of success in their academic life. Finally, the articles could help the university students and also working persons to have an idea how to get success in their academic life. 
 

Performance- Enhancing Drugs Ethical Dilemma

ETHICAL DILEMMA ESSAY
At least once, unless extremely lucky, we are either peer pressured or presented with an opportunity to experiment with a drug, this could be an illegal drug as well as it being portrayed as a legal drug. Often consequences are not minor but major and are negative and sometimes the result is completely unexpected. How we choose to be influenced can have an impact on shaping our worldview.
Ethical Dilemma
Members of Paul’s team have been experimenting with a new performance- enhancing drug that seems to have remarkable results. The drug not being a banned substance or illegal and because of the teams continuous winning streaks the coach has ignored teammates using it. Paul faces either to also take this drug or lose the starting position he has worked extremely hard for on his team. Paul’s want to succeed so badly may influence teammates pressuring him into also experimenting with the enhancing drug so he can “catch up” with the others. Paul knows that there are two options, one is to accept the sample offered by his teammate thus securing his starting position that has been already threatened that he could possibly lose, or two, refusing the sample and most likely losing his position but morally being able to live with that consequence and all possible negative effects that could develop because of taking this drug.
Core Beliefs
1 Cor.8:7-13: What would this activity due to my conscience? Does this activity or could this activity affect the growth of a fellow believer? Could my actions also affect others, if so would it not be wiser to be involved in something that does affect others? What if their conscience is even weaker? The outcome could cause others to think this is ok and they themselves experience far worse negative effects than myself. (“Christian Moral and Ethical Dilemmas, Dealing with Dilemmas Predicaments and Sticky Situations” n.d.)
Resolution
The Bible does not say anything exactly about using drugs. We learn through Scripture that it is although wrong. The Bible tells us that the body is a temple of the Holy Spirit and we should honor God with it. (1 Cor. 6:19-20) Knowing consequences of what drugs can do to our bodies such as harming organs says we would be destroying the temple of the Holy Spirit. In Romans 13: 1 it says to follow authorities that God himself put into place. By using drugs, we are not following authorities but instead going against what God has wanted. Per to this Paul should not be tempted in destroying his body and in so rebelling against authorities God put into place only because of the risk of losing a position on his team. The outcome or side effect of situation could be far worse than a starting position on his team.
Evaluation
Unintended consequences and the perceived benefits are the downfalls to experimenting with any type of drug. Once a drug becomes abusive it has been shown to alter gene expression and brain circuitry, which affects human behavior. When you become addicted, brain changes start to interfere with normal abilities to make decisions and you become dependent on how and where you can get more of the drug. In an article wrote by the National Institute on Drug Abuse they have identified some of the negative effects of drug addiction to include cardiovascular disease, stroke, cancer, HIV/AIDS, hepatitis, and lung disease any of these can happen after one time of doing drugs (“Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse | National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA),” n.d.)
Paul could very well become addicted after just one use or worse his life could end or even a close teammate could have also had a negative affect happen to them.
Comparison
God’s ethical order can be said to be the only absolute true source of morality, in fact, is the only possible morality. There is no other option to compare to, 2 Cor. 4:18, Apostle Paul says the physical order is temporary, but the order not seen is eternal. We learn standards by which we should conduct ourselves in situations such as the one Paul faces when the Bible does not give exact instructions on what to do (“What is Christian ethics?” n.d.). Paul faces a decision that can not only affect him but also affects his teammates and his ability to be truthful in respect of what is wrong and right. His entire future can be formed by making this one decision which could have terrible if not possibly deadly consequences for himself or other teammates involved. The comparison between doing something on your own and or using something to enhance your ability clogs your ability to be ethically moral with yourself and others.
Conclusion
God does not tolerate evil or moral indifference. To prevent sin from separating ourselves from His Word we must stay in accordance with his moral order. Only those willing to treat God’s moral order with same respect shown by the physical order are completely obedient to the Christian code, there is yet any other system that can claim absolute truth from God sent to humanity. We rely on God and His Word to show moral order (“Christian Ethics,” n.d). Paul will feel morally and ethically better if he chooses to resist this temptation presented by his other teammates. Paul also will not have the all sudden added addiction created by drug use nor will he be affected health wise by the negative consequences of the performance- enhancing drug that is being abused by other teammates. His only affect would be of losing his starting position on team but the greater consequence could be death if he chooses wrongly in his decision when teammate offers him the sample of the drug to try.
References
“Christian Moral and Ethical Dilemmas, Dealing with Dilemmas Predicaments and Sticky Situations.” (n.d.).
Retrieved from http://godsmercyandgrace.com/indexm15.htm
Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse | National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). (n.d.).
Retrieved from https://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/medical-consequences-drug-abuse
What is Christian ethics? (n.d.)
Retrieved from https://www.gotquestions.org/Christian-ethics.html
Christian Ethics. (n.d.).
Retrieved from http://www.allaboutworldview.org/christian-ethics.htm

Mental and Physical Impact of Performance Enhancing Drugs

Performance Enhancing Drugs

ABSTRACT

In my research paper, I will address the abuse of various pharmaceuticals in both legal and illegal manners. This research covers athletes across all sports and how these drugs affect the athletes mental and physical assets. I will also discuss, how drugs are deciphered from one another by the government.

Performance Enhancing Drugs

 

Introduction

Appearance and performance enhancing drugs (APEDs) are regularly utilized by people to improve physical appearance or to improve athletic abilities. Despite the fact that they may legitimately have consequences for a client’s disposition, they don’t create euphoric high, which makes APEDs unmistakable from different illegal drugs, such as, cocaine, heroin, and marijuana. In any case, people may build up a substance abuse issue, in spite of antagonistic outcomes.I will also identify the different agencies that control these medications, which there are many.

Methods

There are “Anabolic agents”, which are a number of drugs which are used to increase lean-muscle mass. Of these agents the most popular is the most well known and is the steroid testosterone (T). Notwithstanding anabolic steroids(AS) there are non-steroid specialists that are utilized trying to produce the equivalent anabolic impacts. These incorporate the B-2 agonist, clenbuterol (which is moreover utilized as an anorectic operator to lessen muscle versus fat), human growth hormone (HGH) and insulin/insulin-like development factors. Other development factors are normally utilized in the middle of courses of anabolic specialist use and these incorporate human gonadotropin (HCG) and erythropoietin (EPO) and all the more as of late particular androgen receptor modulators. Whatever the arrangement, the motivation behind anabolic and development factors is to invigorate skeletal muscle development. From a clinical point of view it is important that EPO is used to support perseverance practice. AS, HGH, HCG and insulin/insulin-like development factors, they are routinely utilized by expert, novice and recreational athletes.[1]

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It is important to take note that the composition of (AS) varies…Traditionally, (AS) are named water-dissolvable orally dynamic and lipid-solvent parenteral structures . Moreover, they are identified as either testosterone-based, dihydrotestosterone-based (DHT) or nortestosterone-based (Nandrolone) all of which have contrasting properties and anticipated reactions. Athletes use the various forms of (AS) for different anticipated results, some (AS) are better for dominant ‘building’ muscle while others lose muscle versus fat or ‘cutting’. Athletes will frequently utilize these distinctive types of (AS) in shifting amounts. The utilization of (AS) is additionally described by times of utilization pursued by times of restraint, or ‘cycles’. This boosts the impacts of the medications while likewise restricting the negative results and enabling the body to standardize following an on cycle. Moreover, athletes will regularly enhance their cycles with extra pharmaceutical substances both while building (Insulin, human development hormone) and while losing muscle to fat ratio (clenbuterol, cytomel,dinitrophenol). In conclusion, there are an astounding number of medications used to try to confine reactions of (AS) use or standardize the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) hub following an (AS) cycle. These incorporate estrogen receptor adversaries (tamoxifen), specific estrogen receptor inhibitors (clomifene), aromatase inhibitors (arimidex), reductase inhibitors (finasteride) and HPG hub triggers like HGG.[2]

The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) regulates the use of drugs in competitive sports. The agency was formed in 1999 and is a international independent agency that was made and financially supported by the several governments of the world. This is a very important piece of the puzzle considering that this is the only thing stopping these athletes from taking performance enhancing drugs(PED’s) in the first place. The organization opened peoples eyes as to what the drug regulations are, but also raised awareness about the health consequences about performance enhancing drugs, which there are many. The health of the athletes is obviously the main point of concern, and of course these drugs aren’t necessarily beneficial for the human body.

There are different vital functions of the body that are abused when an athlete partakes in a performance enhancing substance. The main health concern is what anabolic steroids(AS), which 60% of PED’s are. Studies indicate that long-term use of  anabolic-androgenic steroids damages the heart and its ability to contract and relax as a healthy heart does. This can also lead to an enlarged heart, which in many cases this can lead to death.

Results

Proof of competitor utilization of anabolic steroids (AS) has been accessible since the 1950s with (AS) adding to 60% of discoveries as WADA reports. In the competitive athlete community there is information that demonstrates an expansion in the use of (AS). Despite such broad use, there is still some debate with regards to the cardio vascular (CV) cases and  taking (AS). Proof of the (CV) wellbeing results of long haul (AS) use is missing, likely as a result of the hesitance to concede use or potentially ownership. Moreover, proof for a connection between (AS) use and (CV) infection results or end-indicates is for the most part constrained investigation reports. Distributed contextual analyses incorporate (AS) use related with myocardial infarction, stroke, embolism and other (CV) medical problems. Despite the fact that alert should be communicated in inferring circumstances and logical results from case studies, they can give guidance for case arrangement and investigations just as experts. [3]

There is a recent study about adolescents taking these substances. In a survey conducted by the Blue Cross Blue Shield Association’s Healthy Competition Foundation, 1002 adults and 785 youths between the ages of 10-17 years were surveyed to assess the prevalence of performance enhancing substance use and knowledge about the potential harmful effects of these substances. The survey revealed that one in five American youths know someone who is using a performance enhancing drug and approximately 96% of American youth are aware that there are potential health hazards of using (Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Weekly, 2001). However, only 70% of the youth and 50% of the adults surveyed could specifically identify the potential effects of performance enhancing drug/substance use (Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Weekly, 2001). The Healthy Competition Foundation study also found that the top performance enhancing substances being used by youth were creatine followed by anabolic steroids (Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Weekly, 2001). Another study conducted by the Community Anti-Drug Coalitions of America (CADCA) in 2003 revealed that 1 in 30 student athletes was using a performance enhancing substance or steroids with 2.1 percent of 12th graders and 1.4 percent of 8th graders reporting steroid use in the previous year (Alcoholism & Drug Abuse Weekly, 2004).[4]

Discussion

Furthermore, there is a very strong motivation in these athletes as to why they have an interest in performance enhancing drugs in the first place. Most genuine competitors will disclose to you that the drive to win is wild. Other than the fulfillment of individual achievement, competitors frequently seek after dreams of winning a decoration for their nation or verifying a spot on an expert group. In such a domain, the utilization of execution improving medications has turned out to be progressively normal.

