Starbucks Micro and Macro Environment

For any organisation survival depends on its surrounding environment located. It means the trends in political, economical, social, technological, environmental and legal environment, which can influence business. Below the environmental factors are described
(P)olitical Issues:
Taxation policy – If government imposed high tax on farmers in countries producing coffee bean from where Starbucks buy their coffee, than Starbucks needs to pay higher price for their coffee they purchase. This effect will ultimately pass to the customer, because they need to higher price.
Government stability – Starbucks should carefully investigate the political stability of any country before they want to plan for expand to. It can affect in taxation and legislation when the government change.
International stability – The global economy must be carried into attention as it can affect Starbucks’ sales and markets.
Employment law – A decrease in licensing and permit costs in those countries producing the coffee bean for Starbucks will lower the production costs for farmers.
(E)conomic Issues:
Interest rates – An increase in interest rates means investment and expansion. And also mortgage repayments rate will rise so customers have less money to spend on luxury products such as coffee. Low interest rates have the reverse effect.
Economic Growth – If economic growth is low in the country of location of Starbucks then sales will fall down. Customer incomes tend to go down in periods of negative growth leaving less money to spend.
Inflation rates – Inflation is a term for increasing prices. It is measure by using Retail Price Index (RPI) in the UK.
Competitors pricing – Aggressive pricing and sales from competitors creates a price war for Starbucks, which can drive down.
(S)ocial Issues:
Population demographics – They need to identify and target their customers to aim their products on them.
Attitude to work – They have to find area where local population have high attitude to work. So their recruitment will be easy, training will be effective and staff turnover will be low.
Standard of education/skills – Creating new premises Starbucks needs to look for standards of education and skills locally. They must be up to date in order to make any business operation successful.
Working conditions/health and safety – They must accomplished high standard of friendly environment and follows health and safety.
Location – this is a major factor it should be in a easy access for both customers and staffs.
(T)echnological Issus:
IT development – Starbucks is well aware to extend and improve its Internet facilities and also tools to target customers, analyse data, and deliver new features to the market in the shortest time.
New equipment’s and processes – The technology like as coffee making machines and the computers system development that Starbucks use to operate their till registers will enable their staff to work more quickly and efficiently.
Research and Development activity – Starbucks has huge budget and have allocated the resources to have accurate Research and Development data.
(L)egal:
Trade and product restrictions – Starbucks have to ensure they don’t violate laws e.g., religious laws. Also they have to be attentive on the tariffs have to paid for import / export goods.
Employment law – Each country has some restrictions on employment laws. Like student work law in UK, the public holidays etc. Starbucks have to account these factors.
(E)nvironmental Issues:
Pollution problems – Customers increase a lot of rubbish that they leave the shop with their cup of coffee and then also leave it in the street. So the packaging for the cup should be carefully accounted to make it environmental friendly.
Work disposal – Starbucks have to carefully consider the process to dispose rubbish as there are strict laws in most countries.
Micro analysis or Michael Porter’s five forces analysis
Michael Porters has developed a famous model of the five competitive forces in his book. The competitive strategy that techniques he analysed for organizations and competitors. It tends to high light on single, stand along and business or strategic business unit rather than a single product or product range in the market.
Porter has specified these five competitive forces that form every company and every market. These are:

Threat of new entrance
Bargaining power of suppliers
The threat of substitute products
Bargaining power of customers
Competitive rivalry

Threat of new entrance
Economics of scale, high or low entry cost, ease access to the distribution channel; other cost advantages are not associated to the size of the company, whether other competitors will react. There will always be a continuous pressure for Starbucks to respond and regulate these new competitors.
The easier it is for new competitor to enter the market the more competition there is within the market. Although this should not be a problem for Starbucks as they have a large number of market share. Literally, it will be a threat for the new entrants. As a company’s volume increases, so does its experience and knowledge, which tends to increase the potential risk for the new competitors.

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Bargaining power of suppliers
If little large number of suppliers control the market more than large number of fragment sources, bargaining power of supplier is expected to be high. Even suppliers got certain quantities of power that is limited. But for Starbucks being ‘the most famous specialty coffee shop chain in the world’ reaching sales of $9.8 billion in 2009 and still increasing they still should be demanding coffee beans for some time. It is legal to say that the Suppliers need Starbucks, just as much, if not more so than Starbucks need their supplies.
The suppliers of Arabica beans were mostly owned by medium-size farm and typically sold their production to process by local markets. (Lee, 2007) Particularly, these farms had been placed in the Pacific Rim, Latin America and East Africa. (Lee, 2007) These farms were various and not related with one another, with separation, providing them small bargaining power. Even there was no straight alternative for the Arabica beans which had been use in special coffee production. Huge group of farms which had been supply the crop processed it easy for buyers to escape burdens to any specific farmer, which was difficult for suppliers. The farmers sold the Arabica beans to specialty coffee retailers who were reliant upon their constant business. Luckily for Starbucks they buy their coffee beans directly from producing countries: Latin America (50%), Pacific Rim (35%) and East Africa (15%).
Threat of substitute of products
It occurs when there is a product-for-product replacement or substitution of need. For example bald head reduces the need for hair gel, where there is common substitution and finally the attitude ‘we could always do without ….
An example for Starbucks would be if an alternative to coffee was offered e.g. a customer switching from coffee to tea, coffee to chill drinks or coffee to juice. Competitive rivalry: contribute to strong rivalry between existing competitors in an industry.
Bargain power of buyers
Buyer power is likely to be high if a number of circumstances are in place. There is an
awareness of buyers, additionally if the volumes of purchases of the buyers are high, the supplying industry includes a large number of small operators, there are substitute sources of supply, the component or material cost is a high percentage of total cost, the cost of switching a supplier is low or engages little risk, there is always a risk of backward integration by the buyer.
Competitive rivalry
Every day competitions are growing gradually against the Starbucks as the business growth. Competitors taking chance to reduce the price, introducing a rival product, insistent growth of production to enhance the market share. Starbucks significant innovation their products which also competitors start to keep up. It is very hard for Starbucks as a competitor to keep the fixed cost against the variable cost.
Starbucks don’t have any other competitive rivals that are of parallel size to them. So there are not any competitors in the market that would be measured in balance with them. However, they must retain their outstanding standards and always be on the watch out for new advances in order to survive as the market leader.
SWOT analysis
Aim of SWOT analysis is to identify the main internal and external factors that are very significant to achieve the objective. It is essential to be realistic about the strengths and weaknesses to help differentiate the company’s situation are today, and where it could be in the future. The strengths and weaknesses are named internal factors and external factors are opportunity and threats.
(S)trengths

It is a global coffee brand with a high reputation for excellent products and services
It has around 17,000 stores in 49 countries. 
It has strong ethical values, commitment towards the environment and community activists.
It is one of the most Top 100 companies which is work for in 2005
Starbucks Gift Cards, Starbucks Card and rewards.
Well-value, well train and well-motivated employees, best working place
Established logo, developed brand image, copyrights, own trademarks, website and patents.

(W)eaknesses

It has majority market share in the USA with more than three quarters of its stores located in the domestic market. In order to reduce business risk, expansion is needed.
It has a reputation for trying new products development and creativity. But, they always remain vulnerable to the possibility that their innovation can go wrong.

(O)pportunity

It has a chance to expand its global operations.
Co-branding with other manufacturers of food and drink and brand franchising to other manufacturers of other products and services both has high potentiality of success rate.
Technological advantage
Emerging multinational markets
New distribution channels
Supply agreements

(T)hreats

Its success has lead many competitors and copycat brands pose potential threats for market entry.
Starbucks is exposed to increases the cost of coffee and dairy products.
Farmers are poorly treated by false publicity in supplying countries.
Fragile state of worldwide production for specialty coffees.
Isolation of younger, domestic market segments.
Cultural and Political factors in foreign countries.

Marketing objective and strategy
Now we can identify external and internal factors of the company. Starbucks marketing objectives are being consistent with their business objectives. Significantly their marketing objectives should direct to sale. The marketing objectives should follow SMART objectives.
SMART objectives are:
Specific: organizations objective need to be identify what they want to achieve.
Measurable: organization has to measure whether they are meeting the objectives or losing to do so.
Achievable: objectives should be set, achievable and realistic.
Realistic: The firm is expected to attain the objectives with the resources available.
Timed: A timescale require being place for achieving the objectives.
The 7th of September in 2010, the company has announced that they expand distribution of Starbucks about 13,000 stores are available at more than 55,000 locations around all over the world. Starbucks is increasing its share of the $23 billion international coffee market. (VIA® Ready Brew through international grocery channels in Japan, Canada and the U.K.) Starbucks has stores in forty nine different countries as well as Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, Thailand, and Singapore (Starbucks 2010).
And in the U.K. total 80% coffee are selling every day, the product will be available in 2,300 grocery retailers including Tesco, Sainsbury and Waitrose, raising the total figure of distribution locations to more than 2,900 retail locations.
At present, Starbucks has expended stores in forty nine different countries as well as Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, Thailand, and Singapore (Starbucks 2010).
Starbucks consider which is important to have a good relationship with their customers wherever they are situated. That’s why; the company maintain the high quality products and services. This company would not be as successful as they are now. Because they are being considered without diversity as they pride it. They are identified to be recognising of various groups of people because they convey in notes for new growth prospect. Jim Donald, President and CEO of the Starbucks Corporation states, “When we embrace diversity, we succeed” (www.starbucks.com). Starbucks consider that without change, their company would not have matured into the highly successful global company that it has matured into today.
 

Impact of Oil Spills on the Environment

Oil Spills and Our Environment[MB1]
Oil spills have been a major environmental concern when it comes to humans, land and water, aquatic and wild life. Oil can be detrimental to both humans and animals. An oil spill is liquid petroleum that is released into the environment. This happens because of human activity and it is pollution. The word describes aquatic oil spills, where oil is released into the ocean or coastal waters (epa.earthday).

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These spills may happen on land, as well. When oil is spilled on water it becomes hazardous and endangers our environment and our aquatic ecosystems. The way it pollutes our land is through our resources from our land and the organisms that live below the Earth’s surface. Oil spills are capable of destroying the very life forms that are associated with our food resources. Our environment can be impaired by the physical damages oil causes when animals come into contact with it. The animals can get coated with oil, and with oil being so toxic, it is capable of poisoning organisms that become open to the elements. Oils are not all the same. They have differences, and those differences are petroleum based or non-petroleum based. Oils can have different chemical make ups that give them unique physical distinctiveness. Oils that are Petroleum based can be different varieties of natural hydrocarbon based elements and process petroleum effects. These distinctions will affect the way that oil expands and separates. It is good to know the type of oil that one is dealing with because this can help to associate the hazardous dangers that the oil is capable of posing to human and aquatic life. There is also a likelihood that oil is capable of posing a threat to natural and man-made resources, as well (epa).
Oils can cause immediate and long-term harmful effects on the environment. They can pose a danger and be deadly to our wildlife. Non-petroleum oils have the capability to diminish the oxygen needed by our aquatic organisms, foul aquatic life, and the feathers of wildlife. Birds can lose their feathers from oil, and the feathers are a vital part of their protective covering. When birds come in contact with oil, it puts the birds in danger of freezing to death or suffocate their embryos. When birds get drenched in oil they transfer oil from the feathers to the eggs. When ingested by fouls through eating, oil can kill them. Some of the other effects of spilled oil on birds and other wildlife consists of suffocation, dehydration, drowning, or starvation. The non-petroleum oils have similarities to petroleum-based oils but they do differ. One of the similarities is that they are both soluble in water and it is limited. Both oils create oil slicks at the surface of water. They both develop mixtures of different substances and sludge’s which looks muddy. Although, non-petroleum oils are known to linger in the environment for a long time. It is also good to remember how they have catastrophic effects on birds and mammals (epa.gov).
Immediate response is a necessity when rescuing birds and aquatic mammals. This procedure is not done by just anyone, therefore, training is needed. In order to rehabilitate our oiled wildlife can be a complex procedure. Those who volunteer for this cause must be trained properly, and commit themselves to correctly documented procedures thoroughly, and avoid taking any shortcuts. Also, there must be communication with other agencies in order for the wildlife rescue operation to be a success (greenlivingtips).
When birds are brought to the facility oil is flushed from its eyes and intestines immediately. The workers examine to see if they have broken bones, cuts, or other injuries. If the birds that come in have a lot of oil on them, that gets wiped with cloths that absorbs and removes the oil blotches. They are also administered oral medicines that coat their stomachs in case of ingestion. This prevents any other oil to get absorbed into the bird’s stomach. Once all this is done, the bird is then warmed and isolated within a silent area. In the area where wildlife is taken, curtains are hung around them to limit their contact with humans. Because nutrition is very essential for the recovery of oiled birds, sometimes they must be forced fed until they are able to feed themselves. Once the bird is responsive, stable, and alert, they softly rub a detergent into the bird’s feathers to remove the oil until the oil is gone. Then the bird is rinsed and cleaned and put in a clean, warm, holding pen that is covered with curtains. If the bird’s behavior seems normal during observation, then the bird is allowed to swim. They allow this so the bird can preen and realign its feathers. This action restores the feathers to their original structure and helps the bird to become water resistant. The waterproofing test is done prior to freeing a bird back into its natural habitat. They will not release the bird unless it is capable of floating and keeping the water away from its body. This procedure is quickly done because it is toxic the birds and can kill them (greenlivingtips).
The Oil Experiment