Yet, utilizing execution upgrading drugs (doping) has dangers. Set aside the effort to find out about the potential advantages, the health dangers and the numerous questions in regards to supposed execution improving medications, for example, anabolic steroids, androstenedione, human development hormone, erythropoietin, diuretics, creatine and stimulants. Some feel that the advantages do not merit the dangers. There are many adverse effects that follow when using the drugs; Given the high pervasiveness of PED use, and specifically the high commonness of AAS, you may wonder as to why their unfavorable impacts are worse comprehended and why policymakers have not allotted more assets to research the general effect of PEDs. A few variables may clarify why the issue of PED use and its unfavorable health impacts has stayed dismissed.

To start with, open consideration is centered on the whole around PED use among first class competitors, with an accentuation on how these medications empower competitors to illegally pick up an upper hand. Consequently, there gives off an impression of being an across the board misguided judgment that PED use is principally a wonder among a little gathering of aggressive world class competitors. This misperception has diverted from the dangers related with PED use and the way that PED use isn’t constrained to world class competitors and includes a much bigger gathering of non athlete weightlifters. In spite of the fact that testing is a noteworthy distraction in games, it is nonexistent somewhere else, to a limited extent in view of the surprising expense of PED testing.

Secondly, scientists cannot lead controlled investigations of the unfavorable impacts of PEDs in ordinary volunteers, particularly when utilizing supraphysiologic doses. Along these lines, the greater part of the insight originates from investigations of PED clients in the field (enhanced with concentrates in creatures). These uncontrolled human investigations are liable to inalienable confinements including determination predisposition (ex: people encountering unfriendly impacts might be almost certain or less inclined to introduce for concentrate than those without such impacts), data inclination (ex: people are reflectively announcing utilization of illegal medications of dubious intensity and credibility, regularly utilized a long time before the season of list assessment), and jumbling factors (ex: PED clients often devour a wide scope of different PEDs, most of the time it is traditional medications of maltreatment, and may likewise show extra hazard factors for maladies that are related with weightlifting (diet, utilization of needles, and different aspects of their life). [5]

Furthermore, in light of the fact that far reaching illegal PED use did not show up in the all inclusive community until the 1990s, the incredible part of the world’s PED clients are still younger than 50 today. In that capacity, this moderately youthful populace has not done well, for example, cardiovascular issues, that develope further down the road. This clarifies why, until now, just incidental case reports have featured intense therapeutic occasions and passings related with PEDs. What’s more, almost certainly, a portion of the long haul impacts of PEDs will just presently begin to end up noticeable as the more established individuals from the PED-utilizing populace achieve the period of hazard for these marvels. Hence, current perceptions likely think little of the magic therapeutic outcomes create out of PEDs that will end up clear throughout the following 2 or 3 decades.

Also, PED use in the overall public is generally secretive. PED use commonly starts after the adolescent years and in this manner dodges examination of guardians or teachers. Thus, national overviews concentrating on adolescents, for example, school understudies, will think little of the all out number of people who use PEDs, in light of the fact that the dominant part of such people start use after their young years. Likewise, it has been the perception that individuals are less well-suited to uncover PED use than different types of medication use, maybe on the grounds that doing as such would recognize that their physical ability is to a great extent because of synthetic upgrade.

Lastly, PED clients frequently don’t confide in doctors; in one examination, 56% of AAS clients announced that they had never revealed their AAS use to any doctor. In this manner, doctors are frequently uninformed of the pervasiveness of PED use.[6]

Works Cited

Agulló-Calatayud V, González-Alcaide G, Valderrama-Zurián JC, Aleixandre-Benavent R. Consumption of anabolic steroids in sport, physical activity and as a drug of abuse: an analysis of the scientific literature and areas of research. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2008;42(2):103-109. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2007.036228.

This source talks about specifically anabolic steroid use and the effect on athletes.

Charlish P. Drugs in Sport. Legal Information Management. 2012;12(2):109-120. doi:10.1017/S1472669612000321.

This source talks abroad about many different drugs that are used in sports to enhance performance.

Taniguchi M. Injuries in Sports/Violence in Sports/Concussions in Sports/High-Pressure Youth Sports/Performance-Enhancing Drugs in Sports/Equality in Sports: Show Racism the Red Card. School Library Journal. 2014;60(4):105. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=lxh&AN=95262029&site=ehost-live. Accessed April 8, 2019.

This source talks about concussions in sports as well as what performance enhancing drugs have to do with that.

R. Tavares AS, Serpa S, Horta L, Rosado A. Psychosocial Factors and Performance Enhancing Substances in Gym Users: A Systematic Review. Revista de Psicología del Deporte. 2019;28(1):131-142. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=134348318&site=ehost-live. Accessed April 10, 2019.

This source talks about steroids with people who lift/go to the gym and how that affects the body.

Brand R, Heck P, Ziegler M. Illegal performance enhancing drugs and doping in sport: a picture-based brief implicit association test for measuring athletes’ attitudes. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention & Policy. 2014;9:1-22. doi:10.1186/1747-597X-9-7.

This source talks about professional athletes and how steroids affect the way star players play the sport.

Gottlieb B. Avoiding Contractual Liability to Baseball Players Who Have Used Performance Enhancing Drugs: Can We Knock It out of the Park? Albany Law Review. 2014;77(2):615-637. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=96160675&site=ehost-live. Accessed April 9, 2019.

This source talks about steroids and how some of the best professional players have been injecting the drug and that is the reason why they have been hitting out of the park.

[1] Agulló-Calatayud V, González-Alcaide G, Valderrama-Zurián JC, Aleixandre-Benavent R. Consumption of anabolic steroids in sport, physical activity and as a drug of abuse: an analysis of the scientific literature and areas of research. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2008;42(2):103-109. doi:10.1136/bjsm.2007.036228.

[2] Charlish P. Drugs in Sport. Legal Information Management. 2012;12(2):109-120. doi:10.1017/S1472669612000321.

[3] Taniguchi M. Injuries in Sports/Violence in Sports/Concussions in Sports/High-Pressure Youth Sports/Performance-Enhancing Drugs in Sports/Equality in Sports: Show Racism the Red Card. School Library Journal. 2014;60(4):105. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=lxh&AN=95262029&site=ehost-live. Accessed April 8, 2019.

[4] R. Tavares AS, Serpa S, Horta L, Rosado A. Psychosocial Factors and Performance Enhancing Substances in Gym Users: A Systematic Review. Revista de Psicología del Deporte. 2019;28(1):131-142.

[5] Brand R, Heck P, Ziegler M. Illegal performance enhancing drugs and doping in sport: a picture-based brief implicit association test for measuring athletes’ attitudes. Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention & Policy. 2014;9:1-22. doi:10.1186/1747-597X-9-7.

[6] Gottlieb B. Avoiding Contractual Liability to Baseball Players Who Have Used Performance Enhancing Drugs: Can We Knock It out of the Park? Albany Law Review. 2014;77(2):615-637. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=96160675&site=ehost-live. Accessed April 9, 2019.
 

Research into Enhancing Human Capital in the Air Force

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

 Enhancing human capital is receiving increasing consideration on a global scale as business leaders see the impact that human capital has on the overall value to an organization (Marimuthu, Arokiasamy, & Ismail, 2009).  Although human capital has been written about for centuries by some of the greatest economic minds, it is only in the last few decades that enhancing human capital has been accepted as a key management tool.  Even the father of classical economics, Adam Smith wrote about human capital as one of four types of capital in his book, The Wealth of Nations (Yukl & Lepsinger, 2008).

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Jim Kelly, former Chairman and CEO of United Parcel Service (UPS) echoed these same sentiments when he described loyalty as a key ingredient of employees that employers overlook, and its effect is so great it should be included on the balance sheet (Bowers, 2003).  Kelly was perplexed by management’s lack of appreciation for employee loyalty and professed that employee organizational commitment would decline if management didn’t change its current thinking (Bowers, 2003).  The Air Force is striving to enhance human capital by improving professionalism, increasing job satisfaction, and improving the ethical climate to create affective organizational commitment from its members. 

Professionalism

 Professionalism can be a problematic subject to teach and sometimes even difficult to describe but most agree that it’s easy to identify when you see it.   Professionalism is often associated with ethical behavior and institutional core values and it’s been proposed that it lies at the heart of every profession (Peeters, and Vaidya, 2016).  Another approach to defining professionalism has been based on an evaluation of what is generally considered professional, as opposed to what should be (Galvin, 2011).  This study examines the role, if any, of professionalism as a construct in building affective organizational commitment.

Job Satisfaction

 Job satisfaction has been studied for decades and really came into prominence with the studies conducted by Frederick Herzberg.  Herzberg was the creator of the Motivation-Hygiene Theory. The theory postulated that motivators and hygiene were two factors inherent in every job.  Motivators, were strong determiners of job satisfaction and consisted of achievements, recognition, work itself, responsibility, and advancement (Bahamonde-Gunnell, 2000).  Hygiene factors created job dissatisfaction. Hygiene factors included company policy, administration, supervision, salary, interpersonal relations, and working conditions. According to Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory the only way to motivate employees was to make jobs intrinsically rewarding (Bahamonde-Gunnell, 2000).  This study examines the role, if any, of job satisfaction as a construct in building affective organizational commitment.

Ethical Climate

 The United States Military has suffered extensive and well publicized ethical shortcomings in the last few decades and despite numerous attempts to mitigate them, they have only seemed to increase.  At the heart of the matter seems to be a contradiction of what the individual sees as their ethical palate and what the institution views as their ethical dictum (Snider, Nagl, & Pfaff, 1999).  Studies have determined that a link exists between the ethical climate of the organization and the ethical behavior of employees (Kincaid, 2003; Wimbush & Shepard, 1994).  This study examines the role, if any, of ethical climate as a construct in building affective organizational commitment.

Affective Organizational Commitment  

Organizational commitment has been the object of a tremendous amount of research since the seminal work of Meyer and Allen (1991) was published proposing a three-component model of organizational commitment.  The model identified three core areas of commitment; affective, normative, and continuance than an individual can potentially relate to an organization.  The three-component model of organizational commitment postulates that individuals remain with an organization because they either want to or they are emotionally attached to the organization (affective), they need to because of financial considerations (continuance), or they feel an obligation to stay with the organization (normative) (Jayasingam, Govindasamy, & Garib Singh, 2016; Brief, 1998).  Affective organizational commitment is regarded as the one level of commitment that is the hardest for an employee to attain, but the most valuable towards the organization.  

Problem Background

The United States Air Force is the premier air force in the world and was established as an independent force under the Department of Defense by the National Security Act of 1947.  Air Education and Training Command (AETC) is charged with providing primary job and professionalism training for the nearly 500,000 officer, enlisted, and civilian members of the Air Force (“Air Education and Training Command > Home,” 2018).  Air Force Instructors either directly train or indirectly come in contact with every Air Force member at some point in their career, so it’s crucial that instructors project the right image.  Air Force Instructors play a critical role in not only providing the needed skills for airmen to accomplish their mission, but they must also be a role model for airmen. 

It is vital that Air Force Instructors not only model the core values the Air Force professes, but the lifestyle as well.  Air Force members are not only required to abide by federal and local laws, but they must also adhere to the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ).  The UCMJ is more comprehensive than other laws and is the rule of law for service connected crimes.  The adherence to the UCMJ, temporary duty assignments (TDY), high-pace operational tempo, and family separations, among other things, all combine to produce a nearly 50% turnover rate of first-term airmen. 

Retention is the number one problem associated with the Air Force and a low retention rate creates increased inefficiencies of having to constantly train airmen.  One example of the retention problem is with pilots in the Air Force.  According to a recent study, the Air Force spends $2.6 million per fighter pilot and $600k per airlift pilots to get them fully trained (“Air Force Flight Simulators May Help Cut Training Costs | Defense Media Network,” n.d.).  To cut costs the Air Force has increased the use of simulators to help train pilots, and in some aircraft types the simulation can be as much as 40% of their training time (“Air Force Flight Simulators May Help Cut Training Costs | Defense Media Network,” n.d.).  Although simulators cut down on training costs and operational costs, pilots often claim they joined the military to fly jets and the simulator does not quite fit the image of an Air Force aviator.  To make matters worse, pilots often spend a lot of time in austere environments, away from their families, with the possibility of being shot down and killed.  It comes as no surprise that pilots often stay long enough to get the training they need and then leave the service for the comfortable job of airline pilot.

To add to the retention problem is the enforcement of a new Pentagon plan to release thousands of troops who are considered non-deployable (Copp, 2018).  The Air Force, along with its sister services, must find a way to not only improve the organizational climate, but foster an affective organizational commitment where the majority of airmen believe strongly in the mission of the Air Force and make it a career.

In 2015, in an effort to create an affective organizational culture, the Air Force introduced the Profession of Arms Center of Excellence at AETC with the mission of improving professionalism through developing and fostering the core values of airmen.  An important part of this plan is developing affective organizational commitment of Air Force members.  

Research Gap

Organizational commitment, including affective organizational commitment has been studied and reported on for decades but very little research has been done on exploring the implications of it in a military society.  In the civilian sector, workers can go home at the end of the day and forget about work, but in the military, members are often in harm’s way, or at remote locations, prepared to take a life or ultimately give up their own.  In this context it is important to study what drives an individual to give up personal liberties to protect the liberties of others.  In addition to the sacrifices the military must make, their family must also make sacrifices by missing loved one’s birthdays, holidays, and other important family events. 

Purpose of Study

 Thisextant study looks at the constructs of professionalism, job satisfaction, and ethical climate to examine the role they play in establishing creating an affective organization commitment from Air Force Instructors.  Does an ethical climate, job satisfaction, and professionalism play a role in contributing to affective organizational commitment by United States Air Force Instructors?  What are the predictors of high levels of affective commitment?  Is there a correlation between ethical climate, job satisfaction, and professionalism with affective organizational commitment?

Research Questions

 The primary research question seeks to answer to what degree does each of the constructs, if any, play in creating an affective organizational commitment by Air Force Instructors.  In answering this question, the data collected and analyzed should give an indication if the process of enhancing human capital of Air Force Instructors will be effective or not.

Research Methodology

The research will sample approximately 300 current Air Force Instructors teaching a variety of Air Force courses on Keesler Air Force Base.   Descriptive statistics will first be run to get basic features of the data. Correlational data will be analyzed to determine the strength between the variables. Cronbach’s alfa will be conducted to measure internal consistency to determine how closely related the set of variables are as a group and also give a measure of scale reliability.   Multiple regression analysis is the most common form of linear regression analysis and when used for predictive analysis, is used to explain the relationship between one dependent variable and two or more independent variables.

The following scales will be used for the survey:

Affective Organizational Commitment- Meyer & Allen 1997 Affective Commitment Scale

Professionalism Scale- Hall’s 1968 scale

Job Satisfaction Scale- Stamps and Piedmonte 1986 scale

Ethical Climate Scale- Victor and Cullen 1988 Ethical Climate Scale

Assumptions

 A general assumption is that the Air Force Instructors surveyed will self-report accurate information about their ethical climate, level of professionalism, and job satisfaction.  Another assumption is that the sample population will feel comfortable reporting on the ethical climate they work in and their data will be protected and not shared with anyone.

Limitations

 Several factors related to this research must be taken into consideration when drawing conclusions from the findings. First, this study only consists of Air Force Instructors which affects the generalizability of the findings of affective organizational commitment of all of the Air Force. Air Force Instructors at other organizations operating in different geographical locations, or of different sizes may have produced different results.

References

Air Education and Training Command > Home. (2018, October 22). Retrieved from https://www.aetc.af.mil/

Air Force Flight Simulators May Help Cut Training Costs | Defense Media Network. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.defensemedianetwork.com/stories/virtual-bargain/

Bahamonde-Gunnell, Mayda A. (2000).  “Teachers’ Perceptions of School Culture in Relation to Job Satisfaction and Commitment.” Ed.D., Western Michigan University, 2000. http://search.proquest.com/pqdtglobal/docview/304647260/abstract/71D5C296EDAC41AFPQ/243.

Bowers, B. (2003). Affective organizational commitment among non-traditional undergraduate business majors: An empirical investigation (Order No. 3093824). Available from ABI/INFORM Collection; ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (305229824). Retrieved from https://saintleo.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.saintleo.idm.oclc.org/docview/305229824?accountid=4870

Brief, A. P. (1998), Attitudes in and around the Organizations, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

Copp, T. (2018, February 5). Deploy or get out: New Pentagon plan could boot thousands of non-deployable troops. Retrieved from https://www.militarytimes.com/news/your-military/2018/02/05/deploy-or-get-out-new-pentagon-plan-could-boot-thousands-of-non-deployable-troops/

Galvin, Thomas P. (2011). “A New Way of Understanding (Military) Professionalism.” Joint Force Quarterly: JFQ; Washington, no. 62: 25–31.

Jayasingam, S., Govindasamy, M., & Garib Singh, S. K. (2016). Instilling affective commitment: Insights on what makes knowledge workers want to stay. Management Research Review, 39(3), 266-288. Retrieved from https://saintleo.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.saintleo.idm.oclc.org/docview/1772810071?accountid=4870

Kincaid, C. S. (2003). An examination of the effect of ethical climate on ethical optimism and organizational commitment (Order No. 3115892). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. (305292020). Retrieved from https://saintleo.idm.oclc.org/login?url=https://search-proquest-com.saintleo.idm.oclc.org/docview/305292020?accountid=4870

Meyer, J.P. and Allen, N.J. (1991), “A three component conceptualization of organizational commitment”, Human Resource Management Review, Vol. 1 No. 1, pp. 61-89.

Peeters, Michael J., and Varun A. Vaidya. (2016). “A Mixed-Methods Analysis in Assessing Students’ Professional Development by Applying an Assessment for Learning Approach.” American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education; Alexandria 80, no. 5: 1–10.

Snider, D. M., Nagl, J. A., Pfaff, T. (1999). War College (Carlisle Barracks), & Strategic Studies Institute. Army professionalism, the military ethic, and officership in the 21st century. Carlisle Barracks PA: U.S. Army War College.

Wimbush, J. & Shepard, J., (1994). Toward an understanding of ethical climate: Its

relationship to ethical behavior and supervisory influence. Journal of Business

Ethics 13 (8), 637-647.
 

Enhancing and Organisation’s Productivity through Elimination of Bureaucratic Bottlenecks

Proposed Research Title:

ENHANCING AN ORGANISATION’S PRODUCTIVITY THROUGH THE ELIMINATION OF BUREAUCRATIC BOTTLENECKS HINDERING ITS SERVICE DELIVERY AND PROFIT OBJECTIVES.

STATEMENT OF TOPIC/ DEFINITION OF THE SUBJECT:

In today’s globalised world, most large and multifaceted business organisations have often been observed as having hierarchical structures that align towards bureaucratic ways of doing things or performing organisational tasks. These structures either mitigate or enhance an organisation’s productivity depending on how it plays out, but in most known cases, it was discovered by researchers to have slowed down the implementation of the core goals of a business organization. But despite the enormous research that has been conducted in this area, there does not seem to be any consensus on whether bureaucracies in organisations increases or reduces an organisation’s productivity.