Materials

My Prediction

Conclusion

cotton

Will soak up the oil but not be able to clean the oil

Oil Spread to cotton and it did not clean up the oil

plastic

Will get oily and will not be able to clean the oil

Plastic became oily and did not clean up the oil

newspaper

Will soak up the oil but will not be able to clean the oil

Oil soaked in paper and it did not clean up the oil

paper towel

Will soak up the oil but will not be able to clean the oil

Oil soaked in paper and it did not clean up the oil

feather

Will get drenched in the oil, will not be able to clean up the oil

Feather became drenched in oil and it did not clean up the oil

cotton material

Will soak up the oil but will not be able to clean the oil

Oil soaked in cotton and it did not clean up the oil

nylon material

Will become oily itself but will not be able to clean the oil

Oil soaked in nylon and it did not clean up the oil

string

Will get drenched in oil not be able to clean the oil

String too small became oily and it did not clean up the oil

Dish detergent
Dawn

Should break down the oil

It cleaned up the oil

The Conclusion of the Experiment
The oil was not easy to clean, although Dawn dishwashing liquid seemed to have the capabilities of breaking the oil down. When I added the oil to the water, the oil floated on the surface of the water. I expected that much because I have seen this before. What I didn’t expect was the fact that the cotton didn’t clean it completely. The oil in water was very difficult to clean up with all my materials except the dawn dish detergent. The material that absorbed the oil the best was the cotton, but it didn’t clean it. It just soaked some of the oil up or expanded it, I’m not quite sure. The material that absorbed the oil the least was the plastic, and the rest of my materials didn’t work either. I used the generic dollar general brand of paper towel. When I used dawn dish detergent, it worked.
Oil Spills
The Exxon Valdez oil spill is much considered to be the most disastrous oil spill in the world, but as far as the worst environmental disaster in history it doesn’t even rank among the top fifty of the recorded largest oil spills. As far as being the oil spill having the worst environmental impact on a region, Exxon is acknowledge. The oil spill caused approximately 11 million gallons of oil to escape from a tanker’s hull, and it still continues to have an effect on the area. The Alaskan waters known as Prince William Sound has never been the same once the ship hit Bligh Reef (Lovgren).
Late at night, on March 24, 1989, a tanker called the Exxon Valdez swerved from the shipping lane in Prince William Sound, Alaska to avoid icebergs and crashed on Bligh Reef. This event was one of the largest oil spill from a vessel in US history at that time. Succeeding spills have leaked out much more. In 1978, four-hundred million gallons of oil was spilled along the coast of Mexico. Another time was 1978, sixty-nine million gallons were spilled by the tanker Amoco Cadiz off Brittany, France. In 1967, a tanker named Torrey Canyon off the English coast spilled thirty-eight million gallons. The tanker Metula in the Straits of Magellan, in 1973, was where sixteen million gallons of oil were spilled. As a result of these oil spills and others, there has been a considerable effort by government, academic and industry scientists to understand the fate and effects of petroleum in our Earth’s waters. One good piece of news that did occur was in 1985, when the National Research Council had reported that they didn’t find any evidence that proves that our oceans environments are threatened by the oil spills. Although, it is still a concern. Petroleum inputs from accidental oil spills were found to be less important contributors to the annual input of petroleum to the aquatic environment than chronic discharges from the urban runoff, industrial waste, and transportation activities. Petroleum, which we now know is one of our natural elements has been naturally discharging in our water in great amounts at many oil outflows around the world. Although, the aftermath of oil spills can be harsh, our natural environment produces effective natural processes that will recovery our environments of most of our oil spills (Alaska).
The BP Oil spill was due to an explosion of a rig in the Gulf. There were significant factors prior to the destruction of the drilling of the rig that should have been considered, which was a lack of risk management, at the time. It was a sad time in America from businesses to families and the economy in general. It was said that the incident was an “accident waiting to happen” (epa.bp). The engineers had identified seven fatal defects that led to the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. It was a series of errors that were made by people in critical situations involving complex technological and organization systems. Because of this, it created critical lessons that were learned. It has also given them insights on how to prevent this from happening in the future (epa.bp).
The incident lead to the improved risk assessments, and more beneficial regulatory oversight. It called for safer operating procedures and fast crisis response time. The accident was a detrimental and severe lesson learned. Eleven workers lost their lives and seventeen others were injured. The oil spill damaged the economy and environment of the entire Gulf Coast. The laws made changes that will reduce the chances of these tragedies occurring again. These regulation were put in place for both deep-water drilling and high technical and risky industries (oceanworld).
The Exxon Valdez leaked out almost eleven million gallons of oil in the pristine Prince William Sound. The oil spread to 1,300 miles of shoreline. The oil spill killed hundreds of thousands of aquatic and wildlife. The difference with the Gulf of Mexico spill is that the oil rig exploded and killed eleven of the workers and produced the largest oil spill in U.S. history. According to NOAA, an estimated two-hundred and ten thousand gallons of oil were leaking oil out of the remaining ruptures in a day. Eleven million gallons spilled by the Exxon Valdez in 1989 in June (greenlivingtips). Environmentalists are working on the long-term environmental impact reduction goals for the areas of energy conservation, resource conservation, and pollution prevention. As far as short term goals are concerned, environmentalists are working hard to advance the broader use of renewable sources of energy, while monitoring and maintaining the carbon footprint of the Earth in hopes that it will be at a minimum. We can’t completed eliminate all the bad elements in our atmosphere, but we can work together to minimize the issues of concern. A development of a hydraulic fracturing fracking technology is underway, in order to help them obtain accessibility to our natural gas that formerly found to be unreachable (mcclatchydc).
Since the BP oil spill, the Environmental Protection Agency has put orders in place that monitor air, water, sediment, and wastes that are produced by the cleaning processes. They will continue the continued response and renovation attempts as well. The government has put a main goal in place too restore and maintain our waters, while providing several causes of action that will be enforceable by the United States in order to promote the goals. For instance, civil and criminal penalties are put in place as provisions. The CWA has put civil penalty provisions associated with oil spills and this will provide that penalties recovered under the Clean Water Act must be deposited into the Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund. Therefore funds will be available in the future or ensure that there are available funds for clean-up, response, and restoration efforts for future oil spills (epa.bp).
EarthDay
EarthDay is an important day to remember. It will be celebrated on April 22, 2014. This date is the anniversary of the environmental movement of 1970. Gaylord Nelson is the founder who came up with the idea. He was a US Senator in Wisconsin at the time. He witnessed an oil spill in Santa Barbara, California. In his eyes that oil spill was major issue and concern. He waited until an opportunistic time to voice his opinion on the incident. At the time Nelson was trying to find a way to get the news out, there had been a student anti-war movement taking place as well. That is when Mr. Nelson came up with the idea to stimulate the energy given about the war and emerge it with also making the public aware of the water and air pollution, in hopes that it would enforce protection for the environment, and it did. In the end, everyone came together to assist in the cause, and this action led to the four major changes; creation of the EPA and the passage of the Clean Water, Clean Air, and the Endangered Species Act (epa.gov).
On April 22, more than a million Americans performed a demonstration on the streets and parks, and held gatherings from the East coast to West coast. They were fighting for the cause, such as, against pollution from factories, power plants, toxic dumps and raw sewage, freeways, and pesticides and most of all the lost that it has caused to the wilderness. Needless to say, in the end he won.
Nelson and his followers worked hard to get the government’s attention to environmental issues, and when they did, it was the beginning of the environmental movement. The Environmental Protection Agency was formed on Dec.2, 1970. It was put in place to consolidate a variety of federal research, standard settings, and monitoring, and enforcement activities to ensure that the environment sustains protection for present and future generations The outcome is for Americans to have a cleaner and healthier environment (earthday).
The EPA work intensely to make sure everyone is complying to keep the environment clean and free from destruction, and holds those responsible if they are not complying. Because of Earthday, regulations in the Cleveland, Ohio area was forced to clean up the lakes and make sure that there is no hazardous and dangerous elements that can destroy our aquatic life, animals, and human life. Earthday protects our environment and promotes sustainability for our Earth for the future generations to come. It makes us accountable and responsible to keep our environment clean and safe for all living organisms (epa.earthday).
I can do my part of protecting our earth by going green. At home, I recycle and utilize bio-degradable products. I will not pollute our waters with pollutants, nor the land. At home I learned to use water, dawn dish detergent, and boiling water to break down cooking oils after cooking so the oils do not build up. At work, I can use less paper products and ride bus to work. During recreation time, I will make sure that I continue to use green products and keep our environment clean from trash and other things that may hurt our environment.

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Learning Environment for the Doctoral Student

Abstract

Pursuing a doctoral education is a journey that comes with hurdles that will challenge the learning abilities of a doctoral student. A doctoral student aims to uncover new knowledge and to become a researcher. It is important to use strategies to enhance the learning patterns of the student. The learning environment also plays a role in facilitating a successful journey for the students. There are resources, technology and tools available for students to use. The challenge is how to use these resources for a productive learning environment.

 

Learning Experiences Prior to the Doctoral Learning Experience

The purpose and expectations of a doctoral student prior to the doctoral journey create an impact to their leaning experiences.  The focus is on the end result of the doctoral journey and not on the process of going through this journey. The expectations of a doctoral student in accomplishing this purpose creates an emotional stress on the doctoral student. The doctoral students come with a higher level of knowledge mastery. When they are faced with new concepts in a new learning environment, the student loses confidence and feel inadequate to meet the demands of the doctoral journey.

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According to Vermont & Verloop (1999), it is important to create a congruence between the learning pattern and environment. The learning environment should provide resources and tools that enhance the learning styles of the student. For active and creative learners, it is recommended to use a learning environment enhances independent learning opportunities. For the passive learners, there should be a gradual transition to self-regulated learning pattern and environment.

 (Loyd, Harding-Dekam & Hamilton, 2015) identified two barriers to the success of a doctoral student: cognitive and affective. Students become disconnected as they are unable to connect mastery of knowledge to new concepts. It is also evident that the students lack the skills of scholarly writing. The affective barriers include feeling of isolation and loss of identity. The students are viewed as competent in their own field until they decided to go back to school. The students lost their grip as they try to un-break the new grounds of learning.

The Autonomous Nature of Doctoral Learning

Chic (2007) mentioned that the student’s ability to use own identity to learn can foster autonomous learning. The student needs to explore own experiences, accept the emergence of new perspectives and negotiate for an environment that enhances practice and learning. The student must learn how to make connections, find resources and interact with other learners to facilitate learning. Technology plays a huge impact in developing the learning styles of the students. It is the student’s responsibility to initiate, select and utilize technology to promote scholarly work. 

Educators and leaders are key components in enhancing the learning experiences of the students. The role of the educators is to facilitate learning strategies, deploy resources and tools, promote decision making and enhance autonomous teaching styles.  

Doctor of nursing orientation webinar.

The webinar discussed the importance of autonomy to the success in the DNP program. The webinar emphasized learning strategies promote independent learning. Time management will always be the biggest challenge to hurdle in maintaining a realistic work-life balance. The GCU Portal offers resources, tools, and online support to assist the learning needs of the students. The webinar also has access to network resources such as IS library, counselor, and faculty-individual forums.

Literature review of five scholarly articles related to doctoral programs strategies.

 Performing literature review search using the keywords strategies for doctoral education revealed multiple science journals that talk about strategies and challenges to support doctoral education. Pifer, M.J. & Baker, V.L (2016) conducted a research on the challenges of the doctoral education across the disciplines: students, faculty and organization. They presented their findings by giving an overview of the research education and its recommendation.   Zeynep and Funda (2013) presented the opinions of the doctoral students and how they hurdle the challenges of doctoral education.  Browne-Ferrigno, T., & Muth, R. (2012) advocates for leaner-centered instructional activities that promote autonomous learning. Katerina, S. (n.d.).stresses that the doctoral education will provide an avenue for nurses internationally to advocate for nursing and healthcare. Merrill, J. A., Yoon, S., Larson, E., Honig, J., & Reame, N. (2013) explored the impact of social network to foster collaboration between PhD and DNP students.

Recommended specific strategies.

 The strategies that would make an impact to autonomous learning include: recognizing learner’s identity, developing a leaner environment across the disciplines that promote self-regulated learning; use of technology, resources and tools and collaboration with students, faculty and organizations to gain new insights and new perspectives.

References

Ketefian, S. (n.d.). Doctoral education in the context of international development strategies. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF NURSING STUDIES, 45(10), 1401–1402. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2008.02.002

Loyd, S., Harding-DeKam, J., and Hamilton, B. (2014) “Hazards to the Doctoral Journey: Guidance for New Doctoral Students,” Journal of Educational Research and Innovation: Retrieved October 2, 2019 from https://digscholarship.unco.edu/jeri/vol4/iss1/2

Merrill, J. A., Yoon, S., Larson, E., Honig, J., & Reame, N. (2013). Using social network analysis to examine collaborative relationships among PhD and DNP students and faculty in a research-intensive university school of nursing. Nursing Outlook, 61(2), 109–116. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1016/j.outlook.2012.08.001

Pifer, M. J., & Baker, V. L. (2016). Stage-based challenges and strategies for support in doctoral education: a practical guide for students, faculty members, and program administrators. International Journal of Doctoral Studies, 15. Retrieved from https://search-ebscohost-com.lopes.idm.oclc.org/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsgao&AN=edsgcl.450999561&site=eds-live&scope=site

Tricia Browne-Ferrigno, & Rodney Muth. (2012). Use of Learner-Centered Instructional Strategies in Higher Education: Doctoral Student Assessments. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, (2). https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.20429/ijsotl.2012.060223

Vekkaila, J., Pyhältö, K. (2012). Doctoral Student Learning Patterns: Learning about Active Knowledge Creation or Passive Production. International Journal of higher education, 5(2), 222-235. Retrieved October 2, 1019 from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1099817.pdf

Vermunt, J. D., & Verloop, N. (1999). Congruence and friction between learning and teaching.        Learning and Instruction, 9(3), 257-280. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0959-4752(98)00028-0

Zeynep Medine ÖZMEN, & Funda AYDIN GÜÇ. (2013). Challenges in Doctoral Education and Coping Strategies: A Case Study. Yükseköğretim ve Bilim Dergisi, (3), 214. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.5961/jhes.2013.079

 

Analysis of Cloud Storage In Robotic Environment

Cloud Computing: Analysis of Cloud Storage In Robotic Environment

 
Abstract— Cloud is a well-designed data storage model concerned with the storage of information on the web. Such storage has greatly revolutionized the robotic environment for learning purpose. This paper provides an overview of how databases in cloud deliberate to store knowledge fabricated by both robots and human in a robot-readable open format that will support existing as well as forthcoming robots learn faster. These robots will pick up the aggregate knowledge which will be accumulated in the cloud storage so as to perform a set of tasks including navigation, task information like how to pick up an object as well as object-recognition data such as digital models of real-world objects, to simultaneously confine itself in the unknown environment and to construct a map of the environment without having any knowledge in advance.
Keywords—cloud, storage, robotics, robobrain, rapyuta
I. Introduction
From decades, it has been noticed that robots are mainly empowered with programming embedded in a chip but a small defect could result into malfunctioning of the whole unit and hence affect learning ability of robots. As such certain mechanism is required that will provide guarantee in terms of reliability, security and robustness. Due to great processing power of cloud it paved the way as an appropriate utility in Robotic Environment. Cloud robotics is one such step taken towards, that has evolved idea of leveraging the Internet for robots, and offers extraordinary opportunities for robot learning. Instead of using the World Wide Web for rapid communication or faster reckoning, a key factor is allowed for robots to generate and collaboratively update shared knowledge repositories. Such knowledge bases will power robots to deal with the intricacies of human environments and offer a simple yet powerful way for life-long robot learning. [1] The objective of the European-Commission-funded initiative is to evolve proof-of-concept demonstrations that show the way that cloud repositories like RoboEarth’s databases can greatly prompt robot learning and how they may finally allow robots to act well beyond their preprogrammed behaviors. As many AI Researchers are putting effort in establishing a database in cloud which they called “RoboBrain” that will house all the information which robots have learned till now and help them further their knowledge by sharing that knowledge. On the developer’s hand, they will have access to RoboBrain’s massive database, free of charge and wirelessly. [2] Aditya Jami, from Cornell, who depicted the database for RoboBrain said this about it: “The RoboBrain will look like a gigantic, branching graph with abilities for multi-dimensional queries.” By sharingparameters, data, files and everythingelse robots have gathered till now, their developers will access and automates the robot’s grasping of their ambiances, including speech and voice recognition, grasping, navigating and perception of different objects. Year 2010 was firstly marked as the self-drivingcarscame in our lives which afterwards tracked by RoboEarth (a system that allow the robots to distribute their knowledge wirelessly between each other).