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According to Julien Freund (1996) in Serpa (2019), Bureaucracy is simply defined as the layman’s example of a legally recognised system of domination. One of the core principles on which the concept of bureaucracy is built upon is referred to as the hierarchy of functions, which states that the organisational structure is mainly built upon management roles and subordinate functions which makes it most likely to establish a strong influential impression from the lower instance to the higher instance thus exhibiting a system which is monocratic and highly centralised (Freund, 1996).

In Kene et.al.(2015), bureaucracy as a theory has been known to have been practised way back in the medieval times, and it originates from the word “bureau” which was known as a workplace. Max Weber, a foremost sociologist and generally referred to as the father of bureaucracy in his book,  described bureaucracy as the management of governmental functions through the utilization of departments and units by selected groups of officials who follow a very rigid routine (Weber,1947). Summarily, Bureaucracy is referred to as the officially acceptable medium in which an organization’s rules and procedures are embodied (Kene et.al 2015). This study therefore investigates how an organisation’s productivity can be enhanced through the reduction of bureaucratic practices.

AIM OF THE PROPOSED RESEARCH/ RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The primary aim of this research is to identify and analyse the nature of bureaucracy in complex Australian business organisations, with a view to determine the scope of impediment orchestrated by bureaucratic bottlenecks towards the achievement of an organisation’s objectives. It is also an aim of this research, that methods of reducing bureaucratic bottleneck in business organisations would be suggested so as to pave a way for them to increase their productivity.

Secondly, the Questions which this research work intends to answer include:

1)     What factors account for the strong presence of bureaucracy in complex business organisations?

2)     How can Bureaucracy be eliminated or drastically reduced within the administrative systems of complex business organisations?

3)     Does Bureaucracy actually impact negatively or positively on productivity levels of business organizations?

4)     How does Bureaucracy affect innovation and creativity among the employees of a business organization?

RESEARCH BACKGROUND

Bureaucracy according to the Max Weberian school of thought is often referred to as a kind of organisation that is linked to the advent of the contemporary civilisation. His work encompasses most areas connected with economics, politics and religion; and thus provides us with a synopsis on how the western capitalist culture evolved. His work according to Almasiri (2011) sufficiently provides a detailed analysis of the structures of authority, and provides us with a distinctive approach on how to effectively examine the bureaucratic structure of authority as regards its interconnection with the wider peripheral environment.

According to Almasiri (2011), Bureaucracy is often referred to as a formal and hierarchical type of organisation which is often dominated by the impersonal implementation of rules and regulations, in which authorities and responsibilities are strictly allocated to employees, with their career progressions explicitly stated; this system has often been referred to by Max Weber as a highly productive type of organisation which is often utilised by private sector enterprises with profit maximisation as their main goal (Almasiri, 2011). But contradictorily, a review of contemporary literature as perceived by modern day theorists like Bauman (1989) often refers to the Weberian bureaucratic model as a system of organisation that encourages degradation and corruption. Further perceptions of the model can also be captured in Matheson (2007), which gave its insight concerning the theory as a system being practised in an organisation that promotes hostility through the implementation of very strict policies and lack of flexibility in adhering to formal guidelines (Matheson, 2007).

Furthermore, most literatures which enumerate more about the critique views of the Weberian bureaucratic draw their focus mainly towards the effect of bureaucratic systems on creativity and innovation. According to Almasiri (2011), this is so because creativity is very critical to the functionalities of most knowledge based organisations as these organisations are involved in activities that seek to stimulate intellectualism, learning and development of professional and technical skills which would enhance the productivity of such organisations.

This study seeks to lay credence to the opinion that complex business organisations which propagate the practice of a bureaucratic system of operation will have major challenges promoting a culture of innovation, creativity and a fast turnaround system of getting tasks implemented. This view is propagated based on Reed (2005), which likened the Weberian picture of bureaucracy to an “iron cage” which seeks to influence the behaviour, tasks and actions of employees by forcing their behaviours to adapt to prescribe policies and rules. This act of control and conformity to certain activities, rules and guidelines consequently, tends to compromise the ability of the employees to unleash their entrepreneurial spirits and grow their innovative skills (Kanter, 1992). Furthermore, according to Kanter, (1989) and MacDonald (1995), bureaucracy and creativity don’t ever seem to stand on the same page due to the predisposition of bureaucracy to encourage knowledge based on standardization and likelihood which hinders creativity, innovation and challenging traditional ways of thinking in business organisations (Daymon. 2000)

In Weber (1947), his work on the bureaucratic theory emphasises the position of organisations as components of the intricate and ever changing political and economic dynamics obtainable in a social environment. His investigation and works on contemporary capitalism emphasises that there is a significant linkage between the business organisation and the society’s broader structure. According to Weber (1947), the linkage in which these 2 spectrums are established, are demonstrated through the medium in which the bureaucratic practices in organisations in consonance with the broader environment are examined, which consequently promotes a multi-stream investigation at all forms of organisational streams.

Bureaucratic restrictions in business organisations

 

In most modern day business organisations with a complex and sizeable structure, bureaucratic restrictions are very common in all spheres of their operations due to very rigid administrative and participatory frameworks. According to Kosar (2007), these complex organisations came into existence based on the template of government administered corporations which laid a high emphasis on rigidity and non-responsiveness to service delivery requirements, thus eliminating the presence of any kind of development based philosophy. But despite the avalanche of negative criticism that has trailed the bureaucratic system of governance in complex organisations, there are still some positive gains arising from the implementation of bureaucratic systems in business organisations according to Hannaway (2008), which includes establishment of organized processes, sufficient paperwork, unhampered tracking and monitoring of performance indices, and total authority on all holdings.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESEARCH:

This research would undertake to provide an in-depth detail into one of the most pronounced concept grappling most large and complex business organisations, thereby making a quality contribution to future research. It is a generally stated opinion that for creativity and innovation to be established in a business organisation or any workplace, the concept of autonomy must be allowed to thrive in such environments. This then forms one of the significance of this research as detailed explorations would be undertaken to give more credence to the aforementioned opinion as well as also expose instances where bureaucracy has failed to allow creativity and innovation to thrive.

This research would also provide more inputs to the business literature by exploring more theories concerned with the effects of bureaucracy in business organisations  Finally, this research would also attempt to establish a definite scope and interpretation on the benefits and disadvantages of bureaucracy in business organisations; and I intend to achieve this by doing a detailed analysis of the general principles on which the theory was initially established, and why it needs to be reduced to the barest minimum in order to facilitate improved productivity in today’s modern day business organisations.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:

To achieve my objective for this research thesis, I propose to:

Analyse the historical development, evolution and application of Max Weber’s bureaucratic theory.

Compare the concept of Weber’s school of thought with other concepts of bureaucratic theories that were established.

Examine in detail the nature of impediment associated with bureaucratic form of administration as regards organizational performance.

Determine whether bureaucratic form of control and administration has served the purpose for which it was adopted in large complex organisations using Australian Optus network as case study.

Examine ways in which bureaucratic systems of control in business organisations can be reduced to the barest minimum or managed.

Due to my previous experience in conducting research as a result of my past academic experience in research, I will make do with cross-sectional kind of surveys using the instruments of interviews and questionnaires to derive my data. This method will enable me to derive efficient data from the population based on their principles, inspirations, ideas and actions, which would thus form a strong baseline for making sound decisions. This research will utilise the cross-sectional kind of survey to evaluate the impacts of bureaucracy on Optus Networks, Sydney which serves as my current place of employment; based on the adoption of purposive sampling technique, with a target population focused on the Optus Network Sydney Campus employees.

Generally, I will adopt a historical and comparative approach to achieve my objective in this research. In the first stage of this research, I will undertake a historical analysis and evolution of bureaucracy theory through detailed analysis of the works of Max Weber. In other to appreciate the concept of bureaucracy, it is important to show in detail the historical development of bureaucracy as applicable in large business organisations with a brief review of its application in government agencies. This can help to answer questions surrounding the degree of impediment associated with the bureaucratic form of administration as regards organizational performance.  I will identify and analyse the different theories or type of bureaucracies and how they align or differ from the main Weberian bureaucratic school of thought.

In the second stage of this research, I will aim to compare the concept of bureaucracy as against the concept of innovation and autonomy, in order to analyse in detail how much benefits have been derived from the adoption of bureaucracy in large business organisations, and how they would have been more productive if they had dominated their operations with the concept of autonomy and innovation. The purpose of the comparative analysis is to establish the distinct features of both concepts and provide convincing reasons on why bureaucracy as a way of administration in business organisations should be eliminated or minimised to the barest minimum. It will also seek to help researchers in a bid to determine the scope of further investigation of the bureaucratic framework. It will answer questions on whether impediments to innovation and autonomy include all conceivable areas of bureaucracy that may affect the performance of the business organisation’s operations and if not what areas of bureaucracy serves as impediments to growth and innovation; as well as what approach to effective administrative structure the organisation needs to conceive and develop.

In the third stage of my research I will do a holistic analysis of how much positive impacts have been derived from bureaucratic form of administration in business organisations using the Optus Network as a study. Here I intend to also discuss in detail certain areas of my job responsibilities which have benefited or have been enhanced by the presence of bureaucratic system of administration in Optus networks. The final stage of my research is aimed at establishing the need to decentralise all systems of centralised control and administration in all business organisations with efficient service delivery and profitability as their core objectives. My research strategy will therefore involve an analysis of key literatures on bureaucratic theories, organisational innovation and autonomy.

PREPARATION OF THE RESEARCH PROJECT:

I developed interest in this research field in the course of my employment as a PMO Projects Administrator in Optus Networks, Sydney.  There I realized that in other to function optimally and perform my job responsibilities efficiently, I needed to understand and develop full interest in the complex nature of the organisation due to a very significant presence of bureaucratic system of governance and politicking in it. While undertaking this role, I completed a short research which attempted to harmonize the meaning of the word “bureaucracy” as envisaged in the relevant literatures bothering on types of bureaucracy being functional in business organisations.  However, the success of my research was limited because I realized that attempting to harmonize the meaning of bureaucracy as envisaged in the relevant literatures without determining its differences or similarities would be futile. I figured that an in depth analysis of these concepts would help throw a light on their scope and limits thereby helping the researchers and organisations when determining whether to eliminate its practice or to adopt the bureaucracy types that would not significantly impede on innovation and autonomy.

 My research agenda is shaped by in-depth exposure to the realities of trying to be creative, innovative and efficient in a system grappling with the chains of a bureaucratic system, which I experienced as a project administrator at various levels of the company’s operating system. I am committed to a research approach that employs multiple methodologies, is interdisciplinary in nature, and is relevant to current organisational issues. The substantive policy areas for my research agenda are leadership in public organizations, youth leadership development, non-profit capacity building, ethics and accountability, economic and workforce development systems.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279940292_Effect_Of_Bureaucracy_on_Administrative_Control_Systems_in_the_University_of_Education_Winneba

Reference

1 The concept of bureaucracy, Serpa 2019

2 julien freund 1996

3 Research Journal’s journal of education

Vol, 3/ No 6, june 2015: (The effect of bureaucracy on administrative control systems in the university of education, winneba . kene, pajibo, sarpong.

4. An investigation of the Weberian notion of bureaucracy in

the context of service higher education institutions. A

qualitative study at the University of Damascus.

Submitted by Lubna Almasri to the University of Exeter

as a thesis for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Management studies in March 2011.

5. Reed, M. (2005). ‘Beyond the iron cage? bureaucracy and democracy in the knowledge

economy and society’, in P. du Gay (ed.), The Values of Bureaucracy, chapter 5. Oxford:

Oxford University Press.

6. Kanter, R. M. (1992). The Change Masters: Corporate Entrepreneurs at Work. London:

 Routledge.

7. Kanter, R. M. (1989). When Giants Learn to Dance: Mastering the Challenges of Strategy,

Management, and Careers in the 1990s. London: International Thomson.

MacDonald, K. M. (1995). The Sociology of the Professions. London: Sage.

8. Daymon, C. (2000). ‘Cultivating creativity in public relations consultancies: the

management and organisation of creative work’. Journal of Communication Management.

5/1; 17-30.

9. Weber, M. (1947). The Theory of Social and Economic Organization. Edited by T. Parsons.

Glencoe, III: Free Press.

What Ought a Bureaucrat to Do

Jan 2007 K R Kosar Kosar, K.R. (2007).What Ought a Bureaucrat to Do? ” ” (http://www.claremont.org/publication/pubid.705/pub_detail.asp)

why-is-there-so-much-schoolbu Public Administration: A Comparative Perspective

Hannaway, J. (2008). http://newtalk.org/2008/11/why-is-there-so-much-schoolbu.php Heady, F. (2001). Public Administration: A Comparative Perspective, 6e. NY: Marcel Dekker.

 ‘
 

Performance Enhancing Drugs In Sports

Performance enhancing drugs have been used in sports for years. Professional athletes like Barry bonds, Mark McGuire, and Lance Armstrong have been using PEDs for years. Sjöqvist, Garle, & Rane, states, “Notable examples include Ben Johnson’s gold medal for the 100 m at the Seoul Olympics in 1988, and hundreds of other winning elite athletes who have been caught in doping tests” (Sjöqvist, Garle, & Rane, 2008). Some athletes who take PEDs try not to get caught. There are some athletes who are unaware that they have used performance enhancing drugs. Performance enhancing drugs has caused a serious debate over whether or not to ban PEDs. Performance enhancing drugs damages the integrity of sports and is harmful to the health of the athletes. There are others who believe performance enhancing drugs provides an extra performance increase. Performance enhancing drugs are substance that is used by athletes or people to improve their performance. Some athletes believe it is necessary to use performance enhancing drugs in order to excel in their performance in sports. . Young athletes are at risk of using performance enhancing drugs because of peer pressure. Also they are at risk because the need to win and to perform better. A debate about the NCAA drug test program is about how the program test athletes for drug use. One reason for the controversy is the program check for certain drugs when they should check for all drug types. It is a suitable moral problem because it is a controversial issue where people can disagree about legalizing or banning performance enhancing drugs in sports. Many people believe that athletes who use performance enhancing drugs are morally wrong, and it is cheating and harmful to the athlete health. One of the major justifications for banning performance enhancing drugs is the health risks to athletes. The second reason is performance enhancing drugs cause damage to the integrity to sports. The third reason is the performance enhancing drugs encourages cheating and dishonest behavior in athletes.
Identify the Problem
Performance enhancing drug destroy the integrity of sports and it harm the health of the athlete.
Clarify Concepts
The terms I am planning to define in my paper are performance enhancing drugs, doping, and fairness. Performance enhancing drug is defined as a substance that is used to provide athletes with advantage in athletic performance. An idea that needs clarification is doping can be define as substance that athlete’s takes in any unfamiliar form to the body used gain an advantage in athletic performance. Another idea needs clarification is that of fairness itself, especially the idea when an athlete is cheating. The accusation is that when athletes takes performance enhancing drugs it is a form of cheating, that is unfair to the athletes when do not use PEDs. Some of the performances enhancing drug use by athletes are stimulants and pain suppressions. Anabolic agents are used by athletes for muscle building. Anabolic agents are also used as training aids by athletes. Some athletes take anabolic agents to recovery from train loads. Athletes some time take several different types performance enhancing drugs. Diuretics used to control weight and Peptides are taken by athletes for many different reason. Peptides are also used because it is difficult to detect. Athletes take diuretics when they want to lose weight quickly. Athletes have been aware of the benefits that come from blood doping. Some athletes use blood doping used to increase oxygen in tissue. The reason athletes like using blood doping because it is difficult to detect. There are also some side effects from using blood doping like renal failure. Athlete’s use B Blockers use to control anxiety. Amateur athletes such as football, basketball and baseball players are a lower level athlete than professional. Amateur athletes play in sports in college. Amateur athletes do not earn a paid salary. Professional athletes are higher level and they get paid a salary. Professional athletes can play for sports such as the NBA, NFL and MLB.
Wiesing states, “Sport is an artificial setting, created by human beings, in which the competitor is required to perform, at least according to current, widely prevalent belief, with a degree of ‘naturalness” (Wiesing, 2011). The different kinds of drugs being abuse by athletes are stimulants, pain suppressions, anabolic agents, diuretics, Peptide, blood doping and B Blockers.
Identify Possible Solutions to the Problem
Allowing performance enhancing drugs in sports is an ethically sound solution when having to deal with the fairness. One possible solution is to allow athletes to take performance enhancing drugs under medical supervision. Another possible solution is to administer drug testing among athletes. It performance enhancing drugs was to become legalized then those who chooses not to used them will not be able to compete. Banning performance enhancing drugs is the ethically sound solution when having to deal with the integrity of the sport, and cheating and it harms the health of the athlete. A final possible solution allows athletes to take performance enhancing drugs at their own risk.
Gather Information
An athlete who uses performance enhancing drugs is judged differently than student who uses substances. Athletes who use performance enhancing drugs will be judge as cheaters. They also find that students who use performance enhancing drugs are judge differently than athletes. Some athletes believe it is necessary to use performance enhancing drugs in order to excel in their performance in sports. Copeland, Peters, & Dillon states, “The strongest motives for misuse of AS are to improve athletic performance, to enhance muscle mass for purposes of bodybuilding, or to improve physical appearance” (as cited in Dodge, Wiliams ect, 2012). The perception that athletes who uses performance enhancing drug is the unfairness. An athlete who takes performance enhance drugs is a form of cheating that is why it is unfair. The reason for the perception is athlete who takes performance enhancing drugs and wins is because of the drugs. Also the athlete’s success was achieved at the expense of another athlete.