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II. Literature Review
A. Cloud Robotics
Cloud Robotics is a specialized application of cloud computing that deals with the study of robots and their environment. Since with the help of cloud all the data will get stored on the web which in turn has greatly boosted the ability of robots to perform all workings by sharing experience with each other in order to provide a precise response. Due to connection with cloud network it is easier for robots to collaborate with other objects, machines and human beings. At the same time, internet has highly augmented the capabilities of robots by providing service on demand and offloads computation. Cloud robotics has greatly overcome the problem of network robotics due to their resource, information and communication constraints. With the arrival of cloud robotics expenditure of maintenance and updates and requirement of custom middleware has solved up to a great extent.

Fig 1: Driven by advances in mobile communication technologies, lots of robotics applications can be executed in the cloud environment[3].
Robots are able to perform some computationally heavy tasks such as mapping, planning and probabilistic interference through the accessibility of huge computational infrastructure. RoboEarth is one such attempt that offers a cloud based infrastructure, which can help a robot to send some data to cloud and get the data back from the cloud in some other form. RoboEarth is a kind of database that stores the knowledge generated by either humans or robot but in a machine readable format. RoboEarth knowledge base is supposed to consist of a variety of data including task knowledge (e.g. manipulation strategies, action recipes etc.), several software components, maps for navigation (e.g. world models and location of objects), model that aids in recognition of different objects.(e.g. object models, images). Rapyuta which is also considered as the RoboEarth cloud engine is highly responsible for powerful computations to the robots. It is implemented as Platform-as-a-Service which is open source designed to suit robotics application. It enables the robots to unburden heavy computation to protect cloud’s computing environment with marginal configuration. Rapyuta is considered to provide efficient access to the bandwidth which in turn provides access to the repository of knowledge on cloud enabling robots to learn skills and share experience with other robots. The components of the cloud robotics are so well structured and interconnected that they provide the environment for the deployment of large robotic teams.
B. Software Components
RoboEarth system is powered with the cloud infrastructure which in turn supported by RoboEarth databases and RoboEarth cloud engine (Rapyuta) in addition with several software components. Such software components are responsible to interact with the RoboEarth database in order to enquiry and accumulate data and can be installed for their execution in cloud engine or locally on the robot. In certain scenario these components can also be used independently.

Fig 3: A simple architecture diagram of the integrated RoboEarth system can be used during thefinal demonstrator [4].
Rapyuta: Rapyuta is a framework which is an open source framework for having utility in cloud robotics. The figure below give a simple outlook of the Rapyuta framework: Each robot attached to the Rapyuta is having a reliable computing environment (rectangular boxes) enhancing their efficiency to move their heavy computation in the cloud. Computing environment are interconnected in a well-structured way and have a high bandwidth connectivity to the repository of knowledge as shown in the figure by stacked circular disks.

Fig 2: Rapyuta: A Cloud Robotics Framework [5]
RoboEarth DB: The Apache Hadoop based WWW- style database used to store essential data for the robots.
KnowRob: It is a system involved in the processing of knowledge that groups reasoning methods and knowledge representation with several techniques for acquiring the knowledge in the physical system. It also serves as a framework that gathers knowledge through the various sources and is used in RoboEarth as a local knowledge base for robots.
Object Adapter: These are the set of ROS packages that enables both robots and users to build up a small cloud model from an object using a marker pattern, so that the resulting model can be stored in the RoboEarth’s repository of knowledge, and allow downloading the object models later and used them for detecting objects.
WIRE: The WIRE stack allows generating and maintaining one stable world state gauze based on object detections. It is highly involved in the data association problem by retaining multiple hypotheses and facilitates following of various object attributes.
C2TAM: C2TAM implements a system called visual SLAM which is dependent upon a distributed framework where the storage and expensive map optimization is allocated on an external server, whereas a light camera tracking client executes on the local machine. The robot onboard computers are released from a burden of calculation, the only additional requirement being an internet connection.
III. Application of cloud storage in robotics
Cloud Based Robotics has proved to have a number of applications and advantages over the traditional networked based robotics.

Cloud storage provides a shared knowledge database by which the robots can easily share their information with each other and can aligned them to work collaboratively in order to achieve a common task.
Cloud robotics offloads the computing tasks to the cloud which involves heavy computation. Moreover cloud robotics is cheaper, easier to maintain hardware and lighter which results in the long battery life. CPU hardware upgrades are undetectable and hassle free.
Cloud Robotics involves skilled and well maintained database. Reusable library of capability or etiquette that map to perceived tasks requirements/complex situations. Data mining keep the history of all cloud which enable robots.

Due to these advantages, cloud robotics had a wide range of potential applications in the computation-intensive or data-intensive tasks in the areas of health care, intelligent transportation, environment monitoring, smart home, entertainment, education and defense. In this section, we discuss the opportunity and challenges that cloud robotics bring to traditional robotic applications. Specifically we focus upon three robotic applications: Robotic Surgery, Defense and navigation.
A. Robotic Surgery
Consider a scenario where a situation demands instant operation of a patient but the problem is doctor is not available. Then to tackle with that situation Robots can help because they can capture the useful knowledge from the cloud regarding the operation tips as mentioned by the other robots who previously have tackled with the same situation who is currently present somewhere else. In this way the whole operation can be executed in a safe and reliable manner.
B. Defense
Cloud robotics has a huge application in defense where they can sense the area which has the maximum probability of finding enemy by selecting the appropriate map from cloud storage at appropriate time. Cloud storage can be fed with updated maps from time to time with the help of satellites. As such human life can be saved by using robots in place of them at the time of world war or any war happening in the country.
C. Navigation
Robotic Navigation involves a robot identifying its own position with respect to a certain reference by choosing an appropriate path from there to reach the desired destination from all possible paths available. Such activity involves a collection of tasks such as localization, path planning and mapping. Two types of approaches are available: mapless and map based approach [13]. Mapless approaches are based on the observation and perception of the sensors used in navigation. Due to the limited onboard resources, these approaches usually suffer from reliability issues. Map based robotic navigation is comparatively better then mapless if the map is available. It can either use an unknown map or build a map during navigation. On the other hand building maps requires too much computation and storage requirements. However, if the area is large process of creating map requires access to vast amount of data which is a challenging task. Cloud robotics highly aids cloud based navigation by facilitating the following two properties: In addition to provide vast storage space to store the large amount of map data, cloud also provide processing power to facilitate the construction and searching of the map quickly. Secondly, commercially available maps (e.g. Google maps, bing maps) can also be leveraged to develop consistent, active, and high range independent navigation solutions.
IV. shortcomings of cloud storage in robotics
One of the key issues regarding cloud robotics is threaten to cloud storage which is highly vulnerable to malicious attacks. Moreover the wireless network over which the robot communicates with cloud in order to exchange information can be challenged at any instant of time. As certain security mechanism needs to be provided that will result in the increasing overhead of the overall system. As discussed, previously that a developer has an access over the cloud. In the same manner if an intruder gets access to the cloud somehow then it might be possible the same intruder will replace the existing information in cloud with some other malicious information that will result in the malfunctioning of robots that proves to be highly destructive.
Several other limitations of cloud robotics:-
1. As discussed in section II cloud supports the software part of the robot and it doesn’t have to deal with the hardware structure of the robots. So, it offload the hassle and costs of IT management.
2. Cloud robotics relies heavily on the cloud which in turn depends upon internet connection. So, if internet service will get affected from frequent outages or slow speed it fails to help the robots to continue their frequent communication in order to share knowledge from knowledge repository present on the cloud.
3. It is a hard fact to digest that robotics is lacking emotions. Such thing results in a huge impact on the people because of their adjustment with the machinery robots because there is high probability of thinking mismatch between them. Consider havoc where the people are suffering from the local environment conditions. As such if certain robotic team is send there for the rescue operation for their safety it is very hard for the humans to believe upon them.
V. Possible Solutions And Future Scope

Instead of fetching knowledge every time to perform an operation from cloud. A robot must be able to remember the already done tasks in order to tackle the same situation next time but at faster rate with greater efficiency.

Robots can be taught to handle many different tasks through the installation of robotic apps. Very soon, these robots will enhance the real-time by connecting to the cloud and downloading apps from there [9].
An app store for robots – Downloading apps from the app store is one the biggest reality behind smartphones success. In the same way Robot Apps can be used to control the robot and imparting intelligence in them. Some Apps allow you to generate predefined-programmed movement sequences, while others are used for remote control, whereas software development platforms are used to make more sophisticated autonomous control systems.

VI. ConClusion
We have discussed a scenario where future robotics will rely heavily on cloud storage that will enhance their capability and functionality in terms of learning and sharing information in order to work collaboratively to achieve some goal which was limited earlier due to limited programming. Cloud storage also enabled the developers due to their accessibility to the cloud to control and coordinate the robot activities at any point where the situation demands that may not be favorable to nature. Cloud storage also supports some real time applications like Health Care, Intelligent transportation, Rescue Operation, Assembling of different parts in production of vehicles etc. Cloud Storage in some cases proves to be inadequate due to poor transfer rate and harmful due to security threats on cloud due to wireless networking access technique which could be easily challenged at any time resulting in a huge destruction.
References

M . Waibel , “Analysis: Robot learning in the cloud Covic “RoboBrain” Will Use Cloud to Teach Robots, Available: http://robohub.org/analysis-robot-learning-in-the-cloud/
V. Covic, “RoboBrain” Will Use Cloud to Teach Robots, Available: http://www.cloudwards.net/news/robobrain-will-use-the-cloud-to-teach-robots-4543/
RoboEarth, What is Cloud Robotics? Available: www.roboearth.org/cloud_robotics, 2013.
RoboEarth, What are Software Components in Cloud Robotics? Available: http://roboearth.org/software-components/
Rapyuta: A Cloud Robotics Framework, A Cloud Robotics Platform Available: http://rapyuta.org/
Guoqiang Hu, Wee Peng Tay, and Yonggang Wen, “Cloud Robotics:Architecture, Challenges and Applications” IEEE NETWORK MAGAZINE
S. Jordán*, T. Haidegger**, L. Kovács**, I. Felde** and I. Rudas**, The Rising Prospects of Cloud Robotic Applications, IEEE 9th International Conference on Computational Cybernetics • July 8-10, 2013 • Tihany, Hungary
Richard Voyles “Robotics as a “Singularity”: The Case for Cloud Robotics and Real-Time Big Data” Available:http://telerobot.cs.tamu.edu/CMA/slides/Voyles.CASECloudMfg.pdf, August 17, 2013
Grishin Robotics “Future of cloud Robotics” Available: http://www.pinterest.com/pin/278660295665464178/
K. Goldberg. Cloud Robotics. Available: goldberg.berkeley.edu/cloud- robotics, 2013.
K. Goldberg and B. Kehoe, Cloud Robotics and Automation: A Survey of Related Work. UC Berkeley Technical Report No. UCB/EECS-2013-5. Available: http://www.eecs.berkeley.edu/Pubs/TechRpts/ 2013/EECS-2013-5.html, 2013.
RobotShop, Pioneers Cloud Robotics, Interview With Mario Tremblay. Available: www.robotshop.com/blog/en/myrobots-com
F. Bonin-Font, A. Ortiz, and G. Oliver, “Visual navigation for mobilerobots: A survey,” Journal of Intelligent and Robotic Systems, vol. 53, pp. 263–296, 2008.

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Negative Effects Of Fertilisers On Our Environment

The scope of this report is to examine the negative effects of fertilisers on our environment. It will primarily focus on the Nitrogen Fertilisers, there effects and solutions to combat those effects. Synthetic N fertilisers are one of the biggest cause for eutrophcation. When excess fertiliser runs off to the water, it can causes algal blooms, fish kills etc. Excessive nitrogen in the drinking water also has negative effects on humans. The production and application process is one of the contributing factos to the Greenhouse Gas emissions (GHG) as well. The report touches on the other two primary elements in fertilisers, phosphate and potassium, however, we will not go into detail discussions.

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Fertiliser run-offs, mostly nitrogen, is a matter of great concern in Queensland where the run offs from adjacent sugar cane and cattle farms are polluting the water in the Great Barrier Reef. It is a great threat to the ecosystem of the Reef and measures needs to be considered to reduce this pollution and also ways to rehabilitate and conserve the ecosystem of the Reef.
Resultantly, in this report we discuss how an excise policy can help reduce these negative effects of N fertiliser. We look into ways of promoting organic fertilisers and hydroponics with the help of the excise, also keeping in mind that the internalisation of the external cost should be one of the major underlying policy issues. We look into financial rebates and assistance that may be available to farmers opting to use organic fertilisers and switch to hydroponics. Part of the excise revenue should be earmarked for these purposes. We consider regulations that should be introduced to compliment and magnify the effects of the excise. The N-Replacement is a program where the soil is tested and the application of N is confined to only the amount that is required. In the fullness of time, all farmers should have to participate in such programs.
Lastly, we examine the benefits and negative effects of the proposed excise on the manufacturers, farmers and consumers. We will also look at any administrative and compliance issues that may arise with the introduction of the new excise. The role of the proposed excise in helping us meet our commitments under the Kyoto Protocol is also examined.
Introduction
This report is about the effects that fertilizers have on our environment. While the use of synthetic fertilizers has ensured an enormous boom in the agricultural sector, it has had its negative effects on the environment as well. The effects are directly related to issues like global warming and greenhouse gas emissions, and much more. The three major elements of synthetic fertiliser are nitrogen, phosphate and potassium. The damages that fertilisers have on the environment can be divided into three broad categories; natural resources (water, soil and air), wildlife and ecosystem and human health. Nitrogen fertilisers have the worse effect on the environment with phosphate following closely. This report will primarily focus on Nitrogen (N) fertilisers. It is beyond the scope of this report to discuss all the elements in fertilisers and discuss their effects. This is because different elements have different environmental effects and to a varying degree. They all have different use in the agriculture industry as well. However, once the excise model for the N nitrogen is established, a similar model can be used to impose excise on all the other fertilisers.
Nitrogen Fertilisers
When applied to the to soil to nourish farming land, nitrate, a compound of nitrogen, can wash off the agriculture fields by means of rain or irrigation and can leach into the surface or ground water. Ground water is one of the sources of drinking water and excess nitrate in the drinking water can potentially cause cancer, respiratory distress in humans.
In surface water, extra nitrogen may cause eutrophication, process of nutrient over enrichment. This is the primary cause of depletion in the oxygen level in coastal water. Coastal waters that receive an inflow from polluted rivers are the most affected. Eutrophcation is one of the biggest causes for coastal fish kill; it is also responsible for the harmful algal blooms and imbalance in the coastal ecosystems.
In Australia, the Great Barrier Reef is highly affected by diffuse pollutants. Most of it comes from nitrogen fertilizers used in cropping and grazing lands in relatively small areas of the adjacent catchments. According to a research conducted by the CSIRO on the Great Barrier Reef, experts found that … ‘Export of nitrogen and phosphorus is high and increased hillslope erosion rates have resulted in increased nutrient and sediment loads reaching and influencing inner shelf reef and benthic ecosystems. These pollutants are generated from diffuse sources and evidence from other geographical locations suggests that by the time their widespread effects are identified, the reef systems will be irreversibly damaged.’
Lastly, some of the nitrogen from the soil and water enters the atmosphere as nitric oxide and the green house gas nitrous oxide. This has a wide range of negative consequences, starting from acid rain to subtle shifts in dominant species and ecosystem function in forests and grassland ecosystems.
Phosphate Fertilisers
Phosphate is right behind nitrogen when it comes to negative effects to the environment. Fluoride has been and is the worse environmental liability that the phosphate fertiliser industry has passed on to the environment. Despite new advanced air pollution control technology which is resulting in less and less fluoride escaping into the atmosphere, the impact of fluoride emissions is still being felt. Amongst other things, the fluoride in the air has the potential to cause a number of disorders in livestock, The actual production process of phosphate is also harmful to the environment and humans equally.
Potassium Fertiliser
Potassium have not directly been related to any environmental pollution, even though it does have minor affect such as magnesium deficiency in crops and soil in the case of excessive application
As can be seen, the use of chemical fertilisers is very harmful to the environment. In attempting to protect the Great Barrier Reef, the State Government and the Commonwealth has initiated programs like the ‘Reef Plan’, the N – Replacement project. However, these government initiatives have been criticised by a many environmental agencies such as the World Wlidlife Fund (WWF) as being slow to achieve any real results. Government initiatives can only be effective when there is a drive from the general population to support those initiatives. The use of fertilisers in farming is essential to farmers as their profitability depends on the yield of the crops, which is predominantly the result of fertilisers. It is an essential resource to the farmers. In such a situation, the introduction of excise on synthetic nitrogen fertilizer and other chemicals used to maximise crop yield, can be one of the tools to discourage the use of such fertilisers and at the same time promote and the use of more environment friendly, non-chemical fertilisers and other farming alternatives.
Regulation of the Fertiliser industry using excise
Excise tax can be used as one of the tools for the government to influence the agriculture industry and influence the level of demand for synthetic nitrogen fertilizer. By imposing excise, we create an artificial price differential between the synthetic nitrogen fertilisers and its organic counterpart. This has the effect of farmers being more mindful about over application of the N fertiliser and using it sparingly.
In case of blended fertilisers, where all three elements are present, the nitrogen component will be excisable. This is turn will promote the production of fertiliser that have a low synthetic N fertiliser content..
Apart from trying to promote consumption of low nitrogen content fertilizers, excise can also promote higher consumption of organic fertilisers. This can be done similar to the fuel excise system in Australia, where excise is imposed on both organic and synthetic fertilizers, however, a full rebate may be available to the users of the organic fertilisers, making the effective rate of excise for organic fertiliser zero.
In the fullness of time, when all fertilisers are included in the excise system, i.e. nitrogen, phosphate and potassium, differential excise rates may be introduced, where they all have different excise rate depend on the degree of severity of effects each of them on the environment. The idea is that, if an all purpose fertiliser is high in nitrogen than it will have a higher price tag (nitrogen is the most harmful element of the three) as opposed to an alternative blend that is high in potassium; the higher the content of the most harmful chemical (N), the higher the price of the end product.
There is an alternative to introducing fertilisers to the excise system. The government can promote and take active steps to make the agricultural industry consider hydroponic controlled environment agriculture. The principle advantage of hydroponics compared to tradition farming is the isolation of crops from the soil. As there is no soil involved there is no chance of drainage or problems associated with leeching of nitrogen to the ground or surface water. The fertilisers that are not used up by the plants are caught and reused.
Excise rates and underlying reasons
In setting the excise rate, we need to be mindful of the underlying policy objectives. The objectives are:
For the agriculture industry to use fertilisers that are less harmful to the environment.
To the use of alternative organic fertilisers
To promote hydroponics, an alternative method of farming.
Internalise the external cost that the fertiliser industry imposes on the environment
The external cost should be the main element that we should try to internalise via the introduction of the excise tax. ‘Charging consumers or producers for external costs, which should induce them to reduce their activities to the socially optimal level, is known as the Pigouvian prescription. This rule states that efficient consumption or production can be achieved through the tax system by imposing an excise on the activity equal to the marginal cost of the damage caused to other people.’ In trying to internalise the external cost of fertilizer pollution, many governments around the world are considering some form of environment tax. In China, a study was undertaken on the external cost and optimum use of nitrogen fertiliser on the paddy field system of the Dongting Lake are. The research showed that the nitrogen fertiliser application in the region well exceeded the required levels. Such that, an environmental tax was suggested on the excess use of nitrogen fertiliser.
In Australia, there is not much information available on the external cost of the agriculture industry. However, figures from other country gives us an idea of the external cost imposed by the industry. “A US study estimates the externalised costs of agricultural production (in natural resources, wildlife, biodiversity and human health) to be between $5.7 and $16.9 billion annually is a broad estimate, it is not Australian-specific, nor restricted specifically to agriculture, but it does highlight the need to understand the environmental impacts of agriculture better in the Australian context.
In Europe, the estimated external cost of nitrogen fertiliser is about 0.3 €/kg N, bearing in mind that the market price is of the fertiliser is about 0.5 €/kg N. This effectively means, that if the whole amount was internalised then the price of N fertilisers would rise by about 60%. For the purpose of this report we will use the European figures as, mentioned earlier, there is not much Australian specific data available on the external cost of fertilisers. Now 60% excise on N fertiliser may seem like a staggering figure, however, when this excise is placed is conjunction with other regulation and policies the net effective excise will drop considerably. These issues will be discussed in the next section.
Specific vs Ad valorem rate
The next issue in the rate setting process is to determine if this rate is going to be specific or ad valorem. The choice between the options depends on the underlying policy, i.e. to raise revenue, discourage consumption, improvement of quality etc. Ad valorem tax creates a price differential between similar excisable good base on quality where the high-quality products are dearer than the low-quality products. This is a good tax mechanism if revenue maximisation is the underlying policy objective. However, if the main focus is to reduce harmful levels of consumption of any product, then specific tax is more appropriate. “Specific or volumetric taxation is based upon the number of units sold, irrespective of their value and recognises that the potential for harm falls equally upon consumers or the community irrespective of the price of the item”.
Coming back to the topic in hand, specific tax is the appropriate rate to use as we are really interested on the internalising the external cost of N fertiliser on the basis of $/kg N. If the tax is imposed on the value or the cost of production of the fertilisers, it will not properly reflect the negative effects that the application of N fertiliser has on our environment.
Taxation vs Regulation
It is argued that taxation by itself will not always achieve the desired or complete results. Tax can influence the consumption pattern of consumers to a certain extent but regulations are needed to back up the tax. ‘High taxes on tobacco and drink reduce average and usually also excessive consumption. But a tobacco tax cannot deal in a cost effective way with the effects of passive smoking; (inflexible) bans on smoking in public places are necessary to deal with this externality. Similarly, the alcohol excise is an inadequate instrument to restrain people from getting behind the wheel of their car after they have had a drink. Drink-driving breath tests are better targeted to deal with this situation.’
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Regulations can be in many forms, it can be requirements imposed on the end users, i.e., farmers or it can be regulations on the fertiliser manufacturers. In Germany, farmers are required to calculate and report annual nutrient balances in the soil in order to demonstrate that they have not over or under applied fertilisers. Imposing regulations on the manufacturers may not be of much use apart from quality control. The regulations should focus on the farmers instead, with science based approaches to soil testing, promoting good agricultural practice and optimal use of nitrogen. This approach is in line with the new nitrogen management method ‘N Replacement’ and in time this along with any other similar programs should be made mandatory. Apart from being environmentally beneficial it is also beneficial to farmers as under this method they will need to purchase and apply only the amount of soil that is required by the soil, resulting in cost savings for the farmers.
Another method of regulation, could be the issue of tradeable permits. However, under this system the costs associated is rather uncertain, compared to the excise system. ‘A system of tradable permits guarantees the envisaged quantitative reduction in pollution but at an uncertain cost, while an environmental duty has an uncertain impact on the quantity of emissions but fixes the marginal cost of emission controls for polluters.’
Price elasticity and excise
Fertilisers are a vital part of the agricultural industry. There is a very strong connection between application of fertilisers and crop yield and profitability. Therefore, it will not be wrong to conclude that the demand for fertilisers within the agricultural industry is inelastic. Having said that a 60% excise on N fertiliser is going to affect the farmers the most. Because of the elasticity of demand, the economic incidence of the tax will fall on the farmers, where the fertiliser manufacturers will be able to pass on most of the tax burden to the farmers in form of higher prices. Therefore, it is important to come up with relief policies for the farmers as well, bearing in mind that we are also trying to promote the use of organic fertilisers and hydroponics method of productions at a large scale. This will be discussed in more details in the next section.
Exemptions/exception for the excise system and why
There should be exceptions, where the tax incidence for the farmers should be nil. Exemptions should be available to farmers in the form of a rebate. As one of the policy issue is to promote the use of organic fertilisers. Farmers should be entitled to a full or partial rebate depending on if the fertilisers are solely organic or substantially organic. Organic fertilisers are largely derived from plan plants or animals. Substantially organic fertilisers are product where some synthetic fertilisers have been added to boost the nutrient content of the fertiliser.
A rebate should also be available for farmers who pre dominantly practices or are in the process of adopting hydroponics method of production. There are two reasons behind this exemption. First of all, the nitrogen used in hydroponics has no effect on the environment. The plants are grown in a controlled environment, usually in a greenhouse, therefore, there are no emissions, run offs or leeching. This effectively means there are no external costs associated with the application of nitrogen fertilizer under this system. Secondly, the biggest drawback of converting to hydroponics from the traditional method of agriculture is the high capital set up costs associated. Since we are trying to encourage more and more farmers to consider hydroponics, it only makes sense to provide some sort of relief to them in the form of ongoing rebate to compensate for the high set up costs.
Lastly, a partial rebate should also be available to farmers who are participating in recommended programs such as the N- Replacement program. The N-Replacement program has the potential of reducing nitrogen inputs by almost one – third. The government can only have this rebate available till the program is fully tested and made mandatory. Till then farmers should be rewarded for voluntary participation in the program.
Positive and negative effects from this new excise
Positive effects
Lower demand for synthetic N fertiliser – The introduction of the excise on the nitrogen fertiliser will lower the demand for it. As discussed earlier, because of the low price elasticity of demand, the fertiliser manufacturers will be able to pass on most of the tax burden to the farmers in the form of higher price. Higher prices will mean that farmers will now be more mindful when it comes to the application of the fertiliser. More and more farmers will be forced to practice good farming methods, only applying the amount that is required in order to save on cost of fertilisers.
Less emission, leaching as a result – As farmers starts to pay more attention to the wastage level and apply the optimal amount of nitrogen required to replenish the soil, there is less leeching and emission.
Influx of excise revenue – One of the unavoidable effects of imposing excise duty is the inflow of revenue. The revenue that comes in from this particular excise should be hypothecated. It should be used to finance projects that will aid in cutting down the use of N fertiliser application. Some of the funds should also be earmarked for providing assistance to farmers switching to hydroponics.
Helps the government to meet other policy issue – As the application rate of the N fertilisers reduce, it helps the government meet other environmental related policies, such as Australia’s commitment under the Kyoto Protocol. This will be discussed in more details in the next setion.
Negative effects
Higher cost of production for the farmers, which may be passed on consumers – As discussed earlier, the imposition of excise will mean that the farmer will pay a higher price to purchase the fertilisers. Even if optimal applications of N fertiliser methods are implemented, there would still be an increase in the cost of production for the farmers. This in turn would mean that the increased cost of production for the farmers will be passed on to the final consumers in form of higher prices for fresh fruit, vegetable etc.
Loss of revenue for the fertiliser manufacturers – There will a significant loss of revenue for the fertilizer manufacturers, as they are the one who are actually liable for the excise payable. They will pass on the bulk of the tax to the agriculture industry, however, they will still loose out of a significant amount of profit.
How will this new excise interact with Australia’s commitment under the Kyoto Protocol
Under the Kyoto Protocol, Australia is committed to reduce its greenhouse emissions to 108 percent of the level we were in 1990. This target has to be achieved by 2012 (2008 -2012 is known as the first commitment period). According to a report on climate change, in 2008 the emissions for the agriculture sector are projected to be 77 Mt CO2 of emission over the Kyoto period. This is a 4% decrease on the 1990 level. Most of the decrease is, however, attributable to the drought. Therefore, introduction of this new excise will ensure that there is a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.
Apart from gas emission after the application of the N fertiliser, it also emits greenhouse gas during the production process. ‘The production of fertilisers demands much energy and generates considerable greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Kongshaug (1998) estimates that fertiliser
production consumes approximately 1.2% of the world’s energy and is responsible for
approximately 1.2% of the total GHG emissions.’ Therefore, when demand falls as a result of the new excise and regulations, the supply will eventually fall as well, with reduced production of synthetic N fertiliser. This, again, will result in reduced level of GHG emissions.
Impact of the new excise on;
Consumers – The excise will mean that the price of end products that are heavily dependant on the N fertiliser will increase. When excise is imposed on a commodity, even though the legal incidence lies with the producers, the ultimate tax burden falls on the end users of the finished product by means of higher price. Therefore, we need to be mindful of that while imposing the excise.
Business – The excise will not affect businesses much. Businesses or in this case, the retail shops are just middle men. Any part of the tax that they do pay in form of higher wholesale prices, they simply pass it on to the consumers.
Government revenues – At first glance, it can be said that government revenue will also increase with this proposed excise. However, if we are to put the revenue aside, hypothecate the funds for the sole purpose of funding programs and assisting farmers in adopting more sustainable methods of farming, then in essence it will not be wrong to say that the government revenue stays the same. There is not extra gain as such from the revenue perspective to the government. ‘Revenue generated from these policies could have an outcome on the effect of these policies, depending on how it is used. If revenues from a tax are added to the general treasury store then the wellbeing of those affected by the tax is negatively affected as modelled, but if the funds are ring-fenced for a relevant purpose such as assisting the fertilizer industry or farmers, then the welfare of those actors is not diminished by as much.’
Administration costs – There should not be any extra cost related to the administration of the new excise. Currently the Australian Taxation office is responsible for the administration of all excisable and excise equivalent goods. The ATO is already well equipped to deal with excise tax. Moreover, under the self assessment regime where businesses calculate there own excise liabilities, the incremental change on administration cost should be minimal. The taxing point should be fixed as the fertilisers are leaving the factory for delivery to wholesalers and/ or the domestic market. This will further ensure ease of administration of the excise tax.
Compliance activities – The compliance activities on behalf of the businesses should be fairly straightforward as well. Under the self assessment system, businesses keep records and fill out their own excise return. Another section maybe introduced to the excise return, where farmers are eligible for a rebate. However, it should all be part of the prevailing excise return system that we currently have.
Recommendation
After examining the effects of synthetic fertilisers on our environment, especially the N fertiliser, it is recommended that the excise tax of 60% at a specific rate should be imposed. It is true that the imposition of the tax may have a large impact on the fertiliser manufacturers and farmers. However, that is the initial impact. Along with the excise, we should also provide rebates for the farmers, who act in accordance with out other policy objective. Farmers who look at alternative organic fertilisers should be entitled to a rebate as negative effects from organic fertilisers are minimal compared to its synthetic counterpart. Further rebates should be available to farmers switching to hydroponics, as the nitrogen content in the nutrient solution has no effect on the environment. Lastly, assistance should be available to farmers who make voluntary participation in good farming practices i.e. take part in practices like the N-Replacement program.
Along with these financial laws, we should also implement some non financial regulations, which will ensure a superior result. Here, the goal is not make sure that the farmers are not applying excessive amount of synthetic N fertilisers to the soil and at the same time moving towards organic fertiliser. The tax will bring about that inclination in the farmers, they will want to apply the optimal amount of synthetic nitrogen in order to save cost on fertilisers and also look into cheaper alternatives which are more environmentally friendly. However, in the fullness of time, we need to introduce regulations, specially the one similar to Germany where the farmers needs to annually record and report the nutrient content of their farming land to the authorities. In the long run we should also make a N- Replacement plan mandatory, after it has been fully tested by CSIRO. We should also ear mark, some of the revenue from this new excise to help fund the programs and any similar programs.
The new proposed excise policy combined with the proposed regulations is a little step towards Australia meet its commitment under the Kyoto Protocol. It is true the tax might hurt manufacturers, farmers and consumers, financially. However, we need to ensure that the external costs caused by the production and application of the fertiliser are being met, so that it reflects on the price. It is the responsible thing to do, to pay the price for the harm that the industry is causing the environment. It is a trade off we have to make to ensure a better world for the next generation. In order to stop global warming, bring balance back to our ecosystem, protect the Great Barrier Reef, it is a small price to pay.
 