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The thesis is, the use of performance enhancing drugs in youth athletes. The article examines the use of PEDs by youth athletes. Young athletes are at risk of using performance enhancing drugs because of peer pressure. Also they are at risk because the need to win and to perform better. A third reason why young athletes are at risk of using performance enhancing drugs is because competing with pain.
The thesis is the NCAA drug test of athletes uses performance enhancing drugs in sports. Athletes in all sports are given a drug test. The NCAA drug testing program has been debate since it started random drug testing athletes. Some of the athletes who were drug test do not use performance enhancing drugs. A second debate about the NCAA drug test program is about how the program test athletes for drug use. One reason for the controversy is the program check for certain drugs when they should check for all drug types. A third issue with the drug test program is the drug test untrustworthiness of the test results. The test results can come back positive even if the athletes are not using PEDs. For example if a female takes birth control it can cause the drug test come back positive. A positive drug test can cause problems for an athlete career. Critics of drug testing argue that it is unfair to pick certain athletes for inspection because it could tempt some to cheat. Athletes’ attitude toward athletes who uses PEDs feels it is unacceptable. Some athletes felt they did
Performance enhancing drugs has been used in sports for years. During modern Olympic Games, the drugs athletes choose to use included strychnine, heroin, cocaine, and morphine. In the early 1950s performance enhancing drugs was used in sports before that it was used by soldiers in the war. Tour de France cyclist Tom Simpson died from amphetamine abused. Amphetamines became a popular stimulant among professional athletes. Amphetamines have side effects such an aggression and addiction. In 1960 the first doping accident was seen during the Olympics. In the early 1950s anabolic steroids was introduce in sports. During the tour de France a doping death took place. There has been evidence that suggest the growth hormones increase an athlete’s performance. It was not until the 1976 Olympics game was AAS was tested in athletes. Some performance enhancing drugs are harder to detect because it mimic the body natural chemicals. The use of PEDs by athletes has led to an increase of recreational drug use among athletes. Some athletes used PEDs to decreased fatigue during exercise, reduce inflammation and boost their mood. Noakes states, “Increasing muscle size, these drugs increase strength, power, and sprinting speed; they also alter mood and speed the rate of recovery, permitting more intensive training and hence superior training adaptation” (Noakes, 2004).
Should performance enhance drugs in sports be legalized under medical supervision, the outcome and the risks will affect the athletes. Some of the most memorable moments achieved in sports were achieved by some professional athletes using performance enhancing drugs. Some argue performance enhance drugs should be legalized in sports. If performance enhance drugs was to become legalize in sports there needs to be rules and restrictions. The legalization performance enhancing drugs becomes under medical supervision means there will be a list of risks and side effects. Also there will be an introduction to the long term damage performance enhancing drugs causes to the athlete’s health. Even if performance enhance drugs was to become legal some PEDs will still remained banned. Some athletes lack understanding of the side effects of using PEDs especially when it comes to new PEDs. If performance enhance drugs were to become legalized under medical supervision who will decide how much can be use or place limits on use. Some who support performance enhancing drug use under medical supervision believes if it was to become legal if would lead to an increase of drug testing on athletes. Wiesing states, “Sport in general and the credibility of the doping control system in particular are suffering from the fact that not all doping activity can be verified because doping methods change” (Wiesing, 2011). The impact of legalizing performance enhancing drugs in sports would lead to athletes taking more risks to their health using PEDs. Those who oppose the legalizing performance enhance drugs in sports believes the risk can be avoided by not allowing PEDs sports. If performance enhancing drugs was to become legal in sports it would change our view of sports. Also many believe that achievements in sports are accomplished through hard work, natural talent and not by using performance enhancing drugs. Sjöqvist, Garle, & Rane, states, “Athletes commonly take mega doses of steroids-doses 50-100 times the amount needed to replace physiological steroid concentrations” (Sjöqvist, Garle, & Rane, 2008). Some athletes use blood doping used to increase oxygen in tissue.
Examine Assumptions and Points of View
There are some assumptions that are made about the moral acceptability of performance enhancing drugs in sports. What we believe is right determines our beliefs about what makes performance enhancing drugs acceptable or unacceptable in sports. Some people assume an answer to the problem is to fully accept performance enhancing drugs in sports. Performance enhancing drugs is considered illegal if it violates the spirits of sports. Those who support performance enhancing drugs in sports claim that performance enhancing drugs have been used for years. Those who favor the use of PEDs claim the reason many have fail to eliminate performance enhancing drugs in sports because of lack of evidence to support their claim. One argument in support of performance enhancing drugs claims that if they were made legal there would be no issue with cheating. In addition if performance enhancing drugs are made legal the playing field will be leveled. Those who favor claims performance enhancing drugs do not change the spirit of sports; instead they claim it helps the sport. Athletes who have use performance enhancing drugs have benefit from the advantage over other athletes. In addition they have also benefit from a salary increase as a result of taking steroids. There is the argument that the performance enhancing drugs that are safe should be allow and that those that are not should be banned. They also argue if safe performance enhancing drugs were allow then it will force companies to create safe PEDs for athletes to use.
The opposing side claims performance enhancing drugs changes the fairness of the game. In addition, taking performance enhancing drugs it is considered cheating. There some who argues that when dealing with the unfair advantage some people have the ability to win. The athletes ability to win depend on how much oxygen is carried to the muscles. There is other who relies on performance enhancing drugs to compete. If performance enhancing drugs became legal in sports, it would take away the spirit of the sport. The opposing side claims performance enhancing drugs are dangerous as they put the health of the athlete at risk. It is unfair to the athletes who do not take PED because of the advantage that the cheater gains. It performance enhancing drugs were to become legalized, and then those who choose not to use them will not be able to compete.
Moral Reasoning
My solution to the problem is performance enhancing drugs should be banned because they damage the integrity of sports. The problem is to determine whether or not performance enhancing drugs is morally acceptable in sports. Because performance enhancing drugs involves athletes cheating or unfairness. This is the argument the opponents of performance enhancing drugs appeal to in their claim. Performance enhancing drugs harm the health of athletes and cause unfairness. Athletes can suffer long term side effects from using performance enhancing drugs. An athlete who takes performance enhancing drugs has an unfair advantage over athletes who do not take PEDs. Those who choose not to use performance enhancing drugs will be force out. Those who are in favor of performance enhancing drugs in sports often appeal to these arguments prevent unfairness and health. We must take into consideration the harm and the benefits of using performance enhancing drugs. Waller states. deontology ethics define as “any ethical system that judges right and wrong acts in terms of principles or duties, rather than on the basis of the consequences of the acts; contrasted with consequentialism” (Waller 2011, 343). Deontology would say using performance enhancing drugs is cheating and it is morally wrong. Athletes that value the integrity of sports would not use PEDs. Athletes have to consider duties or obligation they owe to the other athletes and others to treat others with respect. To cheat in sports by using PEDs or mislead someone by lying about the use of performance enhancing drugs is disrespectful and is wrong in the eyes of a deontologist. An athlete who takes performance enhancing drugs in sports is unethical. People should be treated as ends never as the means. Deontology places importance on the kinds of acts the athlete do and justice. Any athlete who uses PEDs is immoral and the uses PEDs by athletes should not be accepted.
Conclusion and Consequences
Sports have always been important to many people in society. The use of performance enhancing drugs in sports undermines the integrity of sports and creates an unfair advantage. An athlete who takes performance enhancing drug has an unfair advantage over other athletes who do not take PEDs. It is not fair to the athlete who chooses to obey the rules. PEDs are not only harmful to the health of the athletes but it is also a form of cheating. If my solution was to become law or policy it would bring fairness to sports and moral integrity as well. Also there will be the policy of the risk of performance enhancing drugs to the health of the athlete. The side effects can include renal failure, addiction, blood pressure increase and change in body temperature. One of the arguments is taking performance enhancing drugs are against the rules for athletes to use performance enhancing drugs. The second argument is the unfairness an athlete who uses PEDs has over an athlete who does not use drugs. The third argument is the harm performance enhancing drugs are to the athlete’s health. A final argument is the use of performance enhancing drugs in sports undermines the integrity of sports. The opposition objects to the harm of PEDs and unfairness. The risks that come from using PEDs should not be left up to the athlete. If an athlete is caught using performance enhancing drugs they could be suspended from the league.
 

Enhancing the Visual Performance of Chinese Traditional Wedding Ceremonies through Interaction Design

1.Research Questions

How can interaction design enrich the visual performance of Chinese traditional wedding ceremony in contemporary contexts? 

1. What motivates people to choose a Chinese traditional wedding?

2. What are the existing elements that enhance the visual performance of the Chinese traditional wedding ceremony?

3. How can interactive technologies impact user experience of Chinese traditional wedding in the future?

2. Venn Diagram

3. Mind Map

 

 

 

 

4. Design precedents

-Apply holographic technology in wedding

Holographic wedding ceremony is designed by using 3D holographic projection technology (Thomas, 2018). By using high-tech holography, the wedding ceremony can achieve the immersive effect (Thomas, 2018).  In the wedding scene, holography technology can create the star sky, transform castles, change seasons from spring, summer, autumn to winter, and even display the characters in fairy tales (Thomas, 2018). Moreover, the three-dimensional object can be suspended in the venue, which bring people a unique wedding memory (Thomas, 2018). Furthermore, the wedding dress can present different patterns due to the holographic light changes (Thomas, 2018). The applying of holographic technology in ceremony not only improve the visual performance of the wedding, but also improve the interactive experience of people who attend the ceremony (Thomas, 2018).

This design precedent is a good example of the wedding ceremony applying interactive technology, which can be used in Chinese traditional wedding to provide an incredible visual performance in the future.

-IOT design with accessory

This is an electronic jewelry, which is a wooden bling hair needle that made of LEDs, wood, conductive thread, hand painted silk fabric, and an accelerometer (Wright, 2008). This interactive jewelry combines a wooden structure with accelerometer and light (Wright, 2008).  Since movements of the head correspond to basic movements of the body, there are different patterns of blinking lights that change based on movements that detected by the accelerometer (Wright, 2008). After switching the hair needle on, it can be worn as an normal accessory for keeping the hair in place. While the light patterns visible through the silk fabric, it can change speed and intensity according to the degree of movements performed by the wearer (Wright, 2008).

This design precedent is a good example of IOT applying in accessory design, which can be introduced in Chinese traditional wedding accessory design to enhance the visual performance in the future. 

-Colors & Elements of Chinese Wedding Dressing & Decoration Settings

The main color of Chinese wedding dress and the decoration settings is bright red, also called Chinese red (López, 2013).  As you may know red is the most favored color by Chinese and it represents happiness and lucky in Chinese culture (López, 2013). In Chinese weddings, red is also considered as a symbol of good fortune which can drive bad luck spirits away (López, 2013). The traditional Chinese wedding dress in northern China is one piece frock named Qipao(旗袍), which is designed with red color and embroidered with gold and silver pattern (Whyte, 1993). Brides in Southern China prefer to wear two-piece dress named QunKwa(裙褂) (Whyte, 1993). As they are often elaborately with gold dragon and phoenix, they are often called longfeng gua(龙凤褂) in modern China (Whyte, 1993).

This design precedent is a good example of aesthetic elements that already being used in Chinese traditional wedding. Assist with color and Chinese tradition wedding elements, the visual performance of Chinese traditional wedding is full of culture sense and unique.

5. Annotated bibliology

Pan, Y. and Blevis, E. (2014). Fashion thinking lessons from fashion and sustainable interaction design, concepts and issues. Vancouver, Canada.

Pan (2014) presented a design experiment on how interactive technology could be designed with inspiration from traditional dressing styles, instead of being designed as technologies products among others. In this article, Jewelry as a strong personal meaning and it is absolutely that culture may provide important insights for designing aesthetic experiences with interactive accessories, which emerging from the interaction between object and wearer. The focus of the paper is the fashion trend with culture, lifestyles, consumption behaviors, especially with applying of interaction design. The purpose of the article is introducing an interesting field for technology and bridging design, since it concerns visible items that are close to the life of individual, associated with dressing practices, culture and digital functionality. This article is a great resource related to the how interaction design applies in Chinese traditional culture because it provides new information of interactive design in jewelry.  Moreover, this article should be used by jewelry designers or students seeking to learn more about interactive accessory and culture.

Bardzell, S., Rosner, D. and Bardzell, J. (2012). Crafting quality in design: integrity, creativity, and public sensibility. Newcastle, UK.