History, Political Environment & Music Analysis

Liverpool, a city 202 miles northwest of London that holds down the right bank of the River Mersey, is the second largest port in the British Isles.1 Rock ‘n’ roll music made its way to England through the port of Liverpool. Liverpool was the entry point for cotton and other imports, including American records, from the United States.2 As a result, compared to the rest of the people in Britain, the people in Liverpool had a stronger exposure to American music. Another factor that contributed to the Liverpudlians’ familiarity with American music was the presence of RAF Burtonwood, a U.S. military base a few miles northeast of Liverpool. 2 It had the most United States Army Air Forces personnel and facilities in Europe during World War II. At the end of the war, 18,000 servicemen were stationed in this base, which was so large it was known as “little America”, and they brought to England things from home, including their favorite records.2

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History
All four Beatles were born into the working class, amid the raining down of German bombs and the wailing of air-sirens during World War II.3 By the time they were teenagers, in the 1950s, things were only starting to settle down – Britain was crippled financially, food rationing continued, and the terrain was still jagged with blast marks and craters.4
In the early 1960s, Great Britain still had vast unemployment and stultifying class disjunction, while America, on the other hand, was devastated by the Kennedy assassination and the realities of the Cold War.5 Britons were just coming to terms with the scandal surrounding Government Defense Minister John Profumo’s extramarital affair,6 which damaged the credibility of the government and eventually led to the resignation of Prime Minister Harold Macmillan.7
The 1960s was a period defined by the Cold War and the relative economic prosperity of capitalism in the west.8 It was an era marked by rock concerts, peace demonstrations, and local pockets of activism and community.9 The Beatles’ early success symbolized a break with the absence of innovation and quality of late 1950s music, and at the same time it was a continuation of the legacy of the 1950s, as the song writing of Chuck Berry and the vocal style of the Everly Brothers, among many other contributing factors, were integral to the formation of the Beatles own stylistic identity.10
Popular culture was not thought to play a role in political controversy or in society at large, but that was until the end of the Second World War. The Cold War suddenly made popular culture controversial. Actor John Wayne was popular mostly because of the political positions with which he was associated. The need to compete with television led the movies to risk controversial subjects, such as anti-Semitism, homosexuality, and juvenile delinquency. Elvis Presley’s introduction of rock ‘n’ roll music to a white, mainstream audience solidified the association between youth and popular music. By the 1960s, the music helped to establish for teenagers a powerful sense of generational identity. The Beatles attracted a college-age audience to rock ‘n’ roll, and so their vast popularity contributed to this new perception.11
It was in this period that the youth of the day began to identify with the victims of social injustice. The Hippie culture made these well-to-do young people feel that they could relate to the minority and the poor subpopulations. They pleaded with predominant institutions, the so-called “establishment”, to reverse their indifference and offer relief, but they realized that the “establishment” would not heed their moral call and that they had to take it upon themselves to organize as a political movement.12
This period had burning issues that mobilized enormous segments of society. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. magnificently translated the Civil Rights movement, primarily a minority issue, into a universal eliciting of consciousness regarding equal rights for all. The Vietnam War funneled the moral outrage of the youthful secularists into a consciousness that is said to have persisted into the present day. 12
Bob Dylan, the central figure in the emergence of rock ‘n’ roll’s cultural importance, had established himself as the leading young folk music performer and as a writer of powerful topical songs.9 He helped politicize a vast segment of rock culture including the Beatles, inspiring the group to accept its popularity as an opportunity to define and speak to a vital youth constituency. The Beatles’ music, and rock music in general, became a medium for addressing the issues and events that affected that generation.13
Society
As a result of the Baby Boom and the tremendous expansion in opportunities for higher education initiated after World War II, more individuals belonged to the intellectual community or were affected by it. The Baby Boomers were also raised with increasing permissiveness by parents. Children were encouraged not only to think on their own, but to think about a wide range of heretofore suppressed thoughts. It was in the 60s that the formerly stable institutions of Western society—the church, the family, and the local community—began to break down, and as the youth of the day, in increasing numbers, began to explore widely divergent socio-cultural milieus, they came into conflict with conditions of society far less comfortable than their own. They began to identify with the victims of social injustice and pleaded with what appeared to be massive and callous institutions to reverse their indifference and offer relief. The Hippie culture was a result of this – they were able to think of themselves as outlaws, which made them feel that they could relate to the minority.12
There appears to be a connection between the cultural revolution of the sixties and the Beatles’ music.14 Beat music, which is exemplified by the music of the Beatles, became popular in the 1960s, and at the same time, youth propagated more egalitarian and informal ways of communication as the new standard for social interaction.15 The communication code of the peer group is characterized by an open and almost permanent negotiation of feelings and opinions.16 The Beatles’ songs could articulate the vocabulary of the rising youth culture so well. The Beatles’ songs evoked a sense of awakening, as they were articulating and promoting the open and reciprocal idiom of the peer group as a model for civil conversation, giving a full voice to youth culture.14
Politics and Economy
Britain, in the 1950s, was recuperating from the aftermath of the war. The cost-of-living index continued to rise rapidly, causing strikes among market workers and employees. Acute coal shortage brought about actual importation from the United States. But employment remained high, because industries began a rapid expansion. The supply of consumer goods also continued to increase, reversing the policy on rationing. The general picture of the economy was brightening.17 The 1960s was witness to the Cold War and the relative economic prosperity of capitalism in the west.8 The United States economy’s longest peacetime expansion took place from 1961 to 1969.18 The period also saw the Civil Rights movement, the call for equal rights for all, and the Vietnam War, among other issues, which mobilized a huge segment of society into civil disobedience.12 Rock music, which held the youth together,11 was one of the mediums in which they addressed these issues.13
Artworld Relations
Rock ‘n’ roll is a music form that revolutionized in the United States in the late 1940s and early 1950s through a mixing together of various popular musical genres of the time. It is rooted mainly on rhythm and blues, country, folk, gospel, and jazz. The style quickly spread to the rest of the world and developed further, leading eventually to modern rock music. At around the same time that rock and roll hit Britain in early 1956, a similar form of music came along which is popularly known as skiffle. It was really a fusion of American Jazz, blues and folk music. It also had been surfacing in various semblances for quite a few years.19 From its inception in the early fifties, it had offered teenagers, at that time, a new way of taking in music. With its unmistakably mutinous undertones, rock provides a musical score for the twilight universe that is adolescence. It was commonly looked down by older music listeners but for the youth of that period, it seemed like a personalized declaration of independence.20 A thumbnail chronology of 1950s rock days is a thumbnail chronology of a war between young and old.20 Before a bunch of American records reached UK and stirred the Brits, the firepower started when Bill Haley’s Rock Around the Clock reached number one both in the US and UK, and Chuck Berry’s Maybellene began to scream on the radios.20
By the late 1950s, rock raced across the pop charts which entertained a lot of teenagers. However, the success of the form by this time is counteracted by most adults and the music industry itself that still looks at rock disdainfully. The new sound is fighting a generational, musical, social, personal war with society.21 While somewhat disturbing society’s walls, rock ‘n’ roll is imploding in the hearts of some teenagers in an English seaport called Liverpool,21 including the young Beatles members, John, George, Paul and Ringo.
The first flourishes of rock n’ roll in the form of Bill Haley and His Comets aligned music with rebellious youth. Particular rock and roll idols following after started the ball rolling for the Beatles. This is topped by none other than Elvis Presley who’s dubbed as the guy who lit the Beatles’ fuse.22 The rock artists who had a major impact on the Beatles ranged from FatsDomino, Eddie Cochran, Carl Perkins, Gene Vincent, Buddy Holly, little Richard, to Chuck Berry. The list goes on. To the Beatles, Elvis may have represented the music style that they wanted, but he wasn’t quite the complete package. He sang brilliantly and looked fantastic. He had great songs but he didn’t actually write them. However, there were other artists coming onto the scene who also wrote their own material, and this kind of self-sufficiency really appealed to the young Lennon and McCartney.23
At the top of it was Chuck Berry. He was one of the few black performers whom white teenage audience consciously listened to during the 1950s, and he did largely entertained them on the strength of charismatic stage character, his distinctive, rocking, and widely imitated guitar licks, and his ingenious songs. One aspect of Chuck Berry’s tremendous influence that should be highlighted, is the way he introduced a more sophisticated and disciplined form of lyricism to rock music. Thus inspiring the likes of Lennon and McCartney to compose their own songs.23
All these musical influences were quickly spread to a mainstream audience of young people during the 1950s and 60s. Before TV took over as a multi-purpose medium for spreading this, radio was king. That well-known Beatle sense of humor came about partly because of the radio comedians they listened to as kids. At the same time, it was also via the airwaves that they first heard the strains of rock and roll. At their time, TV sets were a definite luxury, but one commodity that could probably be inside all of their homes was the radio.24 During the mid-50s the only British channels that people could tune into were those of the government-controlled British Broadcasting Corporation. The BBC basically transmitted what the adults wanted to hear, easy listening, all the way from Vera Lynn to Frankie Laine. Rock ‘n’ roll music was no way to be broadcasted then. Radio helped to shape the Beatles’ musical tastes and their sense of humor.25
Sample/Analysis
Love Me Do
Writer/s: Lennon/McCartney
Producer: George Martin
CD: Magical Mystery Tour, Track 11 (Parlophone CDP7 48062-2)
Yellow Submarine, Track 6 (Parlophone CDP7 46445-2)
Yellow Submarine Songtrack, Track 12 (EMI 5 21481-2)
Released: 7 July 1967 A Single / Baby You’re A Rich Man
Recorded: 14 June 1967, Olympic Sound Studios; 19 June 1967, Abbey Road 3; 23-25 June 1967, Abbey Road 1; the song was aired on the Eurovision program “Our World” on 25.06.1967
Length: 2:57
Key: G Major
Meter: 4/4 (with occasional 3/4)
Form: Intro | Verse | Verse | Verse | Refrain | Verse (guitar solo) | Refrain | Verse | Refrain | Refrain | Outro (fade-out)
Instrumentation:
John Lennon: vocals, harmonica
Paul McCartney: vocals, bass
George Harrison: acoustic rhythm guitar
Ringo Starr: drums, tambourine
The form is quite simple perhaps because Paul started composing this when he was very young, probably around 15 or 16. In line with this is the simple plaintive melody and rhythm of the song. The group has started out with simple rhythms, unsophisticated and straightforward lyrics, and themes that are very appealing to the teen audience. The very striking and remarkable feature in the song is the harmonica which John played quite well. The harmonica also added that certain x-factor to the tune and to the song in general. The lyrics were just repeated all throughout the song, which makes it quite short. The vocal aspect of the song appears to be apt for the theme of the song.
The lyrics of the song is a simple dedication of a devoted lover to his loved one. The song is not as soft and mellow as Yesterday, but not as hard as Helter Skelter. Compared to the other hits of the Beatles after the release of Love Me Do, this song in particular carried a big significance to the band members because it just signaled that they are now in the recording industry, which they only used to dream of.
I Saw Her Standing There
Writer/s: Lennon/McCartney
Producer: George Martin
CD: Magical Mystery Tour, Track 11 (Parlophone CDP7 48062-2)
Yellow Submarine, Track 6 (Parlophone CDP7 46445-2)
Yellow Submarine Songtrack, Track 12 (EMI 5 21481-2)
Released: 7 July 1967 A Single / Baby You’re A Rich Man
Recorded:
Length: 2:57
Key: G Major
Meter: 4/4 (with occasional 3/4)
Form: Intro | Verse | Verse | Verse | Refrain | Verse (guitar solo) | Refrain | Verse | Refrain | Refrain | Outro (fade-out)
Instrumentation:
John Lennon:lead vocals, harpsichord, banjo
Paul McCartney: bass
George Harrison: violin, lead guitar
Ringo Starr: drums, snare drum roll
I Saw Her Standing There is one of the boys’ first fast, hard rockers. The arrangement of this song is filled with techniques and touches unique to the group that defined the early sound of the Beatles. The song narrates a simple boy-meets-girl story in the first person to which the pulsating music lends a definitely hot connotation, in spite of the lack of any explicit passion in the lyrics. They also used a type of wordplay that also became a Beatles trademark. In terms of its form, the song has a comparatively long running time of 2:52 which consists of a 2 bridge model with 2 verses intervening, one of which is for guitar solo. The fast pace of the song enhance a general feeling of urgency. Also, the tune covers a broad range and consists of an entirely interesting mix of step-wise motion with dramatic long-jumps. Each of the members contributed to the over-all excitement in the arrangement of this song. This includes Paul’s boogie-woogie bass lines, which outline the chords, Ringo’s elaborately syncopated drum fills that appear in the space between sections, the backing work on rhythm and lead guitars that works in fine synergy with the bass and drum parts. Furthermore, the tight vocal harmonies of Paul and John feature a type of counterpoint that seems bracingly different from what was to be heard from their contemporaries. Lastly, the handclaps and the screaming used for background punctuation are unessential yet nevertheless characteristic.