In this paper, Bardzell (2012) present a series of design ideas on the theme of mobile technology and wearable devices through the lens of jewelry design, which focus on the properties of traditional fine jewelry in terms of crafting processes, material considerations and considerations related to patterns of wear and interaction. This paper discusses the gestalt of electronic artefacts versus jewelry design, interactive properties of physical materials, material preciousness, and jewelry usage as an inspiration for new interactive designs. This paper focus on the knowledge from different fields and ‘combining interactive technology design with crafting practices of contemporary jewelry’. The author also indicates the limitations of interactive technologies apply in jewelry design. Although interaction technology can be applying to Chinese traditional wedding accessory, the traditional fine jewelry is very rarely interactive – most commercially available electronic products reflect a specific aesthetic gestalt that stands in sharp contrast to that of fine metal craftsmanship. The paper indicates that fine jewelry is commonly designed to last, electronic products are not. This article is a great resource related to jewelry design and interaction design. Moreover, this article should be used by designers or students who want to use interactive technologies in traditional accessory design to enhance the visual performance and interactivity of the product.

 

6. Bibliography

Adams, Randy, Gibson, Steve, & Arisona, Stefan Müller. (2008). Transdisciplinary Digital Art. Sound, Vision and the New Screen: Digital Art Weeks and Interactive Futures. Berlin, Heidelberg

Bardzell, S., Rosner, D. and Bardzell, J. (2012). Crafting quality in design: integrity, creativity, and public sensibility. Newcastle, UK.

Elblaus, L., Tsaknaki, V., Lewandowski, V and Bresin, R. (2015). Nebula: An Interactive Garment Designed for Functional Aesthetics. New York.

López, K. (2013). Chinese Cubans: a transnational history. UNC Press Books.

Whyte, M. K. (1993). Wedding behavior and family strategies in Chengdu. Chinese families in the post-Mao era, 17, 189.

Pan, Y. and Blevis, E. (2014). Fashion thinking lessons from fashion and sustainable interaction design, concepts and issues. Vancouver, Canada.

Schechner, R. (2002). Performance Studies: An Introduction. Routledge, USA and Canada.

Seymour, S. (2008). Fashionable Technology: The Intersection of Design, Fashion, Science and Technology. Springer Wien, New York.

Thomas, T. (2018). The wedding brawl on the road to goroka. Quadrant, 62(3), 103.

Wright, P., Wallace, J. and McCarthy, J. (2008). Aesthetics and experience-centered design, ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction. 15(4), pp.1–21.

 

Enhancing Quality of Services through Effective Collaborative Practice

Introduction
Throughout this piece of work, I will be considering and interspersing the 4 underpinning concepts and domains of collaborative practice using the Interprofessional Capability Framework. Using reflections and experiences I will consider the impact that these have on my role within the ambulance service.  I will be considering these concepts and domains in relation to my role as a future paramedic, student paramedic and also in my current role as an ambulance technician.

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In the period of August 2018 to August 2019, 86,095 or 10% of overall emergency calls received were related to falls with 68% (approximately 58,544) of these being over the age of 65 (YAS.NHS.uk, 2019). Previously, Darnell, G., Mason, S., & Snooks, H. (2012) had suggested that clinical and cost-effective service models were yet to be developed in relation to this widespread issue. In their study less than 50% of overall elderly patients who were attended by an ambulance crew were able to be left at home although reasons for this weren’t provided.
Working collaboratively and considering OC3, L2 (Shu 2014), we could begin to interact and co-operate with others within and across organisations in providing person focused services by sending the appropriate help first time every time. By sending an appropriate vehicle, be that a civilian vehicle, ambulance car or double crewed ambulance, crewed with, for example a medical professional, an occupational therapist and a district nurse, acting as a falls team and an after care team in one vehicle could reduce the time spent making referrals and the possibility of patients ‘falling through the cracks’. This initiative would provide for improved assessment tools on scene which Halter et al., (2005) believes would significantly reduce conveyance rates to hospital.
Gates et al., (2008) note that there have been few large scale and high quality trials on the effectiveness of assessment and intervention on falls in the community but that the trial by Snooks et al., (2010) allows for technology to work side by side with a new model of service delivery. Since these trials, numerous initiatives and trials have been completed with the London Ambulance Service (LAS) trialling a Falls Specialist Response Vehicle (FSRV) in 2017/18 with 768 bed days released and an approximate £173,760 saved on Emergency Department attendance. A fact that is queried by Darnell et al., (2012) who state that in their research only 5 years previous a crew of a paramedic and a social worker left between 7% and 65% of patients at home. Surely any percentage of patients left at home, safe and with a referral in place and not taken to hospital is a good thing.
I would like to believe that we can go further with a team such as the FSRV sent by LAS but with increased capabilities and personnel. In my experience referrals are made for a person who has fallen and once the patient is safe and seen to be mobile the crew leave scene without any follow up or information regarding the success or failure of their referral. Could a team with more capabilities and the ability to apply what the referral would’ve requested there and then on scene be a long-term cost saving idea and initiative that if successful could be rolled out nationwide.
Models of Leadership
Thistlethwaite, (2012), suggests that as a healthcare community we constantly value or devalue other professions using stereotypes and in the adjectives we use to describe them. My understanding and knowledge of other healthcare professions, even in my third year is sadly lacking and I have been guilty of the stereotyping of others. Working as part of the ambulance service already has both helped and hindered these thought processes by listening to the preconceptions of established ambulance workers and also highlighting the positives of other professions. I don’t believe that a leader who doesn’t believe in other healthcare professionals’ expertise is a leader I would like to follow.
At the core of the NHS leadership academy’s, Healthcare Leadership Model (NHS leadership academy, 2013), is ‘Inspiring Shared Purpose’ and ‘Connecting our service’, being curious about how to improve services and patient care and understanding where my team sits within a formal structure. In an ambulance service that is stretched and constantly busy it is difficult at times to find someone who has these beliefs or someone who will inspire me as a student/technician. With my idea for a service improvement the healthcare leadership model appears to have sections that encourage collaborative practice and encourages the working together of different sectors within the NHS, perfect for what I would be trying to achieve.
Within the NHS many different leadership models are used and these can change on a daily basis and even within the same team which confirms what Grimm, (2010) alludes to when saying that leadership is complex and has many definitions and qualities. The two leadership models that I believe best work for the ambulance service are Situational and Autocratic models. Situational due to the leader or the paramedic on the road knowing the skill set of the staff around them and being able to set realistic targets and know what they can expect from an individual. Autocratic would be used during a particular situation in which the leader or paramedic would give ‘top down’ instructions to their staff and is able to make immediate decisions with the final say. This model would work particularly well in a high-pressure situation such as a cardiac arrest where the model could go fluidly from situational to autocratic. Willis, (2015) notes though that although a leader may appear to be one style at one time, the leader would very rarely exhibit only one leadership style and it would be a mistake to label them as styles can be fluid as mentioned above. In my experience I tend to agree with Willis, (2015) in that paramedics I have been on the road with have, at times seemed to take control and barked orders as an autocratic leader but then for the next patient have changed completely.
A leader in an ambulance setting Gienapp (2008) and Parsons (2009) believe is integral to its success and should be someone who is willing to teach as Martin & Swinburn (2012) argue that pre-hospital is unplanned and complicated and that strong leadership in this environment needs to be greater than most other healthcare environments. Further to this, Sola et al., (2016) states that recent studies suggest that effective leadership promotes positive results and has a direct beneficial impact on patients. In relation to the idea of an interprofessional response vehicle, although an older article, Department for Health, (2005), ‘Taking Healthcare to the Patient’, notes that clinical leadership from a range of areas will be able to better utilise resources and will drive improvements and change in the healthcare environment and lends itself perfectly to OC3 L2 (SHU, 2014) by beginning the process of interaction and co-operation with others within and across organisations and enable them as a team to provide person focused services.
In one of my greatest experiences of collaborative practice the team work and collaboration between ambulance, a GP, end of life care and a hospice, the situational teamwork and leadership showed that day made an upsetting and seemingly impossible situation bearable. Autocratic leadership wouldn’t have worked on that day as an elderly gentleman was sadly in his final days, but the family were unaware and didn’t need anyone giving orders or taking control but understanding and appreciating the situation. Although an emotive situation I believe that the decision not to take the patient to the emergency department and instead look for alternative pathways collaborating with the family and external agencies was the best option. The paramedic on scene from the outset allowed those around him to express their feelings and to make decisions without pressure or especially in this situation, guilt. Feather, (2009) believes that the actions shown by the paramedic show an emotionally intelligent leader although Cavazotte, Moreno & Hickmann, (2012) argue that this trait is difficult to measure but Sterud et al., (2011) argue that attending terminally or chronically ill patients creates different emotional demands to those of a ‘regular’ emergency patient.
The opinion of the ambulance staff in this case were mirrored in the actions of the GP, end of life carer and the hospice in which the patient was taken to and most importantly the family were left to spend some time with the patient in his final days. Although argued as difficult to measure the leadership taken by all parties. A situation such as this one adds weight to the idea of a multi-faceted response team as although a positive outcome it meant the ambulance crew being on scene for around 3 hours.
Approaches to Service Delivery
Whilst out on the road it has become apparent that as the Shu 2014, Inter- Professional Capability Framework suggests, OC3 (Shu 2014, L2), healthcare professionals need to improve the communication between the members of the community of practice to enable change and improve person focused services.
For an elderly/geriatric SU their environment in many cases is all they know and can become a place of safety and Means, Richards & Smith, (2008) suggest that this is a key factor in the improvement of their personal health and wellbeing. Kelly, (2012) goes on to say that the environment in which these people live can make a healthy lifestyle easier to adhere to. Conversely to this advice I recently attended a geriatric patient who had become scared in their own home and also scared of his own son who lived with them. Due to this the patient had deteriorated from being self-sufficient and able to mobilise even to the shops 100 metres up the road to being almost bed bound, non-compliant with his medications and reliant on those around him. This enhances Kelly, (2012) argument that if this patient felt safer and more comfortable in his own home then this would translate to a healthier patient.
During previous inter collaborative weeks it became clear that not enough is done collaboratively and that the opportunities are there for us to work together as a wider healthcare workforce. With this thought process previous jobs that I have attended began to resonate and the impact this collaboration could have on our SU and how empowered we could make them to make their own decisions. In these jobs, allowing the SU to be part of his decision making and treatment plan would’ve been beneficial as quite often they do not want to go to hospital and in the policy document ‘No Decision about me, without me’, (Department of Health, 2010), SUs should be put at the heart of any decision and allowed to collaborate with healthcare professionals in decisions about their care.
As an autonomous practitioner it is going to be my responsibility to enable these SU’s to make their own decisions and using CAEP2 L1 (SHU, 2014) and along with Department of Health, (2010) policy, the SU should be able to recognise where it is appropriate for the SU to participate in a decision about their own treatment. NICE, (2015) states that the healthcare professional dealing with the SU has to power to decide the current mental state of the SU and decide if they are fit to participate in decisions regarding their own care.
It is also going to be a challenge when allowing this involvement to ensure that the decisions being made are in their own best interest and that the SU, by making these decisions, aren’t preventing an improvement in their own health and putting constraints on the improvement of healthcare services (Flottorp et al., 2013). McKeown, Malihi-Shoja & Downe, (2010) state that our job as a healthcare professional is to empower the service user (SU) to make their own decisions and empower them to decide their own welfare.
In my experience not enough is done on scene with a patient in terms of referrals and working collaboratively with other healthcare professionals to what I believe is the detriment of the patient. By making a ‘falls referral’ and making sure that the patient is mobile we as an ambulance service believe that we have done our job and that the detail is complete. I believe that there should be a collaborative effort for every patient in this situation and that access to all pathways and treatment plans should be available to confer and refer to. I have been to numerous patients where this isn’t the case and although patient care isn’t lacking, the aftercare for the patient left alone with the memories of a recent fall is.
I believe that as an ambulance service we should be striving to evolve and improve and that along with the Inter- Professional Capability Framework, R1 L2 (SHU, 2014) we should be reflecting on our performance in promoting person focused and integrated service provision whilst also self-reflecting. Improvements such as a collaborative response car would take a level of buy in from all sides but would eventually lead to an integrated service in which our soul focus was the patient. In terms of delivery and collaboration as Wankhade, (2017) states, emergency services and different areas of healthcare are moving at differing rates and speeds causing confusion as to the roles and responsibilities across organisations.
A study by Wankhade, (2016) points to the belief in the ambulance service that they are being inappropriately dispatched Wankhade believes doesn’t instill confidence in the staff responding and then that same clinician is under pressure when leaving the patient at home. Due to this, responsibility is growing with what Wankhade, (2016) describes as inconclusive evidence regarding the safety of patients not transported to hospital. This study is backed by significant evidence from McCann et al., (2013), Fisher et al., (2015), O’Hara et al., (2015), Newton and Harris, (2015) and Evans et al., (2014) who confirm that the service delivery currently being offered by the ambulance service, including that of paramedic decision making and patient safety in relation to this is sadly lacking.
For the delivery of the new collaborative response vehicle to work these barriers to successful service delivery would need to be overcome and clinicians from all areas of healthcare on scene should feel empowered to make safe and clinically backed decisions. In Wankhade’s, (2016) study the situations described are true to those of my personal experience where initial call coding has been incorrect, and the clinician is then on scene making a judgement regarding the correct pathway for the patient with minimal input. If this decision could be made collaboratively and with the input of leaders from other healthcare agencies on scene. Perceptions of the ambulance service being a transportation service to these other healthcare providers as described by McCann et al., (2013), Wankhade, (2011) and Heath and Wankhade, (2014). This is something that at times I have witnessed with patients calling an emergency response and waiting outside of a house with bag in hand knowing where they want to go and who they want to see there. Could this be made into a historic view with a future of collaboration, on scene decision making and care pathways that increase patient safety, reduce the individual stress on the clinician as described.
Conclusion
It is clear from the research and from my personal experiences that not enough is done on scene in my area to provide the elderly/geriatric patients, of which they are an increasing number, with a plan of action once an ambulance crew has been on scene. These patients are a prime example of CAEP2 L1, (SHU, 2014) in which they are, along with the clinicians on scene, able to collaborate and participate in the decisions made about them (if deemed to have capacity by the clinician) to improve their overall outcome. Within my idea for a new initiative in the ambulance service OC3 L2 and CW3 L3, (SHU, 2014) can be adjoined in the collaboration and co-operation of a multi-agency response to these particular details, leading to savings not only in the time of the ambulance service to be able to respond to the more life threatening calls but savings in A+E time, hospital bed costs and after care time that referrals create.
A collaborative picture is a picture in which one call from a patient to the ambulance service, triaged correctly at point of contact, leads to a quicker multi-agency response in which all aspects and areas of a patient’s treatment arrive in one vehicle. As mentioned in the main body of this piece of work the ambulance service is stretched and ambulance personnel are struggling with the weight put on them to keep the patient safe and also to make a decision of hospital or home. A collaborative approach to patient care would remove a lot of this individual stress and allow for interprofessional working and shared/joint decision making. The issues in service delivery stated above would therefore be alleviated and the issue of leadership would and could be shared. I have witnessed whilst on placement the stress of a clinician on scene trying to find an alternative pathway for a patient without knowing the full picture of what is available. Currently and from personal experience not enough is known about alternative pathways and therefore patients are incorrectly or inappropriately taken to hospital when they would be better served staying in their own homes. A joint approach to their care and treatment would allow a quicker time on scene and a more appropriate service delivery and journey for the patient.
I have however recognised the limitations in my role as a student paramedic and eventually a paramedic in that I would be asking for a significant change in process and initial investment, but I will endeavour to personally made a change as and when I deem possible on scene. When I am out on placement or in my regular role with the service I will constantly review jobs of this nature and lead my colleagues in making better referrals and considering all pathways available to me across the healthcare organisations thus developing as a clinician and creating a more integrated and patient focused environment (R1 L2, SHU, 2014).