The song evokes such a pleasurably exuberant mood and an absence of romantic/emotional complications. It’s more of a ‘hip ditty bop noise’, as Richard Price puts it, reminding us in perpetuity of the ‘nowness and coolness of being 17 and hip’, as well as falling for the first time in what a teenage thinks just might be ‘real’ love. Although there’s an eventually bitter and disappointing side to this experience, the song emphasizes that the sweeter part of it is worth taking with someone for the rest of his life. Just like any of their early period songs, this song contains no profundity in its lyrics. It just implies the usual situation that a teenager faces in terms of love and the opposite sex. It appears to be somewhat a way of expressing a teen feeling about love and the common view of the youth about it at the time. Here, it seemed that the Beatles try to make an impression that they are like the other youngster as to how they view that certain aspect of the teen world.
All my Loving
Writer/s: Lennon/McCartney
Producer: George Martin
CD: Magical Mystery Tour, Track 11 (Parlophone CDP7 48062-2)
Yellow Submarine, Track 6 (Parlophone CDP7 46445-2)
Yellow Submarine Songtrack, Track 12 (EMI 5 21481-2)
Released: 7 July 1967 A Single / Baby You’re A Rich Man
Recorded: 14 June 1967, Olympic Sound Studios; 19 June 1967, Abbey Road 3; 23-25 June 1967, Abbey Road 1; the song was aired on the Eurovision program “Our World” on 25.06.1967
Length: 2:57
Key: G Major
Meter: 4/4 (with occasional 3/4)
Form: Intro | Verse | Verse | Verse | Refrain | Verse (guitar solo) | Refrain | Verse | Refrain | Refrain | Outro (fade-out)
Instrumentation:
John Lennon: backing vocals, rhythm guitar
Paul McCartney: vocals, bass
George Harrison: backing vocals, lead guitar
Ringo Starr: drums
The song is one of the several Beatles songs with somehow superficial lyrics about love and affection. The melody is quite lively though it’s not as upbeat as IWant to Hold Your Hand and I Saw Her Standing There. There were also some stopgaps in between the stanzas in the song. Evidently, it is one of those songs that characterized the early songwriting and music composition of the Beatles.
I Want to Hold Your Hand
Writer/s: Lennon/McCartney
Producer: George Martin
CD: Magical Mystery Tour, Track 11 (Parlophone CDP7 48062-2)
Yellow Submarine, Track 6 (Parlophone CDP7 46445-2)
Yellow Submarine Songtrack, Track 12 (EMI 5 21481-2)
Released: 7 July 1967 A Single / Baby You’re A Rich Man
Recorded: 14 June 1967, Olympic Sound Studios; 19 June 1967, Abbey Road 3; 23-25 June 1967, Abbey Road 1; the song was aired on the Eurovision program “Our World” on 25.06.1967
Length: 2:57
Key: G Major
Meter: 4/4 (with occasional 3/4)
Form: Intro | Verse | Verse | Verse | Refrain | Verse (guitar solo) | Refrain | Verse | Refrain | Refrain | Outro (fade-out)
Instrumentation:
John Lennon:lead vocals, harpsichord, banjo
Paul McCartney: bass
George Harrison: violin, lead guitar
Ringo Starr: drums, snare drum roll
The song is deceptively straightforward and regular in design. It starts with a falling melody. Also, it sounds closer to conservative pop than rebelliously hard rock. It has the non-intuitive two-part vocal harmony, falsetto screaming, an occasionally novel chord progression, abrupt rhythm even some elided phrasing and the overdubbed handclaps. The original song has no real “lead” singer or even a clearly defined melody, as Lennon and McCartney sing in harmony with each other. They sing in duet virtually the whole way through. Paul plays quite a bit of double-stops in the bass part, Ringo throws in some of his structurally significant drum fills in between the second and third phrase of each verse, and most subtle of all, George contributes a number of lead guitar fills.
It was the youth who discovered the Beatles, and while young people can be easily manipulated through hype and image, in the case of the Beatles it was the music that drew them in. This song is undeniably one of the Beatles all-time hits and in several ways represents the compositional height of what could be called their Very Early period. In context of November 1963, I Want to Hold Your Hand was the best they could do, a kind of summing up of all they had done to-date. It also has a seemingly puppy-love simplicity that does hold up remarkably well like a classic. I Want to Hold Your Hand was not subject to numerous cover versions like other Beatles songs such as Yesterday or Something. Nonetheless, it was one of their greatest hits. Their early songs mostly consist of simple and uncomplicated meanings behind the lyrics that were tailored for the young audience.
A Hard Day’s Night
Writer/s: Lennon/McCartney
Producer: George Martin
CD: Magical Mystery Tour, Track 11 (Parlophone CDP7 48062-2)
Yellow Submarine, Track 6 (Parlophone CDP7 46445-2)
Yellow Submarine Songtrack, Track 12 (EMI 5 21481-2)
Released: 7 July 1967 A Single / Baby You’re A Rich Man
Recorded: 14 June 1967, Olympic Sound Studios; 19 June 1967, Abbey Road 3; 23-25 June 1967, Abbey Road 1; the song was aired on the Eurovision program “Our World” on 25.06.1967
Length: 2:57
Key: G Major
Meter: 4/4 (with occasional 3/4)
Form: Intro | Verse | Verse | Verse | Refrain | Verse (guitar solo) | Refrain | Verse | Refrain | Refrain | Outro (fade-out)
Instrumentation:
John Lennon:lead vocals, harpsichord, banjo
Paul McCartney: bass
George Harrison: violin, lead guitar
Ringo Starr: drums, snare drum roll
The song has a long form, with two bridges and an instrumental break. It has a deep similarity with typical “blues” melodic structures which creates a combined style between traditional blues elements and those more recognizable as the Beatles’ own trademarks. A Hard Day’s Night is a particularly forward-looking song since it has numerous innovations in the area of harmony and arrangement. It has a generally energetic bustle that appears on its surface. On a subtle level, the very casualness of the discordance between the tunes and chords adds a characterizingly “slang” flavor to the song’s over all music vocabulary. John takes most of the verse as solo and Paul with the bridge. In the chorus, Paul handles the high harmony and John the low harmony. The opening chord has its great effect because of the sudden, crisp attack of the song. The pause that follows the opening chord is an example of how suspense and a sense of rising expectations is created by a change of pace. The effect has a surprise factor that works well at the beginning of the film or album. The song is parallel in itself since it ends off inexplicably on practically the same chord with which the song began. This also provides some unity to the song generally. Furthermore, it closes with a fade-out which was new to the Beatles at that time since the prior songs had closed with a final chord such as She Loves You and I Want to Hold Your Hand.
The lyrics are far from profound. Basically, the song speaks about one’s undying devotion to his loved one and how he works hard so she can buy the things she fancies. The singer sings about his tiredness when he comes home from work. But when he sees the things that his lover does, these perk him up. The song was sung on an exuberant mood along with fast paced beats in it. It also incorporated new techniques that the Beatles have not yet done in their earlier songs like Harrison’s arpeggio-playing during the fade-out. The simple lyrics cater to a larger audience of young people. This is due to the theme of the song which is about love that gets it across to a lot of young listeners. Furthermore, there is but a few meanings to this song which is usually the characteristic of their early period songs. Perhaps, because their main goal by then is to gain popularity through entertaining a larger portion of music listeners, the kids.
Help!
Writer/s: Lennon/McCartney
Producer: George Martin
CD: Magical Mystery Tour, Track 11 (Parlophone CDP7 48062-2)
Yellow Submarine, Track 6 (Parlophone CDP7 46445-2)
Yellow Submarine Songtrack, Track 12 (EMI 5 21481-2)
Released: 7 July 1967 A Single / Baby You’re A Rich Man
Recorded: 14 June 1967, Olympic Sound Studios; 19 June 1967, Abbey Road 3; 23-25 June 1967, Abbey Road 1; the song was aired on the Eurovision program “Our World” on 25.06.1967
Length: 2:57
Key: G Major
Meter: 4/4 (with occasional 3/4)
Form: Intro | Verse | Verse | Verse | Refrain | Verse (guitar solo) | Refrain | Verse | Refrain | Refrain | Outro (fade-out)
Instrumentation:
John Lennon:lead vocals, harpsichord, banjo
Paul McCartney: bass
George Harrison: violin, lead guitar
Ringo Starr: drums, snare drum roll
The song Help! has a two-part lead vocals and a speeded-up tempo. The final take in the recording session was the best, and onto this Ringo Starr overdubbed a tambourine, and George Harrison added the series of descending Chet Atkins-style guitar notes which close each chorus. One can listen to a couple of complicated, fast riffs in the song which added more pulse to the overall rhythm. The melody, somewhat, counteracted the message of the song of being depressed and disheartened. It was noticeably composed to satisfy their commercial instincts at this time. The lyrics, on the other hand, is somehow repetitive that makes the song a bit short compared to their prior songs. The vocals were solid enough to agree with the harmony of the instruments most notably the tambourine playing at the background. It still definitely has some blues elements incorporated in the song which is most common to the Beatles’ songs.
The song’s lyrics seem straightforward and superficial. The lyric that emerged was not simply a boy talking to a girl, but more of a patient to a psychotherapist or just someone seeking help from somebody else or from a mind-altering substance. The song was a marked departure from the boy-girl relationships that they have been talking about in their early songs. On the other hand, the song had commercial appeal, with its fast tempo and lively instrumentation. Here, the group is starting to develop emotional depth and weight in composing their songs.
Yesterday
Writer/s: Lennon/McCartney
Producer: George Martin
CD: Magical Mystery Tour, Track 11 (Parlophone CDP7 48062-2)
Yellow Submarine, Track 6 (Parlophone CDP7 46445-2)
Yellow Submarine Songtrack, Track 12 (EMI 5 21481-2)
Released: 7 July 1967 A Single / Baby You’re A Rich Man
Recorded: 14 June 1967, Olympic Sound Studios; 19 June 1967, Abbey Road 3; 23-25 June 1967, Abbey Road 1; the song was aired on the Eurovision program “Our World” on 25.06.1967
Length: 2:57
Key: G Major
Meter: 4/4 (with occasional 3/4)
Form: Intro | Verse | Verse | Verse | Refrain | Verse (guitar solo) | Refrain | Verse | Refrain | Refrain | Outro (fade-out)
Instrumentation:
John Lennon:lead vocals, harpsichord, banjo
Paul McCartney: bass
George Harrison: violin, lead guitar
Ringo Starr: drums, snare drum roll
Yesterday has a unique arrangement, an attractive tune, even some asymmetrical phrasing and a couple of off-beat chord progressions. It has a tempo that is uncharacteristically slow. The instrumental backing consists entirely of an acoustic guitar and a string quartet (two violins, a viola and a cello) with the two elements mixed. The track is sung solo by Paul virtually all the way through with a particular exception for a short patch of double tracking to highlight the high notes at the end of the first bridge. As with Paul’s other hymns, the bass line of this song is played with special emphasis whether through the hard-picked notes on the low-strings of the guitar or supported by the cello. The string arrangement supplements the song’s air of sadness, notably the moaning of the cello melody and its blue seventh that connects the two halves of the bridge as well as the descending line by the viola that shifts the chorus back unto the verses. There is an ironic tension between the content of what is played by the quartet and the restrained, spare nature of the medium in which it is played, adding an engaging level of depth to the performance. This is quite different from the fast paced, upbeat songs of the Beatles prior to this one especially because of its soothing, light melodic structure.
Norwegian Wood (This Bird Has Flown)
Writer/s: Lennon/McCartney
Producer: George Martin
CD: Rubber Soul, Track 2 (Parlophone CDP7 46440-2)
Released: 3 December 1965
Recorded: 12, 21 October 1965, Abbey Road 2
Length: 2:05
Key: E Major
Meter: 3/4 (6/8)
Form: Verse (instrumental intro) | Verse | Bridge | Verse | Verse (instrumental solo) | Bridge
| Verse | Outro (with complete ending)
Instrumentation:
John Lennon: double tracked lead vocal, 6 & 12 string acoustic rhythm guitars
Paul McCartney: harmony vocal and bass
George Harrison: doubletracked sitar
Ringo Starr: finger cymbals, tambourine, maracas
Norwegian Wood (This Bird Has Flown) is a rhythmic acoustic ballad featuring signature Beatle harmonies in the middle eight. “Norwegian wood” refers to the cheap pinewood that often finished the interiors of working class British flats. The lyrics speak of an encounter between the singer and an unnamed girl. They drink wine and talk. The speaker may have been hoping to sleep with the girl, declaring “it’s time for bed”. But the girl leaves him to crawl off to “sleep in the bath” alone. Later, the singer finds that the girl has left him for another love, so the singer lights a fire and burns the girl’s house as an act of revenge. Lighting a fire may also be interpreted as smoking a cigarette or smoking some weed. The instrumental backing is acoustic in style approach.
The intro is sixteen measures long. The presentation of the hook phrase consists of the solo acoustic guitar followed by the entrance of the sitar (which then carries the melody) and bass guitar. All the verses follow the pattern set up in the intro. The bridge is also sixteen measures long, and the slowness of the harmonic rhythm helps maintain the measured mood established earlier The outro provides one repeat of the hook.
Norwegian Wood (This Bird Has Flown) is the first pop record ever released to feature a sitar (Newman 93). In direct contrast to earlier Beatles songs such as Love Me Do and I Want to Hold Your Hand, Norwegian Wood(This Bird Has Flown)provides a darker outlook towards romantic relationships. The exotic instrumentation and oblique lyrics are indications of the expanding musical vocabulary and experimental approach that the Beatles were rapidly adopting.
Yellow Submarine
Writer/s: Lennon/McCartney
Producer: George Martin
CD: Revolver, Track 6 (Parlophone CDP7 46441-2)
Yellow Submarine, Track 1 (Parlophone CDP7 46445-2)
Yellow Submarine Songtrack, Track 1 (EMI 5 21481-2)
Released: 5 August 1966 (Double-A Single / Eleanor Rigby and LP Revolver)
Recorded: 26 May 1966, Abbey Road 3; 1 June 1966, Abbey Road 2
Length: 2:38
Key: G Major
Meter: 4/4
Form: Verse | Verse | Refrain | Verse | Refrain | Verse (instrumental) | Verse | Refrain
Instrumentation:
John Lennon: acoustic guitar, blowing bubbles
Paul McCartney: bass, acoustic guitar
George Harrison: tambourine
Ringo Starr: lead vocals, drums
 

Changing business environment of Samsung

Introduction:
Samsung has grown to one of largest electronics company since 1938. Since 1970’s and early 1980’s Samsung expanded globally with diversified intention into core technical business. Samsung leads the electronic industry with its high performance and with high growth rate along with stability.
2009 Global Market Share of 13 Percentage of different products available in market. Examples -: Mobile Phones, Monitors, Semiconductor.1970 First Black & White (Model P-3202) production started Samsung-Sanyo Electronics.1969 SAMSUNG-Sanyo Electronics established (renamed SAMSUNG Electro-Mechanics in March 1975 and merged with SAMSUNG Electronics in March 1977)1951 SAMSUNG Moolsan established (now SAMSUNG Corporation)1938 SAMSUNG was founded in, Korea (Taegu)
Company: Samsung
Global Market share is terms of sales is as follows:

TV Market Share is 21.9%
Laser Printer Share is 13.7%
Mobile Phone Share is 16.7%
DRAM Share is 30.1%
TFT-LCD Panel Share is 25.7%

If we compare this performance to other companies Samsung emerges as world leader in at least 3 sectors which are TV, DRAM & TFT-LCD. This clearly shows us the dominance of Samsung in market and this is mainly due to its transparent policies, positive approach and honest efforts in being a global leader. This performance data is taken from Samsung’s sustainability report for 2009 from Samsung official website.
We can clearly see that Samsung as a company is growing locally and globally Korea being its local market. This consistent growth of the company is mainly due to its marketing strategies which are paying off well. More details on Samsung’s operations, marketing, product line etc can be found on:
The business environment keeps on changing and is unpredictable. So, it is very necessary to understand and react to this changing business so as to survive and grow in the market.Proper knowledge of business environment will make the entrepreneurs and businesses able enough to plan and implement strategies that are needed to identify the scope of improvement, create and exploit opportunities that come on the way, retain stability, gain competitive advantage and prepare appropriately for the upcoming challenges. The way the environment is analyzed and accordingly the strategies implemented, will define the track of the business.Here With the example of samsung.

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The data collected will be analysed using SWOT. SWOT stands for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. SWOT analysis, is a strategic business planning tool used to determine the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats that exists in business. It includes identifying the business objectives as well as the internal and external factors which are likely to favour the business. It may be classified into:
Internal factors – strengths and weaknesses that are within (internal) organization.
External factors – opportunities and threats of external environment.
The internal factors can be classified into strengths and weaknesses depending upon their effect on organization and business objectives.The factors may include all of the 4Ps; as well as personnel, finance, manufacturing capabilities, and so on. The external factors may include macro-economic factors like – ‘technological , legal,and socio-cultural changes, as well as changes in the marketplace or competitive position.’
According to B Kyle SWOT can be identified as internal and external in relation to environment.
Strengths: It usually tells about the positives of the company. How well we are doing in our area of interest. What is our position in front of competitor?
Weaknesses: Weakness refers to area of struggle of our company. Why are consumers not happy about particular product? Why are we not meeting sales target for a particular product.
Opportunities: It is directly related to external environment. It could be the areas where your competitor is not good at. We should try to utilize strengths in areas of our weaknesses. Are there any emerging trends or possibility to capture market by introducing new product?
Threats: It could be financial or development problem. Competitor’s strength is major threat. Are competitor’s becoming strong.
Description.
Strategic business tools:
SWOT analysis for Samsung
Strengths

Strong hold in Consumer Electronics
Low margin strategy increases sales
Highly skilled labour availability locally & globally
Good focus on customer service and good marketing strategy
Strong management and loyal employees

Weaknesses

Lack of performance in Laser printer sales
Less cost effective in PC consumable products.
Lack of brand recognition in mobile phone sector.
Poor pricing strategy
Lack of usage of infrastructure in some part of world e.g. China

Opportunities

Can unseat major stake holders in TV and DRAM sectors
Increase product range in consumer electronics
Can sustain future market using the idea of consumer taste research
Rapid growth in competitive markets across the globe
Increase in portfolio due to acquisitions of other firms

Threats

Faces high competition from Sony and Nokia in mobile phone sector.
Daily entrants of new technology companies
Impact on sales due to recession
Lack of innovation in mobile industry threatens its position further down.
Intense competition from existing companies in PC sector.

The above information which helps in doing the SWOT analysis and other graphical presentation helps to answer our objective questions mostly. Although it might not provide direct answer but clarifies strategies and benefits of organisation doing global and domestic business. It clearly reveals the benefits of proper marketing in terms of sales numbers.
PESTEL Analysis:
PESTEL analysis is one of the most important tool of business strategic management which helps in identifying the surroundings within which the company operates. It gives a clear idea about the threats, risks and opportunities that occur in the market. It helps in understanding the needs of market, it’s fluctuations, whether the market is progressing upwards or downwards (i.e. growth – decline ratios) and thus makes the businesses able to develop strategies accordingly.
PESTEL is used as decision making tools in macro-environment. PESTEL is Classified into:

Political factors
Economic factors
Social factors
Technological factors
Environmental factors
Legal factors

Political factors: It’s all about intervenes of the government on the economy of the country. Political factors include areas like

Tax policy
Labour law
Environmental law
Trade restriction
Tariffs
Political stability
Services and goods provide by the government ( merit goods ) and services which is not provided by the government (demerit goods)
Goodwill among foreign nations

Economic factors: It includes

Interest rates
Economic growth
Rate of inflation (Inflation rate)
Rate of Exchange (Exchange rate)

For example:

Cost of capital is directly affected by interest rate
Exporting goods and supply of goods is affected by exchange rate
Inflation raises cost.

Social factors: Demand of products and company operations are affected by social factors like

Culture of the society
Natality rate
Growth rate
Age distribution

Technological factors – It includes

Research and development activity.
Automation
Better technology for the production of goods
Technological have direct impact on costs, quality which leads to innovation.

Environmental factors – It includes

Weather
Climate change
Locality (Place)
Ecofriendly products (to overcome with problem of global warming)e.g – Effect of temperature on farming and tourism.

Legal Factors – It include

Consumer law
Employment law
Health and safety law
Discrimination law

e.g. –

Minimum wages system in U.K is legal factor that affect business.
Minimum age for employment is fixed by the government.

Conclusions & Recommendations
We have analysed and gathered data from Samsung Company in relation to our topic global versus domestic marketing a critical analysis. The conclusions drawn using company data alone cannot summarize our findings. However there are similarities in few points. If we look at the organisation section we can see how Samsung has come a long way to be recognised as a global brand. It shows that achieving such position in global market is very hard. Not only achieving but it becomes increasingly important to sustain that growth due to fierce competition. It shows how companies have to adjust or change their policies from time to time keeping in mind rising and falling economy. In general it alerts companies of being more innovative cautious of environmental changes. It also emphasis on limitations one has to face as the behaviour and taste of consumer changes geographically.
Recommendations

Companies should develop marketing strategies keeping in mind its strengths, weaknesses and availability of resources to be globally successful.
Companies should try to develop product which global consumer can identify easily from competitors one.
Identify a sector where we can see growth and sustain competition.
Companies should appoint special taskforce or focused group people to identify the drawbacks of non performing sector and find solutions to that.
To be successful organisations should concentrate mainly on quality and pricing structure.
Be in constant touch with customer by means of advertising, press releases and make them aware about product specifications and changes if there are any.
Try to use both forms of communication verbal and non verbal.

Summary
From this report on global marketing versus domestic marketing we understand that main objective of any company doing global marketing is to find opportunities. It mainly expands company’s reach to global customers. This mainly depends on how the company analyses its strengths and opportunities, optimum usage of resources and approach towards business. Here in this report we saw how Samsung as a global company has wide range of products and constantly keeps on adding them to sustain market place. SWOT analysis helped us to understand about positives and negatives of the company. Important outcome of the report about marketing can be converted in one slogan “think globally and act locally”.
References

Aaker, Jennifer, Susan Fournier and S. Adam Brasel. (2003). When Good Brands Do Bad. Paper presented to the Marketing Science Institute Board of Trustees Meeting in Washington, D.C., March 6, 2003.
Baker, Malcolm and Greet Sterenberg. (2002). International Branding: How to Resolve the Global-Local Dilemma. Market Leader (Autumn).
Johansson, Johny K. and Ilkka A. Ronkainen. (2003). The Esteem of Global Brands. Unpublished draft paper, McDonough School of Business, Georgetown University.
Klein, Naomi (2000). No Logo. St, Martins Press.
Levitt, Theodore. (1983). The Globalization of Markets. Harvard Business Review.
Quelch, John, Douglas Holt and Earl Taylor. (2003). Managing the Transnational Brand: How Global Perceptions Drive Value. Paper presented at the Harvard Business School’s Globalization of Markets Colloquium (May 28-30, 2003).
Upshaw, Lynn and Earl Taylor. (2000). The Masterbrand Mandate. John Wiley & Sons.
McQuarrie, Edward F, “The Market Research Toolbox” – A concise guide for beginners.
Bobette Kyle, “How Much For Just the Spider? Strategic Website Marketing For Small Budget Business
William D. Perreault, E. Jerome McCarthy Basic “Marketing A Global – Managerial Approach” Tata Mcgraw-Hill Publishing Co. Ltd 2006.
G Armstrong, P Kotler (2003), “Marketing An Introduction”, Pearson Education Pte. Ltd.

Internet reference:

http://www.fao.org/docrep/w5973e/w5973e02.htm
http://www.cdf.org/issue_journal/samsungs_lessons_in_design.html
Sustainability Report [online] from http://www.samsung.com/uk/aboutsamsung/citizenship/oursustainabilityreports.html Accessed 22nd August 2009
http://ivythesis.typepad.com/term_paper_topics/2009/08/global-marketing-versus-domestic-marketing-a-critical-evaluation.html
http://business.lovetoknow.com/wiki/Global_and_Domestic_Marketing

Refrences

Sustainability Report [online] from http://www.samsung.com/uk/aboutsamsung/citizenship/oursustainabilityreports.html Accessed 12 March 2010.

 