Personal Objective

Priority

Target Date

Actions/resources are needed?

Evidence of success

Review date

 
CW3 L3

Medium

Completed by the end of placement 2020

On the back of this piece of work I intend to speak to the relevant people regarding the issues raised. I intend to have a meeting with my line manager to discuss how to move forward and any learning opportunities that could arise or I could be involved in where service delivery is at the forefront.
Forward thinking and planning to make sure that I am involved.
Confidence in my own knowledge and ideas so that I can be a part of a positive service delivery change.

This objective would be continuously monitored.
Being a part of any service delivery programmes, in which exchanging of knowledge is key.
A future goal would be for a team to be formed and for my idea to become a reality, that would be the real evidence of success.

Continuous discussion with the management team and monthly progress meetings.

 
CAEP2 L1
 

High

Continuous progression through the idea and implementation stage. Monitoring for any changes or participation opportunities throughout. Keeping up to date with any relevant policies within Yorkshire Ambulance Service.

Constant monitoring within my working environment with a discussion to be had in my monthly development meetings on how I am personally implementing this idea.
Keeping an awareness of the aging population and being aware of my own working practice when it comes to being non-judgmental and non-discriminatory.
Take any opportunities to educate both myself and the public in relation to these issues as and where I see them.

More awareness in my own practice and reading regarding frailty and the aging population to round myself as a practitioner.
Supporting and celebrating autonomy and independence not only in the workplace but In the environments in which we work.
Working together with other healthcare professionals and colleagues to develop more understanding.

Constant review of practice and continual monitoring

 
OC3 L2

Medium

Ongoing

Reflecting on my own practice in order to understand the ‘chain of command’ within my own workplace.
Understanding of team structures of wider healthcare teams and investigate ‘tiers’ of staff that are in other areas.
Understand that as a autonomous practitioner whom I would need to speak to to make a change in another area and what I would need to do to influence this change.

Having reflected upon experiences I have personally had and have a working understanding team structures that play a part in my working life.
Having completed a detail where team structures have been evident, I have to be confident to go away and reflect upon this and what measures I can take to enhance the service users experience and if necessary what I can do to make sure that my voice is heard next time.

Monthly discussion in development review with manager

 
R1 L2

Medium

Ongoing

I intend to complete reflection logs on pebblepad (SHU) to enhance my day to day practice.
SU feedback forms within pebblepad and continuing once in practice.
As an autonomous practitioner I should be constantly reflecting on my own practice and keeping up to date with any changes.

Being able to reflect subconsciously as an everyday part of my learning and development.
Any positive feedback gained.

Quarterly and ongoing within my own practice

References
Department of Health (2005) Taking Healthcare to the Patient. Department of Health, London
Department of Health. (2010). Equity and Excellence: Liberating the NHS. Retrieved from https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/liberating-the-nhs-white-paper
Healthcare Leadership Model, The nine dimensions of leadership behaviour, (2013), (www.leadershipacademy.nhs.uk) Accessed on 10th January 2020.
Heath, Geoffery and Paresh Wankhade. 2014. “A Balanced Judgement? Performance Indicators, Quality and the English Ambulance Service; Some Issues, Developments and a Research Agenda.” The Journal of Finance and Management in Public Services 13 (1): 1–17
NHS Improvement. (2018). Falls Specialist Response Vehicle. Retrieved from https://improvement.nhs.uk/resources/falls-specialist-response-vehicle/
Newton, A. and Harris, G. (2015), “Leadership and system thinking in the modern ambulance service”, in Wankhade, P. and Mackway-Jones, K. (Eds), Ambulance Services: Leadership and Management Perspectives, Springer, New York, NY, pp. 81-94.
O’Hara, Rachel; Johnson, Maxine; Siriwardena, A Niroshan; Weyman, Andrew; Turner, Janette; et al. (2015). A qualitative study of systemic influences on paramedic decision making: care transitions and patient safety, (2015), Journal of health services research and policy, Volume. 20, Issue 1
Parsons J (2009) Small ‘I’ in Leadership. Aust Fam Physician 38(5): 277
Yorkshire Ambulance Service Promotes Falls Awareness Week (2019), (https://www.yas.nhs.uk/news/media-releases/media-releases-2019/yorkshire-ambulance-service-promotes-falls-awareness-week/) Accessed on 10th January 2020.