Dependence Of Man On The Environment

An ecological footprint measures humanity’s consumption of the natural resources. This technique is helpful because it shows how much of the natural resources human need for everyday life. However, the ecological footprint concept can be misleading as well. Ecological footprint does overlook renewable energy sources (sun, water) which reduce non-renewable sources (oil, coal). W. Cunningham and M. Cunningham (2008) add, “These [renewable sources] increase the world’s carrying capacity for people [as well]” (p. 79).
5. How might growing populations lead to solutions to society’s problems?
The only reason how population growth can be beneficial to society’s problems is by creation and innovation. In other words, more people can lead to additional manufactured goods that serve millions. “… [more] people boosts human…intelligence that will create new resources…” (W. Cunningham & M. Cunningham, 2008 p. 77)
8. In which parts of the world are populations declining?
The parts of the world that populations are declining are North America, Western Europe, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand (W. Cunningham & M. Cunningham, 2008 p. 79)
Discussion Questions 1 and 6
1. Suppose that you were head of a family planning agency in India. How would you design a scientific study to determine the effectiveness of different approaches to population stabilization? How would you account for factors such as culture, religion, education, and economics?
If I were the head of a family planning agency in India, I would want to know what type of birth control method is better for stabilization the India population. I would interview my clients to find out family size preferences and choice of desired birth control. However, to curb a fast growing population, I would offer a special incentive, such as higher education and/or cash for couples to wait a certain amount of time to have children. Since family plays an important role in India, I would still offer family planning alternatives to try to slow population growth. I believe this would be good start to stabilize population growth in India.
6. In chapter 3, we discussed carrying capacities. What do you think the maximum and optimum carrying capacities for humans are? Why is this a more complex question for humans than it might be for other species? Why is designing experiments in human demography difficult?
I think this is a complex subject. Some people believe humans are considerably over their carrying capacities, which is the cause of poverty. While others say, our environment has the potential to carry humans despite of limited resources. Has the world reached its carrying capacity? I believe since the human population has a tendency to grow in an exponential way, the advancement of today’s technology should increase our resources as well. “[Some] believe…technology and enterprise can expand the world’s carrying capacity [that would] allow us to overcome any problems we encounter” (W. Cunningham & M. Cunningham, 2008 p. 75).
I also think this is a more complex question for humans than other species because humans have the advantage of reducing birth rates through family planning.
Since demography is the study of a population’s size and growth, experimentation may be difficult because according to (W. Cunningham & M. Cunningham, 2008) every day “[p]eople continue to be born and die” (p. 79). Furthermore, I believe the purpose of a designed experiment is to rule out an estimation of human population. Unfortunately, due to some growing and shrinking populations, consistency will be impossible.
Chapter 5: Text Practice Quiz Questions 1, 9 and 16
1. Why did ecologists want to reintroduce wolves to Yellowstone Park? What goals did they have, and have their goals been achieved?
Ecologists wanted to reintroduce wolves to Yellowstone Park because of the rapid growth of the elk and deer populations. Since the elk and the deer inhabitants damaged the trees and shrubbery in the park, ecologists needed to minimize the elk and deer growing residents. Therefore, wolves became predators, which minimize the elk and deer population and the Yellowstone Park was restored. W. Cunningham and M. Cunningham (2008) adds, “while wolves preyed on the elks, the wolves population grew, the elk figures decreased and the park was recovered” (p. 95).
9. Define biodiversity and give three types of biodiversity essential in preserving ecological systems and functions.
Biodiversity is a diversity or assortment of organisms in a specific biological community. W. Cunningham and M. Cunningham (2008) state that “[t]he three types of biodiversity essential to preserve ecological systems and functions are: …genetic diversity (heritable measure of individual species), species diversity (description of diverse organisms within an ecosystem), and ecological diversity (a variety of species in diverse environments)… (p. 108).
16. What is a flagship or umbrella species? Why are they often important, even though they are costly to maintain?
A flagship or umbrella species is an appealing living thing used to protect its entire ecosystem. Even though it is costly to preserve flagship or umbrella species, a tiger for instance, will represent the entire feline environment. “…the protection of flagship or umbrella species would help more organisms in it ecosystem” (W. Cunningham & M. Cunningham, 2008 p. 121)
Discussion Questions 1 and 5
1. Many poor tropical countries point out that a hectare of shrimp ponds can provide 1,000 times as much annual income as the same area in an intact mangrove forest. Debate this point with a friend or classmate. What are the arguments for and against saving mangroves?
Mangroves advantage:
A sheltered habitat for aquatic organisms such as fish, crabs, and shrimps.
Since these organisms feed on the mangrove’s roots for nutrients, from a human perspective, fish, crabs, and shrimp can also offer economic benefits, which would lead to high efficiency.
Mangroves disadvantage:
Vulnerable to marine pollution such as oil spills and sewage leaks.
W. Cunningham and M. Cunningham (2008) confirm the pros and cons of mangroves, “Both marine species…and terrestrial species…rely on mangroves for shelter and food [however, mangroves] are also poisoned by sewage and industrial waste near cities” (p.105).
5. Many ecologists and resource scientists work for government agencies to study resources and resource management. Do these scientists serve the public best if they try to do pure science, or if they try to support the political positions of democratically elected representatives, who after all, represent the positions of their constituents?
I think since science involves experimentation and detection, ecologists would benefit by supporting the political council. In other words, I believe ecological science is a political process because the ecologists’ research focuses on society’s concerns such as biodiversity extinction. Since there are some organisms in the biodiversity community that offer specific benefits such as medicines and food supplies, the political government would help the scientists serve the public by sustaining the biodiversity ecosystem.
Chapter 6: Text Practice Quiz Questions 2, 3 and 10
2. What do we mean by closed-canopy forest and old-growth forest?
A closed-canopy forest is “[when] tree crowns cover most of the ground….a old-growth forests are those that cover a large enough area and have been undistributed by human activities long enough that trees can live out a natural life…” (W. Cunningham & M. Cunningham, 2008 p. 129)
3. Which commodity is used most heavily in industrial economies: steel, plastic, or wood? What portion of the world’s population depends on wood or charcoal as the main energy supply?
Wood is a product used frequently in industrial economies. “More than half of the people in the world depend on firewood or charcoal as their principal source of heating and cooking…” (W. Cunningham & M. Cunningham, 2008 p. 129)
10. What was the first national park in the world, and when was it established? How have the purposes of this park and others changed?
According to W. Cunningham & M. Cunningham, 2008), “The first national park in the world, Yellowstone National Park, was established in 1872. The Yellowstone National Park along will a few others were established to preserve natural scenery because of the disappearance of scenic beauty due to the land being sold to railroad and timber companies” (p. 140).
Discussion Questions 1 and 6
1. Paper and pulp are the fastest growing sector of the wood products market, as emerging economics of China and India catch up with the growing consumption rates of North America, Europe, and Japan. What should be done to reduce paper use?
According to (W. Cunningham & M. Cunningham, 2008), a couple of ways to reduce paper consumption is to:
Recycle paper
Instead of printing copies, email the data (p.136)
For instance, instead of paying bills by mail, register with e-statements and pay bills online. In additions, instead of buying newspapers and magazines from the store, sign up for online subscriptions.
6. Why do you suppose dry tropical forest and tundra are well represented in protected areas, while grasslands and wetlands are protected relatively rarely? Consider social, cultural, geographic, and economic reasons in your answer.
I believe dry tropical forest and tundra are well represented in protected areas because of its vast diversity of organisms and valuable resources such as paper and lumber. Therefore, conservation would avoid logging and extinction. In contrast, I assume grasslands and wetlands are rarely sheltered because of lack of lumber. However, the particular biome offers income to humans, such as grazing. In this case, minimum protection is required. Basically, tropical forests and grasslands are utilized by humans- tropical forest areas (benefits from lumber for fuel and paper products)-grassland areas (benefits of large herds of grazing animals).
 

Evaluation of a Learning Environment

Every child has the right to be treated equally and for that to be done in a diverse setting. We can see that through the home corner this is so. The children have access to the materials in this area during their play time. There are many utensils such as a wok, chopsticks and knives and forks. This allows for cultural difference to be recognised.
The child’s interests are met when they use materials that they may have used during break time for example.
1.
In researching the best curriculum planning process for the home corner in my Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) setting I set out with the goal of incorporating Siolta’s Standards within my curriculum. I questioned the staff, parents and the children themselves to make sure everybody’s view was taken into consideration.
Creating an appropriate environment for the children is of vital importance to ensure that the children to reach their full potential and to ensure that they reach their holistic development potential whether that be indoors or outdoors. I believe that the children should be able to move freely from each area and environment. In my ECCE setting the children can do this as there is a retracting canapé in the area which allows for the children to play in all-weather circumstances. There are also retractable sliding doors.
Standard 2 Environments: “Enriching environments, both indoor and outdoor are well maintained, safe, available, accessible, and adaptable and developmentally appropriate and off a variety of challenging and stimulating experiences.” (Donohoe and Gaynor 2011:49)
Standard 6: Play “Promoting play requires that child has ample time to engage in freely available accessible, developmentally appropriate and well sourced opportunities for exploration, creativity and ‘mean making’ in the company of other children, with participating and supportive adults and alone, where appropriate.” (Donohoe and Gaynor 2011:50)
These standards can only be put in place if the staff members are supportive and caring childcare professionals.
2.
I carried out some research by conducting some questionnaire’s with both the parents and the staff. I also asked the children during recall time how they felt that diversity was included in their play in the home corner.
As per Donohoe and Gaynor (2011:91) its states that “Pretend play provides an opportunity for children to make believe, role play and dramatize while planning, solving problems, using imagination, developing creativity and language and refining social and physical skills.”
Aistear was included in the questionnaires and how it was included in the home corner.

Well Being: Getting the children to make nutritional meals for themselves. For example mixing would promote the use of both gross and fine motor skills.
Communication: Talking to one another about what meal’s they will make. New vocabulary. Recall.
Exploring and Thinking: Take on different roles in the kitchen such as the chef. Mother making the dinner.
Identity and Belonging: Gave the children a sense of been part of a team (at times.)

The home corner is set out towards the back of the room in a corner. This area is spacious in size considering there are many other area’s such as the sand and water area and dress up corner. This enables the children to move freely from the kitchenette area to the table and chairs that are also in place.
All of the utensils are washed and sterilised on a regular basis to ensure hygiene in particular the cups as the children tend to have these in their mouths during imaginary play.
As mentioned there is a stole in place for the shorter children. This allows the children to reach come of the higher presses where some materials are located. The children have been shown how to use this piece of equipment safely by a staff member.
By having a wide variety of equipment/ materials for the children to use in this area it promotes diversity and equality amongst the children. It also represents Aistear’s theme of identity and belonging. By providing such materials as chopsticks and rice for the children to use it represents some of the children. At times the children’s parents are asked to bring in something relating to the home corner that they use at home in their kitchen experience.
As my setting is based on a HighScope setting I find that this is a great opportunity as it allows for the children to use these materials as part of their recall.
As you can see from my research the staff member agrees with me that the positioning of the home corner is appropriate and spacious. It ensures that the child’s safety is of paramount importance ensuring that all materials are accessible. The kitchenette is firmly positioned and secured to the ground to avoid it falling over. The home corner has been made as realistic as possible. Such materials provided include real cups for the children to use and apron’s. As per the Pre-School Regulation 2006 Regulation 5 states that “A person carrying on a pre-school service shall ensure that there is sufficient furniture, play and work equipment and materials and that such furniture, equipment and materials are suitable, non-toxic, in a proper state of repair and are maintained in a clean and hygienic condition,” (dcya.gov.ie/documents)
I find it good when the children dress up in the chef costumes that are located in the dress up area as they are role playing.
I got a parent to fill out a questionnaire as part of my research. She mentioned that her son liked to play outdoors which is where he also likes to play in the crèche. She seemed happy with the materials available to her son.
Recommendations:

In my opinion the utensils/ materials should be changed around according the weather.
I would like to introduce a toy BBQ for the children to play with outdoors. Not only does this change the environment where the children generally play in. It allows for the children to think/explore/be imaginative by using materials outdoors. This also links with home as many parents use BBQ’s at home which the children see.
By doing so it allows for different food to be used and utensils such as skewers (wooden in the crèche) and tongs. This helps with their Holistic Development in the following ways:

Physically: Children are standing up and moving around to gather materials out doors to put on the BBQ.
Intellectually: New concepts are used such as placing imaginary food on the wooden skewers.
Language: New vocabulary is gained in carrying out this activity. e.g. skewers, leaves, coal, different meats and vegetables.
Social: Children use this time to build on relationships with one another by interacting with one another.
Emotional: The children’s emotional needs are met e.g. happiness.

I would also like for the children to be able to use the produce from the vegetable garden in their play both indoors and outdoors. This is in keeping with Siolta’s thoughts in relation to creating an enriching environment for the children to grow on a holistic level.
Allow the children to move some of the kitchenette from indoors to outdoors(with adult supervision)

I plan on implementing these recommendations by suggesting it during a team meeting with the room staff.
Bibliography:

Katie GallagherPage 1  

Impact of Plastic on the Environment

Plastic is one of the synthetic materials that has played an essential role in every single moment in our life. Plastic is strong, lightweight, thus plastics have become the most popular products in the modern world. Plastic consumption has dramatically increased for instance household items, toys, furniture, plastic bag, and food containers. Even though the use of plastic has many benefits compared with other materials, however, many plastic chemicals may cause health problems for the environment, people and the lives of millions of marine animals which are dying and becoming sick because of plastic pollution. Furthermore, there are a variety of additives as a stabilizer, plasticizer which can put in plastic processing. So, the lack of misunderstanding and knowledge plastic can directly danger to human health because the chemical in plastic may be dirtied to drink and food. Not only effect to human but also affect the environment like air pollution, water pollution, and animals. Moreover, the number of people who use plastic waste increased in every day, especially, non-recycling plastic that can affect the world. Even if, plastics have many benefits but plastics have negative impacts. Most people should consider health and the environment by using the recycling of biodegradable plastic to reduce the impact of the environment.

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For wildlife such as rabbit, deer, and lion, etc. It can be deadly as they become entangled or mistake it for food. The pollution in the world is mostly from plastic, and it has a terrible effect on the sea or wildlife species. As a consequence, it can damage the economy and food supply for a society that depends on fishing and hunting. Plastic can hurt little organisms like plankton, which larger animals rely on for food. If small animals are poisoned from plastic, the animals which eat them will get toxins. The toxins work their find out the food chain and can even be present in the animal people eat.

Nowadays there are some serious environmental problems caused by plastic can hurt the ocean, and also hurt groundwater sources. Many countries have already faced issues and the water everywhere is a risk because of plastic pollution.  Plastic bags that are scattered When exposed to sunlight, it will break into small pieces, which are toxic chemicals. This plastic debris will be infiltrated into the soil and water sources without being able to see with the naked eye which may cause harm to wild animals and the study also found that many marine animals often die with plastic bags because it thinks that food is eaten without knowing it.

Plastic bags are very dangerous to the environment as air pollution because they are difficult to degrade that will take a long time around a hundred years. There are two ways to get rid of plastic bags.

Firstly, buried is Embedding requires a lot of space and the area will not be able to do farming again because of the plastic bag cannot decompose on their own or may have to be a hundred years. Secondly, burn for drinking straws, plastic lids and food containers which from the problem of plastic waste over the world many people find ways to get rid of, which is not known whether those methods may cause life-threatening and that way is Plastic burning does not help better because if you cannot burn plastic product properly or completely, it will have some toxic gases. Nevertheless, burning complete, there will be gas carbon dioxide which is a greenhouse gas with thermal properties to cover the world causing the world to heat up. In order to, burning has not a 100% complete solution, causing both toxic gases and generate greenhouse gases. In general, plastic sintering will create more toxic substances in the atmosphere from plastic components. It may be because of lead to contamination of water sources, soil sources, including food which will cause most people to get toxins from inhaling, drinking and eating contaminated food. As for the burning of PVC plastic that causes toxicity to various systems in the body, especially carcinogens and interferes with the hormonal system in the body may affect to the stomach, also increases the risk of heart disease, Respiratory, Asthma, Rash, Nausea, and Headache.

Many people know that plastic bags are popularly put together when we buy things. Moreover, they are general stores or shopping in department stores, supermarkets, and many souvenirs with the properties of plastic bags that are tough and still have more durable than paper bags, including production. Most people in Europe country, they are trying to use a recycled plastic product such as supermarket bags and use cloth bags while shopping. As well as being able to add colors, patterns, logos as a part to create recognition in brands, products, and services as well because customers can easy to remember the brand more than the paper bags which have only brown color. Therefore, the plastic bags are popularly used. In addition, plastic bags also help preserve the environment by using less production energy than paper bags for the production of plastic bags, requiring more than 40% more energy than plastic bag production and the production of plastic bags. Air pollution was higher than in plastic production. It rose by 70% of the production process of plastic bags emits Green House Effect Gas to the environment less than paper and plastic bags were also used in the electricity generation process by burning plastic bags and finding that the amount of sulfur gas that occurs after burning is less than coal and this is the advantage of plastic bags.

In conclusion, Benefits of plastics that can be used in a variety of applications causing more production volume. Therefore, leading to many problems such as health problems caused by improper use as well as environmental problems in terms of health, consumers should learn the limitations of each type of plastic usage. Although some plastics do not report toxicity to health consumers still need to be extra careful in their use. Especially, involving young children who are sensitive and sensitive to toxic substances for the environment, be aware of the need for plastic applications such as children can affect in the body may affect to the stomach, and increases the risk of people who can be Heart disease, Respiratory, Asthma, Rash, Nausea, and Headache. Plastic cannot be recycled which reduces the amount of plastic waste and reuse may be a sustainable solution to environmental problems. For animals, it is clear that plastic pollution impacts virtually every living organism in the oceans of our world. In addition, the balance of our ecosystem is essential to our quality of life and will depend on the modern world decides to stop turning a blind eye to the issue and make the necessary lifestyle changes.

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